WorldWideScience

Sample records for pathology aspects recents

  1. Uterus MRI. Normal and pathological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a non invasive procedure, is taking a place of growing importance as a means of radiological exploration. Its use in uterine pathologies has shown considerable developments. This requires an excellent knowledge of the normal and pathological aspects of the uterus. In fact it exists a zonal anatomy of the uterus which varies according to hormonal impregnation and this is very well seen by MRI. MRI gives excellent results in the diagnosis and study of different uterine pathologies. The radiological appearance of leiomyomas differs depending on the presence or not of degenerative changes within them. Uterine adenomyosis is also well studied by MRI. Lastly different studies in the literature have shown MRI to be a reliable method of exploration with a high degree of fiability, specificity and sensibility to study the local spread of malignant uterine diseases. The authors report their experience and also that present in the literature concerning the study of the uterus by MRI

  2. Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520

  3. Aortitis: Clinical, pathologic, and radiographic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lande, A.; Berkman, Y.M.; McAllister, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume establishes clinical, pathological, and radiological criteria for identifying aortitis of various etiologies. A historical review of major advances in the diagnosis of aortitis is followed by descriptions of the pathology of the aorta and major arteries. The pathological features of Takayasu's arteritis and secondary changes of the aorta are detailed, and state-of-the-art methods of pathological and radiological diagnosis of aortitis are presented.

  4. Aortitis: Clinical, pathologic, and radiographic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume establishes clinical, pathological, and radiological criteria for identifying aortitis of various etiologies. A historical review of major advances in the diagnosis of aortitis is followed by descriptions of the pathology of the aorta and major arteries. The pathological features of Takayasu's arteritis and secondary changes of the aorta are detailed, and state-of-the-art methods of pathological and radiological diagnosis of aortitis are presented

  5. Recent advances in standards for collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckwith Bruce A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology refers to the use of information technology that supports the creation and sharing or exchange of information, including data and images, during the complex workflow performed in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology can only be fully achieved using medical informatics standards. The goal of the international integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE initiative is precisely specifying how medical informatics standards should be implemented to meet specific health care needs and making systems integration more efficient and less expensive. Objective To define the best use of medical informatics standards in order to share and exchange machine-readable structured reports and their evidences (including whole slide images within hospitals and across healthcare facilities. Methods Specific working groups dedicated to Anatomy Pathology within multiple standards organizations defined standard-based data structures for Anatomic Pathology reports and images as well as informatic transactions in order to integrate Anatomic Pathology information into the electronic healthcare enterprise. Results The DICOM supplements 122 and 145 provide flexible object information definitions dedicated respectively to specimen description and Whole Slide Image acquisition, storage and display. The content profile “Anatomic Pathology Structured Report” (APSR provides standard templates for structured reports in which textual observations may be bound to digital images or regions of interest. Anatomic Pathology observations are encoded using an international controlled vocabulary defined by the IHE Anatomic Pathology domain that is currently being mapped to SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusion Recent advances in standards for Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology are a unique opportunity to share or exchange Anatomic Pathology structured reports that are interoperable at an international level. The use of machine-readable format of APSR supports the development of decision support as well as secondary use of Anatomic Pathology information for epidemiology or clinical research.

  6. Recent advance in the pathology of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in most advanced countries. Anti-smoking campaign has been started, but it will take at least 20 years until the peak of the lung cancer death arrives. Developments of novel gene-targeting drugs, such as gefitinib, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, and a screening method using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) facilitated the advancement of pathological research of lung cancer, and important information closely related to the diagnosis and therapy of lung cancer has been gathered recently. This review article concentrates, of them, on four topics, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, microinvasive bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, abnormalities in epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and micropapillary adenocarcinoma. (author)

  7. Recent aspects of thyroglobulin in physiology and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroglobulin (tg), strongly concentrated in the colloid, through a recycling to the colloid or by transcytosis to the blood stream, (function attributed to an unidentified N -Acetylglucosamine ) is linked to megalin to avoid lysosomal pathway and is delivered by a transepithelial transport (transcytosis). The promoter of this human thyroglobulin is tightly dependent on TTF-1 factor (thyroid-specific transcription factor) and Pax 8. Human recombinant TSH can increase serum baseline levels of thyroglobulin in a study from 25 to 30,000 ng/ml reflecting in part the heterogeneity of the population studied. The 131 Iodide Scan diagnosis and the measurement of serum thyroglobulin are the follow-up cornerstone that offer the opportunity in the detection of recurrence or ongoing cancer in early stage. Until now the thyroglobulin has been used in the same time than nuclear imaging. The Fluorine-18-fluoro deoxyglucose tomography positron emission plays a supplementary role in the localization of thyroid cancer recurrence sites. A control after increased post therapeutic thyroglobulin triggers a 131 Iodide scan and nuclear magnetic resonance study. In the follow-up of thyroidectomized patients with ablative radio-iodide, it is reasonable to treat patients that have an progressive increase of thyroglobulin levels but also to continue tight surveillance in those that have thyroglobulin concentrations that decrease or are stable. Fluorine-18 fluoro deoxyglucose positron emissione-18 fluoro deoxyglucose positron emission tomography is useful in the cases with negative 131 Iodide scan and increase thyroglobulin levels. But this method has limits to find minimal disease. It is noteworthy that increased level of thyroglobulin is observed in iodine deficiency with 28.9% of world population concerned with goiter and 2% (11.2 million) with cretinism or 43 millions with mental retardation. Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies affect all the continuum of the clinical phenotype of autoimmune thyroid diseases suggesting a common pathophysiological mechanism. In the detection of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis in elderly positive findings concerning anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyro-peroxidase show a higher sensitivity in radioimmunology (76%) comparatively to hemagglutination tests (44%) (p < 0,05). Some epitopes in C terminal region of thyroglobulin are associated with Graves' disease. A group of autoantibodies directed to this thyroglobulin region is associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy and can be involved in the development of the disease. A main gene products antithyroid antibodies. This gene is localized on chromosome 2q33 and could be likely 4 CTLA gene. Immunohistochemistry by thyroglobulin allows to authenticate thyroid tissue features. It is necessary to avoid delay of appropriate diagnosis of thyroid occult papillary cancer. (author)

  8. Fabry disease: recent advances in pathology, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Björn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Fabry disease (?-galactosidase A deficiency accumulation of Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 leads to progressive organ failure and premature death. The introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT was the beginning of a new era in this disorder, and has prompted a broad range of research activities. This review aims to summarize recent developments and progress with high impact for Fabry disease. Methods A Pubmed analysis was performed using the search terms "Fabry disease", "Anderson-Fabry disease", "alpha-galactosidase A" and "Gb3". Of the given publications by 31st January 2009 only original articles recently published in peer reviewed journals were included for this review. Case reports were included only when they comprised a new aspect. In addition we included relevant conference abstracts when the results had not already been published as original articles. Results Apart from Gb3-accumulation cellular and organ specific damages may be related also to inflammatory and immunological consequences. It will be interesting whether this may lead to new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of Fabry disease. Since newborn screening is still difficult in Fabry disease, detection of patients in populations at risk is of great importance. Undiagnosed patients with Fabry disease may still be found in cohorts of subjects with renal diseases, cardiomyopathy and TIA or stroke. Efforts should be undertaken to identify these individuals and initialise ERT in order to hault disease progression. It has also been demonstrated that Gb3-accumulation leads to pre-clinical damages and it is believed that early treatment may be the only possibility so far to prevent irreversible organ damage.

  9. Aspects of ecological radiation endocrinology and occupational pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection consists of works on radiation endocrinology and occupational pathology in different branches of industry - petroleum, mining, cotton, non-ferrous metallurgy as well as agriculture. Collection is intended for endocrinologists and occupational pathologists, for specialists of labour protection and occupational safety, for doctors examining of industrial and agricultural workers (author)

  10. Meckel's diverticulum in children, clinical and pathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St?nescu, Georgeta Ligia; Ple?ea, Iancu Emil; Diaconu, Radu; Gheonea, Cristian; Sabetay, Corneliu; ?î?tea, Dalia; Niculescu, Elena Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) represents one of the most common malformations of the digestive tract, being a vestige of the proximal end of omphalo-mesenteric duct, which normally obliterates and atrophiates between the sixth and ninth week of intrauterine life. It is estimated that 2-4% of people are carriers of this malformation. The interest in this organ study lies in the fact that it presents its own non-specific pathology, mimicking a cecal, colon or small intestine pathology. It seems that most MD cases are asymptomatic (AS MD), being arbitrary discovered during surgeries, whereas only a small part are being symptomatic (S MD). MD may be clinically expressed at any age but it is more common in children. In our study, we evaluated a group of 44 children, aged between 0 and 16 years, diagnosed with AS MD (15 cases) or S MD (29 cases). Of the 29 S MD cases, 14 had intestinal obstruction, seven cases showed lower gastrointestinal bleeding, five cases presented acute inflammation (diverticulitis) and three cases were complicated with peritonitis; 15 cases of AS MD were discovered during surgical interventions for acute appendicitis (14 cases) or inguinal hernia (one case). Most cases of MD were recorded between 1-4-year-old and 7-16-year-old. PMID:25607401

  11. Personality pathology and daily aspects of marital functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with a host of interpersonal problems, including unstable and dysfunctional romantic relationships. In previous research, PD symptoms have been linked to one's own and spouse's self-reported level of marital satisfaction and marital conflict. The current study extends on this work by examining whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) PD criteria would predict aspects of daily marital functioning. A total of 99 newlywed couples (N = 198) recruited from the community were assessed for PD symptoms using a self-report measure and subsequently completed a 6-day diary protocol. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the association of PD symptoms with three major aspects of daily functioning: overall relationship sentiment, serious conflicts with one's spouse, and quality of interactions. Results indicated that PD symptoms significantly predicted aspects of all three measures of daily functioning. The individual PDs generally showed the greatest associations with aspects of conflict. Paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PD scores were significantly negatively related to overall relationship sentiment whereas Cluster A and Cluster C PD scores negatively predicted various daily interaction behaviors. Findings provide insight into the mechanisms that might explain the associations between PD symptoms and overall measures of relationship functioning. PMID:24364502

  12. Correlation of Aspects of Recent Drawings made by Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Hollestelle, Harm

    2010-01-01

    In this study recent drawings made by physics students are investigated. These drawings are part of reports made during experimenting. Aspects of drawings are chosen for investigation that are linked to basic physical notions like plasticity and spatiality. Also the aspects are required to link to the motor recognition experience during drawing, of the one who made the drawing. In this way the aim is to clarify the individual notions of space and time that are basic to performing the experiments. These are called the attitude with which the experiment is performed. Some aspects of these drawings tend to be correlated in several trends. Polanyi's theory of consciousness is generalised to explain why this correlation of aspects occurs. The correlation trends and attitudes can be related to each other. The results are presented in a schematic way to facilitate interpretation of the concepts introduced and of the correlation results.

  13. Panel 3 : Recent advances in anatomy, pathology, and cell biology in relation to otitis media pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Hermansson, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of otitis media (OM) involves a number of factors related to the anatomy, pathology, and cell biology of the middle ear, the mastoid, the Eustachian tube, and the nasopharynx. Although some issues of pathogenesis are fairly well established, others are only marginally indicated by current knowledge, and yet others remain undisclosed. The objective of this article is to provide a state-of-the-art review on recent scientific achievements in the pathogenesis of OM, as related to anatomy, pathology, and cell biology.

  14. Some problems of human adaptation and ecology under the aspect of general pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznacheyev, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    The main problems of human adaptation at the level of the body and the population in connection with the features of current morbidity of the population and certain demographic processes are analyzed. The concepts of health and adaptation of the individual and human populations are determined. The importance of the anthropo-ecological approach to the investigation of the adaptation process of human populations is demonstrated. Certain features of the etiopathogenesis of diseases are considered in connection with the population-ecological regularities of human adaptation. The importance of research on general pathology aspects of adaptation and the ecology of man for planning, and organization of public health protection is discussed.

  15. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of temporomandibular joint: pathological aspects and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, A; Beltramini, G; Moneghini, L; Marelli, S; Segna, E; Giannì, A

    2015-08-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is an uncommon, benign, tumour-like disorder of unknown etiology affecting synovium-lined joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. It results in proliferative, locally invasive lesions, usually presenting in monoarticular form in adults. PVNS rarely presents in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision of the lesion, followed by immediate reconstruction. We report a case of PVNS with masticatory space involvement, and focus on the pathological aspects and surgical treatment of the lesion. PMID:25937582

  16. Recent advances in the developmental aspects of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kim, Sohye

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current paper was to review the most recent advances in the developmental aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD) over the last 3 years to highlight the most significant trends in the field. In so doing, we identify and discuss two exciting new trends: (a) an emphasis on the biological basis of adolescent BPD and (b) empirical evidence in support of long-held theories of the development of BPD. Together, these trends suggest that for the first time, empirical findings are beginning to emerge in support of complex and reciprocal biology?×?environment interactions over time in the development of BPD. We discuss the emerging literature and highlight the translational impact of this work for the assessment and intervention of adolescent BPD. PMID:25749744

  17. The Use of Recently Developed Histochemical Markers for Localizing Neurotoxicant Induced Regional Brain Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sarkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal and vascular brain components are interrelated morphologically, physiologically and developmentally. Due to this close interrelationship, it is often difficult to understand the cause and effect relationship between neuronal vs. vascular dysfunction and pathology. This review will discuss four of the more promising recent developments for detecting vascular pathology, and will compare them with the labeling pattern seen with markers of glial and neuronal pathology; following exposure to well characterized neurotoxicants. To detect the vascular dysfunction in the brain, we recently developed a Fluoro-Turquoise gelatin conjugate (FT-gel, a fluorescent probe that helps to delineate between healthy vs. sclerotic vessels. Similarly, we have investigated the potential for Fluoro-Gold to label in vivo all the endothelial cells in the brain as they co-localize with RECA, an endothelial cell marker. We have also developed Amylo-Glo, a fluorescent tracer that can detect neurotoxic A-beta aggregates in the brain. In this article, we will discuss the potential use of these novel histochemical markers to study the neurotoxicant induced brain. We will also discuss neurovascular strategies that may offer novel therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Recent advances in the social and behavioral aspects of filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauyajin, O; Kamthornwachara, B; Yablo, P

    1993-01-01

    Despite an increased awareness of the significance of social and behavioral influences upon various aspects of filariasis, there has been a relative lack of research that has specifically attempted to assess such factors from the outset. Instead, the norm has been to indirectly discover social and behavioral patterns primarily as a byproducts of epidemiological and clinical surveys. The exception to this has been a recent surge of research interest in this domain that was initiated by a commitment by the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), although it is clear that more research is needed. The results of those few studies that have been conducted concerning the roles of behavioral (knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practice) and socio-cultural factors are reviewed in this paper, highlighting how an acknowledgement of such factors contributes of a greater understanding of the relevant issues, thus allowing for more relevant and feasible health education/intervention programs. Finally, recent research conducted by two of the present authors in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in Southern Thailand, which is noted for having the highest filariasis morbidity rate in the country, is presented and discussed. This is followed by recommendations for appropriate health education programs, and suggestions for future research. PMID:7973954

  19. pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Raz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Information transmission within the visual system is highly organized with the ultimate goal of accomplishing higher-order, complex visuo-spatial and object identity processing. Perception is dependent on the intactness of the entire system and damage at each stage – in the eye itself, the visual pathways, or within cortical processing - might result in perception disturbance. Herein we will review several examples of lesions along the visual system, from the retina, via the optic nerve and chiasm and through the occipital cortex. We will address their clinical manifestation and their cortical substrate. The latter will be studied via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, enabling cortical and white matter mapping of the human brain. In contrast to traditional signal recording, these procedures enable simultaneous evaluation of the entire brain network engaged when subjects undertake a particular task or evaluate the entirety of associated white matter pathways. These examples provided will highlight the importance of using advanced imaging methods to better understand visual pathologies. We will argue that clinical manifestation cannot always be explained solely by structural damage and a functional view is required to understand the clinical symptom. In such cases we recommend using advanced imaging methods to better understand the neurological basis of visual phenomena.

  20. Recent aspects of thyroglobulin in physiology and pathology; Aspects recents de la thyroglobuline en physiologie et pathologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassane Sidibe, E. [Centre Medical Marc Sankale - Fann, Dakar (Senegal); Dangou, J.M. [Laboratoire Anatomo-Pathologie, FMPO - UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Mbodj, M. [Laboratoire de Biophysique, FMPO - UCAD, Dakar (Senegal)

    2004-06-01

    The thyroglobulin (tg), strongly concentrated in the colloid, through a recycling to the colloid or by transcytosis to the blood stream, (function attributed to an unidentified N -Acetylglucosamine ) is linked to megalin to avoid lysosomal pathway and is delivered by a transepithelial transport (transcytosis). The promoter of this human thyroglobulin is tightly dependent on TTF-1 factor (thyroid-specific transcription factor) and Pax 8. Human recombinant TSH can increase serum baseline levels of thyroglobulin in a study from 25 to 30,000 ng/ml reflecting in part the heterogeneity of the population studied. The 131 Iodide Scan diagnosis and the measurement of serum thyroglobulin are the follow-up cornerstone that offer the opportunity in the detection of recurrence or ongoing cancer in early stage. Until now the thyroglobulin has been used in the same time than nuclear imaging. The Fluorine-18-fluoro deoxyglucose tomography positron emission plays a supplementary role in the localization of thyroid cancer recurrence sites. A control after increased post therapeutic thyroglobulin triggers a 131 Iodide scan and nuclear magnetic resonance study. In the follow-up of thyroidectomized patients with ablative radio-iodide, it is reasonable to treat patients that have an progressive increase of thyroglobulin levels but also to continue tight surveillance in those that have thyroglobulin concentrations that decrease or are stable. Fluorine-18 fluoro deoxyglucose positron emission tomography is useful in the cases with negative 131 Iodide scan and increase thyroglobulin levels. But this method has limits to find minimal disease. It is noteworthy that increased level of thyroglobulin is observed in iodine deficiency with 28.9% of world population concerned with goiter and 2% (11.2 million) with cretinism or 43 millions with mental retardation. Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies affect all the continuum of the clinical phenotype of autoimmune thyroid diseases suggesting a common pathophysiological mechanism. In the detection of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis in elderly positive findings concerning anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyro-peroxidase show a higher sensitivity in radioimmunology (76%) comparatively to hemagglutination tests (44%) (p < 0,05). Some epitopes in C terminal region of thyroglobulin are associated with Graves' disease. A group of autoantibodies directed to this thyroglobulin region is associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy and can be involved in the development of the disease. A main gene products antithyroid antibodies. This gene is localized on chromosome 2q33 and could be likely 4 CTLA gene. Immunohistochemistry by thyroglobulin allows to authenticate thyroid tissue features. It is necessary to avoid delay of appropriate diagnosis of thyroid occult papillary cancer. (author)

  1. Feline panleukopenia virus revisited : molecular characteristics and pathological lesions associated with three recent isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Vuuren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The low incidence of clinical signs or pathological lesions compatible with feline panleukopenia in cats has created the perception among practitioners that the disease has disappeared since the emergence of canine parvovirus type 2 in the late 1970s.Three parvoviruses that were recently isolated from a domestic cat and 2 cheetahs in cell culture or detected by means of the polymerase chain reaction were shown to be typical feline parvoviruses. Phylogenetic comparison with other FPV isolates did not reveal a particular African cluster.

  2. Physics aspects of recent and future concepts in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The development of 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), in which the high dose volume matches as closely as possible the target volume and avoids therefore normal tissue irradiation as far as possible, has been a major theme in radiotherapy for improving the therapeutic window. Conformal radiotherapy is not a new concept but only the technological improvements of the last decade allow its clinical implementation. More recent and advanced forms of 3D-CRT are intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). IMRT uses an additional degree of freedom to achieve a new class of conformation: the variation of the primary beam intensity. SRT is based on a three dimensional stereotactic coordinate system which is correlated with the patient and the treatment facility through modern imaging technology. IMRT and SRT are related by common features, e.g. high dose gradients and small fields which require a high geometric precision. A high dosimetric and geometric precision can only be based on a detailed knowledge of the patient specific anatomy. Therefore, IMRT and SRT need to underlie multi-modality imaging studies. Both IMRT and SRT utilize photon beams and multiple field arrangements which increase the volumes of healthy tissue receiving low doses. Photons have a low selectivity along the beam direction implying that the sharp dose gradients are to be compromised. The increased low dose volume as well as the low selectivity of photon beams can be over-come by using proton or ions. Brachytherapy, a form of radiotherapy where encapsuled radioactive sources are placed directly in or in the vicinity of the tumor, is by definition conformal. Endovascular brachytherapy has become a promising new field in radiotherapy for the prevention of (re)stenosis after angioplasty. Although many clinical trials have been performed during the last years specific aspects related to endovascular brachytherapy have not been addressed clearly, such as the optimal dose level for treating coronary arteries. Another field of investigation is the comparison of beta radiation and gamma radiation for of this treatment modality. Because conventional conformal radiotherapy has been a major research subject during the last decade its place in radiation therapy practice is assured. In a similar way, recent and future concepts in radiotherapy such as SRT, IMRT, hadron therapy or endovascular brachytherapy need to be further investigated until their full potential can be demonstrated. (author)

  3. Aspects of recent reforms of teacher education in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    A?strand, Bjo?rn

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines some aspects of reforms of teacher education in Sweden. The main features of latest reform and their context is analyzed. The focus of the paper is the complex situation of teacher education as a professional programme within the higher education system. An underpinning notion is that the higher education system, the traditional Swedish universities have not recognized the strategic importance of teacher education and therefore not in reality provided it with equal opportu...

  4. Clinical, Pathological and Immunological Aspects of Transplacental PRRS Virus Infection : Results from Danish Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes Danish research activities on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) with emphasis on experimental infections in pregnant swine. The first case of PRRS was diagnosed in Denmark in 1992 and subsequently the disease spread to most other parts of the country. The first animal experiments elucidated the pathogenicity of Danish PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates in pregnant sows together with the effects of infection at various stages of gestation. In 1996, the introduction of a vaccination program using an attenuated live PRRS vaccine led to an epidemic of American type PRRSV in the previously unaffected Danish pig population. Acute PRRS like disease was observed in non-vaccinated as well as in vaccinated herds, and it was demonstrated that the vaccine strain had reverted to virulence. By experimental infection of late term pregnant sows, we demonstrated that a field isolate of PRRS vaccine-derived virus (VDV) could cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS, thus confirming the etiological role of VDV. Since the complex pathology following in utero infection with PRRSV indicates impairment of the immune system of congenitally infected pigs, we studied various aspect of the host defence in piglets surviving transplacental infection with PRRSV. Leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) were modulated, viability of lung macrophages was reduced, phagocytosis against Salmonella in blood monocytes as well as oxidative burst capacity of alveolar macrophages was inhibited, there was an over-expression of cytokine IL-10 in BALF cells, and ciliary disruption in the airways was observed. Altogether, our findings supported the hypothesis of the existence of immunosuppression in piglets congenitally infected with PRRSV.

  5. Molecular diagnosis of sepsis: New aspects and recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Liesenfeld, O.; Lehman, L.; Hunfeld, K. -p; Kost, G.

    2014-01-01

    By shortening the time to pathogen identification and allowing for detection of organisms missed by blood culture, new molecular methods may provide clinical benefits for the management of patients with sepsis. While a number of reviews on the diagnosis of sepsis have recently been published we here present up-to-date new developments including multiplex PCR, mass spectrometry and array techniques. We focus on those techniques that are commercially available and for which cl...

  6. Recent advances in temporally multiplexed and point aspect autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Vladimir; Kupiec, Stephen A.; Travis, Adrian R. L.

    2006-05-01

    Implementation of an efficient 3D display with high-quality image is beneficiary for a variety of applications, including the entertainment industry, surveillance centers, advanced engineering design, etc. A number of 3D display systems are currently under the development, such as autostereoscopic 3D display (ASD), spatially multiplexed, volumetric and (electro) holographic. Temporally multiplexed ASD approaches have certain advantages as compared to other methods, especially in retaining the full resolution of the display and in providing large headboxes. The confluence of high framerate deformable mirror displays, graphical processing units (GPUs) capable of specialized rendering, high bandwidth commodity grade computer busses (particularly PCI-express) and rapidly switchable, high brightness LEDs have all served to make a high quality temporally multiplexed ASD viable. We report on the incorporation of the previously noted technologies within an ASD with multiple viewing zones and a look around capability. In addition, the same technologies allow for a practical realization of the aspect-in-point display (APD) concept, which couples the use of a temporally multiplexed display in conjunction with the faceted holographic optical elements to form a 3D image. In essence, the APD consists of a multiplex hologram that is electronically updated in a high-speed fashion, incorporating many of the advantages of the former.

  7. Posttranslational modifications of lysine and evolving role in heart pathologies - Recent developments.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Š?astná, Miroslava; Van Eyk, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 15, 5-6 (2015), s. 1164-1180. ISSN 1615-9853 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : heart pathologies * neddylation * sumoylation * proteomics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.973, year: 2013

  8. Recent aspects of nitration: New preparative methods and mechanistic studies (A Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.; Lammertsma, Koop

    1982-01-01

    New preparative methods of electrophilic nitration and transfer nitration are reviewed, including reactions relating to the ambident reactivity of the nitronium ion. Recent aspects of the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution are discussed.

  9. Morpho-structural aspects concerning the healthy liver comparative to the pathological one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Comanescu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the microscopic modifications of the liver, on a batch of dead patients,suffering from hepato-cellular affections, all from the Districtual Hospital of Botosani, between September-November 2008. The patological aspects of the liver, in its every form, are observed especially in men which are big alcohol consumers. The normal structure of the liver is obviously transforming in hepatic diseases like alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, liver cancer and hydatid cyst.

  10. Studies on Cinical , Haematological Aspects and Pathological Changes of Gastric Mucosa in Geophagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. SAYAR

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophagia characterized by, severe, anaemia, dwarfism, hypogonadism • and hepatosplenomegaly is sometimes seen in young patients (and children in Iran. 2 Haematological aspects of the syndrome are those of, severe, iron defi-crency anaemia3 Gastric biopsies and histological findings revealed superfi cial or atrophic gastritis showing some resemblance to those seen in pernicious anaemia. 4 Haematological features, anaemia ana many of the clinical signs of the syndrome were improved after appropriate iron therapy. 5 Histological changes of gastric mucosa improved, in 5 patients, 6 months after correction of the anaemia.

  11. Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developed in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolution, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies. (author)

  12. Genetic and pathologic aspects of retinoic acid-induced limb malformations in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace S; Liao, Xiaoyan; Shimizu, Hirohito; Collins, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Because all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is teratogenic in all species tested and many of the specific defects induced are common across the phylogenetic spectrum, it would be logical to predict that murine strain differences in teratology to this agent are minimal. However, for specific defects, strain susceptibilities are vastly different. Studies with atRA have shown stark differences between C57BL/6 and SWV mouse strains in susceptibility to postaxial forelimb ectrodactyly and ectopic hindlimb formation, with the C57 strain being more susceptible for both defects. Various approaches were used to determine why these strains differ in susceptibility, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Hindlimb duplications were hypothesized to be caused by the formation of ectopic posterior body axes. For forelimb ectrodactyly, a locus on chromosome 11, Rafar, has linkage to the strain difference, and mRNA localization has shown that specific genes (Fgf8, Dlx3, Bmp4, and Sp8) in the postaxial preAER (prior to formation of the apical ectodermal ridge) of the developing limb bud (the site of the defect) were downregulated hours after atRA administration more in the susceptible C57 than in the SWV strain. Because both atRA and divalent cadmium induce postaxial forelimb ectrodactyly (right-sided predominance) at a high rate in C57BL/6 and low in the SWV strain, there is debate as to whether they share a common mechanism. These teratogens cause a greater-than-additive level of forelimb ectrodactyly when coadministered at low doses, but cadmium does not induce ectopic hindlimb formation. The hypothesis is that these agents have separate molecular pathologic pathways that converge to perturb a common anatomic structure. PMID:20706998

  13. Allergic fungal sinusitis: clinico-pathological aspects. Findings on CT and MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) represents the most recently described form of chronic sinusitis caused by fungi. It occurs in affects teenagers and young adults with atopic antecedents. This disease is a non-invasive chronic sinusitis, fungus acts as the allergen, causing a host immune response, mediated by type I and III reactions. Typically, several paranasal sinuses are usually involved with unilateral predominance. Most common clinical findings are headache, different grades of nasal obstruction and proptosis. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed for this entity, including imaging findings obtained with computed tomography (CT). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings together have recently been postulated as practically pathognomonic. Treatment and prognosis of this entity, different from other types of fungal sinusitis, makes important to achieve a correct diagnosis. On this task, imaging studies as CT and MR play an important role. (Author) 23 refs

  14. Aspects of gametogenesis and radiation pathology in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen); gametogenesis, pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads. Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and autoradiographical methods, including investigation of living male germinal cells, are used. The gross anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems is simple as compared to other insect species. In newly hatched larvae the gonads contain on an average 13 germinal cells. Gonads in larvae which are less than 7 days old cannot be distinguished as being male or female. This distinction becomes possible after the apical cell and the apical somatic tissue respectively is formed in the young gonad. Spermatogenesis is treated in a number of paragraphs dealing with the description and identification of germinal and somatic cell types, the ontogenetic development of the testis, the dynamics of spermatogenesis and aspects comparative spermatogenesis. A proper identification of the testicular cell types is considered to be imperative to any correct experimental approach of spermatogenesis. Morphological descriptions of the various germinal and somatic cell types are given accordingly. Comparison of mainly morphological features of male germinal cell types in a number of insect species, including H. antiqua, indicates possibilities for comparative research of spermatogenesis in various insect species. This could provide a basis for comparative radiobiological or other experimental investigations on insect spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis share a number of features, which suggests a certain similarity of the processes involved

  15. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stjernholm, Christina [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Soedersjukhuset

    2003-07-01

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to communicate. The second work is a radioanatomic study of one of the structures of the inner ear - the bony canal for the cochlear nerve. It involves measurements of the dimensions of the canal on 117 silicone rubber casts of the temporal bone (from a unique collection of casts at Uppsala temporal bone laboratory) and on 50 clinical CT-studies (100 ears). The purpose was to show the normal variation, which is of use in the appraisal of congenital temporal bone malformations on CT. Based on our results we propose that if the canal is less than 1.4 mm, as measured on CT, the possibility of cochlear nerve abnormality should be considered. This is of interest since aplasia of the cochlear nerve is a contraindication to cochlear implantation. If the canal is wider than 3.0 mm, then other anomalies may coexist, with the risk of CSF gusher when a cochleostomy or stape-dectomy is performed.

  16. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in internationaemporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to communicate. The second work is a radioanatomic study of one of the structures of the inner ear - the bony canal for the cochlear nerve. It involves measurements of the dimensions of the canal on 117 silicone rubber casts of the temporal bone (from a unique collection of casts at Uppsala temporal bone laboratory) and on 50 clinical CT-studies (100 ears). The purpose was to show the normal variation, which is of use in the appraisal of congenital temporal bone malformations on CT. Based on our results we propose that if the canal is less than 1.4 mm, as measured on CT, the possibility of cochlear nerve abnormality should be considered. This is of interest since aplasia of the cochlear nerve is a contraindication to cochlear implantation. If the canal is wider than 3.0 mm, then other anomalies may coexist, with the risk of CSF gusher when a cochleostomy or stape-dectomy is performed

  17. Recent aspects on possible interrelation between precursory electric signals and anomalous bioeffects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dologlou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible geophysical mechanism based on the conception of criticality and on new aspects of biological effects caused by electromagnetic fields is discussed as a stimulus to the unusual animal behavior prior to large earthquakes. This mechanism is related to transient electric signals of low frequency and intensity, which are emitted from the pre-focal area several days before the impending earthquake and fulfill all the conditions set by a recent bioeffect model.

  18. Recent aspects on possible interrelation between precursory electric signals and anomalous bioeffects

    OpenAIRE

    E. Dologlou

    2010-01-01

    A possible geophysical mechanism based on the conception of criticality and on new aspects of biological effects caused by electromagnetic fields is discussed as a stimulus to the unusual animal behavior prior to large earthquakes. This mechanism is related to transient electric signals of low frequency and intensity, which are emitted from the pre-focal area several days before the impending earthquake and fulfill all the conditions set by a recent bioeffect model.

  19. Investigation of models of unilateral pathological processes of breach of local renal blood flow in order to determine changes in the status of the contralateral kidney: immunomorphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stus V.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Morphology of compensatory-adaptive changes and their dynamics in a single remained kidney are still not clarified. Therefore, the study of renal parenchyma lesions in rat models of the most common pathological states has a great practical importance. Objective. To investigate the models of unilateral pathological processes of breach of local renal blood flow (ischemia, infringement of urodynamics in order to determine changes in the status of the contralateral kidney. Methods. In the experiment on white Wistar rats permanent ischemia was modeled by a fixed bending left kidney artery (15 individuals – group A, acute infringement of urodynamics was modeled by a fixed crossing of the left ureter kidney ( 4 individuals – group B and both pathological conditions were simulated (5 individuals – group C. Kidneys of 10 relatively healthy rats were used as a control. The primary monoclonal antibodies for CD3 and ?SMA (TermoScientific, USA were used. Results. The main pathological manifestations in the contralateral right "healthy" kidneys was in degenerative changes in epithelial tubule cells, foci of edema and sclerosis around large vessels, interstitial and perivascular inflammatory infiltrates containing CD3+ T-cells (for A II – 10,3±1,2, for B II – 11,9±1,1, for C II – 10,9±0,8. It differs significantly from the control group (p<0,05, where CD3+ T-lymphocytes occurred as single cells of interstitium. Conclusions. Unilateral damage of the kidney due to experimental ischemia, or infringement of urodynamics, or both pathological conditions, affecting local renal blood flow, results in pathological changes in the contralateral "healthy" kidney prior to the nephrectomy and suggests the importance of its medicament support. Citation: Stus VP, Barannik KS, Shponka IS, Poslavska ?V. [Investigation of models of unilateral pathological processes of breach of local renal blood flow in order to determine changes in the status of the contralateral kidney: immunomorphological aspects]. Morphologia. 2014;8(4:43-50. Ukrainian.

  20. Environmental aspects of recent trend in managing fusion radwaste: Recycling and clearance, avoiding disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since the inception of the fusion projects in the early 1970s, the majority of power plant designs have focused on the disposal of the low-level waste in geological repositories as the main option for handling the replaceable and life-of-plant components, adopting the preferred fission waste management approach. It is timely to develop a new radwaste management framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous studies and the environmental, political, and present reality. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion radwaste, replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, such as recycling and clearance. These approaches became more technically feasible in recent years with the development of radiation-hardened remote handling (RH) tools and the introduction of the clearance category for slightly radioactive materials by IAEA and national nuclear agencies. We applied all scenarios to selected U.S. fusion studies. While recycling and clearance appeared technically attractive and judged, in some cases, a must requirement to control the radwaste stream, the disposal scheme emerged as the preferred option for a specific IFE component for economic reasons. This suggests that the technical and economic aspects, along with the environmental and safety related concerns, must all be addressfety related concerns, must all be addressed during the selection process of the most suitable waste management approach. To make fusion a viable energy source with minimal environmental impact, we highly recommend recycling and clearing all fusion components, if economically and technologically feasible, avoiding the geological burial approach. Additional tasks should be investigated to enhance prospects for a successful fusion management scheme. These include the key issues and challenges for disposal, recycling, and clearance, the limited capacity of existing repositories, the status of the recycling infrastructure, the development of advanced RH equipment, the notable discrepancies between the various clearance standards, the need for new clearance guidelines for fusion-specific radioisotopes, the availability of a commercial market for cleared materials, and the acceptability of the nuclear industry to recyclable materials. (author)

  1. Aspects récents de la thermodynamique des solutions de polymères Recent Aspects of the Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayantis J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On examine dans cet article différentes approches de la thermodynamique des solutions de polymères placées dans leur contexte historique. On rappelle d'abord le modèle du réseau de Flory-Huggins et on en souligne les déficiences. On traite ensuite brièvement de la mécanique statistique des solutions de polymères introduite par Prigogine en 1957 et on montre qu'elle constitue un progrès qualitatif par rapport à la théorie du réseau, mais qu'elle ne prévoit cependant pas de manière quantitative les propriétés de ces solutions. On montre ensuite que le concept de volume libre, qui permet un traitement simplifié de certaines quantités, permet également d'expliquer tout naturellement l'existence d'une deuxième température de séparation en phase lorsque l'on élève la température, propriété qui différencie les solutions de polymères des mélanges de liquidés simples. Enfin, dans une dernière partie, on mentionne brièvement les travaux récents de l'École de Paris, qui traite les solutions de polymères par analogie avec les transitions magnétiques. This article examines différent approaches ta the thermodynamics of polymer solutions set in their historical context. First of all, the Flory-Huggins network model is described and ifs deficiencies are pointed out. Then attention is briefly drawn to the statistical mechanics of polymer solutions as introduced by Prigogine in 1957, and this mechanics is shown to be a qualitative advance compared with the network theory, but it nonetheless does not quantitatively predict the properties of such solutions. It is then shown that the concept of free volume, enabling some quantifies to be treated in a simplified way, also serves to provide a quite natural explanation for the existence of a second phase separation temperature when the temperature is raised, i. e. a property that differentiates polymer solutions from simple liquid mixtures. In the final part, brief mention is made of recent research by the Paris School which has been treating polymer solutions by similarity ta magnetic transitions.

  2. Preoccupied Attachment and Emotional Dysregulation: Specific Aspects of Borderline Personality Disorder or General Dimensions of Personality Pathology?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lori N.; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitrait-multimethod models, we examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) ...

  3. Mature bone necrosis: from recent pathophysiological aspect to a new therapeutic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoradionecrosis is a severe radiotherapy (RT) injury by healing failure, late effect and spontaneously irreversible by tissue death. Histologically, it consists in a pagetoid mosaic that combines a defective osteogenesis with an osteoclastic osteolysis and more marginally an osteolytic osteolysis, turned to account to fibroblastic and collagenic fibrosis. Several pathogenic hypotheses favor sometimes a vascular hypoxic hypotheses, sometimes a fibro-atrophic hypothesis Various events start up or favour ORN as traumatisms (dental extraction, surgery,...) or bacterial infection on fistula. In clinic, adult mature bone concerned is the mandible after head and neck RT by septic ORN, and the hip after pelvic RT by aseptic ORN. For each, epidemiology, clinic and therapeutic aspects are developed. Usual therapeutic attitudes consisted in restriction of unfavorable associated events (dental extraction, infection, RT dose, chemotherapy,...) and devitalized tissue removal. Physiopathological therapeutic innovative aspects are proposed to struggle against radiation-induced fibrosis associated and to limit bone destruction. (authors)

  4. Well-established and more recent aspects of combined therapy of gynaecological tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of superiority concerning operative or radiation therapy should not make us forget that the combined therapy of gynaecologic carcinomas was proven to be good. The differing therapy results are due to the problems of classifying the phases, the ages of the patients, the histology, and, not less important, the radiation sensibility of gynaecologic tumours. The psychological and psychosomatic aspects of treating gynaecologic tumours are discussed. (APR)

  5. Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent Earthquakes, and Consequential Mudflows and Landslides, held in Moscow, October 1989. The annexes to the document provide information on the participants, the work programme and the resolution adopted at each of the seminars. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects. PMID:21889403

  7. Aspectos patológicos, imunológicos e propriedades moleculares do TT vírus / Pathological and immunological aspects and molecular properties of TT virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Angelica Ehara, Watanabe; Helen Cristina, Miranda; Karen Brajão de, Oliveira; Carlos Eduardo Coral de, Oliveira; Fabrine Sales Massafera, Tristão; Leila Maria, Duarte; Ligiane de Lourdes, Silva; Andréia Corrêa, Corte; Flávia Alessandra, Guarnier; Mari Sumigawa, Kaminami.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O TT vírus (TTV) foi primeiramente descrito no Japão, em 1997, por T. Nishizawa, no soro de pacientes com hepatite, pós-transfusão, não-A-G. Tem sido intensivamente investigado, desde então, como uma possível adição à lista dos vírus indutores de hepatite. O TTV é um vírus DNA não-envelopado, de fit [...] a simples. Uma considerável variabilidade genética tem sido demonstrada por parte do TTV, o que tem levado pesquisadores a agrupar isolados do vírus em inúmeros genótipos e subtipos. No entanto a significância clínica da infecção por TTV permanece desconhecida. Ele é freqüentemente detectado em fluidos corporais e seu componente mais bem elucidado atualmente é o genoma. Conhecimentos relacionados ao TTV têm aumentado constantemente, porém vários aspectos fundamentais permanecem obscuros. Esta revisão apresenta algumas das propriedades moleculares do TT vírus. Abstract in english TT virus (TTV) was first reported in Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in sera from non-A to non-G post-transfusion hepatitis patients. It has been intensively investigated, ever since, as a possible addition to the list of hepatitis-inducing viruses. The TTV is an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus [...] . Considerable genetic variability of TTV has been demonstrated and has led investigators to group its isolates into numerous genotypes and subtypes. However, the clinical significance of TTV infection remains unknown. It is frequently detected in the serum and in other body fluids of humans. The component of TTV currently best understood is its genome. Knowledge related to TTV has increased rapidly, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This review shows some of the molecular properties of TT virus.

  8. Aspectos patológicos, imunológicos e propriedades moleculares do TT vírus Pathological and immunological aspects and molecular properties of TT virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O TT vírus (TTV foi primeiramente descrito no Japão, em 1997, por T. Nishizawa, no soro de pacientes com hepatite, pós-transfusão, não-A-G. Tem sido intensivamente investigado, desde então, como uma possível adição à lista dos vírus indutores de hepatite. O TTV é um vírus DNA não-envelopado, de fita simples. Uma considerável variabilidade genética tem sido demonstrada por parte do TTV, o que tem levado pesquisadores a agrupar isolados do vírus em inúmeros genótipos e subtipos. No entanto a significância clínica da infecção por TTV permanece desconhecida. Ele é freqüentemente detectado em fluidos corporais e seu componente mais bem elucidado atualmente é o genoma. Conhecimentos relacionados ao TTV têm aumentado constantemente, porém vários aspectos fundamentais permanecem obscuros. Esta revisão apresenta algumas das propriedades moleculares do TT vírus.TT virus (TTV was first reported in Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in sera from non-A to non-G post-transfusion hepatitis patients. It has been intensively investigated, ever since, as a possible addition to the list of hepatitis-inducing viruses. The TTV is an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus. Considerable genetic variability of TTV has been demonstrated and has led investigators to group its isolates into numerous genotypes and subtypes. However, the clinical significance of TTV infection remains unknown. It is frequently detected in the serum and in other body fluids of humans. The component of TTV currently best understood is its genome. Knowledge related to TTV has increased rapidly, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This review shows some of the molecular properties of TT virus.

  9. Recent floods in the Middle Ebro River, Spain: hydrometeorological aspects and floodplain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Domenech

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ebro River has the largest Mediterranean basin in the Iberian Peninsula and the third one by surface among those of the Mediterranean Sea. The middle stretch of this river is especially interesting because it constitutes a very economically important axis of population in a semi-arid environment context. Flooding processes are common in the Middle Ebro River, but the combination among decrease of discharges, dam construction and expansion and reinforcement of defences created an unusually quiet period as regards flooding events during the last quarter of the previous century. Nevertheless, with the turn of the century it seems that the Middle Ebro River has entered into new dynamics, with bigger and more frequent floods, the appearance of which has changed its seasonal nature. The most relevant examples are those of February 2003 and March–April 2007. The present paper examines these recent trends and discusses their possible causes from the points of view of hydro-meteorology, flood management through the use of reservoirs, and floodplain management. The consequences of recent floods in the Middle Ebro River have reopened the debate about possible risk management measures.

  10. Recent floods in the Middle Ebro River, Spain: hydrometeorological aspects and floodplain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, S.; Espejo, F.; Ollero, A.; Sánchez-Fabre, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Ebro River has the largest Mediterranean basin in the Iberian Peninsula and the third one by surface among those of the Mediterranean Sea. The middle stretch of this river is especially interesting because it constitutes a very economically important axis of population in a semi-arid environment context. Flooding processes are common in the Middle Ebro River, but the combination among decrease of discharges, dam construction and expansion and reinforcement of defences created an unusually quiet period as regards flooding events during the last quarter of the previous century. Nevertheless, with the turn of the century it seems that the Middle Ebro River has entered into new dynamics, with bigger and more frequent floods, the appearance of which has changed its seasonal nature. The most relevant examples are those of February 2003 and March-April 2007. The present paper examines these recent trends and discusses their possible causes from the points of view of hydro-meteorology, flood management through the use of reservoirs, and floodplain management. The consequences of recent floods in the Middle Ebro River have reopened the debate about possible risk management measures.

  11. Legal aspects of recent studies on the health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of ionising radiation has recently been reviewed by three different high-level bodies. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) issued in 1988 a report to the General Assembly with the title ''Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionising Radiation''. A review of the biological effects of ionizing radiations has also been performed by the United States National Research Council's Committee BEIR V, published in 1989, with the title ''Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionising Radiation''. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has in November 1990 adopted its new recommendations issued as ICRP Publication 60. One of the newer health hazards is non-ionizing radiation (NIR), exposure to which extends from occupational into the field of public health. There are also collaborate studies on the health risks of non-ionizing radiation performed by e.g. the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). The most recent studies on the health effects of radiation are discussed in the paper. (author)

  12. Mentalization and theory of mind in borderline personality organization: exploring the differences between affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in emotional pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górska, Dominika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This article addresses the problem of explaining emotional pathology (levels of personality organization using the concepts of theory of mind (ToM and mentalization. Although these terms are used interchangeably to describe the “ability to interpret the behavior of others in terms of mental states,” they do not have identical status in emotional disorders. ToM refers to a “cold” knowledge, whereas mentalization requires the activation of relational and emotional representations, as well as processing of emotional experience (whether reflection or defense. The aim of the study was to compare the cognitive (ToM and affective (mentalization aspects of “understanding the behavior of others in terms of mental states” in the clinical group – consisting of patients with borderline personality organization (N = 30; and the control group (N = 30. Method: The Borderline Personality Inventory was used as a diagnostic questionnaire for the organization of personality, the Strange Stories Test was employed to measure ToM, and the Mental States Task instrument measured mentalization. Results: With respect to mentalization, different patterns of results were obtained: the activation of overwhelming mental states and primitive defenses in the clinical group; as well as the inhibition of the recognition of mental content by defenses, such as denial and suppression of emotions, in the control group. No differences were observed in ToM between groups. Conclusions: In explaining the personality organization levels, only the affective, and not the cognitive, aspects of “understanding the behavior of others in terms of mental states” are significant. People with borderline personality organization, as well as healthy individuals, use “cold” knowledge about internal states. However, the activation of relational and emotional representations triggers different mental states in both groups.

  13. Some sociocultural aspects of cadaver organ donation: recent rulings from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, M; Hedayat, K M

    2004-12-01

    Cultural and social factors strongly influence cadaveric organ donation and removal. In Muslim countries such as Iran, there is general public resistance to removal of organs despite clear rulings from religious leaders. Recently, some religious authorities have waived family permission and allowed cadaver organ removal even if the deceased person had not made a declaration for organ donation. Scholars have also exempted physicians from paying a legal penalty for removing organs in such cases. Cadaver organ donation is also allowed if the deceased person has made a declaration that money obtained from the recipient be spent to pay his debts or for public welfare and that the organ be used to save a life. There is no restriction on organ donation between people of different religions in normal circumstances. We conclude that these rulings should positively influence present sociocultural cadaver organ donation trends in Iran. PMID:15686652

  14. ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposit: Global aspects and recent developments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is concluded that most of known ISL-amenable uranium deposits are attributed to roll sub-type, a minority to basal-channel sub-type, and a few to tabular in case that redistribution of U occurred. Such a classification and related explanation are beneficial to exploration in China. However, there exist significant differences between deposits in Central Asia and those in Wyoming in aspects of tectonic background, scale and shape of host sandbodies, and attitude of ore bodies though all are attributed to the same roll sub-type. Similar situation is presented for deposits of basal channel sub-type. So, it is proposed to establish deposit model and model series, providing guidelines for exploration. Four model series and eleven models have been tentatively formulated, including: 1) Central Asia-South Texas series (Chu Sarysu-Syr Darya, Central Kyzylkum, Yili and South Texas models) where hosts are large-scale tabular sandbodies, usually developed on the slope parallel to the long axis of the basin and ore bodies have a 'C' shape with convex surfaces perpendicular to the long axis of the basin; 2) Wyoming series (Shirley-Wind River-Powder River and Great Divide models) where hosts are moderate/small sandbodies forming a wide ribbon, deposited in compressive for e-land basins while ore bodies occur on both margins of ribbon-shaped sandbodies with the convex surfaces directed outwards; 3) Grants series (Grants-primary and Grants re-distributed models) where host sandstonre-distributed models) where host sandstones were deposited as channel fill within a large-scale humid alluvial fan, containing plenty of organic matter, and ore bodies are mostly tabular in shape, transformed locally into roll form; and 4) Siberia-Bohemia series (West Siberia, Trans-baikal-West Yunnan and North Bohemia models) where U concentrations occur in, on, and/or adjacent to detrital plant debris within the channel sandstone, filling incised valley. Besides, recognition criteria are briefly explained. On the other hand, the sandstone-type uranium metallogenetic prospect of China is discussed with special attention to the Northwest Territory of China that could be considered as the east extension of a giant uranium super-province, stretching from Central Asia eastwards. The territory includes four domains and thirteen sub-domains different in uranium endowment. Meanwhile, the features of six selected deposits/mineralized areas are described in brief, including the Kujie'ertai, roll sub-type, hosted in tabular sand-bodies (J1-2sh); the Shihongtan, roll sub-type, hosted in ribbon-shaped sand-bodies (J2x); the Dongsheng, tabular sub-type with local U redistribution, hosted in ribbon-shaped sand-bodies (J2z); the Nuheting, tabular sub-type, hosted in ribbon-shaped sand-bodies (K2e); the Bayantala, basal channel sub-type of Mesozoic (K1bs) age; and the Chenzishan, basal channel sub-type of Cenozoic (N2m age). Finally, it is emphasized that China, especially the Northwest Territory of China, remains highly perspective, having only minor exploration in the past. (author)

  15. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da intoxicação por aceturato de diminazeno em cães / Epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of diminazene aceturate toxicosis in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana M., Flores; Paula R., Pereira; Alexandre, Mazzanti; Glaucia D., Kommers; Rafael A., Fighera.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da intoxicação espontânea por aceturato de diminazeno foram estudados em 10 cães. Em todos os casos, os cães afetados demonstraram sinais de síndrome tálamo-cortical, principalmente alteração do nível de consciência, tetraparesia, rigidez ex [...] tensora e crise convulsiva. Em alguns casos, os cães acometidos apresentaram sinais de síndrome cerebelar, como tremores musculares generalizados de alta frequência e baixa amplitude, e/ou de síndrome vestibular, como ataxia, inclinação de cabeça e quedas. Esses sinais ocorreram entre 24 e 48 horas após o uso do fármaco injetável por via intramuscular e se mantiveram até a morte ou eutanásia dos cães (entre 1 e 7 dias). Tais sinais clínicos refletiam encefalomalacia hemorrágica focal simétrica, que afetava a medula oblonga, a ponte, a medular do cerebelo, o tálamo, o mesencéfalo, os pedúnculos cerebelares e os núcleos da base. Esse artigo: 1) descreve e discute essa forma de intoxicação medicamentosa tão pouco citada na literatura internacional e desconhecida da maior parte dos clínicos e patologistas veterinários brasileiros, 2) estabelece critérios clínicos e anatomopatológicos para o seu diagnóstico e, principalmente, 3) atenta para os riscos da utilização desse princípio ativo na terapêutica canina. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of diminazene aceturate (DA) spontaneous toxicosis were evaluated in 10 dogs. All affected dogs developed signs of thalamic-cortical syndrome, characterized mainly by neurological changes in the conscience levels, tetraparesis, extensor stiffne [...] ss, and seizures. In some cases there was also evidence of cerebellar syndrome, characterized by generalized muscle tremors (high-frequency and low-amplitude) and/or vestibular syndrome, characterized by or ataxia, head tilt, and falling. These clinical signs occurred between 24 and 48 hours following intramuscular administration of DA and persisted until spontaneous death or euthanasia occurred between 1 and 7 days after the onset of clinical signs. The mentioned clinical signs reflected lesions that consisted of focal symmetrical hemorrhagic encephalomalacia affecting medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellar medulla, thalamus, midbrain, cerebellar peduncles, and basal nuclei. This article (1) describes and discusses DA toxicosis in dogs, a poorly-described clinical entity that is unknown by most clinicians and pathologists in Brazil; (2) establishes the clinical and pathological criteria for the diagnosis of DA toxicosis in dogs; and (3) calls up the attention for the risks of using DA in dogs in clinical settings.

  16. SNOMED CT in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Marcial; Daniel, Christel; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

    2012-01-01

    Pathology information systems have been using SNOMED II for many years, and in most cases, they are in a migration process to SNOMED CT. COST Action IC0604 (EURO-TELEPATH) has considered terminology normalization one of its strategic objectives. This paper reviews the use of SNOMED CT in healthcare, with a special focus in pathology. Nowadays, SNOMED CT is mainly used for concept search and coding of clinical data. Some ontological errors found in SNOMED CT are described. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative has fostered the use of SNOMED CT, also in Pathology, as recommended in the Supplement Anatomic Pathology Structured Reports of the IHE Anatomic Pathology Technical Framework. Rule governing concept post-coordination is also described. Some recent initiatives are trying to define a SNOMED CT subset for Pathology. The Spanish Society of Pathology has defined a subset for specimens and procedures in Pathology. Regarding diagnosis coding, the morphological abnormality sub-hierarchy of SNOMED CT need to be significantly extended and improved to become useful for pathologists. A consensus is needed to encode pathology reports with the adequate hierarchies and concepts. This will make the implementation of pathology structured reports more feasible. PMID:22925793

  17. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M Yamasaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano.Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eight cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were proeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with micobactin and on IS900 PCR. After the adoption of control measures, as slaughter of cows with clini

  18. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro / Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elise M, Yamasaki; Carlos H, Tokarnia; Alexandre, Galvão; Marcos J.P, Gomes; José A.B, Chies; Tiago Degani, Veit; Ana Paula, Aragão; Marilene F, Brito.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Ri [...] o de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano. Abstract in english Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eigh [...] t cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were proeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with micobactin and on IS900 PCR. After the adoption of control measu

  19. Approches actuelles au traitement du zona: Aspects controversés du traitement du zona

    OpenAIRE

    Bissonnette, R.; Leclerc, G.

    1992-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a very common pathology. A description of its clinical presentation and treatment in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients is provided. There is also a discussion of controversial aspects of treatment in the light of recent medical findings.

  20. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Gurltia paralysans em gatos / Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of Gurltia paralysans infection in cats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monique, Togni; Welden, Panziera; Tatiana M., Souza; José C., Oliveira Filho; Alexandre, Mazzanti; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos 20 anos, uma doença neurológica desconhecida acometeu populações de gatos da Região da Campanha do RS e tornou-se um desafio diagnóstico para os veterinários locais. Os gatos afetados desenvolviam inicialmente paralisia da cauda, seguida de paraparesia progressiva nos membros pélvicos, a [...] lteração da marcha, posição plantígrada e ataxia proprioceptiva. Após longos períodos de evolução clínica (12-24 meses), quando se tornavam marcadamente paraparéticos e começavam a apresentar escaras de decúbito, eram sacrificados pelos proprietários. Na necropsia, demonstravam graus variados de atrofia dos músculos pélvicos e algum grau de avermelhamento das meninges entre T10 e L7, devido à presença de miríades de pequenos vasos sanguíneos, uma típica lesão varicosa, semelhante a um hamartoma vascular. Histologicamente, tais lesões consistiam de distensão do espaço subaracnóideo por vasos sanguíneos dilatados e tortuosos, repletos de sangue e, ocasionalmente, de trombos, que ocluíam parcial ou totalmente seus lúmens. Essas varizes venulares eram aleatoriamente circundadas por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso ou linfocítico com pequenos focos de eosinófilos maduros. No lúmen das vênulas varicosas havia secções transversais e longitudinais de parasitos. Com base na morfologia desses parasitos, em sua localização anatômica (vasos sanguíneos meníngeos) e na espécie afetada (gato), o nematódeo foi identificado como Gurltia paralysans. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar em detalhes os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos dessa intrigante mielopatia de gatos e estabelecer definitivamente seu diagnóstico definitivo: paraplegia crural parasitária felina, uma doença descoberta no Chile, na década de 1930, e agora, pela primeira vez, descrita no Brasil. Abstract in english In the last 20 years, an unknown neurological disease affected cat populations in the Western Border Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The onset of the disease was characterized by tail paralysis, followed by progressive paraparesis in the pelvic limbs, difficulty in ambulation and p [...] roprioceptive ataxia. After long prolonged clinical courses (12-24 months), when then affected cats became severely paraparetic and start to develop pressure sores do to decubitus, they were destroyed by the owners. At necropsy there were variable degrees of skeletal muscle atrophy of the pelvic muscles and some degree of reddening of the meninges at the level of T10-L7, due to the presence of a myriad of small blood vessels, as a typical varicose lesion that resembled a vascular hamartoma. Histologically, such lesions consisted of distension of the subarachnoid space due to a collection of dilated, blood-filled, tortuous blood vessels the lumina of which were occasionally partially or completely occluded by thrombi. Those varices were randomly surrounded by a lymphocytic or granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate with small foci of mature eosinophils. In the lumina of these varicose venules cross and longitudinal sections of nematode parasites could be observed. Based on the morphology of these parasites, in their anatomical localization (meningeal blood vessels) and in the species (cat) affected the nematode was identified as Gurltia paralysans. This paper describes detailed aspects of the epidemiology, clinical disease and pathology of this intriguing feline myelopathy and the definitive diagnosis of the condition: Feline crural parasitic paraplegia, a disease first described in Chile in the 1930's and now, for the first time, in Brazil.

  1. Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011) / Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila, Tochetto; Mariana M., Flores; Glaucia D., Kommers; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2%) e hemorragia (75,5%), principalmente no pulmão (56,6%). Alterações [...] macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6%) e renais (50,9%) foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente), acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4%) e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%). Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%). Hepatomegalia (11,3%), nefromegalia (9,4%) e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8%) foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53), as lesões encontradas (98,1%) foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2%) e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8%) e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%), com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42), as lesões encontradas (97,6%) eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%), colestase intra-canalicular (33,3%) e necrose hepática (31%). Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%). Na histologia do pulmão (n=28), hemorragia (85,7%) e edema (57,1%) alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7%) e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9%) também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil) não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia. Abstract in english The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2%) and hemorrhage (75.5%), mainly in the lungs (56.6%). Gross hepatic (56.6%) and ren [...] al (50.9%) changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%), accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4%) and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%). Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%). Enlarged livers (11.3%), and kidneys (9.4%), and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8%) were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53), the encountered lesions (98.1%) were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2%) and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8%) and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%), with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42), the encountered lesions (97.6%) consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%), intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3%) and hepatocellular necrosis (31%). Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were observed in several cases (42.8%). In the histopathology of

  2. Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012) / Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana M., Flores; Welden, Panziera; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

    1319-13-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40), cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente), visto que na população total de [...] cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063) essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respectivamente). Na necropsia (n=40), os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5%) e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%), e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%), pulmão (60%), fígado (52,5%), peritônio (42,5%), rim (37,5%), encéfalo (30%), pleura (25%) e coração (22,5%). Hemoperitônio (42,5%) e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5%) foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25), os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%), de baixo grau (64%) e com estroma escasso (84%), mas frequentemente (68%) havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28%) e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12%) foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24), utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s) e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s) e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma. Abstract in english Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Out of the studied cases (n=40), aged dogs (72.2% of the cases) and dogs of German shepherd breed (20% of the cases) were clearly more frequently affected since in t [...] he total population of necropsied dogs in the same period (n=7,063) this age group and breed were comparatively less represented (respectively 14.6% e 10.1% of the cases). At necropsy (n=40) most tumors (92.5%) occurred as nodules and less frequently as masses (37.5%), affecting mainly the spleen (62.5%), lung (60%), liver (52.5%), peritoneum (42.5%), kidney (37.5%), brain (30%), pleura (25%), and heart (22.5%). Hemoperitoneum (42.5% of the cases) and resultant anemia (22.5% of the cases) were also observed. On histological examination (n=25), most hemangiosarcomas (84%), were, in general, well differentiated, of low grade (64%) and possessed a scant stroma (84%), although frequently (68%) focal areas with cells displaying some degree of atypia were seen. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and thrombosis were observed in all cases, however extramedullary hematopoiesis (28%) and benign angiomatous proliferation (12%) were less common findings. In all cases submitted to immunohistochemistry staining (n=24) the tumor cells displayed a finely granular positive staining when using anti-factor von Willebrand. Regarding anatomical classification, 55% of the hemangiosarcomas were considered as multicentric, 30% as primary tumors with one or more metastasis and 15% were solitary tumors. This paper discusses these results an suggests, based on the combination of affected organs, a scheme for setting apart primary hemangiosarcoma with metastasis from multicentric hemangiosarcoma, aiming to uniformize communication between pathologists regarding this tumor.

  3. Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012 Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Flores

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40, cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente, visto que na população total de cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063 essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respectivamente. Na necropsia (n=40, os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5% e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%, e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%, pulmão (60%, fígado (52,5%, peritônio (42,5%, rim (37,5%, encéfalo (30%, pleura (25% e coração (22,5%. Hemoperitônio (42,5% e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5% foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25, os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%, de baixo grau (64% e com estroma escasso (84%, mas frequentemente (68% havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28% e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12% foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24, utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma.Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Out of the studied cases (n=40, aged dogs (72.2% of the cases and dogs of German shepherd breed (20% of the cases were clearly more frequently affected since in the total population of necropsied dogs in the same period (n=7,063 this age group and breed were comparatively less represented (respectively 14.6% e 10.1% of the cases. At necropsy (n=40 most tumors (92.5% occurred as nodules and less frequently as masses (37.5%, affecting mainly the spleen (62.5%, lung (60%, liver (52.5%, peritoneum (42.5%, kidney (37.5%, brain (30%, pleura (25%, and heart (22.5%. Hemoperitoneum (42.5% of the cases and resultant anemia (22.5% of the cases were also observed. On histological examination (n=25, most hemangiosarcomas (84%, were, in general, well differentiated, of low grade (64% and possessed a scant stroma (84%, although frequently (68% focal areas with cells displaying some degree of atypia were seen. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and thrombosis were observed in all cases, however extramedullary hematopoiesis (28% and benign angiomatous proliferation (12% were less common findings. In all cases submitted to immunohistochemistry staining (n=24 the tumor cells displayed a finely granular positive staining when using anti-factor von Willebrand. Regarding anatomical classification, 55% of the hemangiosarcomas were considered as multicentric, 30% as primary tumors with one or more metastasis and 15% were solitary tumors. This paper discusses these results an suggests, based on the combination of affected organs, a scheme for setting apart primary hemangiosarcoma with metastasis from multicentric hemangiosarcoma, aiming to uniformize communication between pathologists regarding this tumor.

  4. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Driemeier; Claudio Estevão Farias, Cruz; Marcos José Pereira, Gomes; Luís Gustavo, Corbellini; Alexandre Paulino, Loretti; Edson Moleta, Colodel.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em uma criação intensiva de bovinos de leite no município de Capela de Santana, RS. Sinais clínicos foram observados em oito de um total de 345 bovinos e consistiam em diarréia crônica refratária ao tratamento, emagrecimento progressi [...] vo e queda da produção de leite. As principais lesões macroscópicas, observadas nos oito animais eutanasiados e necropsiados, incluíam intestino delgado com acentuado espessamento da parede e superfície mucosa de aspecto reticulado, semelhante às circunvoluções cerebrais, lesão essa perceptível através da serosa. A luz intestinal estava preenchida por conteúdo fluido e de aspecto leitoso. Os vasos linfáticos do mesentério mostravam-se mais evidentes, sendo que alguns tinham aspecto varicoso. Os linfonodos mesentéricos estavam aumentados de volume e, ao corte, fluía grande quantidade de líquido leitoso. Focos de mineralização foram observados na íntima das artérias, nas válvulas cardíacas e na serosa do rúmen. Havia também edema das dobras do abomaso e do mesentério e atrofia do lobo caudado do fígado. As principais lesões microscópicas incluíam enterite, linfadenite e linfangite granulomatosas que se caracterizavam por infiltrado inflamatório composto por macrófagos, células epitelióides e células gigantes de Langhans que continham grande quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes. As lesões vasculares consistiam em degeneração e mineralização das túnicas íntima e média das artérias de grande calibre associadas à proliferação de colágeno. Havia calcificação da serosa do rúmen, atrofia hepatocelular difusa e hepatite granulomatosa multifocal. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis foi cultivado em meio de Herrold enriquecido com micobactina a partir de raspados do intestino em todas as oito amostras enviadas para exame bacteriológico. Abstract in english The clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in a dairy herd in the county of Capela de Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, are described. Clinical signs in eight cows out of 345 cattle included chronic diarrhea refractory to treatment, progressive emaciation and decreas [...] ed milk production. Necropsy findings included severe and diffuse thickening of the mucosa of the small intestine with exaggerated reticular pattern, reflected in the serosal surface, similar to cerebral gyri. Intestinal loops were filled with whitish watery contents. The lymphatic vessels of the intestinal serosa and of the mesentery were thickened and tortuous. The mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and, on cut surface, there were oozing of milky fluid. Plaques of mineralization were evident in the intima of larger arteries, in the endocardium of the heart valves and in the ruminal serosa. There was also edema of the abomasal folds and atrophy of the caudate lobe of the liver. The main histopathological findings were granulomatous enteritis, lymphadenitis and lymphangitis. The inflammatory infiltrate was composed of macrophages, epithelioid cells and Langhans' giant cells containing large numbers of acid-fast bacilli. Vascular lesions included degeneration, calcification and collagen proliferation of the intima and media of larger arteries. Other microscopic lesions included calcification of the ruminal serosa, diffuse hepatocellular atrophy and multifocal granulomatous hepatitis. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was cultured in Herrold's medium enriched with mycobactin from all the eight samples of intestinal scrapings submitted to bacteriological examination.

  5. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Driemeier

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em uma criação intensiva de bovinos de leite no município de Capela de Santana, RS. Sinais clínicos foram observados em oito de um total de 345 bovinos e consistiam em diarréia crônica refratária ao tratamento, emagrecimento progressivo e queda da produção de leite. As principais lesões macroscópicas, observadas nos oito animais eutanasiados e necropsiados, incluíam intestino delgado com acentuado espessamento da parede e superfície mucosa de aspecto reticulado, semelhante às circunvoluções cerebrais, lesão essa perceptível através da serosa. A luz intestinal estava preenchida por conteúdo fluido e de aspecto leitoso. Os vasos linfáticos do mesentério mostravam-se mais evidentes, sendo que alguns tinham aspecto varicoso. Os linfonodos mesentéricos estavam aumentados de volume e, ao corte, fluía grande quantidade de líquido leitoso. Focos de mineralização foram observados na íntima das artérias, nas válvulas cardíacas e na serosa do rúmen. Havia também edema das dobras do abomaso e do mesentério e atrofia do lobo caudado do fígado. As principais lesões microscópicas incluíam enterite, linfadenite e linfangite granulomatosas que se caracterizavam por infiltrado inflamatório composto por macrófagos, células epitelióides e células gigantes de Langhans que continham grande quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes. As lesões vasculares consistiam em degeneração e mineralização das túnicas íntima e média das artérias de grande calibre associadas à proliferação de colágeno. Havia calcificação da serosa do rúmen, atrofia hepatocelular difusa e hepatite granulomatosa multifocal. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis foi cultivado em meio de Herrold enriquecido com micobactina a partir de raspados do intestino em todas as oito amostras enviadas para exame bacteriológico.The clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in a dairy herd in the county of Capela de Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, are described. Clinical signs in eight cows out of 345 cattle included chronic diarrhea refractory to treatment, progressive emaciation and decreased milk production. Necropsy findings included severe and diffuse thickening of the mucosa of the small intestine with exaggerated reticular pattern, reflected in the serosal surface, similar to cerebral gyri. Intestinal loops were filled with whitish watery contents. The lymphatic vessels of the intestinal serosa and of the mesentery were thickened and tortuous. The mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and, on cut surface, there were oozing of milky fluid. Plaques of mineralization were evident in the intima of larger arteries, in the endocardium of the heart valves and in the ruminal serosa. There was also edema of the abomasal folds and atrophy of the caudate lobe of the liver. The main histopathological findings were granulomatous enteritis, lymphadenitis and lymphangitis. The inflammatory infiltrate was composed of macrophages, epithelioid cells and Langhans' giant cells containing large numbers of acid-fast bacilli. Vascular lesions included degeneration, calcification and collagen proliferation of the intima and media of larger arteries. Other microscopic lesions included calcification of the ruminal serosa, diffuse hepatocellular atrophy and multifocal granulomatous hepatitis. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was cultured in Herrold's medium enriched with mycobactin from all the eight samples of intestinal scrapings submitted to bacteriological examination.

  6. Pathology Education: SY17-1 INNOVATIVE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE TEACHING OF PATHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Ui Soon

    2014-10-01

    Recent trainee pathologists showed a tendency to do better at identifying entities rather than the handling of cases that required a more global pathological interpretation. The examination of gross specimens and microscopy is fundamental to viewing, exploring and understanding pathological processes. Our department harnessed technological advances to improve the teaching and learning of pathology by incorporating the use of Aperio ScanScope web-based digital pathology, to provide greater access by undergraduate students to gross examination and microscopy. This digital imaging system was used for the demonstration of histology slides and images of gross specimens and to provide on-line access to students, combining it with the use of interactive multimedia, made accessible through Moodle, for the development of on-line quizzes. These case-based exercises presented students with short clinical vignettes, with visual demonstration of pertinent pathologic features linked to the Aperio system, followed by a series of questions designed to cover the important teaching points for each disease entity. At the post-graduate level, a participation forum on the Moodle platform was used to encourage on-line interactive discussion. These teaching approaches have enabled us to expand interactive learning experience beyond the classroom setting and to integrate multidisciplinary aspects in the learning of pathology. PMID:25188132

  7. Handheld computing in pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devi...

  8. New Aspects of Correlation of Free Radical Oxidation and the Severity of Pathological Process in Congenital Dislocated Hip and Degenerative Dystrophic Diseases of Hip Joint in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Strelkova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to prove the correlation of free radical processes and the state of anti-oxidant system, and the severity of pathological process in children with congenital dislocated hip.Materials and Methods. There were examined 143 patients with congenital dislocated hip aged from 4 to 17 years, they were divided into three groups: the 1st group (n=39 — children with noncomplicated disease, the 2nd group (n=47 — children with coxarthrosis, the 3rd group (n=32 — children with Legg’s disease. The control group (n=161 included virtually healthy children. The investigations of free radical production level and the condition of anti-oxidant system were carried out in patients’ blood serum, plasma, and erythrocytes. Results. There was revealed statistically significant correlation between the intensity of lipid peroxidation and the degree of manifestation of dystrophic changes in an affected joint. There was registered the activation of anti-oxidant protection systems in children suffering from hip joint pathology due to the necessity of limitation of free radical processes intensity and their maintenance at an adequate level. Conclusion. The indices of lipid peroxidation intensity and anti-oxidant enzymes activity as diagnostic criteria enable to estimate the depth of pathological changes in children with congenital dislocated hip and degenerative and dystrophic diseases of hip joints, and timely perform effective therapeutic interventions to prevent the deformity of femoral head.

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

  10. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos do linfoma em bovinos: 128 casos (1965-2013) / Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of lymphoma in cattle: 128 cases (1965-2013)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Welden, Panziera; Ronaldo M., Bianchi; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Paula R., Pereira; Renata D., Mazaro; Claudio S.L., Barros; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz F., Irigoyen; Rafael A., Fighera.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de um estudo retrospectivo, os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de 128 casos de linfoma bovino são descritos. Dos protocolos que informavam o sexo (n=111), 84,7% correspondiam a fêmeas e 15,3% a machos. Dos protocolos em que constava a raça (n=108), a mais prevalente [...] foi a holandesa (63%). Em relação à idade (n=107), houve uma variação entre um e 14 anos. A maioria dos bovinos era adulta (89,7%) e a maior concentração dos casos ocorreu ao redor de 5-8 anos (57,9%). Em relação aos sinais clínicos (n=89), linfadenomegalia foi o achado mais frequentemente observado (74,1%). Outros sinais clínicos, principalmente aqueles relacionados com os sistemas respiratório (dispneia, estertoração pulmonar e taquipneia), cardiovascular (taquicardia, edema subcutâneo e pulso venoso positivo), digestório (atonia ruminal, timpanismo e diarreia) e nervoso (paresia dos membros pélvicos e andar cambaleante), foram pouco prevalentes. Na necropsia (n=125), 71,2% dos bovinos apresentavam aumento de volume dos linfonodos; essa linfadenomegalia foi classificada como localizada em 89,6% dos casos e generalizada em 10,3% dos casos. Dos protocolos que informavam os linfonodos acometidos (n=58), a distribuição foi a seguinte: mesentéricos (51,7%), mediastínicos (37,9%), pré-escapulares (29,3%), ilíacos internos (27,6%), inguinais superficiais (25,8%) e traqueobrônquicos (18,9%). Além dos linfonodos, outros órgãos comumente afetados pelo linfoma neste estudo incluíram: coração (40%), fígado (15,2%), rim (14,4%), abomaso (12,8%), útero (11,2%), intestino (10,4%) e pulmão (7,2%). A presença de massas tumorais no canal vertebral foi observada em poucos casos (3,2%). Com base na epidemiologia e na localização das lesões, a maioria dos casos (96%) foi classificada como linfoma enzoótico e o restante (4%) como linfoma esporádico. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo irão auxiliar clínicos de grandes animais e patologistas veterinários na suspeita e no diagnóstico definitivo do linfoma na espécie bovina. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of 128 cases of bovine lymphoma are described in this study. Out of the cases were the gender was informed (n=111), 84.7% of affected animals were females and 15.3% were males. Out of the cases were breed was informed (n=108), 63% of affected an [...] imals were Holstein cows. The age of affected cows (n=107) varied from 1 to 14 years (57.9%), with most animals being adults (89.7%) with 5 to 8 years of age (57.9%). The most common clinical sign (n=89) was lymphadenomegaly (74.1%). Other clinical signs associated with the respiratory system (dyspnea, pulmonary stridor, and tachypnea), cardiovascular system (tachycardia, subcutaneous edema, and positive venous pulse), digestive system (ruminal atony, bloat, and diarrhea), and nervous system (pelvic limb paresis and staggering pace) were less prevalent. Gross findings (n=125) included enlargement of lymph nodes in 71.2% of the cases; this finding was classified as localized in 89.6% of the cases and generalized in 10.3% of the cases. Out of the cases where the affected lymph nodes were identified (n=58) the distribution of the lymphadenomegaly was the following: mesenteric (51.7%), mediastinal (37.9%), prescapular (29.3%), internal iliac (27.6%), superficial inguinal (25.8%), and tracheobronchial (18.9%). Other commonly affected organs included heart (40%), liver (15.2%), kidney (14.4%), abomasum (12.8%), uterus (11.2%), intestine (10.4%), and lung (7.2%). Tumor masses within the vertebral canal were observed in a few cases (3.2%). Based on the epidemiology and localization of the lesions, the majority of the cases (96%) in this study were classified as enzootic lymphoma (96%) and the remainder of the cases (4%) as sporadic lymphoma. The results herein presented will serve as a guide to large animal practitioners and veterinary pathologists and will help in the confirmation of their suspicion when dealing with cases of bovine lymp

  11. Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011 Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tochetto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2% e hemorragia (75,5%, principalmente no pulmão (56,6%. Alterações macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6% e renais (50,9% foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente, acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4% e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%. Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%. Hepatomegalia (11,3%, nefromegalia (9,4% e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8% foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53, as lesões encontradas (98,1% foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2% e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8% e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%, com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42, as lesões encontradas (97,6% eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%, colestase intra-canalicular (33,3% e necrose hepática (31%. Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%. Na histologia do pulmão (n=28, hemorragia (85,7% e edema (57,1% alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7% e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9% também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia.The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2% and hemorrhage (75.5%, mainly in the lungs (56.6%. Gross hepatic (56.6% and renal (50.9% changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%, accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4% and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%. Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%. Enlarged livers (11.3%, and kidneys (9.4%, and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8% were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53, the encountered lesions (98.1% were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2% and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8% and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%, with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42, the encountered lesions (97.6% consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%, intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3% and hepatocellular necrosis (31%. Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were observed in several cases (42.8%. In the histopathology of the lung (n=28, alveolar hemorrhage (85.7% and edema (57.1% were rather frequent lesi

  12. Pathology Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Two methods are used to make the tissue firm enough to cut into thin sections: frozen sections ... included in the pathology report? Cytogenetics uses tissue culture and specialized techniques to provide genetic information about ...

  13. Chiral Lewis acid catalysts in diels-Alder cycloadditions: mechanistic aspects and synthetic applications of recent systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz C, Dias.

    Full Text Available Este artigo resume os avanços mais recentes na utilização de ácidos de Lewis quirais como catalisadores na reação de cicloadição de Diels-Alder. Catalisadores quirais de alumínio, boro, titânio, cobre, lantanídeos, magnésio e metais de transição são criticamente revisados. Estudos estruturais dos co [...] mplexos formados entre ácidos de Lewis e compostos carbonílicos assim como aplicações sintéticas dos sistemas mais recentes são especificamente discutidos. Abstract in english This review summarizes the recent progress which has been made in the use of chiral Lewis Acid catalysts in Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions. Chiral catalysts containing aluminum, boron, titanium, copper, lanthanides, magnesium and transition-metals are critically reviewed. Structural studies on [...] Lewis acid carbonyl complexes and synthetic applications of recent systems are specifically discussed.

  14. 'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Bauer

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available 'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry (N-rays, polywater as well as the recent case of cold fusion in electrochemistry involved research practices not clearly distinguishable from those in (revolutionary science. The concept of 'pathological science' was put forth nearly half a century ago in a seminar and lacks justification in contemporary understanding of science studies (history, philosophy, and sociology of science. It is time to abandon the phrase.

  15. Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Lawrie; A, Good.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are dr [...] iven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor.

  16. Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog / Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.D.C., Martins; B.B.J., Torres; A.A.M., Rodriguez; C.O., Gamba; G.D., Cassali; G.E., Lavalle; G.D.C., Martins; E.G., Melo.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de ne [...] urônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma. Abstract in english A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with uppe [...] r motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

  17. Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D.C. Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de neurônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma.

  18. Labyrinthine pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in detecting intralabyrinthine pathology. Enhancement of the membranous labyrinth was shown in 4 patients with labyrinthine schwannoma, 2 with suppurative labyrinthitis, 3 with autoimmune hearing loss (rheumatoid arthritis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome), and 2 with carcinoma of the ear invading the labyrinth. Slight partial labyrinthine enhancement was noticed in 2 of 5 patients with syphilitic hearing loss, one of 3 with viral labyrinthitis, one of 3 with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, and none of 2 with active otosclerosis. Except for a questionable enhancement within the cochlea in one case, MR failed to demonstrate any labyrinthine enhancement in 3 patients with classic features of Meniere disease. Labyrinthine involvement detectable at MR is noteworthy, and we recommend enhanced MR imaging when there is clinical evidence of intralabyrinthine pathology

  19. Aspectos recentes da patogênese e diagnóstico da pleuropneumonia suína / Current aspects of pathogenesis and diagnosis of porcine pleuropneumonia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clarissa Silveira Luiz, Vaz; Sérgio Ceroni da, Silva.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A pleuropneumonia suína, causada por Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, é uma doença caracterizada pela apresentação fibrino-hemorrágica com pleurite adesiva. A enfermidade está presente em todos os países produtores de suínos, sendo responsável por prejuízos econômicos elevados. No Brasil e no mundo, [...] diversos grupos vêm conduzindo estudos na busca por um melhor entendimento da doença e de sua epidemiologia. Avanços importantes foram obtidos, entre os quais a caracterização dos fatores de virulência, implicados na apresentação clínica da enfermidade; e a aplicação de novos métodos de diagnóstico. A difusão das técnicas de biologia molecular como ferramenta diagnóstica em Medicina Veterinária tem contribuindo para a identificação de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Nesta revisão, são abordados os aspectos mais recentes sobre a patogênese e o diagnóstico deste importante patógeno. Abstract in english Porcine pleuropneumonia is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for substantial losses worldwide to the pig industry. The disease is characterized by fibrinous pleuritis with hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in the lungs, and ple [...] ural adhesions. Specific and precise methods for the identification of this pathogen are still required. In the present article we review the pathogenesis, as the traditional and the recently developed molecular methods employed for the identification and characterization of A. pleuropneumoniae.

  20. Aspectos más recientes en relación con la diabetes mellitus tipo MODY / Most recent aspects about type MODY diabetes mellitus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Ibis, Conesa González; Teresa Margarita, González Calero.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la mejor comprensión fisiopatológica de la diabetes mellitus permite identificar diferentes tipos, entre ellos una variante monogénica denominada por sus siglas en inglés MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young). Objetivos: describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos, diagnóst [...] icos y terapéuticos de los diferentes subtipos MODY. Desarrollo: los pacientes con diabetes tipo MODY presentan un comportamiento similar a la diabetes mellitus del adulto. Se caracteriza por una alteración genética autosómica dominante inherente y primaria a un defecto en la secreción de insulina. Hasta el momento actual se aceptan 9 subtipos de MODY. Los subtipos 1, 3, 4, 5 y 6 afectan a genes que codifican a factores nucleares de trascripción, y el subtipo 2 al gen que codifica a la enzima glucoquinasa. Se caracterizan clínicamente por cuadros que oscilan entre hiperglucemias permanentes, leves o moderadas, con buen pronóstico clínico, y pocas complicaciones, hasta cuadros de hiperglucemias mantenidas acompañadas de complicaciones crónicas precoces y graves. Conclusiones: las personas que padecen diabetes tipo MODY no son tan infrecuentes como se piensa. La correcta y temprana identificación de la enfermedad permitirá una acción terapéutica más racional y adecuada para brindar la posibilidad de mejor calidad de vida de estas personas. Abstract in english Background: a better physiopathological understanding of diabetes mellitus allows identifying its different types such as a monogenic variant called MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young). Objectives: to describe the physiopathological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the differ [...] ent subtypes in MODY diabetes. Development: the patients with MODY diabetes behave similarly to those suffering diabetes mellitus in adults. It is characterized by inherited dominant autosomal genetic alteration which is primary to a defect in insulin secretion. Up to the present, 9 subtypes are accepted. The subtypes 1,3,4,5 and 6 affect gens coding for nuclear transcriptional factors whereas subtype 2 affects the gen coding for glycokinase enzyme. From the clinical viewpoint, they are characterized by conditions ranging from permanent, slight or moderate hyperglycemias, with good clinical prognosis and low complications, to sustained hyperglycemias accompanied by early chronic and serious complications. Conclusions: the people suffering MODY diabetes are not as uncommon as one might think. The correct and early detection will allow taking quick, adequate and more rational therapeutic actions to provide the patients with a better quality of life.

  1. Aspectos más recientes en relación con la diabetes mellitus tipo MODY Most recent aspects about type MODY diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ibis Conesa González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la mejor comprensión fisiopatológica de la diabetes mellitus permite identificar diferentes tipos, entre ellos una variante monogénica denominada por sus siglas en inglés MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young. Objetivos: describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos de los diferentes subtipos MODY. Desarrollo: los pacientes con diabetes tipo MODY presentan un comportamiento similar a la diabetes mellitus del adulto. Se caracteriza por una alteración genética autosómica dominante inherente y primaria a un defecto en la secreción de insulina. Hasta el momento actual se aceptan 9 subtipos de MODY. Los subtipos 1, 3, 4, 5 y 6 afectan a genes que codifican a factores nucleares de trascripción, y el subtipo 2 al gen que codifica a la enzima glucoquinasa. Se caracterizan clínicamente por cuadros que oscilan entre hiperglucemias permanentes, leves o moderadas, con buen pronóstico clínico, y pocas complicaciones, hasta cuadros de hiperglucemias mantenidas acompañadas de complicaciones crónicas precoces y graves. Conclusiones: las personas que padecen diabetes tipo MODY no son tan infrecuentes como se piensa. La correcta y temprana identificación de la enfermedad permitirá una acción terapéutica más racional y adecuada para brindar la posibilidad de mejor calidad de vida de estas personas.Background: a better physiopathological understanding of diabetes mellitus allows identifying its different types such as a monogenic variant called MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Objectives: to describe the physiopathological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the different subtypes in MODY diabetes. Development: the patients with MODY diabetes behave similarly to those suffering diabetes mellitus in adults. It is characterized by inherited dominant autosomal genetic alteration which is primary to a defect in insulin secretion. Up to the present, 9 subtypes are accepted. The subtypes 1,3,4,5 and 6 affect gens coding for nuclear transcriptional factors whereas subtype 2 affects the gen coding for glycokinase enzyme. From the clinical viewpoint, they are characterized by conditions ranging from permanent, slight or moderate hyperglycemias, with good clinical prognosis and low complications, to sustained hyperglycemias accompanied by early chronic and serious complications. Conclusions: the people suffering MODY diabetes are not as uncommon as one might think. The correct and early detection will allow taking quick, adequate and more rational therapeutic actions to provide the patients with a better quality of life.

  2. Aspectos clínico-patológicos do envenenamento botrópico experimental em equinos Clinical and pathological aspects of the experimental poisoning by Bothrops snakes in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Garcia de Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em equinos, inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni e Bothropoides neuwiedi, com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para o diagnóstico do envenenamento pela picada dessas. Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a seis equinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,5 e 1mg/kg (B. jararaca, 0,8 e 1,6mg/kg (B. jararacussu, 0,205mg/kg (B. moojeni e 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi. Todos os equinos, menos os que receberam o veneno de B. jararacussu, morreram Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se entre 8min e 2h10min após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou, nos quatro casos de êxito letal, de 24h41min a 70h41min, e nos dois equinos que se recuperaram foi de 16 dias. O quadro clínico, independente do tipo de veneno e das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, arrastar da pinça do membro inoculado no solo, inquietação, apatia, diminuição da resposta aos estímulos externos, mucosas pálidas e hemorragias. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram anemia normocítica normocrômica com progressiva diminuição no número de hemácias, da hemoglobina e do hematócrito, e leucocitose por neutrofilia. Houve aumento de alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, dehidrogenase láctica, ureia e glicose, bem como aumento do tempo de ativação da protrombina e do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada. Os achados de necropsia foram extensas hemorragias no tecido subcutâneo, com presença de sangue não coagulado e em boa parte associadas a edema (edema hemorrágico, que se estendia desde o local da inoculação até as regiões cervical, torácica, escapular e membro. Na periferia das áreas hemorrágicas havia predominantemente edema gelatinoso. Havia ainda presença de grande quantidade de líquido sanguinolento nas cavidades torácica, pericárdica e abdominal. Não foram encontradas alterações histológicas significativas.The clinical and pathological alterations in horses, experimentally inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni and Bothropoides neuwiedi poisons, were studied with the purpose to supply subsidies for the diagnosis of the poisoning. The liofilized poisons were diluted in 1ml of physiologic solution and subcutaneously administered to six horses, at doses of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (B. jararaca, 0.8 and 1.6mg/kg (B. jararacussu, 0.205mg/kg (B. moojeni and 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi. All horses, less those that received the poison of B. jararacussu, died The clinical signs began between 8min and 2h10min after the inoculation. The clinical course varied, in the four cases of lethal exit, from 24h41min to 70h41min, and was 16 days in the two horses that recovered,. The clinical picture, independent of the poison type and doses, was characterized by tumefaction at the site of inoculation, dragging on the ground with the hooves of the inoculated leg, inquietude, apathy, decrease of reaction to external stimuli, pale mucous membranes and hemorrhages. Laboratory exams revealed normocytic normochrômic anemia with progressive decrease in the number of erythrocytes, of hemoglobin and of the hematocrit, and leucocytosis due to neutrophilia. There was increase of alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, lactic dehydrogenase, ureia and glucose, as well increase of the time of activation of protrombin and partial tromboplastina. At postmortem examination, the main findings were extensive hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissue, with the presence of non-coagulated blood, to a large degree associataed with edema (hemorragic edema, which extended from the inoculation site of the venom to the cervical, thoraxic and scapular region, and to the leg. In the periphery of the hemorragic areas existed gelatinous edema. There were great amounts of sanguinary liquid in the thoracic, pericardic and abdominal cavities. No significant histological alterations were found.

  3. Aspectos clínico-patológicos do envenenamento botrópico experimental em equinos / Clinical and pathological aspects of the experimental poisoning by Bothrops snakes in horses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melina Garcia de, Sousa; Carlos Hubinger, Tokarnia; Marilene de Farias, Brito; Alessandra Belo, Reis; Carlos Magno, Oliveira; Nayra Fernanda, Freitas; Cairo Henrique, Oliveira; José Diomedes, Barbosa.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em equinos, inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni e Bothropoides neuwiedi, com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para o diagnóstico do envenenamento pela picada dessas. [...] Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a seis equinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,5 e 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0,8 e 1,6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0,205mg/kg (B. moojeni) e 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). Todos os equinos, menos os que receberam o veneno de B. jararacussu, morreram Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se entre 8min e 2h10min após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou, nos quatro casos de êxito letal, de 24h41min a 70h41min, e nos dois equinos que se recuperaram foi de 16 dias. O quadro clínico, independente do tipo de veneno e das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, arrastar da pinça do membro inoculado no solo, inquietação, apatia, diminuição da resposta aos estímulos externos, mucosas pálidas e hemorragias. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram anemia normocítica normocrômica com progressiva diminuição no número de hemácias, da hemoglobina e do hematócrito, e leucocitose por neutrofilia. Houve aumento de alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, dehidrogenase láctica, ureia e glicose, bem como aumento do tempo de ativação da protrombina e do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada. Os achados de necropsia foram extensas hemorragias no tecido subcutâneo, com presença de sangue não coagulado e em boa parte associadas a edema (edema hemorrágico), que se estendia desde o local da inoculação até as regiões cervical, torácica, escapular e membro. Na periferia das áreas hemorrágicas havia predominantemente edema gelatinoso. Havia ainda presença de grande quantidade de líquido sanguinolento nas cavidades torácica, pericárdica e abdominal. Não foram encontradas alterações histológicas significativas. Abstract in english The clinical and pathological alterations in horses, experimentally inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni and Bothropoides neuwiedi poisons, were studied with the purpose to supply subsidies for the diagnosis of the poisoning. The liofilized poisons were dilut [...] ed in 1ml of physiologic solution and subcutaneously administered to six horses, at doses of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0.8 and 1.6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0.205mg/kg (B. moojeni) and 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). All horses, less those that received the poison of B. jararacussu, died The clinical signs began between 8min and 2h10min after the inoculation. The clinical course varied, in the four cases of lethal exit, from 24h41min to 70h41min, and was 16 days in the two horses that recovered,. The clinical picture, independent of the poison type and doses, was characterized by tumefaction at the site of inoculation, dragging on the ground with the hooves of the inoculated leg, inquietude, apathy, decrease of reaction to external stimuli, pale mucous membranes and hemorrhages. Laboratory exams revealed normocytic normochrômic anemia with progressive decrease in the number of erythrocytes, of hemoglobin and of the hematocrit, and leucocytosis due to neutrophilia. There was increase of alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, lactic dehydrogenase, ureia and glucose, as well increase of the time of activation of protrombin and partial tromboplastina. At postmortem examination, the main findings were extensive hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissue, with the presence of non-coagulated blood, to a large degree associataed with edema (hemorragic edema), which extended from the inoculation site of the venom to the cervical, thoraxic and scapular region, and to the leg. In the periphery of the hemorragic areas existed gelatinous edema. There were great amounts of sanguinary liquid in the thoracic, pericardic and abdominal cavities. No significant histologica

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Recent aspect, a change from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron beam and a new protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1968, One-hundred seventy three patients with glioblastoma (n=81), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumor (n=32) were treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a combination of thermal neutron and BSH in 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MuITR n=98, KUR n=28, JRR-2 n=33). Out of 101 patients with glioma treated by BNCT under the recent protocol, 33 (10 glioblastoma, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, 9 low grade astrocytoma) patients lived or have lived longer than 3 years. Nine of these 33 lived or have lived longer than 10 years. According to the retrospective analysis, the important factors related to the clinical results were tumor dose radiation dose and maximum radiation dose in thermal brain cortex. The result was not satisfied as it was expected. Then, we decided to introduce mixed beams which contain thermal neutron and epithermal neutron beams. KUR was reconstructed in 1996 and developed to be available to use mixed beams. Following the shutdown of the JRR-2, JRR-4 was renewed for medical use in 1998. Both reactors have capacity to yield thermal neutron beam, epithermal neutron beam and mixed beams. The development of the neutron source lead us to make a new protocol. (author)

  5. RECOGNITION, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL PATHOLOGIES IN AXEL HONNETH'S RECENT WRITINGS / Reconocimiento, justicia y patologías sociales en los trabajos recientes de Axel Honneth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    STÉPHANE, HABER.

    Full Text Available Este ensayo discute el último libro de Axel Honneth sobre la cosificación (Verdinglichung, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005) y su relación con la teoría del reconocimiento avanzada por el mismo autor. El ensayo examina críticamente la nueva hipótesis de Honneth sobre las raíces existenciales del reconocimi [...] ento, y hace una comparación entre dos conceptos clave de la teorí crítica, la cosificación y la alienación, para argumentar la superioridad teórica de esteúltimo concepto Abstract in english The paper discusses Axel Honneth's recent book on Reification and its relation to Honneth's theory of recognition. It critically examines Honneth's hypothesis concerning the existential roots of recognition, and compares two classical concepts of social critique, Reification and alienation, in order [...] to argue for the superiority of the latter over the former

  6. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em equinos / Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental crotalic envenoming in horses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cinthia Távora A., Lopes; Carlos Hubinger, Tokarnia; Marilene de Farias, Brito; Melina Garcia S. de, Sousa; Carlos Magno Chaves, Oliveira; Natália da Silva e, Silva; Danillo Henrique S., Lima; José Diomedes, Barbosa.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os quadros clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de equinos inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus na antiga nomenclatura), com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios que favoreçam a compreensão desse tipo de acidente ofídico e [...] m equinos. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1ml de solução salina a 0,9% e inoculado por via subcutânea em cinco equinos, nas doses de 0,12mg/kg (um animal), 0,066mg/kg (dois animais) e 0,03mg/kg (dois animais). O veneno causou a morte do equino que recebeu a dose de 0,12mg/kg e de um dos dois que receberam a dose de 0,066mg/kg, com evolução de 27h27min e 52h29min, respectivamente. O segundo animal que recebeu a dose de 0,066mg/kg também adoeceu, mas recuperou-se após 12 dias da inoculação. A dose de 0,03mg/kg determinou quadros não fatais do envenenamento, com período de evolução que variou entre 6 e 10 dias. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por considerável aumento de volume no local de inoculação (escápula) que se estendeu por todo o membro, apatia e cabeça baixa, alterações locomotoras evidenciadas pelo arrastar das pinças no solo, decúbito e dificuldade para levantar, redução dos reflexos auricular, palatal, do lábio superior e de ameaça, e aumento das frequências cardíaca e respiratória. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram leucocitose por neutrofilia e linfocitose em apenas dois animais. Houve aumento das enzimas creatina quinase (CK), dehidrogenase láctica (DHL) e da ureia, e também redução nos níveis séricos de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) aumentou nos equinos que morreram. Os achados de necropsia foram edema do tecido subcutâneo em todo o membro em que foi aplicado o veneno, sufusões no epicárdio dos ventrículos cardíacos esquerdo e direito, e bexiga com áreas hemorrágicas em grande parte da mucosa. Ao exame histopatológico observaram-se fígado com moderada vacuolização difusa, afetando mais a zona intermediária do lóbulo hepático, leve dilatação dos sinusoides hepáticos em algumas áreas e rim com leve dilatação dos túbulos uriníferos, principalmente no córtex. Abstract in english The clinic-pathological picture and laboratory findings in horses experimentally inoculated with the venom of Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus, according to the former nomenclature) are described. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of this type [...] of snake accident in horses. The lyophilized venom was diluted into 1ml of a 0.9% saline solution and was inoculated subcutaneously into five horses, at the doses of 0.12mg/kg (one horse), 0.066mg/kg (two horses) and 0.03mg/kg (two horses). The venom caused death of the horse that had received 0.12mg/kg, and of one horse of the two that had received the dose of 0.066mg/kg. The clinical course varied from 27h27min to 52h29min. The second horse inoculated with 0.066mg/kg recovered within 12 days after inoculation. The dose of 0.03mg/kg had a course of 6 to 10 days, but did not cause fatal envenomation. The clinical picture in the horses was characterized by swelling of the inoculation site (shoulder) that spread to the whole leg, by apathy and lowered head, locomotory alterations shown by dragging of the hoves on the ground, decubitus and difficulty to get up, reduction of auricular, palatal, upperlip and threat reflexes, and increase of heart and breathing frequency. The laboratory examination revealed leukocytosis and lymphocytosis in two horses. There was increase of the creatine-kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (DHL) and urea, and reduction in the seric levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The activated partial tromboplastina time (TTPA) increased in the horses that died. Postmortem findings were edema of the subcutaneous tissue of the whole leg into which the venom was inoculated, suffusions in the epicard of left and right heart ventricles, and bladder with hemorrhagic areas in its mu

  7. Aspectos emocionales en la infertilidad: una revisión de la literatura reciente / Emotional Aspects in Infertility: a Review of Recent Literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Estela, Palacios; Enrique, Jadresic.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se entiende por infertilidad la imposibilidad de una pareja de lograr un embarazo, después de un año de vida sexual activa, sin uso de anticonceptivos. En Chile afecta al 15% de las parejas en edad fértil. La etiología es variada, a veces desconocida (20%). Se ha evaluado el impacto que tiene en la [...] pareja el diagnóstico de infertilidad. Es descrito como una crisis vital, a la cual contribuyen muchos factores, y se traduce en un gran desgaste emocional, por su carácter cíclico. Se repite una y otra vez la vivencia de esperanza (al inicio del ciclo) y fracaso (cuando llega la menstruación). Impacta el elevado costo económico del tratamiento, el sometimiento a procesos quirúrgicos y la invasión a la privacidad sexual. En parejas infértiles se han encontrado sentimientos de inadecuación, desesperación, pena, envidia y celos hacia la mujer embarazada, miedo, pérdida de la libido, disfunción eréctil, inestabilidad emocional, pérdida de la autoestima, culpa, depresión e ideación suicida. Se han descrito trastornos psicosomáticos, represión de las reacciones emocionales, deseo frenético de adoptar un hijo rápidamente o incorporarse a algún programa de fertilización asistida. Luego del fracaso terapéutico, desenlace habitual (70%), el 50% de las parejas presenta alguna alteración psicológica importante. Los autores revisan la literatura reciente sobre el tema y subrayan la necesidad de la participación activa de los profesionales de la salud mental junto a los equipos de medicina reproductiva Abstract in english Infertility is defined as a couple's inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. This problem affects 15% of couples of fertile age in Chile. The impact of infertility on the couple is assessed, and it is described as an emotionally debilitating life crisis due to multi [...] ple factors. It is characterized by a cyclical pattern in which the experience of hope (at the beginning of the cycle) is recurrently followed by the experience of failure (when menses begin). The high financial burden of treatment, the need to undergo surgical procedures, and the invasion of sexual intimacy are additional sources of stress. Infertile couples may suffer feelings of inadequacy, despair, sorrow, envy and jealousy towards pregnant women, fear, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, emotional instability, loss of self-esteem, guilt, depression, and suicidal ideation. Psychosomatic disorders, the repression of emotional reactions, and frantic desires to quickly adopt a child or to join a program of assisted reproduction are described. Following therapeutic failure, which is the most common outcome (70%), fifty percent of couples show some significant psychological distress. The authors review recent literature on the subject and underscore the need for mental health professionals to collaborate with infertility specialists in these cases

  8. Aspectos emocionales en la infertilidad: una revisión de la literatura reciente Emotional Aspects in Infertility: a Review of Recent Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Palacios

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se entiende por infertilidad la imposibilidad de una pareja de lograr un embarazo, después de un año de vida sexual activa, sin uso de anticonceptivos. En Chile afecta al 15% de las parejas en edad fértil. La etiología es variada, a veces desconocida (20%. Se ha evaluado el impacto que tiene en la pareja el diagnóstico de infertilidad. Es descrito como una crisis vital, a la cual contribuyen muchos factores, y se traduce en un gran desgaste emocional, por su carácter cíclico. Se repite una y otra vez la vivencia de esperanza (al inicio del ciclo y fracaso (cuando llega la menstruación. Impacta el elevado costo económico del tratamiento, el sometimiento a procesos quirúrgicos y la invasión a la privacidad sexual. En parejas infértiles se han encontrado sentimientos de inadecuación, desesperación, pena, envidia y celos hacia la mujer embarazada, miedo, pérdida de la libido, disfunción eréctil, inestabilidad emocional, pérdida de la autoestima, culpa, depresión e ideación suicida. Se han descrito trastornos psicosomáticos, represión de las reacciones emocionales, deseo frenético de adoptar un hijo rápidamente o incorporarse a algún programa de fertilización asistida. Luego del fracaso terapéutico, desenlace habitual (70%, el 50% de las parejas presenta alguna alteración psicológica importante. Los autores revisan la literatura reciente sobre el tema y subrayan la necesidad de la participación activa de los profesionales de la salud mental junto a los equipos de medicina reproductivaInfertility is defined as a couple's inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. This problem affects 15% of couples of fertile age in Chile. The impact of infertility on the couple is assessed, and it is described as an emotionally debilitating life crisis due to multiple factors. It is characterized by a cyclical pattern in which the experience of hope (at the beginning of the cycle is recurrently followed by the experience of failure (when menses begin. The high financial burden of treatment, the need to undergo surgical procedures, and the invasion of sexual intimacy are additional sources of stress. Infertile couples may suffer feelings of inadequacy, despair, sorrow, envy and jealousy towards pregnant women, fear, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, emotional instability, loss of self-esteem, guilt, depression, and suicidal ideation. Psychosomatic disorders, the repression of emotional reactions, and frantic desires to quickly adopt a child or to join a program of assisted reproduction are described. Following therapeutic failure, which is the most common outcome (70%, fifty percent of couples show some significant psychological distress. The authors review recent literature on the subject and underscore the need for mental health professionals to collaborate with infertility specialists in these cases

  9. Pathology in East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Stephen R

    2002-10-01

    East Timor is the newest nation in Southeast Asia and, with its recent turbulent history, also one of the poorest. Infectious and parasitic diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria are endemic, and the poor infrastructure in the wake of Indonesia's sudden withdrawal has left the country with enormous health challenges. Australia's key role in the emergence of East Timor as an independent country brings with it a long-term interest in the future development of its health services, including pathology. PMID:12408349

  10. Patología forense y neurología asociada de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos: Estudio práctico / Forensic pathology and associated neurology of head injury: Practical aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.L., Palomo Rando; V., Ramos Medina; I., Palomo Gómez; A., López Calvo; I.M., Santos Amaya.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reúnen en este trabajo de forma sucinta los conocimientos más útiles en la resolución forense de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE) letales. El estudio está orientado hacia la identificación macroscópica, la causalidad y los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones, con apoyo iconográfico. [...] Se hace especial hincapié en la valoración de las fracturas craneales, las hemorragias subaracnoideas por lesión de la arteria vertebral, el edema y la hiperemia cerebral postraumáticos, así como algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la autopsia de los fallecidos por trauma cefálico, incluida la retención y fijación del encéfalo. Algunos de estos conocimientos son antiguos y aunque olvidados o desconocidos por muchos han resistido el paso del tiempo, manteniendo plena vigencia. Igualmente se incluyen las características clínicas esenciales de cada trastorno, los nuevos avances en el diagnóstico neuropatológico de los TCE, en su fisiopatología y sus sospechadas relaciones con la posterior aparición de enfermedad degenerativa tipo Alzheimer y las alteraciones genómicas que predisponen a una evolución fatal de TCE ligeros o moderados. Abstract in english This review summarizes in a brief format the most useful tips in the forensic evaluation of fatal head trauma. This study is aimed at the macroscopic evaluation, causality and production mechanisms of the lesions, with image-based support. Skull fractures, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to lesion of th [...] e vertebral artery, posttraumatic cerebral edema and hyperaemia as well as basic recommendations to carry out the autopsy procedure (including the retention and fixation of the brain) in bodies with a lethal traumatic brain injury (TBI) will be analyzed. Some of this knowledge has been developed a long time ago, and although sometimes forgotten, their meaning is still fully patent. This study also points out the essential clinical characteristics of each condition and recent advances in the neuropathological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its physiopathology. Finally, the suspected relationship of head injuries with the late development of degenerative disorders (Alzheimer-like); as well as new insights relating genomics and fatal evolution of mild to moderate TBIs are included.

  11. Patología forense y neurología asociada de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos: Estudio práctico Forensic pathology and associated neurology of head injury: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Palomo Rando

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reúnen en este trabajo de forma sucinta los conocimientos más útiles en la resolución forense de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE letales. El estudio está orientado hacia la identificación macroscópica, la causalidad y los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones, con apoyo iconográfico. Se hace especial hincapié en la valoración de las fracturas craneales, las hemorragias subaracnoideas por lesión de la arteria vertebral, el edema y la hiperemia cerebral postraumáticos, así como algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la autopsia de los fallecidos por trauma cefálico, incluida la retención y fijación del encéfalo. Algunos de estos conocimientos son antiguos y aunque olvidados o desconocidos por muchos han resistido el paso del tiempo, manteniendo plena vigencia. Igualmente se incluyen las características clínicas esenciales de cada trastorno, los nuevos avances en el diagnóstico neuropatológico de los TCE, en su fisiopatología y sus sospechadas relaciones con la posterior aparición de enfermedad degenerativa tipo Alzheimer y las alteraciones genómicas que predisponen a una evolución fatal de TCE ligeros o moderados.This review summarizes in a brief format the most useful tips in the forensic evaluation of fatal head trauma. This study is aimed at the macroscopic evaluation, causality and production mechanisms of the lesions, with image-based support. Skull fractures, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to lesion of the vertebral artery, posttraumatic cerebral edema and hyperaemia as well as basic recommendations to carry out the autopsy procedure (including the retention and fixation of the brain in bodies with a lethal traumatic brain injury (TBI will be analyzed. Some of this knowledge has been developed a long time ago, and although sometimes forgotten, their meaning is still fully patent. This study also points out the essential clinical characteristics of each condition and recent advances in the neuropathological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI and its physiopathology. Finally, the suspected relationship of head injuries with the late development of degenerative disorders (Alzheimer-like; as well as new insights relating genomics and fatal evolution of mild to moderate TBIs are included.

  12. APSnet: Advanced Plant Pathology Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Phytopathological Society (APS) is a professional society dedicated to "high-quality, innovative plant pathology research." Founded in 1908, the APS continues to provide educational resources for those seeking to learn more about the science of plant pathology. One way they work to accomplish this goal is through this particular section of their website. The materials on this site include "Plant Disease Management Simulations", "Laboratory Exercises", and "Topics in Plant Pathology". The "Topics in Plant Pathology" area includes topical articles that deal with various aspects of plant pathology, including the use of reverse genetic tools for investigating gene function and the population genetics of plant pathogens. Moving on, the "Laboratory Exercises" area contains two activities that can be used by college students studying plant pathology. The "Plant Disease Management" area contains a handful of simulations that will help students learn about the spread and management of some common plant diseases. Finally, the site is rounded out by an illustrated glossary of plant pathology.

  13. Pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  14. Glenoid labrum pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavert, P

    2015-02-01

    The glenoid labrum is the fibrocartilage of the shoulder joint, anchoring the joint capsule and shoulder ligaments. Morphology varies regionally, especially in the superior and anterior region; these variants can sometimes be confused with pathological aspects. The labrum is often involved in shoulder pathology, by single trauma or, more often, repeated microtrauma. It seems logical to classify and to describe tears according to two criteria: the sector involved, and associated pain or instability. In the superior labrum, SLAP lesions are the most frequent. These combine labral lesion and lesion of the proximal insertion of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon. The most frequent form is SLAP II. They may be associated with instability or not. In the antero-inferior and postero-inferior labrum, lesions are mainly due to instability, particularly Bankart lesions (capsulolabral avulsion) anteriorly and Kim's lesion posteriorly. Circumferential labral lesions may be found in unstable shoulder. Finally, postero-superior lesions involve Walch's internal impingement: repeated contact between the deep surface of the cuff and the labrum, which takes on a degenerative aspect, with a kissing lesion of the cuff. There is no general rule for management: some labral lesions are resected and others fixed. The cause (which is usually shoulder instability), however, needs to be assessed and treated. PMID:25596985

  15. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M Castellano-Megías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CC arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB. IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8% were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%, four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed.

  16. Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

  17. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6) em gatos / Epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6) in cats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila, Tochetto; Tatiana M., Souza; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6) foram estudados em 10 gatos que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos diferem daqueles previamente descritos na literatura nos seguintes aspectos: 1) a doença ocorr [...] eu na forma de um modelo bimodal relacionado à idade dos gatos afetados, em que 50% tinham 1-3 anos de idade e 50% tinham 10 anos de idade ou mais; 2) quase todos os gatos afetados (87,5%) demonstravam policromasia, possivelmente decorrente de eritropoese extramedular; 3) em todos os casos havia múltiplos focos de células hematopoéticas, principalmente eritropoeticas, em múltiplos órgãos, que incluíam baço (85,7%), linfonodos (71,4%), fígado (57,1%) e rim (28,6%); 4) em alguns casos (28,6%) esses focos podiam ser vistos macroscopicamente, na forma de metástases, mas sempre diferiam histologicamente da medula óssea quanto à proporção dos precursores eritroides envolvidos; 5) em pelo menos um caso ocorreu um continuum patologicum até outra forma de LMA (LMA M4), um fenômeno denominado "infidelidade de linhagem". Esse artigo discute essas diferenças e reforça os critérios fundamentais para se estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo dessa que é a forma mais importante de leucemia em gatos na nossa região. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6) were studied in 10 cats that died from this condition. The results obtained in the present study differ from those previously described in the literature regarding the following aspects: 1) Th [...] e disease occurred as a bimodal model related to the age of affected cats, in which 50% were1-3-years-old and 50% were 10 years-old or above; 2) almost all affected cats (87.5%) displayed polychromasia, possible resulting from extramedullar erythropoiesis; 3) in all cases there were multiple foci of hematopoietic cells, mainly erythropoietic, in multiple organs including spleen (85.7%), lymph nodes (71.4%), liver (57.1%), and kidney (28.6%); 4) in some cases (28.6%) these foci could be observed on gross examination as metastasis, but they always histologically differ from bone marrow in regard to the proportion of erythroid precursors involved; 5) at least in one case a continuum patologicum occurred with the condition evolving to another form of LMA (LMA M4), a phenomenon coined as "lineage infidelity". This paper discuss these differences and stresses the fundamental criteria to establish a definitive diagnosis of this condition, which is the most import form of leukemia in cats from our region.

  18. The Neuropsychopharmacology of Pathological Gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Zakeri, Kourosh; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder with prevalence estimates in the range of 0.2–2% in the general population. PG can significantly impact one’s ability to function as it may negatively influence social, financial, and occupational aspects of life. Historically, PG has received relatively little attention from researchers and clinicians, and few treatments, particularly pharmacological, have been both validated and widely employed. Given the clinical relevance of PG...

  19. Patogênese e achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Rangelia vitalii em 35 cães (1985-2009) / Pathogenesis, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of Rangelia vitalii infection in 35 dogs (1985-2009)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael A, Fighera; Tatiana M, Souza; Glaucia G, Kommers; Luis Francisco, Irigoyen; Claudio S.L, Barros.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A patogênese e os achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção natural pelo protozoário Rangelia vitalii (rangeliose canina) foram estudados em 35 cães que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos permitem o seguinte conjunto de conclusões: (1) causa doença [...] hemolítica exclusivamente extravascular e de origem imunomediada; (2) cursa invariavelmente com algum grau de hemorragia à necropsia, mas nem sempre clinicamente perceptível; (3) os principais sinais que devem chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica são anemia, icterícia e esplenomegalia; (4) o principal achado hematológico e que deve chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica é a ocorrência de anemia com sinais de intensa regeneração eritroide; (5) os três principais diagnósticos diferenciais são leptospirose, babesiose e erliquiose monocitotrópica aguda; (6) a principal lesão observada é uma associação de hiperplasia linfoide com inflamação mononuclear, predominantemente plasmocitária, mas por vezes granulomatosa; (7) outras lesões frequentes são secundárias à marcada anemia regenerativa; (8) o agente etiológico pode ser facilmente encontrado, pois ocorre em grande quantidade na maioria dos tecidos, principalmente nos linfonodos, no baço, na medula óssea, no coração e nas tonsilas. Abstract in english The pathogenesis, clinical, hematological and pathological features of the natural infection by the protozoan organism Rangelia vitalii (canine rangeliosis) was studied in 35 dogs that died due this condition. The results allow for the following set of conclusions on canine rangeliosis: (1) causes a [...] n exclusively extravascular immune mediated hemolysis; (2) is invariably associated with some degree of hemorrhage observed at necropsy, but no always clinically apparent; (3) the clinical signs that are the hallmark of the disease are anemia, icterus and splenomegaly; (4) the main hematological aspect that establishes a clinical suspect is the development of anemia with signs of intense erythroid regeneration; (5) the three main differential diagnosis are leptospirosis, babesiosis and e acute monocytotropic ehrlichiosis; (6) the main observed histopathological lesion is an association of lymphoid hyperplasia with mononuclear inflammatory reaction, predominantly plasmacytic, but occasionally granulomatous; (7) other frequently found lesions are secondary to a marked regenerative anemia; (8) large numbers of the etiologic agent can be easily demonstrate in most tissues, mainly in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, heart, and tonsils.

  20. Pathological gambling in women: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Silvia Saboia; Lobo Daniela S. S.; Tavares Hermano; Gentil Valentim

    2002-01-01

    Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980). Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews o...

  1. The analysis of the recent economic and social aspects important for the management of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The management system of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic is using already more that ten years as a one tool a monetary value of man Sv. The appropriate values are published in the Decree on radiation protection and they are distinguished for different types and levels of exposure. The derivation of these values has been done about 15 years ago based on studies performed at the 90's. Recently the State Office for Nuclear Safety initiated a new pilot study with the following scope: 1-) To analyze the current economic approaches and techniques used for the determination of the monetary statistical value of the human life under new economical, political and social conditions; 2-) To design the mathematical model for the determination of the lost production and to gain economic and demographic data necessary for the calculation; 3-) To organize a pilot survey of the public opinion in the Czech Republic with the accent on the detriment caused by ionizing radiation and on the willingness to pay for the averted risk or to accept the compensation of the elevated risk. The first evaluation of the results shows that a new evaluated values are not significantly different for the currently used values in the legislation. Although the approaches of the life value estimation are different the valuation is relatively consistent and the average value of the statistical life fall into the range between 300 - 350 thousands CZK (app.10-13 ths EUR) per one year of life. The study confirmed a fact that the optimization of the processes covering the threat of the human health and life is very complicated, complex and demanding a multidisciplinary approach. The study and research will continue in the future focusing to the particular aspects of the problem. The poster will describe in details the methods used and will present the results achieved. (author)

  2. Purines in the eye: recent evidence for the physiological and pathological role of purines in the RPE, retinal neurons, astrocytes, Müller cells, lens, trabecular meshwork, cornea and lacrimal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Julie; Dartt, Darlene A; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery; Pintor, Jesus; Civan, Mortimer M; Delamere, Nicholas A; Fletcher, Erica L; Salt, Thomas E; Grosche, Antje; Mitchell, Claire H

    2014-10-01

    This review highlights recent findings that describ how purines modulate the physiological and pathophysiological responses of ocular tissues. For example, in lacrimal glands the cross-talk between P2X7 receptors and both M3 muscarinic receptors and ?1D-adrenergic receptors can influence tear secretion. In the cornea, purines lead to post-translational modification of EGFR and structural proteins that participate in wound repair in the epithelium and influence the expression of matrix proteins in the stroma. Purines act at receptors on both the trabecular meshwork and ciliary epithelium to modulate intraocular pressure (IOP); ATP-release pathways of inflow and outflow cells differ, possibly permitting differential modulation of adenosine delivery. Modulators of trabecular meshwork cell ATP release include cell volume, stretch, extracellular Ca(2+) concentration, oxidation state, actin remodeling and possibly endogenous cardiotonic steroids. In the lens, osmotic stress leads to ATP release following TRPV4 activation upstream of hemichannel opening. In the anterior eye, diadenosine polyphosphates such as Ap4A act at P2 receptors to modulate the rate and composition of tear secretion, impact corneal wound healing and lower IOP. The Gq11-coupled P2Y1-receptor contributes to volume control in Müller cells and thus the retina. P2X receptors are expressed in neurons in the inner and outer retina and contribute to visual processing as well as the demise of retinal ganglion cells. In RPE cells, the balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine may modulate lysosomal pH and the rate of lipofuscin formation. In optic nerve head astrocytes, mechanosensitive ATP release via pannexin hemichannels, coupled with stretch-dependent upregulation of pannexins, provides a mechanism for ATP signaling in chronic glaucoma. With so many receptors linked to divergent functions throughout the eye, ensuring the transmitters remain local and stimulation is restricted to the intended target may be a key issue in understanding how physiological signaling becomes pathological in ocular disease. PMID:25151301

  3. Applications in hip pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, J-L; Mallet, J-F; Huten, D; Odri, G-A; Morin, C; Parent, H-F

    2010-05-01

    Everyday clinical practice frequently leads us to suspect a close relationship between the lumbar spine and the hip-joints. Sagittal balance fundamentally expresses a postural strategy mobilizing the dynamic structure of the lumbar-pelvic-femoral complex in an authentic balance by which obligatory coupled movements transmit stresses in a single structure, the spine, to the two-part structure of the lower limbs, and vice-versa. Flexion contracture is a frequent hip pathology, but congenital dislocation and ankylosis of the hip have the greatest impact on the spine, due to excessive mechanical strain and/or spinal malalignment, which is initially supple but becomes fixed. Clinical analysis, backed up if necessary by infiltration tests and imaging, guides indications for surgical management. These considerations suggest a general attitude that considers not just the hip itself, for which the patient is consulting, but the lumbar-pelvic-femoral complex as a whole (and also the knee) before undertaking total hip replacement. Femoro-acetabular impingement is a recently described pathology associating morphological hip-joint abnormality and labral and joint cartilage lesions, leading to early osteoarthritis of the hip. Abnormal spinal or pelvic parameters have not been found associated with femoro-acetabular impingement. Congenital pelvic tilt is a benign and often overlooked pathology in children. Supra- and infra-pelvic pelvic tilt in childhood palsy raises the difficult strategic issue of how to get these children in their wheelchair with a well-balanced spine over a straight pelvis and frontally and sagittally balanced hips. PMID:20447890

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

  5. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  6. Pathology Residency Training in Turkey from the Residents' Point of View: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal KÖSEMEHMETO?LU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent insights that have emerged in local meetings with participation of pathology residents are promising as regards achieving progress in pathology residency training. Accordingly, in this study, overall pathology residency training in Turkey is discussed in detail from the pathology residents' point of view; current data and suggestions for the solutions of problems are presented.Material and Method: Two questionnaires were applied to resident representatives and overall residents, respectively, from 23 institutions including 12 Universities and 11 Ministry of Health education and Research Hospitals.Results: The total number of participating residents was 138; 74 from University hospitals and 64 from Education and Research Hospitals. An adequate number of cases per resident, widespread use of multiocular microscopes, increasing number of macroscopy technicians, ongoing educational meetings and renewal projects of the physical environment were the positive findings. However, the lack of autopsy practice, insufficient number of lectures, communication problems between resident and senior staff due to inadequate feedback mechanism, insufficient numbers of academic staff in education and research hospitals and lack of educational material in some basic branches of surgical pathology were negative findings. During pathology training, the major stress factor was the pathology workload inhibiting optimal learning. Feedback provision and scheduled working habits were the two qualities, which were needed to be improved by senior staff. Two fields, suggested by the senior residents to be incompetent were intraoperative consultation and cytopathology. When overall satisfaction for pathology residency training was considered, it was near 80% in Universities, while it remained around 40% in Education and Research Hospitals (p=0.000.Conclusion: Positive and negative aspects addressed in this survey will provide data for the new regulations in pathology residency training in Turkey.

  7. Miocardite crônica em um cão naturalmente infectado com Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: aspectos clínicos e patológicos / Chronic myocarditis in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: clinical and pathological aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.S., Mendes; T.A., Gurjão; L.M., Oliveira; V.L., Santana; W.L., Tafuri; J.R.S., Santos; A.F.M., Dantas; A.P., Souza.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença infecciosa crônica frequentemente fatal causada pela Leishmania infantum chagasi nas Américas. A enfermidade pode acometer vários órgãos, determinando diferentes manifestações clínicas. Contudo o envolvimento do coração raramente tem sido reportado em cães i [...] nfectados por Leishmania sp. Dessa forma, descreve-se um caso de miocardite crônica com repercussões clínicas e patológicas em um cão naturalmente infectado por Leishmania infantum chagasi. A positividade para Leishmaniose Visceral foi determinada pela presença de anticorpos antiLeishmania sp. nos testes sorológicos (RIFI, ELISA e DPP) e confirmada por visualização de formas amastigotas de Leishmania sp. em punção aspirativa do linfonodo poplíteo. O exame cardiovascular revelou alterações radiográficas, eletrocardiográficas, na pressão arterial e nos biomarcardores cardíacos. Após eutanásia, amostras de tecido cardíaco foram avaliadas histologicamente e submetidas à imunomarcação, onde foi observado infiltrado mononuclear (plasmo-histiolinfocitário), com presença de estruturas arredondadas de coloracão marrom-amareladas (imunomarcadas), indicando formas amastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi no miocárdio. Os aspectos etiopatogênicos da leishmaniose visceral sobre o miocárdio neste caso podem estar relacionados tanto à presença do parasita quanto à resposta "reacional inespecífica" do tecido à agressão do parasita no organismo. Todavia ainda não se sabem se as cepas de Leishmania infantum chagasi da região semiárida paraibana apresentam algum tropismo por tecido cardíaco ou se induzem a reação imunológica cruzada, com implicações clínicas. Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic, often fatal infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. The disease can affect many organs and may express different clinical forms. However, the involvement of the heart has rarely been reported in dogs infected by Leishmania s [...] p. Thus, we describe a case of chronic myocarditis with clinical and pathological effects in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Positivity for Visceral Leishmaniasis was determined by the presence of anti-Leishmania sp. in serological tests (IFAT, ELISA and DPP) and confirmed by visualization of amastigote forms of the parasite in the popliteal lymph node aspiration samples. The cardiovascular clinical examination showed changes in the radiographic, ECG, blood pressure and heart biomarkers. After euthanasia, heart tissue samples were histologically examined and underwent our immunohistochemistry assessment, where mononuclear infiltrate was observed (plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages) with the presence of rounded brownish-yellow (immunomarked) cells, indicating amastigotes of Leishmania infantum chagasi within the myocardium. The etiopathogenic aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in the myocardium in this case may be related either to the presence of the parasite or the "nonspecific reactive" response of the tissue attributable to the aggression of the parasite in the body. However, it is not known if the strains of Leishmania infantum chagasi found in the semi-arid of Paraíba have some tropism for cardiac tissue or if they induce immunological cross-reaction with clinical implications.

  8. Hygrothermal Behavior, Building Pathology and Durability

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.

  9. Diabetic nephropathy : pathology, genetics and carnosine metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mooyaart, Antien Leonora

    2011-01-01

    My thesis concerns different aspects of diabetic nephropathy. A pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy is developed, a meta-analyis of genes in diabetic nephropathy is developed and the other chapters are about the CNDP1 gene in relation to kidney disease, mainly diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Avaliações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais da intoxicação experimental por monofluoroacetato de sódio em ovinos Clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by sodium monofluoroacetate in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago C. Peixoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a administração de doses únicas e de frações diárias da dose letal de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MF a ovinos induzem a clássica degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar (DHV dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais observada no rim de bovinos intoxicados por plantas brasileiras que causam "morte súbita" (PBCMS. MF foi administrado, por via oral, em doses únicas de 0,5 e 1,0mg/kg, cada dose para dois ovinos, e em doses subletais repetidas diariamente de 0,1mg/kg/dia, por quatro dias, e 0,2mg/kg/dia por seis dias, cada dose para um ovino. Todos os ovinos que receberam MF morreram, exceto um que recebeu 0,5mg/kg e não mostrou sintomas. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 3min a 33h5min. Clinicamente os animais apresentaram taquicardia, respiração abdominal, tremores musculares, ligeira perda de equilíbrio, por vezes cambaleavam, deitavam e apoiavam a cabeça no flanco. Na fase final, os ovinos caíam em decúbito lateral, esticavam os membros, faziam movimentos de pedalagem, apresentavam opistótono e morriam. O exame ecocardiográfico evidenciou dilatação cardíaca e redução da fração de encurtamento sistólico. A análise dos níveis séricos de uréia e creatinina revelou moderada a acentuada azotemia. MF provocou "morte súbita" em todos os ovinos que mostraram sintomas. À necropsia verificaram-se aurículas e veias jugulares, cavas, ázigos e pulmonares moderadamente ingurgitadas e, em alguns animais, edema pulmonar. O exame histopatológico revelou, em todos os ovinos, leve a acentuada DHV das células epiteliais dos túbulos contornados distais, associada à picnose nuclear. Adicionalmente, verificaram-se discreta vacuolização e, por vezes, necrose de coagulação de hepatócitos. Não encontramos referências a esse tipo peculiar de lesão, exceto das descrições sobre lesões renais associadas à ingestão de PBCMS e de recentes estudos em bovinos intoxicados com MF. Este trabalho demonstra, em ovinos, que tanto doses letais únicas quanto subdoses diárias de MF induzem a DHV dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais associada à picnose nuclear.The objective of this study was to verify if the ingestion of single doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MF and daily fractions of 1/2.5 and 1/5 of the lethal dose causes the same lesion as the one observed in the kidney of cattle poisoned by Brazilian sudden death causing plants (BSDCP. MF was administered orally in single doses of 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg to four sheep, and repeated daily doses of 0.1 and 0.2mg/kg to two others. Death occurred in five of six animals. The course of poisoning lasted from 3min to 33h5min. Clinically the animals presented palpitation, abdominal breathing, slight balance loss with sometimes swaying gait, they laid down and placed the head on their flank. In the "dramatic phase", all the sheep fell into lateral decubitus, stretched out the legs, made peddling movements, presented opistotonus, and died. The electrocardiographical examination showed heart dilatation and reduction of the systolic shortening fraction. Laboratory hematological exams revealed increased urea and creatinine. MF caused the clinical and pathological symptoms of "sudden death". At postmortem examination, heart auricles and jugular, cava, azygos and pulmonary veins of all animals were moderately engorged, and in some sheep, pulmonary edema was observed. Histopathology revealed hydropic-vacuolar degeneration (HVD of the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted kidney tubules associated with nuclear picnosis in all the sheep. Vacuolation and less often necrosis of liver cells was seen in some cases. No references to that peculiar type of lesion could be found in the literature, except the description of kidney lesions in animals associated with the ingestion of BSDCP, and recent studies of MF poisoning in cattle. The present study demonstrated in sheep that single lethal doses or repeated doses of fractions of the lethal dose of MF causes HVD of the distal convoluted kidney tubules, associat

  11. Forms of pathologization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    Many studies estimate that around half of the population in Western countries will suffer from a mental disorder sometime in their life. Approximately a quarter of the population will develop an anxiety disorder and a similar number will suffer from depression. A tenth will develop a personality disorder, and similar figures are found for many other mental disorders. These figures are striking, but are hard to interpret. This presentation argues in favour of the pathologization thesis, which claims that it cannot be argued in a straightforward manner that we are simply more ill and disordered than before, perhaps due to the malaises of modernity. Instead, we have learned to think and talk about human problems in new ways, viz. ways that involve pathologization. Pathologization, however, is not a unitary phenomenon, and the presentation gives an overview of four types of pathologization, which are called stigmatizing pathologization, self pathologization, risk pathologization and de-pathologization. It is argued that we need a variety of ways of understanding the complex phenomenon of pathologization and that previous critical frameworks (e.g. as promoted by the anti-psychiatry movement) are often overly simplistic.

  12. Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos / Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Sáinz de Murieta; J., Fernández Baraibar; I., Pascual; A., Mena; A., Martínez-Zubiri; M.J., Condón.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la pat [...] ología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una p Abstract in english Introduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabita [...] nts, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical accessibility of the rehabilitation services, residence in a rural or urban milieu, and between the different health areas. Methods. We study all the processes of temporary disability due to pathology of the locomotor system in Health Areas I and III of Navarra in 1997 and 1998, taking different variables into account. We make a descriptive study of the pathologies, counting the working days lost. We calculate the annual incidence of sick leave because of pathologies. We compare average duration with other variables. Results. These represent 221,054 lost working days per year. Low back pain and sprained ankles are the most frequent processes. We find an increase in the incidence of temporary disability due to low back pain and lumbar/sciatica in the basic rural areas of the middle region. There are no statistically significant differences with a p

  13. Dusting off another shelf: further comments on classic gynecologic pathology books of yesteryear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    Selected outstanding books from the older literature on gynecologic pathology are reviewed with emphasis on drawing attention to the abundant helpful information and often outstanding illustrations that are worthy of review by present-day pathologists. This represents a follow up to a previous similar essay that appeared in Volume 19:67-84, 2000. The first three books cover general gynecological pathology: Gynecological Pathology by Carl Abel; Gynecological and Obstetrical Pathology by Robert T. Frank; and Haines and Taylor's Gynaecological Pathology by Magnus Haines and Claud W. Taylor. Each of them emphasizes the time-honored problem of mimicry of malignancy by diverse benign lesions or even aspects of normal histology. Awareness of the clinical background and cooperation between the clinician and pathologist are emphasized. The other three books considered are all devoted largely or exclusively to the ovary: Ovarian Tumors by Hans Selye, Ovarian Neoplasms, Morphology, and Classification by Karel Motlik, and Special Tumors of Ovary and Testis and Related Extragonadal Lesions by Gunnar Teilum. The book of Selye has a truly remarkable encyclopedic coverage of the older literature, the references being so comprehensive that they are presented in a separate volume. A number of aspects of the histopathology of ovarian tumors that have been emphasized in recent years are noted in Selye's book. Dr. Motlik's book presents a very high quality consideration of the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors. Teilum's book contains a masterful account of the histopathology of germ cell tumors emphasizing a neoplasm with which his name will always be associated, the yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor). Numerous beautiful and refreshingly large illustrations are provided, and Dr. Teilum's interest in comparative pathology is evident in the pages, his linking of the famous Schiller-Duval bodies with the endodermal sinuses of the rat placenta, being the most notable example. PMID:15626924

  14. CT in vascular pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of helical scanners, CT angiography (CTA) has achieved an essential role in many vascular applications that were previously managed with conventional angiography. The performance of CTA is based on the accurate selection of collimation width, pitch, reconstruction spacing and scan delay, which must be modulated on the basis of the clinical issue. However, the major improvement of CT has been provided by the recent implementation of many post-processing techniques, such as multiplanar reformatting, shaded surface display, maximum intensity projections, 3D perspectives of surface and volume rendering, which simulate virtual intravascular endoscopy. The integration of the potentialities of the scanner and of the image processing techniques permitted improvement of: (a) the evaluation of aneurysms, dissection and vascular anomalies involving the thoracic aorta; (b) carotid artery stenosis; (c) aneurysms of abdominal aorta; (d) renal artery stenosis; (e) follow-up of renal artery stenting; and (f) acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Our experience has shown that the assessment of arterial pathologies with CTA requires the integration of 3D post-processing techniques in most applications. (orig.)

  15. Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sáinz de Murieta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la patología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una pIntroduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabitants, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical accessibility of the rehabilitation services, residence in a rural or urban milieu, and between the different health areas. Methods. We study all the processes of temporary disability due to pathology of the locomotor system in Health Areas I and III of Navarra in 1997 and 1998, taking different variables into account. We make a descriptive study of the pathologies, counting the working days lost. We calculate the annual incidence of sick leave because of pathologies. We compare average duration with other variables. Results. These represent 221,054 lost working days per year. Low back pain and sprained ankles are the most frequent processes. We find an increase in the incidence of temporary disability due to low back pain and lumbar/sciatica in the basic rural areas of the middle region. There are no statistically significant differences with a p<0.05 in the duration of temporary disability according to Health Area, rural or urban milieu or geographical accessibility to the Rehabilitation Services. A statistically significant fall can be observed in the first year of operation of a temporary disability management program.

  16. Recent advances in the synthetic and mechanistic aspects of the ruthenium-catalyzed carbon-heteroatom bond forming reactions of alkenes and alkynes*

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Chae S.

    2011-01-01

    The group’s recent advances in catalytic carbon-to-heteroatom bond forming reactions of alkenes and alkynes are described. For the C–O bond formation reaction, a well-defined bifunctional ruthenium-amido catalyst has been successfully employed for the conjugate addition of alcohols to acrylic compounds. The ruthenium-hydride complex (PCy3)2(CO)RuHCl was found to be a highly effective catalyst for the regioselective alkyne-to-carboxylic acid coupling reaction in yielding synthetically usef...

  17. Ln3+-doped nanoparticles for upconversion and magnetic resonance imaging: some critical notes on recent progress and some aspects to be considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.; Dong, Cunhai; Johnson, Noah J. J.; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham

    2012-11-01

    In this feature article we will critically discuss the synthesis and characterisation aspects of Ln3+-doped nanoparticles (NPs) that show upconversion, upon 980 nm excitation. Upconversion is a non-linear process that converts two or more low-energy photons, often near-infrared photons, into one of higher energy, e.g. blue and 800 nm from Tm3+ and green and red from Er3+ or Ho3+. Nearly all researchers use the absorption of 980 nm light by Yb3+ as the sensitiser for the co-doped emissive Ln3+ ions. The focus will be on LnF3 and MLnF4 (M = alkali metal) as the host matrix, because most progress has been made with these. In particular we will argue that a detailed understanding of how the dopant ions and the host Ln3+ ions are distributed (in the core) and how (doped) shell growth occurs is not well understood. Moreover, their use as optical and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents will be discussed. We will argue that deep-tissue imaging beyond 600 ?m with retention of optical resolution, i.e. to see fine structure such as blood capillaries in brain tissues, has not yet been achieved. Three key parameters have been identified as impediments: (i) the low absorption efficiency of the Yb3+ sensitiser, (ii) the low quantum yield of upconversion, and (iii) the long-lived excited states. On the other hand, there are very encouraging results that suggest that these nanoparticles could be developed into very potent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents.

  18. Terapia fotodinâmica: aspectos farmacológicos, aplicações e avanços recentes no desenvolvimento de medicamentos / Photodynamic therapy: pharmacological aspects, applications and news from medications development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Ibanez, Simplicio; Florângela, Maionchi; Noboru, Hioka.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a clinical procedure, which utilize a photosensitive compound and light. This is a new modality of treatment for cancer, aged related macular degenerescence (AMD), psoriasis, arthritis, arterial restenosis, etc which exhibits efficiency, less traumatic effects, low reco [...] very time and few co-lateral effects. The first officially approved drug for PDT by the Food and Drug Administration (EUA) is Photofrinâ, which is applied for cancer. A new generation drug for PDT, Visudyneâ was recently approved to treat AMD; its photoactive compound is BPDMA, a benzoporphyrin mono-acid derivative (chlorin-type molecule). A concise history, technical information and some drugs for PDT are reported.

  19. Careers in Plant Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society; )

    2004-01-01

    This brochure reads easily and features pictures of plant pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider plant pathology as a career choice.

  20. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus domesticus) infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 / Clinical and pathological aspects in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected experimentally with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 sporulated oocysts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fagner Luiz da C., Freitas; Katyane de S., Almeida; Adjair A. do, Nascimento; José H., Tebaldi; Rosangela Z., Machado; Celio R., Machado.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, sinais clínicos e alterações patológicas foram avaliados por 30 dias em frangos de corte, linhagem Cobb, machos, com dez dias de idade, infectados com Eimeria acervulina. Foram utilizados 192 animais distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo A inoculado com 1x10(6) oocistos esporulados; gr [...] upo B inoculado com 1x10(5) oocistos esporulados; grupo C inoculado com água destilada. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, diarréia e apatia. As alterações patológicas macroscópicas observadas foram: enterite, hiperemia seguido de congestão intestinal, excesso de exsudato mucoso no lúmen do intestino delgado, palidez e desidratação muscular, alto acúmulo de bile na vesícula biliar e deposição de gordura hepática. A atrofia de vilosidades e alta presença de células inflamatórias foram as alterações microscópicas observadas no epitélio intestinal. Na análise histopatológica do fígado observaram-se infiltrados inflamatórios e deposição de gordura. Os resultados demonstraram que frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com E. acervulina apresentam progressivas lesões intestinais de intensidade variável e que essas anormalidades são as principais causas de redução no desenvolvimento da ave. Abstract in english In the present study, clinical signs and pathological changes were evaluated during 30 days in broilers, lineage Cobb, males, with ten days old, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Were used 192 animals distributed in 3 groups: group A inoculated with 1x10(6) sporulated oocysts; group B inoculated wit [...] h 1x10(5) sporulated oocysts; group C inoculated with distilled water. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, diarrhea and apathy. The pathological macroscopic changes observed were: enteritis, hyperemia with subsequent intestinal congestion, high concentration of mucus exudates in the lumen of the small intestine, pale and dehydration muscle, gall bladder full of liquid and deposition of hepatic fat. The villous atrophy and high presence of inflammatory cells were the microscopic changes observed in the gut epithelium. In histopathologic analysis of liver observed inflammatory cells infiltrated and fat deposition. The results demonstrate that broilers experimentally infected with E. acervulina presented progressive intestinal lesions of variable intensity and that these abnormalities are the main cause of reduction of bird performance.

  1. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlessiaFornoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  2. An assessment of international trade related to bioenergy use in Austria—Methodological aspects, recent developments and the relevance of indirect trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing international biomass trade for energy and concerns about sustainability of globally traded biomass have raised interest in assessments of cross-border trade related to bioenergy. Within this paper, approaches to overcome methodological difficulties related to biomass trade are proposed and applied for the case of Austria. Biomass currently has a share of 15.5% in Austria’s primary energy consumption of 1354 PJ (2009). According to energy statistics, the rate of self-sufficiency with biomass for energy (defined as the ratio of domestic production to inland consumption, with both imports and exports taken into account) is 91%. However, feedstock imports for transport fuel production and indirect imports of wood-based fuels (wood processing residues and waste liquor of the paper industry originating from imported wood) are not taken into account in energy statistics, but prove to be of some significance. Imports of agricultural commodities to the amount of 9.7 PJ can be attributed to domestic biofuel production, and indirect imports of wood-based fuels, account for 31 PJ. With these import streams taken into account, the share of domestic fuels in bioenergy use is only 67%, rather than 84%, as official energy statistics suggest. On the other hand, Austria is exporting more than 50% of its production of sawnwood, panelboard and paper products. - Highlights: ? We investigate biomass cross-border trade related to bioenergy use in Austria. ? International bgy use in Austria. ? International biomass trade for energy has increased significantly in recent years. ? A flow wood diagram is derived to identify indirect trade streams of wood fuels. ? Biofuel feedstock imports are about as important as direct biofuel imports. ? 33% of bioenergy in Austria originate from imported biomass (2009).

  3. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical and pathological aspects of Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats in Rio Grande do Sul

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson M., Colodel; David, Driemeier; Alexandre P., Loretti; Eduardo J., Gimeno; Sandra D., Traverso; Anderson L., Seitz; Priscila, Zlotowski.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos [...] , S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose pelo estudo histoquímico por lectinas. Os vacúolos nas células de Purkinje reagiram fortemente com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris e Triticum vulgaris succinilado. O padrão obtido neste estudo é similar ao encontrado em intoxicação por plantas que apresentam swainsoniana como princípio tóxico. Abstract in english This report includes the clinical and pathological studies of a lysosomal storage disease which spontaneously occurred in three flocs of goats e after consumption of Sida carpinifolia, the predominant plant in the paddocks where the animals were grazing. In the outbreaks a total of 25 out of 51 anim [...] als were affected. Post-mortem examination was performed on 11 goats. The disease was experimentally induced by dosing goats with Sida carpinifolia. The plant was administered in natura or dried to 3 animals. No clinical or pathological changes were observed in one goat dosed with Sida rhombifolia ad libidum during 40 days. Clinical signs of the poisoning were ataxia, hypermetria, muscle tremors in the head and neck and disorders of deglutition. The clinical signs were exacerbated by movement. After the surviving animals had been moved to other pastures and stopped eating the plant, clinical signs were still observed during 24 months. At necropsy, no significant gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions included various degrees of vacuolization in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells. Similar lesions were observed in the acinar pancreatic cells, hepatocytes, proximal convoluted tubular cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and macrophages of lymph nodes. In the surviving animals, mild neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed, and few cells were eosinophilic and shrunken. In these cases neurons, especially Purkinje cells, had disappeared. Through the histochemical study of the cerebellar sections, the lysosomal storage disease was characterized as an alpha-mannosidosis. The vacuoles within the Purkinje cells strongly reacted with lectins of Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vul

  4. Efecto terapéutico de las estatinas en patología degenerativa del SNC: comentario sobre una publicación experimental reciente / Therapeutic use of Statins in degenerative pathology of the CNS: a commentary of a recent experimental paper

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rommy, von Bernhardi.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins reduce the risk of coronary pathology; they are well tolerated and have few adverse effects. During the last years mounting evidence suggest that statins could be also useful for several autoimm [...] une and neurodegenerative diseases. Proposed mechanisms include effects on plasma lipoproteins, endothelial function, atheroma reduction, thrombosis and inflammation. The realization that brain ischemia produces inflammation of the brain opens a new field for discovery of novel therapeutic agents for stroke. Here, I comment on a paper from Chen et al. ("Statins induce angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis after stroke", Ann Neurol 2003; 53: 743-751) that proposed that atorvastatin and simvastatin reduced tissue damage and enhanced functional outcome when administered to rats 1 day after experimental stroke. Animals treated with statins showed increases in vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and increase in synaptophysin. Although the authors concluded that atorvastatin induced brain plasticity and had neurorestorative activity, I think that significant additional experiments are required in order to sustain some of the mechanisms proposed by them. However, evidence on the effect of statins on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and other inflammatory disease is also discussed here, because they cast light on alternative mechanisms that could be responsible for the better outcome of stroke animals treated with statins. Inflammation is attractive in therapeutic terms, considering its rapid initiation, its progression for several hours after stroke and its enormous contribution to brain damage

  5. Pathology Education: SY17-1 PRESERVING PATHOLOGY IN AN INTEGRATED CURRICULUM IN THE UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Raymond

    2014-10-01

    The delivery of pathology teaching has changed considerably recently with more curricular integration and the use of modern educational approaches including problem-based learning methods. In the UK, this has led to a low profile for pathology in many medical schools, allied with a reduction in the numbers of academic pathologists. Pathology is at the very core of clinical practice and bridges the interface between basic science and clinical management. In this changing environment pathology must be preserved as a vital component in undergraduate education. Pathologists must engage fully with the design and implementation of curricula. In integrated curricula basic science is frontloaded in earlier years, so that the principles of inflammation and repair, vascular pathology and neoplasia must be incorporated then. Assessment drives learning so pathologists should contribute assessment items. In clinical years, the pivotal role of pathology in patient management should be highlighted and involvement in Objective Standardised Clinical Examinations keeps pathology in students' minds. Most programmes offer student selected components; the opportunity for students to spend time in both clinical and basic science laboratories should not be missed. In non-graduate entry medical schools, an intercalated degree including a research project is a useful way to promote academic pathology. PMID:25188134

  6. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms is medication that binds to dopamine receptors in the brain, i.e., dopamine agonists [1]. Unfortunately, for some PD patients a very serious side effect to this specific kind of treatment is developing PG. PG is an Impulse Control Disorder characterized by recurrent maladaptive behavior associated with personal, relational, and financial consequenses [2].   Since 2000, numerous reports have described PD patients who develop PG due to treatment with dopamine agonists [3-11]. The objective of the present project is to explain the pathogenesis of this particular complication to the treatment of PD patients. The aims are twofold, both driven by the main hypothesis that PD patients who develop PG secondary to treatment with dopamine agonists have a decreased sensitivity towards dopamine and hence an increased demand for dopamine. The neurophysiological subproject 1 uses PET imaging to determine changes of dopamine occupancy in the striatum in baseline and gambling situations. We will test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism release more dopamine during gambling than PD patients without PG, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls. The behavioral subproject 2 uses a slot machine to test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism have exacerbated gambling behavior compared to PD patients without PD, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls.     References: 1.            Siegel, A. & Sapru, H.N. (2006). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. USA. 2.            DSM-IV-TR. (1994). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. xxvii, 886. 3.            Seedat, S. et Al. (2000). Case Reports in Depression and Anxiety, vol. 11. 4.            Gschwandtner, U., et Al. (2001). Clinical Neuropharmacology, vol. 24 (3). 5.            Driver-Dunckley, E. et Al. (2003). Neurology, vol. 61. 6.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2004). Neurol Sci. 7.            Dodd, M.L. et Al. (2005). Arch Neurol, vol. 62. 8.            Larner, A.J. (2006). Letters to the editors. Movement Disorders, vol. 21 (10). 9.            Grosset, K.A. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 10.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 11.            Wong, S.H. et al. (2007). Letters to the editors, Movement Disorders, vol. 22 (4).    

  7. Empiric Refinement of the Pathologic Assessment of Lewy Related Pathology in the Dementia Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Leverenz, James B; Hamilton, Ronald; Tsuang, Debby W; Schantz, Aimee; Vavrek, Darcy; Larson, Eric B; Kukull, Walter A; Lopez, Oscar; Galasko, Douglas; Masliah, Eliezer; Kaye, Jeffrey; Woltjer, Randall; Clark, Christopher; Trojanowski, John Q.; Montine, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Lewy related pathology (LRP) is a common pathologic finding at autopsy in dementia patients. Recently criteria for categorizing types of LRP in dementia patients were published, though these criteria have yet to be systematically applied to large dementia samples. We examined a large (N = 208) referral-based autopsy sample for LRP, and applied the published criteria for LRP categorization to these cases. We found almost half (49%) of LRP positive cases from this sample were not classifiable. ...

  8. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em bovinos afetados por raiva com especial referência ao mapeamento do antígeno rábico por imuno-histoquímica / Clinical and pathological aspects in cattle affected by rabies with special reference to the rabies antigen mapping by immunohistochemistry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro M.O., Pedroso; Edson M., Colodel; Caroline A., Pescador; Laura P., Arruda; David, Driemeier.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu achados clínicos e patológicos de 15 bovinos afetados por raiva. Em treze dos quinze casos, raiva foi confirmada por imunofluorescência direta. Bovinos entre 4 meses e 8 anos foram afetados. O curso clínico variou de três a sete dias. A forma paralítica foi a mais f [...] requente e incluiu incoordenação, paresia e paralisia dos membros pélvicos, decúbito, movimentos de pedalagem e morte. Os principais achados histopatológicos foram meningoencefalite linfoplasmocitária associada com corpúsculos de Negri em 86,6% dos casos. Todos os casos foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para raiva, cujas reações foram mais evidentes no tronco encefálico, incluindo bulbo, ponte e mesencéfalo, além de gânglio trigêmeo. A imuno-histoquímica demonstrou o vírus da raiva em axônios, dendritos e pericário de neurônios, como agregados de grânulos ou em formações arredondadas associadas com números variáveis de corpúsculos de inclusão virais nos neurônios. Houve também marcação nos neurônios de Purkinje e de seus processos na camada molecular, nos núcleos do tronco encefálico e camada profunda do córtex telencefálico. A imuno-histoquímica pode ser importante ferramenta diagnóstica no diagnóstico da raiva, especialmente em situações nas quais não é possível manter refrigeração adequada das amostras e em casos com meningoencefalite não-supurativa e ausência de corpúsculos de inclusão. Abstract in english This retrospective study included clinical and pathological findings from 15 cattle affected by rabies. Thirteen of the 15 cases were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Cattle between 4 months and 8 years of age were affected. Clinical course ranged from 3 to 7 days. Paralytical form was the mo [...] st common clinical picture and included incoordination, paresis, and paralysis of the pelvic members, besides recumbence, paddling, and death. The main histopathological findings were lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis associated with characteristic Negri bodies in 86.6% of the cases. All cases showed anti-rabies immunostaining, which were most prominent in the brainstem including medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, besides trigeminal ganglion. Positive labeling was present within axons, dendrites, and perikarya of neurons as aggregates of granules or round formations associated with varying numbers of inclusion bodies. Immunostaining was also observed in the Purkinje neurons and their processes in the molecular layer, in the neurons of of the brainstem, and deep layer of the telencephalic cortex. Immunohistochemistry may be an important auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of rabies, especially in circumstances in which refrigeration cannot be adequately maintained, and in cases characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with absence of inclusion bodies.

  9. Envenenamento experimental por Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu em ovinos: aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais / Experimental poisoning by Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in sheep: clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula, Aragão; Carlos H., Tokarnia; Flávio A.S., Graça; Ticiana N., França; Cleide D., Coelho; Saulo A., Caldas; Paulo V., Peixoto.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em ovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu, no intuito de fornecer subsídios que possam facilitar o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial dessa co [...] ndição. Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a quatro ovinos por via subcutânea. Três ovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,5mg/kg (B. jararaca), recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 7 minutos e 1 hora. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 9 minutos a 21 horas 59 minutos. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento e de preenchimento capilar aumentados, taquicardia, dispnéia, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram acentuada anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, acentuada redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito diminuído em dois animais, além de acentuado aumento de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática em todos os animais. À necropsia, os principais achados no local da inoculação e tecidos adjacentes eram extensas hemorragias no animal que recebeu o veneno de B. jararaca e edema e acentuado edema pulmonar agudo para os dois animais envenenados por B. jararacussu. Além de hemorragia e edema a principal alteração histopatológica verificada foi necrose das fibras musculares e de vasos, no local de inoculação e adjacências. A necrose tubular renal foi atribuída ao quadro de choque. Nos ovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído predominantemente por sangue (B. jararaca) e por edema (B. jararacussu). Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to establish the clinic-pathological and laboratory changes in sheep inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu venom to provide subsidies for the differential diagnosis of snake bites. The liofilized venoms were diluted in 1 ml saline and administra [...] ted subcutaneously to four sheep. Three of the animals died, and the one that received 0.5mg/kg (B. jararaca venom) recovered. First symptoms were observed from 7 minutes to 1 hour after inoculation, and the clinical course varied from 7 hours and 9 minutes to 21 hours and 59 minutes. The symptoms, independent of the dosage, were swelling of the inoculation site, increased bleeding time and capillary filling, tachycardia, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes and diminished reaction to external stimuli. Laboratory tests revealed pronounced normocytic and normochromic anemia, trombocytopenia, slight reduction of fibrogen and total plasmatic protein, in two animals diminished hematocrit, besides pronounced increase of creatinaquinase and lactic dehydrogenase. At necropsy, the main findings at the inoculation site and adjacent tissues were extensive hemorrhages in the sheep inoculated with jararaca venom, and predominantly edema in the two animals inoculated with jararacussu venom. In two sheep which received jararacussu venom, acute pulmonary edema was observed. Hemorrhage and edema as the main histopathological changes, besides necrosis of muscle fibers and vessels at the inoculation site and adjacent tissue was observed. The renal tubular necrosis was attributed to shock. The volume increase at the inoculation site and surroundings was mainly due to hemorrhage (B. jararaca) or edema (B. jararacussu).

  10. Envenenamento experimental por Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu em ovinos: aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais Experimental poisoning by Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in sheep: clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Aragão

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em ovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu, no intuito de fornecer subsídios que possam facilitar o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial dessa condição. Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a quatro ovinos por via subcutânea. Três ovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,5mg/kg (B. jararaca, recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 7 minutos e 1 hora. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 9 minutos a 21 horas 59 minutos. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento e de preenchimento capilar aumentados, taquicardia, dispnéia, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram acentuada anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, acentuada redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito diminuído em dois animais, além de acentuado aumento de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática em todos os animais. À necropsia, os principais achados no local da inoculação e tecidos adjacentes eram extensas hemorragias no animal que recebeu o veneno de B. jararaca e edema e acentuado edema pulmonar agudo para os dois animais envenenados por B. jararacussu. Além de hemorragia e edema a principal alteração histopatológica verificada foi necrose das fibras musculares e de vasos, no local de inoculação e adjacências. A necrose tubular renal foi atribuída ao quadro de choque. Nos ovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído predominantemente por sangue (B. jararaca e por edema (B. jararacussu.The purpose of this study was to establish the clinic-pathological and laboratory changes in sheep inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu venom to provide subsidies for the differential diagnosis of snake bites. The liofilized venoms were diluted in 1 ml saline and administrated subcutaneously to four sheep. Three of the animals died, and the one that received 0.5mg/kg (B. jararaca venom recovered. First symptoms were observed from 7 minutes to 1 hour after inoculation, and the clinical course varied from 7 hours and 9 minutes to 21 hours and 59 minutes. The symptoms, independent of the dosage, were swelling of the inoculation site, increased bleeding time and capillary filling, tachycardia, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes and diminished reaction to external stimuli. Laboratory tests revealed pronounced normocytic and normochromic anemia, trombocytopenia, slight reduction of fibrogen and total plasmatic protein, in two animals diminished hematocrit, besides pronounced increase of creatinaquinase and lactic dehydrogenase. At necropsy, the main findings at the inoculation site and adjacent tissues were extensive hemorrhages in the sheep inoculated with jararaca venom, and predominantly edema in the two animals inoculated with jararacussu venom. In two sheep which received jararacussu venom, acute pulmonary edema was observed. Hemorrhage and edema as the main histopathological changes, besides necrosis of muscle fibers and vessels at the inoculation site and adjacent tissue was observed. The renal tubular necrosis was attributed to shock. The volume increase at the inoculation site and surroundings was mainly due to hemorrhage (B. jararaca or edema (B. jararacussu.

  11. Intoxicação por sal em suínos: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos e breve revisão de literatura / Salt poisoning in swine: epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects and brief review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana S., Brum; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Ricardo B., Lucena; Claudio S.L., Barros.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intoxicação por sal ocorre comumente em suínos por ingestão excessiva de cloreto de sódio ou por privação de água por um período de tempo, seguido de um livre acesso a água abundante. O objetivo deste trabalho é agregar dados de casos de intoxicação por sal, diagnosticados, compilar dados já existen [...] tes na literatura e caracterizar as principais alterações clínicas e patológicas observadas. Foram revisados cinco surtos, sendo que um deles foi minuciosamente acompanhado. Em três deles a ingestão de cloreto de sódio foi determinada. Os sinais clínicos eram basicamente convulsões, com intensos tremores musculares e desenvolvimento de opistótono. Os animais permaneciam em decúbito lateral, fazendo movimentos de pedalagem. Alguns andavam em círculos. Dosagens de sódio em fragmentos de músculo e de fígado, no soro, líquor e humor aquoso revelaram concentrações aumentadas do íon. A quantidade de eosinófilos circulantes foi baixa caracterizando grande recrutamento dessas células para o encéfalo. Em todos os surtos foi observada infiltração de eosinófilos nas leptomeninges e no espaço de Virchow-Robin do córtex cerebral. Necrose cortical laminar foi observada mais detalhadamente em um dos surtos onde os suínos estavam doentes há seis dias. A combinação dessas duas lesões caracteriza a doença. Todas as alterações observadas podem ser explicadas pela provável patogenia da doença em que as elevadas concentrações de sódio causam edema cerebral que leva ao aumento da pressão intracraniana e decréscimo da perfusão para o cérebro causando isquemia difusa e necrose neuronal, com consequente malacia. Abstract in english Salt poisoning occurs commonly in pigs by excessive intake of sodium chloride or by a period water deprivation for followed by free access to water. The objective of this work is to aggregate data from cases of salt poisoning, combining existing data in the literature and describe the main clinical [...] and pathological features observed. We reviewed five outbreaks, one of which was carefully monitored. In three of them the intake of sodium chloride had been determined. Clinical signs were basically seizures with the lateral decubitus with paddling movements. Circling was observed in some cases. Sodium determination in muscle of and liver fragments, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor showed increased concentrations of this ion. There was eosinopenia characterizing increased recruitment eosinophils from the circulation into the brain. In all outbreaks eosinophil infiltration was observed in the meninges and the Virchow-Robin space of the cerebral cortex. Cortical laminar necrosis was more pronounced in the brain of pigs from one of the outbreaks in which animals were sick for six days. The combination of these two lesions characterizes the disease. The changes observed result from high concentrations of sodium in the brain causing cause edema that leads to increased intracranial pressure and decreased perfusion to the brain tissue causing diffuse ischemia and neuronal necrosis, with consequent malacia.

  12. Kaposi's Sarcoma: clinical and pathological aspects in patients seen at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil / Sarcoma de Kaposi: achados clínico-patológicos nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Montibeler, Tiussi; Antonio Luiz de Oliveira, Caus; Lucia Martins, Diniz; Elton Almeida, Lucas.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O Sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia de origem endotelial, dividida em quatro formas clínicas: clássica (homens idosos de origem judaica e mediterrânea), epidêmica (associada ao HIV), endêmica (negros africanos) e iatrogênica (relacionada à imunossupressão). A infecção pelo herpes vírus huma [...] no tipo 8 (HHV-8) é necessária, mas insuficiente para que todas as formas possam ocorrer. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e características histopatológicas das lesões dos pacientes com Sarcoma de Kaposi consultados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória - ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, realizado pela análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com Sarcoma de Kaposi, durante janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 2009, no Serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: Dos 15 pacientes estudados, houve maioria do sexo masculino (93,3%) e predomínio da raça branca (60%). A forma epidêmica foi a mais freqüente (80%), seguida pela clássica (20%). Não foram observadas as formas: endêmica e iatrogênica. A revisão das lâminas das biópsias cutâneas foi feita nos 15 casos, e demonstrou derme com proliferação de células fusiformes, extravasamento de hemácias e fendas vasculares em torno de vasos maiores, com aspecto clássico de "vasos em torno de vasos". CONCLUSÕES: O número de casos de Sarcoma de Kaposi foi linear ao longo do estudo, especialmente da forma epidêmica. Por outro lado, a incidência e a prevalência da AIDS no Espírito Santo foram crescentes. Portanto, considerando-se a relação entre o sarcoma de Kaposi e a AIDS houve decréscimo do primeiro, mais acentuado após a era HAART. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of endothelial origin that is divided into four distinct types according to the clinical characteristics and the affected population: Classic (in elder men of Jewish or Mediterranean origin); Epidemic (in patients affected by AIDS); Endemic (in black Africa [...] n men) and Iatrogenic (in patients under immunosuppressive regimens). Human herpesvirus 8 infection is essential but not sufficient for the sarcoma development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic -Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital - Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória - ES. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study based on clinical charts of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic from 1986 to 2009. RESULTS: The majority of the 15 cases were male patients (93,3%) and white (60%). Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma occurred in 80%, and the Classic form in 20%, with no cases in the Endemic or Iatrogenic groups. All the histopatho logical exams of the cutaneous lesions were reviewed and a proliferation of fusiform cells, extravasated erythrocytes and vascular rifts among the largest vessels, assuming the "vessels in vessels" typical aspect, were seen. CONCLUSION: The number of cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma was linear throughout the years of the study, especially of the epidemic form, although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS increased in the state of Espírito Santo. Therefore, if we consider the relation between KS and AIDS, a decreasing line of Kaposi's sarcoma could be seen, especially after the introduction of HAART.

  13. Imaging of Cerebrovascular Pathology in Animal Models of Alzheimer`s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau Beckmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-? (A? deposition as well as A? transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of A? on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature.

  14. Foundational aspects of security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.

  15. Recent aspects of radioprotection and radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of ionizing radiation and living matter brings about various biological manifestations. The biological consequences of radiation may be modified by chemical factors: radioprotectors which reduce the effectiveness of the radiations and radiosensitizers which increase this effectiveness. In this article the various processes of radioprotection and radiosensitization are analysed. The various drugs, study methods and possible action mechanisms are dealt with one after the other. Finally the pharmacological applications are considered, in particular radiotherapy for cancer

  16. Recent technical aspect of environment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of radioactive effluent released due to the operation of nuclear facilities is intensively promoted at the stage of design, and followed through at the stage of routine operation, from the viewpoint of environmental radiation safety according to the regulation and the ALARA concept of ICRP. Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission set the environmental guide line for the gaseous and liquid wastes released from LWRs. It is also applied to research reactors. To monitor or to estimate the environmental doses from these radioactive nuclides released routinely or abnormally, release monitoring and environmental monitoring are enforced. In this report, the environmental monitoring techniques developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for the gaseous wastes released from nuclear facilities are described. Release monitoring, meteorological observation and dispersion model verification, environmental monitoring and so on are reported. The release control and environmental monitoring for the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan have been successfully implemented. (K.I.)

  17. Recent aspects of radiologic diagnostics and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, W.; Fuchs, W.A.; Locher, J.; Paunier, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Radiodiagnostic information predominantly deals with diagnosis and results of computed tomography, ultrasound examinations and angiography in cases of special affections of the respiratory tract, of the mediastinum, of the brain and of the kidneys. In the field of radiotherapy the value of pre-operative radiation therapy in cases of nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour), carcinoma of the urinary bladder, carcinoma of the oesophagus, carcinoma of the rectum and otorhinolaryngologic (ORL) carcinoma are discussed. The nucleo-medicinal contributions refer to cardiologic isotope diagnostics. The publication gives an orientation over the practical working methods and over the results of scientific investigations made at several Swiss radiologic institutes; the content is completed by the comment and information resulting from practical experience of prominent foreign experts. This volume provides valuable information about nowadays applicable radiodiagnostic and nucleo-medicinal diagnostic procedures and about the feasibilities of modern radiotherapy.

  18. Gold nanoparticles: recent aspects for human toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (particles sized between 1 and 100 nanometers) are more and more used in all fields of science and medicine for their physicochemical properties. As gold has traditionally been considered as chemically inert and biocompatible, in particular, gold nanoparticles have been established as valuable tools in several areas of biomedical research. But in contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed the clinical use of gold nanoparticles, only little is known about potential toxicological effects such as induction of inflammatory immune responses, possible apoptotic cell death or developmental growth inhibition in embryos. Therefore the present study performed a systematic review of toxicological data, especially experimentally acquired data concerning in-vivo-toxicity, published in the PubMed. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge about size-, charge- and surface-chemistry dependent in-vivo-toxicity is needed to predict the hazard potential of auric nanoparticles (AuNPs) for humans. PMID:24330512

  19. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  20. Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which…

  1. Concepts and implications of altruism bias and pathological altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The profound benefits of altruism in modern society are self-evident. However, the potential hurtful aspects of altruism have gone largely unrecognized in scientific inquiry. This is despite the fact that virtually all forms of altruism are associated with tradeoffs—some of enormous importance and sensitivity—and notwithstanding that examples of pathologies of altruism abound. Presented here are the mechanistic bases and potential ramifications of pathological altruism, that is, altruism ...

  2. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento experimental por Bothrops alternatus em bovinos / Clinic and pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by Bothrops alternatus venom in cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saulo A., Caldas; Carlos H., Tokarnia; Ticiana N., França; Marilene F., Brito; Flávio A.S., Graça; Cleide D., Coelho; Paulo V., Peixoto.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e os achados laboratoriais em bovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothrops alternatus, no intuito de fornecer subsídios para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial, bem como esclarecer pontos obscuros [...] da literatura pertinente. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrado a cinco bovinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,0625, 0,125 e 0,25 mg/kg e a dois outros, por via intramuscular, nas doses de 0,25 e 0,45 mg/kg. Seis bovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,0625mg/kg, por via subcutânea, recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 25 minutos a 5 horas 30 minutos após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 18 minutos a 66 horas 12 minutos. Um animal recuperou-se após 92 horas. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume (hemorragia/hematoma) no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento aumentado, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. O exame laboratorial revelou progressiva anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito e hemoglobina diminuídos, além de leve aumento dos níveis de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática. Á necropsia, havia, a partir do local da inoculação, extensos hematomas e áreas de hemorragia no tecido celular subcutâneo dos animais que receberam o veneno por via subcutânea; nos animais inoculados por via intramuscular, adicionalmente, havia hemorragia intramuscular. O endocárdio esquerdo apresentava extensas hemorragias e verificaram-se petéquias na serosa do rúmen e do omaso e na mucosa do abomaso e da vesícula biliar. Em cinco animais, o cólon, reto e região perirrenal estavam envoltos por coágulos de sangue. Ao exame histológico observou-se, além do quadro hemorragíparo, necrose muscular coagulativa, acompanhada de hemorragia, no entorno do local da inoculação nos animais que receberam o veneno por via intramuscular; essa lesão era discreta nos músculos próximos ao local de inoculação subcutânea. Nos bovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído por sangue e não edema. Não foram observadas mioglobinúria, nem lesões macro ou microscópicas significativas nos rins. Este estudo indica que exemplares de B. alternatus, caso inoculem todo seu veneno, poderiam levar bovinos adultos à morte. Por outro lado, pelo fato de ofídios serem capazes de regular a quantidade de veneno inoculada e, possivelmente, não considerarem bovinos como presa potencial, é provável que o número de acidentes nessa espécie seja pequeno, o que está de acordo com o observado na maioria dos centros diagnóstico anátomo-patológico no país. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the clinical-pathological alterations and laboratory findings in cattle inoculated with Bothrops alternatus venom, with the intention of providing information for the establishment of diagnosis and differential diagnosis procedures, as well as to elucidate some [...] obscurities observed in the pertinent literature. The lyophilized venom was diluted in 1 ml of physiologic solution. It was administered to 5 bovines by the subcutaneous route at doses of 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25mg/kg body weight, and to 2 bovines by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.25 e 0.45mg/kg. Six bovines died and the only animal that survived, who had subcutaneously received the venom at a dose of 0.0625mg/kg, recovered. The first clinical signs were observed from 25min to 5h30min after the inoculation. The clinical evolution time varied from 7 hours 18 minutes to 92 hours. Regardless of the dose, the clinical picture was characterized by swelling (hemorrhage/hematoma) at the site of inoculation, increase in bleeding time and capillary refill time, paleness of mucous membranes and apathy. The laboratory exams revealed progressive normo

  3. Imaging examination in the lacrimal system pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lacrimal glands as well as nasolacrimal system pathology is one that is widely under diagnosed in modern practice. The large majority of diseases will not endanger the patient's life, but will certainly decrease his/her life quality and sometimes crate serious diagnostic or management problems. In the same time the patients with lacrimal glands as well as with nasolacrimal system pathology can be easily evaluated with different imaging techniques varying from simple or contrast radiography, conventional isotopic contrasting and ultrasonography to sophisticated methods such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Recent advances in imaging techniques need an up-to-date approach to management of such patients. (authors)

  4. Pathology Case Study: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Sidney

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 64-year-old woman with a long history of IBS presents with a recent "exacerbation of diarrhea, increased abdominal cramping, and weight loss." Visitors are given both the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Debra L.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 74 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, inferior wall myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. He was admitted for a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The case study provides both gross and microscopic descriptions along with pertinent laboratory studies in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

  6. Pathological anxiety in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, F.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a consequence, compromise welfare and quality of life. In this review it is proposed that various behavioural dysfunctions in animals are due to pathological anxiety. Although several approaches have b...

  7. Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Shen, Jun-Hui; Shen, Sheng-Rong; Das, Undurti N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common condition that occurs in patients with diabetes with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that plays a significant role in diabetic retinopathy. The interaction between VEGF and ROS, and theirs in turn with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory bioactive lipid molecules such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins is particularly relevant to understand the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and develop future therapeutic interventions. PMID:24188230

  8. Pathology of renal cell carcinoma: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Vidal, Alfredo; Scarpelli, Marina; Kirkali, Ziya; Blanca, Ana; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    The use of classic and newer methodologies, including histopathology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, and molecular diagnostic techniques, has greatly influenced distinctions between various types of renal carcinoma. The most recent World Health Organization classification of renal neoplasms encompassed nearly 50 distinctive renal neoplasms. These categories have been expanded during recent years, incorporating newer histotypes, thus suggesting that the next revision of this classification will incorporate some of the recently recognized entities. In this review we examine the clinicopathologic and genetic features of renal carcinomas most often seen in clinical practice. Emphasis is placed on defining risk categories by incorporating pathologic predictive paradmeters and tumor histotypes. Since pathology of renal cell cancer is a rapidly evolving field, we also include brief comments on newer tumor variants for which there currently is not enough clinicopathologic information to permit classification as distinctive tumor histotypes. PMID:23700715

  9. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  10. Concurrent aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Douence, Re?mi; Le Botlan, Didier; Noye?, Jacques; Su?dholt, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) promises the modularization of so-called crosscutting functionalities in large applications. Currently, almost all approaches to AOP provide means for the description of sequential aspects that are to be applied to a sequential base program. In particular, there is no formally-defined concurrent approach to AOP, with the result that coordination issues between aspects and base programs as well as between aspects cannot precisely be investigated. This paper pr...

  11. Skeletal muscle pathology in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Daniel; Piotrowska, Izabela; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Mielcarek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein (HTT). The neurological symptoms, that involve motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, are caused by neurodegeneration that is particularly widespread in the basal ganglia and cereberal cortex. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and in recent years it has become apparent that HD patients experience a wide array of peripheral organ dysfunction including severe metabolic phenotype, weight loss, HD-related cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle wasting. Although skeletal muscles pathology became a hallmark of HD, the mechanisms underlying muscular atrophy in this disorder are unknown. Skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of body mass and are highly adaptive to physiological and pathological conditions that may result in muscle hypertrophy (due to increased mechanical load) or atrophy (inactivity, chronic disease states). The atrophy is caused by degeneration of myofibers and their replacement by fibrotic tissue is the major pathological feature in many genetic muscle disorders. Under normal physiological conditions the muscle function is orchestrated by a network of intrinsic hypertrophic and atrophic signals linked to the functional properties of the motor units that are likely to be imbalanced in HD. In this article, we highlight the emerging field of research with particular focus on the recent studies of the skeletal muscle pathology and the identification of new disease-modifying treatments. PMID:25339908

  12. [Pathology seen in French "Hikikomori"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Tadaaki; Figueiredo, Cristina; Pionnié-Dax, Nancy; Fansten, Maïa; Vellut, Natacha; Castel, Pierre-Henri

    2012-01-01

    Young people who meet the definition of "Hikikomori" have come to be seen in France since around 2008. However, simply "fitting the definition" does not necessarily mean that they are the same as "Hikikomori" in Japan. Rather, it is important to ask what kind of young people "fit the definition of Hikikomori in France" and what kind of pathology they have. With these questions, our Japanese-French joint research team comprising specialists in various fields conducted a survey of "Hikikomori" in French youth, with support from a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (overseas research), and started a comparative joint study on "Hikikomori" in Japan and "Hikikomori" in France. In that study it was found that whereas one aspect of "Hikikomori" in Japan is described by the word déraillement (coming off the "rails"), "Hikikomori" in France is a state closer to dropping out and is accompanied by a type of "sense of insufficiency". This "sense of insufficiency" is above all related to something in the society and culture of France, and an investigation of how it is linked to "Hikikomori" is an issue for the future. PMID:23234197

  13. Patología puerperal / Puerperal pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Bezares; O., Sanz; I., Jiménez.

    Full Text Available El puerperio es el periodo desde el final del parto hasta la aparición de la primera menstruación. Las posibles patologías acontecidas en este tiempo son la causa más frecuente de mortalidad materna incluso en nuestro medio. La patología de la lactancia incluye el fallo de lactancia, grietas en el p [...] ezón, ingurgitación mamaria y mastitis puerperal. La infección puerperal es una complicación obstétrica frecuente aunque las pautas de profilaxis han disminuido mucho la incidencia de esta patología. La patología vascular del puerperio incluye cuadros de gravedad importante, representando una de las principales causas de mortalidad materna. Se incluye la trombosis venosa profunda y el tromboembolismo pulmonar como la complicación más grave de la primera. No parece que la patología psiquiátrica sea más frecuente en el puerperio que en otra época de la vida, pero sí que se describen los cuadros relacionados con este periodo, como son el «blues», la depresión puerperal y la psicosis puerperal. Por último, otros cuadros poco frecuentes, pero que pueden constituir una emergencia médica en el puerperio son el síndrome de Sheehan, la miocardiopatía periparto y la tiroiditis postparto. Abstract in english The puerperium is the period from the end of labour to the appearance of the first menstruation. The possible pathologies that can occur in this period of time are the most frequent cause of maternal mortality even in our setting. The pathology of lactation includes failure of breastfeeding, cracks [...] in the nipple, mammary ingurgitation and puerperal mastitis. Puerperal infection is a frequent obstetric complication although clinical guidelines for prophylaxis have considerably reduced its incidence. The vascular pathology of the puerperium includes clinical features of great seriousness, representing one of the main causes of maternal mortality. These include deep vein thrombosis, of which pulmonary thromboembolism is the most serious complication. It does not appear that a psychiatric pathology is more frequent in the puerperium than in other periods of life, but the clinical features related to this period are described, such as «blues», puerperal depression and puerperal psychosis. Finally, other clinical features which although infrequent can constitute a medical emergency in the puerperium are: Sheehan`s syndrome, peripartum cardiomyopathy and postpartum thyroids.

  14. Patología puerperal Puerperal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bezares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El puerperio es el periodo desde el final del parto hasta la aparición de la primera menstruación. Las posibles patologías acontecidas en este tiempo son la causa más frecuente de mortalidad materna incluso en nuestro medio. La patología de la lactancia incluye el fallo de lactancia, grietas en el pezón, ingurgitación mamaria y mastitis puerperal. La infección puerperal es una complicación obstétrica frecuente aunque las pautas de profilaxis han disminuido mucho la incidencia de esta patología. La patología vascular del puerperio incluye cuadros de gravedad importante, representando una de las principales causas de mortalidad materna. Se incluye la trombosis venosa profunda y el tromboembolismo pulmonar como la complicación más grave de la primera. No parece que la patología psiquiátrica sea más frecuente en el puerperio que en otra época de la vida, pero sí que se describen los cuadros relacionados con este periodo, como son el «blues», la depresión puerperal y la psicosis puerperal. Por último, otros cuadros poco frecuentes, pero que pueden constituir una emergencia médica en el puerperio son el síndrome de Sheehan, la miocardiopatía periparto y la tiroiditis postparto.The puerperium is the period from the end of labour to the appearance of the first menstruation. The possible pathologies that can occur in this period of time are the most frequent cause of maternal mortality even in our setting. The pathology of lactation includes failure of breastfeeding, cracks in the nipple, mammary ingurgitation and puerperal mastitis. Puerperal infection is a frequent obstetric complication although clinical guidelines for prophylaxis have considerably reduced its incidence. The vascular pathology of the puerperium includes clinical features of great seriousness, representing one of the main causes of maternal mortality. These include deep vein thrombosis, of which pulmonary thromboembolism is the most serious complication. It does not appear that a psychiatric pathology is more frequent in the puerperium than in other periods of life, but the clinical features related to this period are described, such as «blues», puerperal depression and puerperal psychosis. Finally, other clinical features which although infrequent can constitute a medical emergency in the puerperium are: Sheehan`s syndrome, peripartum cardiomyopathy and postpartum thyroids.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Leon, 1941-

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. The patient in this particular case is a 64-year-old male with difficulty swallowing anything other than liquids. Patient history and both the gross and microscopic descriptions, which include images, are included in this case study. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâ??s condition in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  16. [Genetic aspects of congenital pathology of the larynx and trachea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, I V; Solonichenko, V G; Soldatski?, Iu L; Onufrieva, E K

    1999-01-01

    Medical-genetic examination covered 24 families of patients with congenital defects of the larynx and trachea. These developmental defects can be attributed to multiple unestablished defects (66.7%) or can be part of some congenital-hereditary syndromes (25%) such as chromosomal, genetic, teratogenic, of unknown etiology. The percentage of isolated developmental laryngeal and tracheal defects is relatively small--8.3%. PMID:10226489

  17. [New aspects of tumor pathology of the pituitary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeger, W

    2015-05-01

    Pituitary adenomas have to be studied in detail for structural characteristics, especially regarding the degree of granulation and immunohistochemical hormone expression, such as growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and proliferation markers (e.g. Ki-67 and p53) for correlation to clinical data and assessment of the prognosis. If histological and immunostaining data do not correlate to the patient data, explanations for the discrepancies must be found. All active adenoma types can also be present as inactive, so-called silent adenomas showing the same features. An increased Ki-67 index (>?3?%), significant nuclear expression of protein p53 and mitoses are characteristic of atypical adenomas. Up to now the biological relevance of these atypical adenomas, especially their role as preneoplasms for pituitary carcinomas has not been fully elucidated. The only proof of a pituitary carcinoma is the existence of metastases. Extensive local invasion and a greatly increased Ki-67 index are not sufficient for this diagnosis. Craniopharyngiomas have to be classified into adamantinomatous types (intrasellar and suprasellar) and papillary types (only suprasellar). Regressive changes are found in adamantinomatous types only. Strong regression may lead to difficulties in the differential diagnosis of Rathke's cleft cysts with squamous metaplasia. Demonstration of nuclear expression of beta-catenin in these cases enables the diagnosis of craniopharyngioma. Papillary craniopharyngiomas are characterized by BRAF mutations that may be helpful in the differential diagnosis. All pituicytomas of the neurohypophysis, all spindle cell oncocytomas of the anterior pituitary and all granular cell tumors of the posterior pituitary express thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and are thought to be variants of a common uniform spindle cell tumor of the pituitary. PMID:25947224

  18. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  19. The pathology of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, A M

    1988-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This retrovirus causes profound immunoincompetence in its infected hosts, who are thereafter susceptible to develop myriad severe and relapsing protozoal, fungal, bacterial, viral, and arthropodal opportunistic infections, as well as unusual malignancies. The more than 50,000 patients who have developed AIDS in the United States have produced a sudden unexpected deluge of diagnostic dilemmas that are stressing laboratories of pathology everywhere. This paper describes the gross and microscopic pathology of the numerous complications in patients infected by HIV: (a) the prodromal AIDS-related complex with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, (b) lymphoid infiltration of salivary gland and lung, including the complex of lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis-pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia, (c) extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, (d) multifocal mucocutaneous and visceral Kaposi's sarcoma, (e) small cell undifferentiated (oat cell) carcinomas, (f) protozoal infections caused by Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium species (sp.), and Isospora belli, (g) the causes of chronic enteritis, (h) mycotic infections caused by Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Sporothrix schenckii, (i) bacterial infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, Nocardia sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella sp., Treponema pallidum, and others, (j) viral infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and zoster, polyomavirus (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), hepatitis B, molluscum contagiosum, and papillomavirus, (k) oral hairy leukoplakia, (l) subacute encephalopathy, and (m) Norwegian scabies. PMID:2836878

  20. The pathology of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Victor E

    2006-03-01

    Pathologists play an important role in the management of urinary bladder cancer by making a careful morphologic assessment of the primary tumor and its relation to adjacent structures. Ideally, evaluation of the primary site will segregate patients into groups with distinct clinical features, biologic behavior, and response to therapy. Traditionally, to accomplish this goal, pathologists have relied on factors such as histologic tumor type, grade, depth of invasion, and presence or absence of vascular invasion. Recently, in an effort to enhance our ability to subclassify these patients, we have introduced new modalities, such as flow cytometry, monoclonal antibodies, assessment of proliferative rate, and cytogenetics and molecular genetics. Without question we are advancing into an era in which tumors will be classified based on their molecular "fingerprint." Nevertheless, at this time, morphology remains the "gold standard" and, consequently, the best tool to assess the biologic potential of early bladder cancer. Despite this undeniable fact, there are many problems with the pathologic evaluation of these tumors, mostly because of the inherent subjectivity of the field and the lack of universal, standardized criteria for the evaluation of the above-mentioned morphologic parameters. Publications in peer-reviewed journals and the proliferation of educational opportunities by way of seminars, conferences, and web-based tutorials play an important role in keeping the practicing pathologist informed and up to date. As novel concepts and modern techniques are reported, their clinical value must be validated prospectively. Expert pathology review and establishment of exportable practice standards play an important role in the process. PMID:16530068

  1. Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism. PMID:23480073

  2. The Vulnerable Faces of Pathological Gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Timothy W.

    2005-01-01

    Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or...

  3. The future of genomics in pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Dennis Paul Paul; Tonellato, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The recent advances in technology and the promise of cheap and fast whole genomic data offer the possibility to revolutionise the discipline of pathology. This should allow pathologists in the near future to diagnose disease rapidly and early to change its course, and to tailor treatment programs to the individual. This review outlines some of these technical advances and the changes needed to make this revolution a reality.

  4. Coronarography in pathologic morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of many years experience of the authors and data in world literature on post mortal coronarography during the most important general pathological processes in heart have been generalized in the monograph. Problems of radioanatomy of coronary artery were considered and data on use of postmortal coronarography in terms of correlation together with selective in-life coronarography are given. Much place takes the description of main coronarography semiotics of obstructive atherosclerosis injuries of the heart coronal system, compensation and decompensation processes of broken coronary circulation. Results of coronarography investigations in geronitogenesis as well as in sudden death are presented. Electrocardiographic-coronarographic and pathomorphologic parallels, clinical-anatomical diagnostical symptomocomplex - syndrom of menocoronary ''robbing'' are elucidated in detail. Technology of different techniques of postmortal coronarography in order to investigate macro-, microhemocirculation heart bed are described in detail as well as techniques of coronarogramm analysis which permits to use the monograph as a manual

  5. Pulp and periapical pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Piotto Leonardi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pulp undergoes inflammatory or degenerative reactions when submitted to an aggressive factor. These depend on the type, frequency and intensity of the irritant as well as the patient’s immune response. If the aggressive agent is not removed, the pulp will either show calcifications or result in necrosis. This latter would occur when a pulp alteration is present and not treated. Pulp necrosis is the complete cessation of the tissue’s metabolic processes. If it is not removed, the bacterial and the tissue decomposition’s toxic products ill injure the periapical tissues, resulting in periapical alterations. The dentist must know the histological, clinical and radiographic features of these pathologies to recognize them and indicate the best treatment option.

  6. Recurrent pathological jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollender, M H; Fishbein, J H

    1979-08-01

    A 36-year-old man suffered from pathological jealousy during three marriages. The episodes involving delusions of infidelity were usually preceded by premonitory symptoms. At first, the patient responded by discontinuing his medication (a phenothiazine) so that he might remain vigilant. Later he came to recognize the premonitory symptoms as signals indicating a need for help, and he would request hospitalization. In the periods between his marriages he was never troubled by feelings of jealousy. The chief determinant of delusions of infidelity in this instance, as in three reported by Docherty and Ellis, seemed to be exposure to the mother's extramarital sexual relations. This case, in which three different wives were subjected to the same pattern of behavior, would seem to be an exception to the rule that if marital problems occur both partners are responsible for creating them. PMID:469516

  7. Pathology Case Study: Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jacqueline A.

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 27-year-old female presents with a history of seizures. A detailed patient history along with gross and microscopic images of the patientâ??s brain are included in this case study. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  8. Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; HOPWOOD, CHRISTOPHER J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern o...

  9. [Psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkevici?te, Regina; Burba, Benjaminas

    2003-01-01

    In this article the peculiarities of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling were investigated. The authors were based both on the data of many foreign scientists and on their own one. Our data on 77 cases of pathological gambling were collected based on interviews of Lithuanian psychiatrists and psychotherapists about their patients with gambling addiction in period from 1991 to 2001. The data that we publish and analyze allows us to make conclusions that pathological gambling can reveal together with very wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders, but more often with alcoholism and depression. The mechanism of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling is very complex. PMID:14515045

  10. Clinical Pathology - A Diagnostic Aid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof Stuart Fleming

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pathology is now an essential component of high quality clinical care. Pathology tests are important to reaching a diagnosis in 85% of hospital patients. Indeed in some areas including oncology, infection and transplantation medicine diagnosis and optimum treatment cannot be delivered without histopathological investigation. Pathology testing is a core component of early cancer detection through screening for breast, bowel, cervix and prostate cancers. In the last twenty years pathology has moved from a useful diagnostic aid to a clinical essential.

  11. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliasny?, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  12. Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2014-06-01

    This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling. PMID:23423730

  13. Renal Pathology: SC23-2 RENAL TRANSPLANT PATHOLOGY: REVIEW AND UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Lilian; Seshan, Surya; Truong, Luan

    2014-10-01

    Renal transplant pathology forms an integral part of medical kidney diseases requiring a biopsy for diagnosis, prognosis and/or appropriate therapy. Often, multiple transplant biopsies are performed to monitor a disease process or efficacy of therapy. This short course will review and update all aspects of renal transplant pathology. Renal transplant biopsies of major diagnoses will be presented and used as a spring board for discussion of the subject area. Emphasis will be placed on new knowledge of disease classification, practical diagnostic approach, and novel pathogenetic mechanisms. Scanned light microscopic slides, immunofluorescent images, electron microscopic images and clinical summaries will be available on line for pre-meeting review. The covered topics include updated Banff Classification, acute T cell-mediated rejection, acute antibody-mediated rejection, chronic antibody-mediated rejection, transplant glomerulopathy, recurrent diseases, de novo diseases, BK virus nephropathy and other infections. PMID:25188165

  14. Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment – A critical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KurtA.Jellinger

    2013-04-01

    Despite recent suggestions for staging and grading CVLs in specific brain areas, no validated neuropathological criteria are currently available for VaD and mixed dementia. Further clinico-pathological studies and harmonization of neuropathological procedures are needed to validate the diagostic criteria for VaD and mixed dementia in order to clarify the impact of CVLs and other coexistent pathologies on cognitive impairment as a basis for further successful therapeutic options.

  15. Aspects of multiple membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines various aspects of the recently proposed theory of coincident membranes by Bagger and Lambert. These include the properties of open membranes and the resulting boundary theory with an interpretation in terms of the fivebrane and marginal supersymmetric deformations of the interactions with the relation to the holographic dual

  16. Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of five calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a farm of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pelo BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secreções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação.Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is responsible for different syndromes that affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. This study analyzed the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of persistent infection by BVDV in five animals of a farm located in the county of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The clinical signs included growth impairment, nasal and ocular discharge and, in two animals, congenital cataract. The main gross lesions observed at the necropsy were enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and in one case, pododermatitis and crusted lesions on nasal planum and periocular region. Microscopic findings were characterized mostly by mononuclear infiltrate in the lamina propria, primarily in the small intestine and lymphoid depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in follicular centers of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Viral antigens were more frequently demonstrated in epidermal keratinocytes, epithelium of hair follicles and dendritic cells of the dermis of the ears and skin, histiocytes and lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thyroid follicular cells, in the cytoplasm of neurons and to a lesser extent, in glial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Viral isolation from blood samples and organs confirmed the presence of non-cytopathic BVDV. Moreover, viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of the5' non-translated region of the viral genome allowed the classification of the sample as BVDV type 2b. The present study strengthens the need to investigate and to characterize BVD outbreaks and to describe its different clinic-pathological presentations.

  17. Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of five calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a farm of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana S, Santos; Nadia A.B, Antoniassi; Fabiana M, Boabaid; Ana P.G, Bitencourt; Laura L, Almeida; Cláudio W, Canal; Eduardo Furtado, Flores; David, Driemeier.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pel [...] o BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secreções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação. Abstract in english Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for different syndromes that affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. This study analyzed the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of persistent infection by BVDV in five animals of a farm located in the cou [...] nty of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The clinical signs included growth impairment, nasal and ocular discharge and, in two animals, congenital cataract. The main gross lesions observed at the necropsy were enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and in one case, pododermatitis and crusted lesions on nasal planum and periocular region. Microscopic findings were characterized mostly by mononuclear infiltrate in the lamina propria, primarily in the small intestine and lymphoid depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in follicular centers of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Viral antigens were more frequently demonstrated in epidermal keratinocytes, epithelium of hair follicles and dendritic cells of the dermis of the ears and skin, histiocytes and lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thyroid follicular cells, in the cytoplasm of neurons and to a lesser extent, in glial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Viral isolation from blood samples and organs confirmed the presence of non-cytopathic BVDV. Moreover, viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of the5' non-translated region of the viral genome allowed the classification of the sample as BVDV type 2b. The present study strengthens the need to investigate and to characterize BVD outbreaks and to describe its different clinic-pathological presentations.

  18. Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands

  19. Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Pathological Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Zamboni G; Capelli P; Sipos B; L?, J.; Kloppel G

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, autoimmune pancreatitis has been established as a special type of chronic pancreatitis. It is characterized by its histopathological and immunological features. The morphological hallmarks are periductal infiltration by lymphocytes and plasma cells and granulocytic epithelial lesions with consequent destruction of the duct epithelium and venulitis. Autoimmune pancreatitis has therefore also been called lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis, duct-destructive chronic pancre...

  20. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author)

  1. Manifestação clínico-patológica de infecção natural pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em bovinos de criação extensiva no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Clinic-pathological aspects in the natural infection of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRVS) in extensive management of cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Driemeier; Marcos José Pereira, Gomes; Valéria, Moojen; Clarice Weiss, Arns; Guilherme, Vogg; Luciano, Kessler; Ubirajara Maciel da, Costa.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available São descritas as manifestações clínicas, patológicas, microbiológicos e sorológicos da enfermidade natural causada pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em uma criação extensiva de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul. Clinicamente havia tosse crônica e dispnéia intensa frente a exercício [...] s físicos mínimos em dois animais. Os dois foram sacrificados e necropsiados. As alterações macroscópicas eram pulmonares com enfisema alveolar disseminado, focos de atelectasia e espessamento dos septos interlobulares. A imunofluorescência para BRSV em corte de pulmão congelado foi positiva em ambos os casos, sendo negativa para Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), Diarréia Vírica Bovina (BVDV) e Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (BHV). Foi isolado BRSV em cultivo celular de MDBK a partir de um dos animais necropsiados. Nenhuma associação foi detectada através de elisa para detecção de antígeno LPS gênero específico de Chlamydia psittaci no tecido pulmonar. O exame histopatológico evidenciou células sinciciais, enfisema crônico, hipertrofia da camada muscular peribronquiolar e metaplasia escamosa do epitélio bronquial e bronquiolar. O exame sorológico para BRSV evidenciou 79% de soropositivos em uma primeira amostragem na qual havia animais jovens e alguns com tosse. O segundo exame sorológico 6 meses após, proveniente de animais de diferentes faixas etárias, resultou em 17,3% de soropositivos. Este é o primeiro relato de doença causada por BRSV no Brasil. Abstract in english The clinical aspects as well as the pathology, microbiology and serology of a natural Bovine Respiratory Syncytial (BRSV) infection of bovine in a herd of 600 beef cattle kept under extensive management in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are described. Clinically two animals had chronic coug [...] h and severe dyspnea when forced to mild physical exercise. These two animals were euthanatized and post-morten examination was performed. The macroscopic changes were of pulmonary origin, such as disseminated alveolar emphysema, focal atelectasis and marked interlobular septal thickening. The fluorescent antibody test on lung cryostat sections was positive to BRSV for both animals, and it was negative to PI-3 virus, BVDV and BHV. The BRSV was isolated from the lung of one of the animals on MDBK, and was also identified by fluorescent antibody test. No association with Chlamydia psittaci was found by ELISA performed on lung tissues. The histopathology showed syncytial cells, chronic emphysema, peribronchiolar muscle layer hypertrophy and squamous metaplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. The serology to detect antibodies to BRSV resulted in 79% of positives from the first specimen collection. In this group of young animals some of them had a cough. The second samples collected 6 months later were from animals of different age groups resulting in 17.3% of positives. This is the first report on clinical BRSV infection in Brazil.

  2. Manifestação clínico-patológica de infecção natural pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV em bovinos de criação extensiva no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Clinic-pathological aspects in the natural infection of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRVS in extensive management of cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Driemeier

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available São descritas as manifestações clínicas, patológicas, microbiológicos e sorológicos da enfermidade natural causada pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV em uma criação extensiva de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul. Clinicamente havia tosse crônica e dispnéia intensa frente a exercícios físicos mínimos em dois animais. Os dois foram sacrificados e necropsiados. As alterações macroscópicas eram pulmonares com enfisema alveolar disseminado, focos de atelectasia e espessamento dos septos interlobulares. A imunofluorescência para BRSV em corte de pulmão congelado foi positiva em ambos os casos, sendo negativa para Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3, Diarréia Vírica Bovina (BVDV e Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (BHV. Foi isolado BRSV em cultivo celular de MDBK a partir de um dos animais necropsiados. Nenhuma associação foi detectada através de elisa para detecção de antígeno LPS gênero específico de Chlamydia psittaci no tecido pulmonar. O exame histopatológico evidenciou células sinciciais, enfisema crônico, hipertrofia da camada muscular peribronquiolar e metaplasia escamosa do epitélio bronquial e bronquiolar. O exame sorológico para BRSV evidenciou 79% de soropositivos em uma primeira amostragem na qual havia animais jovens e alguns com tosse. O segundo exame sorológico 6 meses após, proveniente de animais de diferentes faixas etárias, resultou em 17,3% de soropositivos. Este é o primeiro relato de doença causada por BRSV no Brasil.The clinical aspects as well as the pathology, microbiology and serology of a natural Bovine Respiratory Syncytial (BRSV infection of bovine in a herd of 600 beef cattle kept under extensive management in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are described. Clinically two animals had chronic cough and severe dyspnea when forced to mild physical exercise. These two animals were euthanatized and post-morten examination was performed. The macroscopic changes were of pulmonary origin, such as disseminated alveolar emphysema, focal atelectasis and marked interlobular septal thickening. The fluorescent antibody test on lung cryostat sections was positive to BRSV for both animals, and it was negative to PI-3 virus, BVDV and BHV. The BRSV was isolated from the lung of one of the animals on MDBK, and was also identified by fluorescent antibody test. No association with Chlamydia psittaci was found by ELISA performed on lung tissues. The histopathology showed syncytial cells, chronic emphysema, peribronchiolar muscle layer hypertrophy and squamous metaplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. The serology to detect antibodies to BRSV resulted in 79% of positives from the first specimen collection. In this group of young animals some of them had a cough. The second samples collected 6 months later were from animals of different age groups resulting in 17.3% of positives. This is the first report on clinical BRSV infection in Brazil.

  3. Câncer de mama feminino: aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos cadastrados de 2005 a 2008 num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe / Female breast cancer: clinical and pathological aspects of cases registered between 2005 and 2008 at a public oncology service in the Brazilian State of Sergipe

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leila Luíza Conceição, Gonçalves; Simone Barbosa, Santos; Emily Carvalho, Marinho; Ana Maria de, Almeida; Alessandro Henrique da Silva, Santos; Ângela Maria Melo Sá, Barros; Ricardo, Fakhouri.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer os aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos de câncer de mama feminino cadastrados num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: procurou-se fazer uma associação do estadiamento com as características presentes nos tumores. A coleta de dados foi realizada em 165 prontuár [...] ios de mulheres cadastradas no período de 2005 a 2008 no ambulatório de oncologia do Hospital Cirurgia, localizado em Aracaju-Sergipe, por meio de formulário de coleta de dados, em 2009. RESULTADOS: identificou-se o carcinoma ductal invasivo como o tipo de neoplasia mamária mais frequente com 80,8% dos casos; 76 (46,1%) neoplasias foram diagnosticadas em estádio avançado (IIB, III e IV) e a mastectomia prevaleceu como tipo de cirurgia utilizado no tratamento independente do estadiamento. Quanto aos receptores hormonais todos apresentaram associação com o grau do estádio e, ainda, notou-se que a positividade do estrogênio e progesterona é fator de proteção para um pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: é notável que os casos de câncer de mama estudados apresentam maior agressividade biológica, cursando com pior prognóstico, considerando o estádio clínico. Fazem-se necessárias ações de detecção precoce voltadas ao câncer de mama na atenção básica de Sergipe para redução da morbi-mortalidade, melhora da sobrevida e qualidade de vida entre as mulheres acometidas por essa neoplasia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to discover the clinical and pathologic aspects of cases of female breast cancer registered at a public oncology service in Sergipe. METHODS: an attempt was made to associate the stage with the characteristics of the tumors. Data was gathered from 165 medical records taken between 2005 a [...] nd 2008 at the oncology outpatients clinic of the Hospital Cirurgia, in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, using a data collection form in 2009. RESULTS: ductal invasive carcinoma was identified as the most frequent kind of neoplasia, accounting for 80.8% of cases. Seventy-six (46.1%) of neoplasias were identified at an advanced stage (IIB, III and IV) and mastectomy was the main kind of surgery used, irrespective of the stage of the cancer. All the hormone receptors were associated with the stage and it was noted that positive estrogen and progesterone levels were associated with a more positive prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: it is worth noting that the cases of breast cancer studied were those that are more biologically aggressive with a less promising prognosis in terms of clinical stage. Action to ensure early detection of breast cancer needs to be taken in the course of basic care in Sergipe in order to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve the survival rates and quality of life of women afflicted with this kind of neoplasia.

  4. Câncer de mama feminino: aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos cadastrados de 2005 a 2008 num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe Female breast cancer: clinical and pathological aspects of cases registered between 2005 and 2008 at a public oncology service in the Brazilian State of Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luíza Conceição Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer os aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos de câncer de mama feminino cadastrados num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: procurou-se fazer uma associação do estadiamento com as características presentes nos tumores. A coleta de dados foi realizada em 165 prontuários de mulheres cadastradas no período de 2005 a 2008 no ambulatório de oncologia do Hospital Cirurgia, localizado em Aracaju-Sergipe, por meio de formulário de coleta de dados, em 2009. RESULTADOS: identificou-se o carcinoma ductal invasivo como o tipo de neoplasia mamária mais frequente com 80,8% dos casos; 76 (46,1% neoplasias foram diagnosticadas em estádio avançado (IIB, III e IV e a mastectomia prevaleceu como tipo de cirurgia utilizado no tratamento independente do estadiamento. Quanto aos receptores hormonais todos apresentaram associação com o grau do estádio e, ainda, notou-se que a positividade do estrogênio e progesterona é fator de proteção para um pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: é notável que os casos de câncer de mama estudados apresentam maior agressividade biológica, cursando com pior prognóstico, considerando o estádio clínico. Fazem-se necessárias ações de detecção precoce voltadas ao câncer de mama na atenção básica de Sergipe para redução da morbi-mortalidade, melhora da sobrevida e qualidade de vida entre as mulheres acometidas por essa neoplasia.OBJECTIVES: to discover the clinical and pathologic aspects of cases of female breast cancer registered at a public oncology service in Sergipe. METHODS: an attempt was made to associate the stage with the characteristics of the tumors. Data was gathered from 165 medical records taken between 2005 and 2008 at the oncology outpatients clinic of the Hospital Cirurgia, in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, using a data collection form in 2009. RESULTS: ductal invasive carcinoma was identified as the most frequent kind of neoplasia, accounting for 80.8% of cases. Seventy-six (46.1% of neoplasias were identified at an advanced stage (IIB, III and IV and mastectomy was the main kind of surgery used, irrespective of the stage of the cancer. All the hormone receptors were associated with the stage and it was noted that positive estrogen and progesterone levels were associated with a more positive prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: it is worth noting that the cases of breast cancer studied were those that are more biologically aggressive with a less promising prognosis in terms of clinical stage. Action to ensure early detection of breast cancer needs to be taken in the course of basic care in Sergipe in order to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve the survival rates and quality of life of women afflicted with this kind of neoplasia.

  5. Development of pathology in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan GED?KO?LU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i T?bbiye-i Adliye-i ?âhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “T?phane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i T?bbiye-i Adliyei ?âhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “?stanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and ?stanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in ?stanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in ?stanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

  6. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Chiu; Kelley, Brendan J.; Duker, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson's disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of ...

  7. Recent Progress in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Langanke, K.

    1999-01-01

    The manuscript reviews progress achieved in recent years in various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear aspects of supernova collapse and explosion, neutrino-induced reactions and their possible role in the supernova mechanism and nucleosynthesis, explosive hydrogen burning in binary systems, and finally the observation of $\\gamma$-rays from supernova remnants.

  8. Central neuroplasticity and pathological pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzack, R; Coderre, T J; Katz, J; Vaccarino, A L

    2001-03-01

    The traditional specificity theory of pain perception holds that pain involves a direct transmission system from somatic receptors to the brain. The amount of pain perceived, moreover, is assumed to be directly proportional to the extent of injury. Recent research, however, indicates far more complex mechanisms. Clinical and experimental evidence shows that noxious stimuli may sensitize central neural structures involved in pain perception. Salient clinical examples of these effects include amputees with pains in a phantom limb that are similar or identical to those felt in the limb before it was amputated, and patients after surgery who have benefited from preemptive analgesia which blocks the surgery-induced afferent barrage and/or its central consequences. Experimental evidence of these changes is illustrated by the development of sensitization, wind-up, or expansion of receptive fields of CNS neurons, as well as by the enhancement of flexion reflexes and the persistence of pain or hyperalgesia after inputs from injured tissues are blocked. It is clear from the material presented that the perception of pain does not simply involve a moment-to-moment analysis of afferent noxious input, but rather involves a dynamic process that is influenced by the effects of past experiences. Sensory stimuli act on neural systems that have been modified by past inputs, and the behavioral output is significantly influenced by the "memory" of these prior events. An increased understanding of the central changes induced by peripheral injury or noxious stimulation should lead to new and improved clinical treatment for the relief and prevention of pathological pain. PMID:12000018

  9. A pathological science syndrome: A concern for energy science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As researchers look for innovative concepts to produce electrical power it is worth considering the pathological science syndrome described by Nobel-Prize-winning chemist Irving Langmuir who identified six symptoms of pathological science caused by a loss of objectivity. Denis L. Rousseau has recently condensed Langmuir's six symptoms into two characteristics and added a third. The first characteristic of pathological science is that the effect being studied is often at the limits of detectability or has a very low statistical significance. The second characteristic is a readiness to disregard prevailing ideas and theories. The third identifying trait of pathological science is that the investigator finds it nearly impossible to carry out experiments designed to give a definitive answer. Rousseau has applied these characteristics to the study of polywater, infinite dilution, and cold fusion

  10. Isotopes and radiation in plant pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ionizing radiations were first applied to phytopathological problems 50 years ago, it is only in recent years that this work has come into its own. Plant diseases are often complex since they may involve interactions between the host, the vector and its pathogen. These pathogens range from viral bodies, through unicellular organisms, to well-organized living entities such as nematodes. Each member of these interactions is amenable to investigation by radiobiological techniques. The collection of papers forming this Report is based on papers originally presented at an IAEA panel by experts on the application of radiation and radioisotopes in plant pathology. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Seed pathology progress in academia and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Gary P

    2009-01-01

    Seed pathology involves the study and management of diseases affecting seed production and utilization, as well as disease management practices applied to seeds. In this paper, three aspects of seed pathology are discussed: research innovations in detection of seedborne pathogens and elucidation of their epidemiology; advances in development and use of seed treatments; and progress toward standardization of phytosanitary regulations and seed health testing methods. The application of nucleic-acid based detection methods in seed health testing has been facilitated by integrating conventional or real-time PCR with other technologies (e.g., BIO-PCR, IMS-PCR, MCH-PCR). PCR-based methods and pathogen marker technologies are being applied to epidemiological research on seedborne pathogens, e.g., seed transmission mechanisms, the influence of external biotic and abiotic factors on seed transmission, and tracking progress of seed-transmitted pathogens. Seed treatment use is discussed in terms of the revolutionary expansion in seed-applied insecticide use, impacts of new fungicide active ingredients, and the effects of some seed treatments on crop physiology. International seed trade has been affected significantly by changing phytosanitary regulations, not always based on science. Efforts are underway to revise phytosanitary regulations to reflect pest risk analysis outcomes and to develop standards for seed health testing methods that facilitate safe and efficient international trade in seeds. PMID:19400648

  12. Diffusion weighted imaging of bone marrow pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion weighted imaging of non-CNS tissue has attracted much attention during the last years. Its capability of probing the microstructure of a biologic tissue at a sub-millimeter range is used to evaluate its diffusion capacity, which is tissue specific and can be used for tissue characterization. Processes involving bone marrow where the primary target for DWI during the last years. Most experience has been gained for differentiating benign from pathologic vertebral compression fractures, which can be reliably done when quantitative diffusion measurements are available. However, preliminary results exist indicating that this non-invasive technique may be a potential tool for therapy monitoring, which will revise the management of cancer patients. Moreover, this will be the first non-invasive and quantifiable tool for evaluating the effectiveness of modern tumor treatment. In this article, we will give an overview on the current status of DWI in the evaluation of bone marrow alterations; on currently available DWI techniques and a short out-look on future aspects of DWI in bone marrow pathologies

  13. The goals of resident training in laboratory medicine in combined anatomic pathology/clinical pathology programs: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alan; Smith, Brian R

    2007-06-01

    Training of residents in the discipline of laboratory medicine is confounded by the diversity of the subdisciplines of clinical pathology each with specific knowledge sets, and the career goals of the residents who are focused on different aspects of clinical pathology. What guides this training is not the detailed knowledge sets or the specific technologies per se, but a focus on the principles that undergird all of laboratory medicine. Thus, the goal of clinical pathology training is to develop a clinical consultant who can apply laboratory-derived, population-based clinical data and laboratory-based therapeutics, along with a firm knowledge of the underlying biotechnology from which these are derived, to the benefit of individual patients. Furthermore, this pathologist must be steeped in the skills required for lifelong learning and adaptation. PMID:17556082

  14. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease

  15. Best Practice No 171: Best practice in thyroid pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, C. E.; Mclaren, K. M.

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid pathology is a specialist area but is often encountered by the general pathologist in a variety of forms including cytology, frozen sections, and resection specimens. In the thyroid gland, as for other endocrine organs, many aspects of diagnosis are unique to this area of histopathology; thus, the aims of this paper are to set out best practice guidelines which, although not entirely comprehensive, will be of practical use.

  16. Role of spinal cord glutamate transporter during normal sensory transmission and pathological pain states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephens Robert L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glutamate is a neurotransmitter critical for spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and for generation and maintenance of spinal states of pain hypersensitivity via activation of glutamate receptors. Understanding the regulation of synaptically and non-synaptically released glutamate associated with pathological pain is important in exploring novel molecular mechanisms and developing therapeutic strategies of pathological pain. The glutamate transporter system is the primary mechanism for the inactivation of synaptically released glutamate and the maintenance of glutamate homeostasis. Recent studies demonstrated that spinal glutamate transporter inhibition relieved pathological pain, suggesting that the spinal glutamate transporter might serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of pathological pain. However, the exact function of glutamate transporter in pathological pain is not completely understood. This report will review the evidence for the role of the spinal glutamate transporter during normal sensory transmission and pathological pain conditions and discuss potential mechanisms by which spinal glutamate transporter is involved in pathological pain.

  17. Perception testing in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbaum, K S; Platz, C

    1988-10-01

    A test predictive of mature pathologic expertise could be of great value in the selection of individuals entering the field. Some individuals may have an aptitude superior to others to discriminate images based on the discovery of distinctive image features. This may enhance their ability to draw pathologic conclusions from clinical images and may favorably affect their performance as pathologists. A form of the Facial Recognition Test was administered to pathology residents and faculty to test this hypothesis. Facial recognition results correlated well with resident performance measured by overall faculty ratings, but only marginally with performance measured by scores on "direct recognition" slides of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists' in-service pathology exams. These preliminary results indicate that testing of visual discrimination may be predictive of resident performance in pathology. A test of this type could eventually be useful in selection and self selection of resident candidates and in development of remedial training for residents experiencing difficulty in learning morphologic interpretation. PMID:3169722

  18. Recent developments in biodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews recent developments in biodosimetry (1989-1993), and presents a comparative study of the existing techniques and their future prospects. The report summarizes the sensitivity, reproducibility, limiting dose, dose-rate, energy, linear energy transfer (LET) responses, sources of variability and uncertainty, and other practical aspects of each bio-indicator. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach are evaluated on the basis of a set of common criteria for particular applications. (author). 155 refs., 15 tabs

  19. Adolescence and Eating Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Caggiano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007. The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002, cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schilder, 2002, nutrition and weight (Halmi, 2003.These factors can be divided into four main categories: ‘the cultural pressure to acquire a thin body; the change in the woman’s social role; the mythical character granted to eating disorders; the prejudice against obesity’ (Dalle Grave, 2007. So far, the literature on this subject, however wide, has provided no conclusive data with reference to related issues, such as psychiatric comorbidities(Blinder et al, 2007. In particular, this study focused on the aspectof control, a significant feature of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder too, (Couturier, 2004 and on body-image disperception, peculiar to eating disorders (Neumark-Sztainer, 2000. To investigate co-morbidity between eating disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a questionnaire including items of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Dalle Grave, Ghisi, Calugi, 2006 was administered to a sample of adolescent students. The results provide significant correlations between Calculation Compulsions and the BSQ Behaviours variable, between Current MiscellaneousCompulsions and Body Image, between Current Miscellaneous Compulsionsand Body Shape/Self Esteem. Therefore the study provides further evidence in support of co-morbidity.

  20. Beyond loss of frataxin: the complex molecular pathology of Friedreich ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Galea, Marguerite V; Lockhart, Paul J; Galea, Charles A; Hannan, Anthony J; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the frataxin gene (FXN). Frataxin is an essential protein which localizes to the mitochondria and is required for the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and heme. Most individuals with FRDA are homozygous for trinucleotide GAA.TTC repeat expansions in intron 1 of FXN. The instability of these GAA.TTC repeats, the formation of non-B DNA GAA.TTC structures, and accompanying epigenetic changes lead to reduced FXN transcript and frataxin protein. This 'loss of frataxin' is considered the main driver of disease pathology with mitochondria-rich tissues such as the heart and the brain most affected. While our understanding of FRDA etiology has advanced in recent years, exactly how reduced frataxin leads to disease remains largely unknown. Most therapeutic strategies aim to increase frataxin, yet there are other underlying aspects of the molecular pathology that could impact disease progression and severity. These include RNA toxicity due to antisense RNAs, dysregulated splicing and microRNAs, and repeat-associated protein toxicity via RAN translation. Here we review the diverse array of molecular events that have been shown to influence clinical outcome in FRDA. We also examine additional pathogenic factors from other trinucleotide repeat diseases which could be potentially important in FRDA. PMID:24411698

  1. Pathological gambling in women: a review Jogo patológico em mulheres: uma revisão

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Saboia Martins; Daniela S. S. Lobo; Hermano Tavares; Valentim Gentil

    2002-01-01

    Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980). Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews o...

  2. What would my avatar do? Gaming, pathology, and risky decision making

    OpenAIRE

    KiraBailey; RobertWest; JudsonKuffel

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has revealed a relationship between pathological video game use and increased impulsivity among children and adolescents. A few studies have also demonstrated increased risk-taking outside of the video game environment following game play, but this work has largely focused on one genre of video games (i.e., racing). Motivated by these findings, the aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between pathological and non-pathological video game use, impulsivity, and ri...

  3. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becich, Michael J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Hunter T.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine, Jeff S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Charles A.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

  7. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin D.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old man has a history of pulmonary hypertension. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  8. Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrances, Marie C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  9. Pathology Case Study: Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengbin

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  10. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An increasing number of recent patents focused on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and digital consultation networks. Conclusion: In the last 2 decades, there have been an increasing number of patents granted and patent applications filed related to digital pathology. The number of these patents quadrupled during the last decade, and this trend is predicted to intensify based on the number of patent applications already published by the USPTO. PMID:25057430

  11. Roentgenological atlas of hand pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atlas deals with roentgenological diagnostics of hand pathology. Developmental defects, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant and benign bone tumours, tumours of soft tissues, degenerative dystrophical injuries, traumatic injuries, foreign bodies penetrating into hand tissues, inflamatory diseases etc. are illustrated. Roentgenological semiotics and differential diagnostics are described

  12. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. METHODS: I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008-2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and o...

  13. The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

  14. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351

  15. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351

  16. Error-free pathology: applying lean production methods to anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condel, Jennifer L; Sharbaugh, David T; Raab, Stephen S

    2004-12-01

    The current state of our health care system calls for dramatic changes. In their pathology department, the authors believe these changes may be accomplished by accepting the long-term commitment of applying a lean production system. The ideal state of zero pathology errors is one that should be pursued by consistently asking, "Why can't we?" The philosophy of lean production systems began in the manufacturing industry: "All we are doing is looking at the time from the moment the customer gives us an order to the point when we collect the cash. And we are reducing that time line by removing non-value added wastes". The ultimate goals in pathology and overall health care are not so different. The authors' intention is to provide the patient (customer) with the most accurate diagnostic information in a timely and efficient manner. Their lead histotechnologist recently summarized this philosophy: she indicated that she felt she could sleep better at night knowing she truly did the best job she could. Her chances of making an error (in cutting or labeling) were dramatically decreased in the one-by-one continuous flow work process compared with previous practices. By designing a system that enables employees to be successful in meeting customer demand, and by empowering the frontline staff in the development and problem solving processes, one can meet the challenges of eliminating waste and build an improved, efficient system. PMID:15555747

  17. Thalamus pathology in multiple sclerosis: from biology to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Markus; Wagenknecht, Nina; Beyer, Cordian; Samer, Sebastian; Wuerfel, Jens; Nikoubashman, Omid

    2015-03-01

    There is a broad consensus that MS represents more than an inflammatory disease: it harbors several characteristic aspects of a classical neurodegenerative disorder, i.e. damage to axons, synapses and nerve cell bodies. While the clinician is equipped with appropriate tools to dampen peripheral cell recruitment and, thus, is able to prevent immune-cell driven relapses, effective therapeutic options to prevent the simultaneously progressing neurodegeneration are still missing. Furthermore, while several sophisticated paraclinical methods exist to monitor the inflammatory-driven aspects of the disease, techniques to monitor progression of early neurodegeneration are still in their infancy and have not been convincingly validated. In this review article, we aim to elaborate why the thalamus with its multiple reciprocal connections is sensitive to pathological processes occurring in different brain regions, thus acting as a "barometer" for diffuse brain parenchymal damage in MS. The thalamus might be, thus, an ideal region of interest to test the effectiveness of new neuroprotective MS drugs. Especially, we will address underlying pathological mechanisms operant during thalamus degeneration in MS, such as trans-neuronal or Wallerian degeneration. Furthermore, we aim at giving an overview about different paraclinical methods used to estimate the extent of thalamic pathology in MS patients, and we discuss their limitations. Finally, thalamus involvement in different MS animal models will be described, and their relevance for the design of preclinical trials elaborated. PMID:25417212

  18. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  19. Synovial pathology: Magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synovial membrane lines the inner surface of the entire joint capsule of the so-called synovial, or diarthrosis, joints. It also constitutes the lining synovial bursa and tendon sheaths. It is lubricated at all these sites by the synovial fluid secreted by the membrane itself. The identification of this structure is bases on the correct knowledge of its anatomical locations. Synovial membrane pathology includes lesions produced by tumors, inflammation, degeneration and trauma. In this report, we classify them as benign (cysts, chondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, inflammatory synovitis and hemangioma) or malignant (synovial sarcoma and hemangiosarcoma). Magnetic resonance (MR) constitutes a useful and reliable method for diagnosis synovial lesions, providing a means of determining their origin and identifying distinctive features of some types. We present our experience in 12 cases of synovial pathology studied by MR over the past year, all of which were confirmed by histopathological study. 13 refs

  20. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  1. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Sonya

    This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâ??s diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Remigio

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

  3. A review of novel optical imaging strategies of the stroke pathology and stem cell therapy in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswendt, Markus; Adamczak, Joanna; Tennstaedt, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Transplanted stem cells can induce and enhance functional recovery in experimental stroke. Invasive analysis has been extensively used to provide detailed cellular and molecular characterization of the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells. But post mortem analysis is not appropriate to reveal the time scale of the dynamic interplay between the cell graft, the ischemic lesion and the endogenous repair mechanisms. This review describes non-invasive imaging techniques which have been developed to provide complementary in vivo information. Recent advances were made in analyzing simultaneously different aspects of the cell graft (e.g., number of cells, viability state, and cell fate), the ischemic lesion (e.g., blood–brain-barrier consistency, hypoxic, and necrotic areas) and the neuronal and vascular network. We focus on optical methods, which permit simple animal preparation, repetitive experimental conditions, relatively medium-cost instrumentation and are performed under mild anesthesia, thus nearly under physiological conditions. A selection of recent examples of optical intrinsic imaging, fluorescence imaging and bioluminescence imaging to characterize the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells are discussed. Special attention is paid to novel optimal reporter genes/probes for genetic labeling and tracking of stem cells and appropriate transgenic animal models. Requirements, advantages and limitations of these imaging platforms are critically discussed and placed into the context of other non-invasive techniques, e.g., magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, which can be joined with optical imaging in multimodal approaches. PMID:25177269

  4. A review of novel optical imaging strategies of the stroke pathology and stem cell therapy in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Aswendt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transplanted stem cells can induce and enhance functional recovery in experimental stroke. Invasive analysis has been extensively used to provide detailed cellular and molecular characterization of the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells. But post mortem analysis is not appropriate to reveal the time scale of the dynamic interplay between the cell graft, the ischemic lesion and the endogenous repair mechanisms. This review describes non-invasive imaging techniques which have been developed to provide complementary in vivo information. Recent advances were made in analyzing simultaneously different aspects of the cell graft (e.g. number of cells, viability state and cell fate, the ischemic lesion (e.g. blood brain barrier consistency, hypoxic and necrotic areas and the neuronal and vascular network. We focus on optical methods, which permit simple animal preparation, repetitive experimental conditions, relatively medium-cost instrumentation and are performed under mild anesthesia, thus nearly under physiological conditions. A selection of recent examples of optical intrinsic imaging, fluorescence imaging (FLI and bioluminescence imaging (BLI to characterize the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells are discussed. Special attention is paid to novel optimal reporter genes/probes for genetic labeling and tracking of stem cells and appropriate transgenic animal models. Requirements, advantages and limitations of these imaging platforms are critically discussed and placed into the context of other non-invasive techniques, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET, which can be joined with optical imaging in multimodal approaches.

  5. Recent Workshops

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F. J.

    Since the previous edition of ATLAS e-news, the NIKHEF Institute in Amsterdam has hosted not just one but two workshops related to ATLAS TDAQ activities. The first in October was dedicated to the Detector Control System (DCS). Just three institutes, CERN, NIKHEF and St Petersburg, provide the effort for the central DCS services, but each ATLAS sub-detector provides effort for their own controls. Some 30 people attended, including representatives for all of the ATLAS sub-detectors, representatives of the institutes working on the central services and the project leader of JCOP, which brings together common aspects of detector controls across the LHC experiments. During the three-day workshop the common components were discussed, and each sub-detector described their experiences and plans for their future systems. Whilst many of the components to be used are standard commercial components, a key custom item for ATLAS is the ELMB (Embedded Local Monitor Board). Prototypes for this have now been extensively test...

  6. [Pathologic anatomy of large fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovtsova, A F; Grishchenko, V I; Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Sorokina, I V; Simacheva, A V

    1986-01-01

    A controlled clinicomorphological study of 170 big fetuses versus 70 medium body mass fetuses (controls) was performed with a special emphasis on the endocrine regulation in the functional system mother-placenta-fetus. Clinically, there was no evidence of mother's endocrine system pathology, though morphological studies (histological, histochemical, morphometric, immunofluorescent) revealed significant morphofunctional peculiarities of adenohypophysis, epiphysis, thyroid gland, adrenal cortex, endocrine apparatus of the pancreas and placenta in big fetuses in comparison with those in medium body mass fetuses. PMID:3800683

  7. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Planel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A? peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  8. Delay discounting by pathological gamblers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Mark R.; Marley, Janice; Jacobs, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to the large amount of money was varied from 1 week to 10 years across conditions. Indifference points between immediate money and delayed mo...

  9. Molecular Pathology of Lewy Body Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lewy body diseases are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein(AS-positive inclusions in the brain. Since their main component is conformationally modified AS, aggregation of the latter is thought to be a key pathogenic event in these diseases. The analysis of inclusion body constituents gives additional information about pathways also involved in the pathology of synucleinopathies. Widespread mitochondrial dysfunction is very closely related to disease development. The impairment of protein degradation pathways, including both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosomepathway also play an important role during the development of Lewy body diseases. Finally, differential expression changes of isoforms corresponding to genes primarily involved in Lewy body formation point to alternative splicing as another important mechanism in the development of Parkinson’s disease, as well as dementia with Lewy bodies. The present paper attempts to give an overview of recent molecular findings related to the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases.

  10. Recurrent corneal erosion: pathology of corneal puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsev, D A; Kincaid, M C; Fouraker, B D; Dresner, M S; Schanzlin, D J

    1991-09-01

    Recurrent corneal erosion is a difficult disorder to treat. Despite conventional therapy, some patients continue to have episodes of erosion. Recent literature suggests the efficacy of corneal puncture, which is thought to induce adherence of the epithelium and basement membrane to the anterior stroma. We performed multiple corneal punctures with 23-, 25-, 27-, and 30-gauge needles on one patient who underwent penetrating keratoplasty 7 weeks later. We found that an insertion depth of 0.1 mm was sufficient to cause the production of new basement membrane and fibrocytic reaction in the anterior stroma. Analysis of the pathologic specimen supports the use of the larger 23- and 25-gauge needles, and cautions against the use of small gauge needles, especially 30-gauge, for this procedure. PMID:1935141

  11. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; RØmer Thomsen, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological gambling symptom severity using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The results showed that pathological gambling sufferers had significantly higher response frequency than non-problem gamblers, and that response frequency was significantly correlated with SOGS symptom severity among pathological gambling sufferers. Finally, binary logistic regression showed that response frequency accurately identified 21 (95.5%) pathological gambling sufferers and 18 (85.7%) non-problem gamblers. The correlation between response frequency and SOGS may suggest a stronger reinforcement of gambling behavior in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may have important implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling.

  12. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    OpenAIRE

    W. George Scarlett

    2012-01-01

    Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world) and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  13. Fatal intracranial arterial dissection: clinical pathological correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, M. A.; Gilbert, J. J.; Kaufmann, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical pathological features of fatal arterial dissection confined to the intracranial vessels are described. Three patients with anterior circulation dissections presented with focal ischaemic neurological deficits and pathological examination of involved vessels revealed a dissection plane between internal elastic lamina and media accompanied by intravascular thrombosis. Three of four patients with posterior circulation dissections had clinical pathological features of subarachnoid ha...

  14. Recent recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steve Goldfarb

    The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project would like to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures concerning ATLAS and the LHC. Most recently, we produced a series of presentations made at the First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas, held at SLAC in August. The complete set of lectures can be found here.There is a lot of outstanding material there, relevant to all of ATLAS, including detector summaries, trigger and physics talks, software and computing presentations, and an overview of operations. Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.Additional ATLAS material, including plenary lectures, workshops and tutorials, can be found via our portal athttp://www.wlap.org/atlasincluding: First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas (Aug 2007) Glasgow Overview Week Plenary Sessions (Jul 2007) CTEQ Workshop: "Physics at ...

  15. Actual problems of physical rehabilitation of students with spinal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotelevskiy V.I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze integrative rehabilitation approaches to solving the problem of physical rehabilitation of students with spinal pathology. Material: analyzed more than 50 references. The analysis of the results of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation 67 students 19-20 years old with neurological manifestations of vertebral osteochondrosis of 1 degree. Results: actual problems of students with physical rehabilitation spinal pathology, analyzes the main aspects and rehabilitation approaches to solving these problems. Application integrative model of physical rehabilitation 20.7% increased its efficiency by general indicators of clinical research, valeology literacy, health and quality of life, stability of the results of rehabilitation. Conclusions: proven effective integrative rehabilitation system based on the integrated use of pedagogical, psychological treatment and physical rehabilitation in higher educational institutions.

  16. Évolutions réglementaire et normative de l’assainissement non collectif : comment modifient-elles en profondeur le paysage technique ? Recent evolutions on French regulation and normative documents about on-site treatment: How do they also change the technical aspects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUTIN, Catherine ; DUBOIS, Vivien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En France, la réglementation relative aux prescriptions techniques applicables aux installations d’assainissement non collectif ne cesse d’évolueret conduit à l’apparition sur le territoire de nombreux produits comme les «micro-stations». Cette note réalise un focus des principales évolutions et fournit un tableau de classification de ces filières.The regulation relative to technical requirements applicable to on-site treatment evolved in 2007. It introduced the possibility of implementing new types of approved wastewater treatment plant. It also described guidelines to get new treatment plant approved. Experimental tests have to be carried out which duration depends on tests carried out beforehand during a EC marking. This regulatory evolution has led to the appearance on the French territory of numerous new products, called "micro-wastewater treatment plant”. The present note first provides a focus of the main regulatory evolutions and then proposes a classification of the recently introduced wastewater treatment plants.

  17. CT of the normal and pathologic stapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on CT in the pathologic stapes. The radiologic aspect of the stapes was analyzed in 287 patients with noncholesteatomatous chronic otitis media (n = 46), cholesteatoma (n = 162), malformations (n = 52), and otosclerosis (n = 27) by using axial and, occasionally, coronal sections. Two CT scanners (M1 and M2) that differ in spatial resolution were used. The radiologic and surgical results are presented. In chronic cholesteatomous otitis, we analyzed two populations, P1 and P2. In the P1 population, (n = 92), studied on the M1 unit, there was stapes destruction in 39% (n = 36), versus 38% (n = 27) in the P2 population (n = 70), studied on the M2 unit. In P1, the diagnostic sensitivity was 97% and specificity was 78%. In P2, the sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 95%. The specificity of P2 was greater than that of P1 because of the smaller number of false-positive diagnoses with the M2 unit. Equivalent results are obtained in the malformation (n = 29) and trauma (n = 16) cases. In stapedo-vestibular otosclerosis, studied only with M2, the sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 100%

  18. Pathology Education: SY17-1 POSTGRADUATE ASSESSMENT IN PATHOLOGY AN EIGHT-YEAR EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2014-10-01

    Successful running of postgraduate assessments in pathology is essential to maintain the professional standard in pathology and ensure safety and quality of pathology services to the patients. In Australia, pathology laboratories are also required to be accredited for the training of pathologist trainees. Pathology trainees are required to undergo appropriate years of training and clinical rotations in different pathology laboratories to be eligible for assessment. Assessments in anatomical pathology comprise in-house assessments, completion of anatomical pathology portfolios and national examinations. The national examinations focus on the applications of pathology knowledge. Candidates were provided feedback including the expected answers and common errors in the diagnostic approach. The examinations were compiled and conducted by a team of examiners with combined expertise across a wide range of sub-disciplines to ensure the materials examined were fair and representative of real life pathology practices. PMID:25188133

  19. Pathology Case Study: Macrocytic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahler, David

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older man suffering from chronic bronchitis and macrocytic anemia also developed persistent flu symptoms. Visitors view the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  20. Pathology Case Study: Breast Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Karen

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 54 year-old woman presented with a â??left breast nodule.â? Visitors are given the patientâ??s history, mammogram image, and the results from a fine needle aspiration (including images), and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Students can check their conclusions by clicking on the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section, which provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease.

  1. Pathology Case Study: Cervical Adenopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Fiona

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 78-year-old male who presented with a 6 month history of cervical adenopathy. Visitors are given patient history, microscopic description, differential diagnosis, and immunohistochemistry, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  2. Recent recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb

    The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project is happy to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures, including the full Plenary Session from the ATLAS Overview Week, held at CERN in October. Archives from that event are located here and directly on the Indico agenda. Click on the pictures below to access more information. Latest NewsAs announced in the Collaborative Tool Workshop, held on Tuesday of the Overview Week, future events in the Michigan Archives will be available for viewing with a Flash Player plug-in (right image above), as well as the usual Real Player plug-in. This additional option, made possible by our usage of the Lecture Object and standard formats for storing all media and metadata, allows the viewer to choose her/his preferred environment. As always, viewing of the lectures is supported on all major platforms and browsers and there is also the option to download lectures for remote viewing with limited or no network bandwidth.ATLAS 2007 ArchivesAdditional...

  3. Vascular regulation of adult neurogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KazunobuSawamoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells in the mammalian adult brain continuously produce new neurons throughout life. Accumulating evidence in rodents suggests that various aspects of adult neurogenesis, including the genesis, migration, and maturation of new neurons, are regulated by factors derived from blood vessels and their microenvironment. Brain injury enhances both neurogenesis and angiogenesis, thereby promoting the cooperative regeneration of neurons and blood vessels. In this paper, we briefly review the mechanisms for the vascular regulation of adult neurogenesis in the ventricular-subventricular zone under physiological and pathological conditions, and discuss their clinical potential for brain regeneration strategies.

  4. Optimizing the pathology workstation "cockpit": Challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A

    2010-01-01

    The 21(st) century has brought numerous changes to the clinical reading (i.e., image or virtual pathology slide interpretation) environment of pathologists and it will continue to change even more dramatically as information and communication technologies (ICTs) become more widespread in the integrated healthcare enterprise. The extent to which these changes impact the practicing pathologist differ as a function of the technology under consideration, but digital "virtual slides" and the viewing of images on computer monitors instead of glass slides through a microscope clearly represents a significant change in the way that pathologists extract information from these images and render diagnostic decisions. One of the major challenges facing pathologists in this new era is how to best optimize the pathology workstation, the reading environment and the new and varied types of information available in order to ensure efficient and accurate processing of this information. Although workstations can be stand-alone units with images imported via external storage devices, this scenario is becoming less common as pathology departments connect to information highways within their hospitals and to external sites. Picture Archiving and Communications systems are no longer confined to radiology departments but are serving the entire integrated healthcare enterprise, including pathology. In radiology, the workstation is often referred to as the "cockpit" with a "digital dashboard" and the reading room as the "control room." Although pathology has yet to "go digital" to the extent that radiology has, lessons derived from radiology reading "cockpits" can be quite valuable in setting up the digital pathology reading room. In this article, we describe the concept of the digital dashboard and provide some recent examples of informatics-based applications that have been shown to improve the workflow and quality in digital reading environments. PMID:21031008

  5. Pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Ouyang, Deepti Dhall, Run Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathologic hyperplasia of various pancreatic endocrine cells is rare but has been long known. ? cell hyperplasia contributes to persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, which is commonly caused by mutations in the islet ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and to non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia in adults, which may or may not be associated with bariatric surgery. ? cell hyperplasia may cause glucagonoma syndrome or induce pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. An inactivating mutation of the glucagon receptor causes ? cell hyperplasia and asymptomatic hyperglucagonemia. Pancreatic polypeptide cell hyperplasia has been described without a clearly-characterized clinical syndrome and hyperplasia of other endocrine cells inside the pancreas has not been reported to our knowledge. Based on morphological evidence, the main pathogenetic mechanism for pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia is increased endocrine cell neogenesis from exocrine ductal epithelium. Pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia should be considered in the diagnosis and management of hypoglycemia, elevated islet hormone levels, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Further studies of pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia will likely yield insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  6. Mundo do trabalho: alguns aspectos vivenciados pelos profissionais recém- formados em enfermagem / The world of work: some aspects experienced by professional nurses recently graduated / El mundo del trabajo: algunos aspectos experimentados por profesionales de enfermería recién graduados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariza Maria Serafim, Mattosinho; Maria Seloi, Coelho; Betina Hörner Schlindwein, Meirelles; Sabrina da Silva de, Souza; Cleonete Elena, Argenta.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer algumas vivencias de recém graduados em enfermagem, na transição do mundo acadêmico para o mundo do trabalho. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa exploratória descritiva realizada com amostra de 31 profissionais graduados em cursos de enfermagem no período de 2000 a 2004. RESULTADOS: Na análise e i [...] nterpretação dos dados, foram identificados três tipos de vivencias: preconceitos no mundo do trabalho, inserção na equipe de trabalho em saúde e fatores que facilitam a transição para o mundo do trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: O início da atividade profissional, para o(a) enfermeiro(a), pode ser marcado por dificuldades, gerando ansiedade. Entretanto, o mundo do trabalho pode ser prazeroso, gratificante e instigante, estimulando o profissional a superar os desafios e os próprios limites decorrentes da formação profissional. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Conocer algunas vivencias de recién graduados en enfermería, en la transición del mundo académico para el mundo del trabajo. MÉTODOS: Investigación exploratoria y descriptiva realizada con una muestra de 31 profesionales graduados en cursos de enfermería en el período de 2000 a 2004. RESUL [...] TADOS: El análisis e interpretación de los datos identificó tres tipos de vivencias (prejuicios en el mundo del trabajo, inserción en el equipo de trabajo en salud y factores que facilitan la transición para el mundo del trabajo). CONCLUSIÓN: El inicio de la actividad profesional, para el enfermero, puede ser marcada por dificultades que generan ansiedad. Entre tanto, el mundo del trabajo puede ser placentero, gratificante e provocativo, estimulando al profesional a superar desafíos y límites, provenientes de la formación profesional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To know some experiences, of nurses recently graduated, in the transition from academia to the world of work. METHODS: It is a descriptive and exploratory study conducted with a sample of 31 professionals graduated in nursing courses in the period 2000-2004. RESULTS: The analysis and data [...] interpretation identified three types of experiences (prejudice in the world of work, integration into the health work-team and factors that facilitate the transition to the world of work). CONCLUSION: The beginning of the professional activity, for nurses, could be marked by difficulties that generate anxiety. Meanwhile, the world of work can be enjoyable, rewarding and challenging, encouraging professionals to overcome challenges and constraints that arise from the profession education.

  7. Mundo do trabalho: alguns aspectos vivenciados pelos profissionais recém- formados em enfermagem El mundo del trabajo: algunos aspectos experimentados por profesionales de enfermería recién graduados The world of work: some aspects experienced by professional nurses recently graduated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Maria Serafim Mattosinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer algumas vivencias de recém graduados em enfermagem, na transição do mundo acadêmico para o mundo do trabalho. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa exploratória descritiva realizada com amostra de 31 profissionais graduados em cursos de enfermagem no período de 2000 a 2004. RESULTADOS: Na análise e interpretação dos dados, foram identificados três tipos de vivencias: preconceitos no mundo do trabalho, inserção na equipe de trabalho em saúde e fatores que facilitam a transição para o mundo do trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: O início da atividade profissional, para o(a enfermeiro(a, pode ser marcado por dificuldades, gerando ansiedade. Entretanto, o mundo do trabalho pode ser prazeroso, gratificante e instigante, estimulando o profissional a superar os desafios e os próprios limites decorrentes da formação profissional.OBJETIVO: Conocer algunas vivencias de recién graduados en enfermería, en la transición del mundo académico para el mundo del trabajo. MÉTODOS: Investigación exploratoria y descriptiva realizada con una muestra de 31 profesionales graduados en cursos de enfermería en el período de 2000 a 2004. RESULTADOS: El análisis e interpretación de los datos identificó tres tipos de vivencias (prejuicios en el mundo del trabajo, inserción en el equipo de trabajo en salud y factores que facilitan la transición para el mundo del trabajo. CONCLUSIÓN: El inicio de la actividad profesional, para el enfermero, puede ser marcada por dificultades que generan ansiedad. Entre tanto, el mundo del trabajo puede ser placentero, gratificante e provocativo, estimulando al profesional a superar desafíos y límites, provenientes de la formación profesional.OBJECTIVE: To know some experiences, of nurses recently graduated, in the transition from academia to the world of work. METHODS: It is a descriptive and exploratory study conducted with a sample of 31 professionals graduated in nursing courses in the period 2000-2004. RESULTS: The analysis and data interpretation identified three types of experiences (prejudice in the world of work, integration into the health work-team and factors that facilitate the transition to the world of work. CONCLUSION: The beginning of the professional activity, for nurses, could be marked by difficulties that generate anxiety. Meanwhile, the world of work can be enjoyable, rewarding and challenging, encouraging professionals to overcome challenges and constraints that arise from the profession education.

  8. Aspectos celulares da cicatrização / Cellular aspects of wound healing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo José de, Mendonça; Joaquim, Coutinho-Netto.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O processo cicatricial compreende uma sequência de eventos moleculares e celulares que interagem para que ocorra a restauração do tecido lesado. Desde o extravasamento de plasma, com a coagulação e agregação plaquetária até a reepitelização e remodelagem do tecido lesado o organismo age tentando res [...] taurar a funcionalidade tecidual. Assim, este trabalho abrange os diversos aspectos celulares envolvidos no processo cicatricial, bem como os principais medicamentos utilizados no tratamento de patologias relacionadas às deficiências na cicatrização. São abordados também, os aspectos econômicos referentes, sobretudo, às feridas crônicas de pés diabéticos. Abstract in english Wound healing is a dynamic interactive process that involves a sequence of molecular and cellular events. Recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have greatly expanded our understanding of the biological process involved in wound repair and tissue regeneration. From plasma extravasation, w [...] ith coagulation and platelet aggregation, to reepithelialization and remodeling of injured tissue, the organism acts by trying to restore functionality tissue. Thus, the present study encompasses several cellular aspects involved in the wound healing process, as well as the main drugs used in treating the pathology related to wound healing complications. Economic aspects are also addressed, mainly related to chronic wounds of diabetic feet.

  9. Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging and pathologic spectrum of appendiceal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Maturen, Katherine E; Hammer, Suntrea G

    2014-10-01

    While acute appendicitis is a common and important clinical problem, a variety of other disease processes can affect the appendix. Simple and perforated appendicitis, tip appendicitis, and stump appendicitis share a common clinical presentation including anorexia, right lower quadrant pain, and fever. By imaging, most cases of acute appendicitis exhibit luminal dilation, wall thickening, and periappendiceal inflammatory stranding. In tip appendicitis, these changes are isolated to the distal appendix, often with an obstructing appendicolith. Perforated appendicitis can exhibit mural discontinuity, periappendiceal abscess, and/or extraluminal appendicoliths. After appendectomy, the appendiceal remnant or "stump" can become inflamed, often necessitating repeat surgery. Inflammatory bowel disease can involve the terminal ileum, secondarily involving the appendix, or may primarily involve the appendix. Patient symptoms can be chronic in such cases, and mucosal hyperenhancement is a pronounced imaging feature. In asymptomatic patients without appendiceal inflammation, the appendix can be dilated by intraluminal material such as inspissated succus in cystic fibrosis or mucus from benign appendiceal mucocele. Finally, neoplasms such as typical appendiceal carcinoid tumor and mucinous adenocarcinoma can involve the appendix. Carcinoids are often small and incidentally discovered at pathologic examination, while malignant mucinous adenocarcinoma tends to present with advanced disease including pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cecal cancers can also obstruct the appendiceal lumen and cause acute appendicitis; an astute radiologist can recognize this prospectively and facilitate definitive resection (right hemicolectomy) at the time of surgery. Attention to mural features, cecal configuration, and periappendiceal inflammation is essential to the correct prospective diagnosis of complicated appendicitis and less common appendiceal pathologies. PMID:24414145

  10. Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathologic vulnerability to psychological trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Mark W.; Shenton, Martha E.; Ciszewski, Aleksandra; Kasai, Kiyoto; Lasko, Natasha B.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman, Roger K.

    2002-01-01

    In animals, exposure to severe stress can damage the hippocampus. Recent human studies show smaller hippocampal volume in individuals with the stress-related psychiatric condition posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Does this represent the neurotoxic effect of trauma, or is smaller hippocampal volume a pre-existing condition that renders the brain more vulnerable to the development of pathological stress responses? In monozygotic twins discordant for trauma exposure, we found evidence that ...

  11. Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting?

    OpenAIRE

    Waschbisch Anne; Manzel Arndt; Linker Ralf A; Lee De-Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The investigation of central nervous system vascular changes in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a time-honored concept. Yet, recent reports on changes in venous cerebrospinal outflow, the advent of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques and the investigation of immunomodulatory properties of several vascular mediators on the molecular level have added new excitement to hypotheses centering around vascular pathology as determining factor in the pathophysiology of ...

  12. Pathological and Evolutionary Implications of Retroviruses as Mobile Genetic Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mark A.; Mackenzie Whitesell; Madeline Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in prim...

  13. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  14. Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Eileen

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  15. [Molecular pathology of pulmonary carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Zden?k; Mat?j?ková, Milada; Mat?j, Radoslav

    2014-04-01

    The group of non-small cell lung carcinomas includes tumors that are variable at the clinical, histopathological and molecular levels. Advances in the understanding of molecular pathology of lung adenocarcinomas in particular has led to changes in their histopathological classification and treatment. Patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma harboring specific mutations benefit from the administration of specific targeted therapy. Therefore, pathologists closely involved in the diagnostics of lung tumors significantly contribute to the diagnostic-therapeutical algorithm. Analysis of EGFR gene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas is already routinely performed and the presence of activating mutations in EGFR is the main indication for the administration of tyrosinkinase inhibitors. Besides EGFR mutations, EML4-ALK rearrangement is also being analysed and there is potential in analysing BRAF mutations as well. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of the most relevant molecules that also serve as the therapeutic target for practicing pathologists. PMID:24758501

  16. Examination of the pathological dissociation taxon in depersonalization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Daphne; Knutelska, Margaret; Nelson, Dorothy; Guralnik, Orna; Schmeidler, James

    2003-11-01

    In recent years, the pathologic dissociation taxon developed by Waller, Putnam, and Carlson (Psychological Methods 1:300-321, 1996) from a Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) sample has been increasingly used in studies of dissociation in general. However, the taxon's convergence with dissociative diagnoses other than DID, as well as the taxon's central premise that pathologic dissociation is a categorical rather than a dimensional construct, remain areas of exploration. This report examines the applicability of the pathologic dissociation taxon to Depersonalization Disorder (DPD). The Dissociative Experiences Scale was administered to 100 consecutively recruited DPD subjects diagnosed by semistructured clinical interview and by the SCID-D. Taxon membership probability was calculated using the recommended SAS scoring program. Approximately 2/3 of subjects (N = 64) had a very high probability (>.80) of belonging to the taxon, while 1/3 of subjects had a very low probability (<.10) of belonging to the taxon. A taxon cutoff score of 13 yielded an 81% sensitivity in detecting the presence of DPD. The modest convergence between taxonic membership and clinical dissociative disorder diagnosis suggests that the taxon may have important limitations in its use, at least when applied to DPD in its current form. As previously, we continue to recommend a low taxon cutoff score (13) for the sensitive detection of depersonalization disorder. The inference that pathologic dissociation is a unitary and categorical entity is also discussed. PMID:14614341

  17. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. George Scarlett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  18. Kaposi's sarcoma, a South African perspective: Demographic and pathological features

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R D, Mohanlal; S, Pather.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has increased dramatically since the onset of the AIDS epidemic. Of the estimated 66 200 cases of KS worldwide, 58 800 are considered to have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology and pathological characteristics of [...] KS at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH), Johannesburg, South Africa METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used. Nine hundred and thirty-eight histopathology reports of KS diagnosed in 901 patients at CHBAH between 2005 and 2009 were reviewed. Age, gender, topographic site, CD4 count, HIV status, KS histological stage, findings of human herpesvirus 8 latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 immunohistochemistry and concomitant pathological findings were recorded RESULTS: The male/female ratio was 1.2:1, the mean age 37 years and the median CD4 count 128 cells/?L. Lower limb skin biopsies accounted for 49.6% of cases. Paediatric, visceral and endemic KS accounted for only limited proportions (1.4%, 1.4% and 1.3% of biopsies, respectively). There were concomitant pathological findings in 4.6% of biopsy specimens, infections and inflammatory dermatoses being the most frequent CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlight the need for allocation of diagnostic and treatment resources for KS. Documentation of the various demographic aspects of KS will prove to be of historical, clinical and histopathological interest as the long-term outcomes of antiretroviral therapy begin to emerge

  19. Pharmacological Treatments in Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behavior. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. METHODS: A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. RESULTS: A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonistsand glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first-line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration, and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g., those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG.

  20. Contemporary pharmacotherapy and iatrogenic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailovi? D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, the pharmaceutical industry has developed into a powerful human activity highly influencing modern medicine. Thousands of synthetic therapeuticals have been developed, and these formulations enabled the successful treatment of many diseases, some of which were considered incurable. An increase in drug consumption followed the development of the pharmaceutical industry and the introduction of synthetic drugs. The widespread use of new medicals enabled the collection of data confirming their effectiveness, but also more and more data concerning side and unwanted effects were reported. Frequent side/unwanted effect reports gave rise to development of iatrogenic pathology, a new branch of clinical pathology. The knowledge of the possible unwanted effects of drugs on macro organisms did not enable the effective withdrawal of such formulations from the market. At the beginning, the reports concerning unwanted effects were not verealed. Consequently some potentially harmful formulations were used for years without methodical analyses of their side/unwanted effects. Some potentially dangerous formulations are still on the market such as drugs containing ulcerogenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic substances as well as those inducing bone marrow aplasia. The administration of these potentially dangerous formulations is understandable in the case of clear therapeutic indications allowing no alternatives. In these cases the risk of harmful side effects is greatly overwhelmed by the risk from the primary disease. Otherwise the administration of the potentially harmful drug is unjustified, especially if the indication is not a disease. Many potentially harmful drugs are formulated for use in healthy animals, recommended as growth, laying and milk stimulators, those allowing higher speed and strength in sport and racing horses, estrus inducers and suppressors. The misuse or maluse medication is highly present in sport horses daily treated with vitamin and mineral supplements, analgesics, corticosteroid and anabolic steroids. Unwanted effects of such treatments are evident sometimes shortly after application and sometimes later, influencing reproduction. The same problem is present in small animals.

  1. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Linnet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine playersrepresent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathologicalgambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time on slot machines compared withnon-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathologicalgambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathologicalgambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that responsefrequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency amongtwenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially availableslot machine, and screened for pathological gambling symptom severity using the South Oaks Gambling Screen(SOGS. The results showed that pathological gambling sufferers had significantly higher response frequencythan non-problem gamblers, and that response frequency was significantly correlated with SOGS symptomseverity among pathological gambling sufferers. Finally, binary logistic regression showed that responsefrequency accurately identified 21 (95.5% pathological gambling sufferers and 18 (85.7% non-problemgamblers. The correlation between response frequency and SOGS may suggest a stronger reinforcement ofgambling behavior in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may haveimportant implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling.

  2. [Elastoviscosimetry in maxillo-facial pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, M; Nunziata, G; Santoro, V; De Cindio, B; Ammaturo, V

    1991-01-01

    In the oro-maxillo-facial pathology it may be useful to perform hematochimical and saliva tests which can clarify the kind of the pathology and which can be used in the post-surgical follow-up because of incidental modifications. Saliva compliance and viscosity and blood hemorrheology variations always result lower than in normal population. The Authors are going to value which kind of oro-maxillo-facial pathologies shows a significant reduction of saliva elastoviscosity and blood hemorrheology. Yet, in a further study, they will try to explain that reduction and the connection with the specific pathology and the medical and/or surgical treatment. PMID:1871652

  3. Pathologic mitoses and pathology of mitosis in tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Steinbeck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The gist of my hypothesis (.. is a certain abnormal chromatin constitution. Each process, which brings about this chromatin constitution, would result in the origin of a malignant tumour. Certainly, I consider irregularities with mitosis as the normal mode of the origin of an incorrectly assembled nucleus. This statement by Boveri (1914 has considered earlier observations of asymmetric divisions in human cancers (Hansemann, 1890. The hypothesis is based on the understanding of mitosis as an equational bipartition of the hereditary substance (Flemming, 1879; Roux, 1883. Latest since it was known that genes are located on chromosomes (Sturtevant, 1913, their balanced transport in anaphase appeared as a condition of correct somatic proliferation. True mitoses guarantee the constancy of terminally differentiated tissues. Politzer (1934 has performed X-ray experiments to investigate abnormal karyokinesis with regard to anomalous chromatin condensation, chromosome breakage, spindle malformation, and failure in cytokinesis. On the basis of light microscopy, further significant progress in understanding the pathology of mitosis was not possible. Tumour cases with reduced chromosome numbers seduced to the idea that mitotic activity is rather under cytoplasmic than under nuclear control (Koller, 1947.

  4. Recent additions to fundament aspects of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems like those of Schroedinger's can comprise quantum systems as classical systems, the measurement process and reality. After a reviewing the history of interpretation of quantum mechanics it is shown how a generalized algebraic quantum theory (e.g. G.G. Emch 1986) can tackle these problems and paradoxes. This theory treats systems with infinite degrees of freedom and open systems. It is applicable both to quantum as to classical systems and thus to the measurement process with its irreversibility. The usual linear Schroedinger equation is replaced by a non-linear one where the nonlinear terms reflect the interaction of the system with its environment or with the measuring apparatus. (Quittner) To appear also in 'Naturwissenschaft und Weltbild', 1992

  5. Recent progress and advances in iterative software (including parallel aspects)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, G.; Young, D.M.; Kincaid, D. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the current state of iterative software packages. Of particular interest is software for large scale engineering and scientific applications, especially for distributed parallel systems. However, the authors will also review the state of software development for conventional architectures. This workshop will complement the other proposed workshops on iterative BLAS kernels and applications. The format for the workshop is as follows: To provide some structure, there will be brief presentations, each of less than five minutes duration and dealing with specific facets of the subject. These will be designed to focus the discussion and to stimulate an exchange with the participants. Issues to be covered include: The evolution of iterative packages, current state of the art, the parallel computing challenge, applications viewpoint, standards, and future directions and open problems.

  6. Plant Pathology: Past to PresentPlant Pathology: Past to Present Illustrated Storybook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank Tainte (American Phytopathological Society; )

    1998-01-01

    Plant Pathology: Past to Present is an illustrated storybook describing the origin, relevance, and science of plant pathology. The story unfolds as if told by Anton deBary, father of plant pathology, and is suitable for elementary and secondary students to adults.

  7. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Maffulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Filippo Spiezia2, Vincenzo Denaro21Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones.Keywords: tendinopathy, rupture, percutanous repair, less invasive

  8. Dopaminergic and Clinical Correlates of Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    MetteBuhlCallesen; AlbertGjedde; JakobLinnet

    2013-01-01

    Dopaminergic medication for motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease recently has been linked with impulse control disorders, including pathological gambling, which affects up to 8% of patients. Pathological gambling often is considered a behavioral addiction associated with disinhibition, risky decision-making, and altered striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Using [11C]raclopride with positron emission tomography, we assessed dopaminergic neurotransmission during Iowa Gambling Task perfo...

  9. The molecular pathology of rosacea

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Kenshi; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Rosacea is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects over 10 million Americans. Although the phenotypes of rosacea are clinically heterogeneous, they are all related by the presence of chronic facial skin inflammation. Until recently, the pathophysiology of this disease has been poorly understood and limited to descriptions of factors that exacerbate or improve this disorder. Recent molecular studies suggest that an altered innate immune response is involved in the pathogene...

  10. Common bile duct pathologies at nawabshah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the causes, presentation, management and outcome of Common Bile Duct (CBD) pathologies. All patients who presented with CBD pathologies. Data of all the patients with CBD pathologies was collected and entered on a proforma, including their complaints, positive examination findings, investigations, diagnosis, procedure performed and its outcome. During the study period 45 patients presented with CBD pathology. Amongst them 14 were males and the rest females (31), with a mean age of 36.7 years. Around 67% patients had choledocholithiasis as the commonest cause. Exploration of the CBD with T-tube insertion was the commonest procedure, performed in 69% patients. About 4% patients had retained stones and 20% developed wound infection. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. Most common pathology involving the CBD was secondary stones; 95% patients had associated gall stones also. (author)

  11. Practical pathology of aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper M. M. Treuting

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

  12. Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy in benign pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Quintela

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report our experience with 43 retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients had a poor function from obstructive uropathology and renal atrophy. None of these patients had a previous lumbotomy. Retroperitoneoscopy was performed with 4 trocar port technique in a lateral position. The retroperitoneal space is created by using a Gaur's balloon made of sterile glove. The approach to vascular pedicle was done posteriorly and vessels were clipped by metal and Hem-o-lock (Weck Closure Systems, North Carolina, USA clips. The sample was intact extracted in an Endo-Bag prolonging one trocar incision. RESULTS: Median operative time was 160 minutes and median blood loss was 200 mL. Four cases (9% were converted to open surgery: one case due to bleeding and 3 cases due to technical difficulties regarding perirenal adherences. Most patients (39 checked out from the Hospital in day two. Four of them were left over 3 days due to wound complications. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneoscopy offers a safe, effective and reproductive access to nephrectomy for benign pathologies.

  13. Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy in benign pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo S., Quintela; Leonardo R., Cotta; Marcelo F., Neves; David L., Abelha Jr; Jose E., Tavora.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report our experience with 43 retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients had a poor function from obstructive uropathology and renal atrophy. None of these patients had a previous lumbotomy. Retroperitoneoscopy was perform [...] ed with 4 trocar port technique in a lateral position. The retroperitoneal space is created by using a Gaur's balloon made of sterile glove. The approach to vascular pedicle was done posteriorly and vessels were clipped by metal and Hem-o-lock (Weck Closure Systems, North Carolina, USA) clips. The sample was intact extracted in an Endo-Bag prolonging one trocar incision. RESULTS: Median operative time was 160 minutes and median blood loss was 200 mL. Four cases (9%) were converted to open surgery: one case due to bleeding and 3 cases due to technical difficulties regarding perirenal adherences. Most patients (39) checked out from the Hospital in day two. Four of them were left over 3 days due to wound complications. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneoscopy offers a safe, effective and reproductive access to nephrectomy for benign pathologies.

  14. Pathological gambling in women: a review / Jogo patológico em mulheres: uma revisão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Saboia, Martins; Daniela S. S., Lobo; Hermano, Tavares; Valentim, Gentil.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Ainda que jogos de azar e os problemas a eles relacionados sejam antigos para a humanidade, o Jogo Patológico, como alteração do comportamento humano, somente passou a ser reconhecido oficialmente como transtorno psiquiátrico a partir de sua inclusão na 3ª Edição do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico [...] de Transtornos Mentais (APA,1980). A maioria dos estudos sobre jogadores patológicos tem como base uma população eminentemente masculina. Entretanto, estima-se que pelo menos um terço dos indivíduos que recebem este diagnóstico sejam mulheres. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar características clínicas e epidemiológicas de jogadoras comparadas a jogadores. As bases de dados MEDLINE e PsycINFO foram consultadas a respeito de estudos sobre Jogo Patológico publicados nos últimos dez anos, com especial enfoque para características clínicas (dados sócio-demográficos, curso e evolução, comorbidade psiquiátrica, genética e personalidade) e epidemiologia. Artigos relevantes publicados anteriormente ao período escolhido de revisão foram selecionados a partir da lista original de referências. Os autores concluem que a literatura atual indica que jogadoras e jogadores apresentam semelhanças, mas carreiam possíveis diferenças etiopatogênicas cujo esclarecimento deverá aprimorar as estratégias de tratamento e prevenção. Abstract in english Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980). Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this arti [...] cle is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews of the past 10 years on clinical (sociodemographic, course and progression, psychiatric comorbidities, genetics, and personality) and epidemiological aspects of female gamblers. Other relevant articles were also selected from reference lists. It is concluded that the current literature indicates some common characteristics in female and male gamblers, but it also indicates the possibility that each gender may carry etiopathogenic differences that when better understood should lead to improved treatment and prevention strategies.

  15. Pathological gambling in women: a review Jogo patológico em mulheres: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Saboia Martins

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980. Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews of the past 10 years on clinical (sociodemographic, course and progression, psychiatric comorbidities, genetics, and personality and epidemiological aspects of female gamblers. Other relevant articles were also selected from reference lists. It is concluded that the current literature indicates some common characteristics in female and male gamblers, but it also indicates the possibility that each gender may carry etiopathogenic differences that when better understood should lead to improved treatment and prevention strategies.Ainda que jogos de azar e os problemas a eles relacionados sejam antigos para a humanidade, o Jogo Patológico, como alteração do comportamento humano, somente passou a ser reconhecido oficialmente como transtorno psiquiátrico a partir de sua inclusão na 3ª Edição do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais (APA,1980. A maioria dos estudos sobre jogadores patológicos tem como base uma população eminentemente masculina. Entretanto, estima-se que pelo menos um terço dos indivíduos que recebem este diagnóstico sejam mulheres. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar características clínicas e epidemiológicas de jogadoras comparadas a jogadores. As bases de dados MEDLINE e PsycINFO foram consultadas a respeito de estudos sobre Jogo Patológico publicados nos últimos dez anos, com especial enfoque para características clínicas (dados sócio-demográficos, curso e evolução, comorbidade psiquiátrica, genética e personalidade e epidemiologia. Artigos relevantes publicados anteriormente ao período escolhido de revisão foram selecionados a partir da lista original de referências. Os autores concluem que a literatura atual indica que jogadoras e jogadores apresentam semelhanças, mas carreiam possíveis diferenças etiopatogênicas cujo esclarecimento deverá aprimorar as estratégias de tratamento e prevenção.

  16. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a “vegetative state” or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these “primary” sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal “global neuronal workspace” in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” brain networks.

  17. Cardiovascular Pathology in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria: Correlation with the Vascular Pathology of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Michelle; Harten, Ingrid; Mitchell, Richard; Beers, Jeanette; Djabali, Karima; Cao, Kan; Erdos, Michael R.; Blair, Cecilia; Funke, Birgit; Smoot, Leslie; Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Machan, Jason T.; Kutys, Robert; Virmani, Renu; Collins, Francis S.; Wight, Thomas N.; Nabel, Elizabeth G.; Gordon, Leslie B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Children with Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) exhibit dramatically accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD) causing death from myocardial infarction or stroke between ages 7 and 20 years. We undertook the first histological comparative evaluation between genetically confirmed HGPS and the CVD of aging. Methods and Results We present structural and immunohistological analysis of cardiovascular tissues from two children with HGPS, who died of myocardial infarction. Both had features classically associated with the atherosclerosis of aging, as well as arteriolosclerosis of small vessels. Additionally, vessels exhibited prominent adventitial fibrosis, a previously undescribed feature of HGPS. Importantly, though progerin was detected at higher rates in the HGPS coronary arteries, it was also present in non-HGPS individuals. Between ages one month and 97 years, progerin staining increased an average of 3.34% per year (P<0.0001) in coronary arteries. Conclusion We find concordance between many aspects of cardiovascular pathology in both HGPS and geriatric patients. HGPS generates a more prominent adventitial fibrosis than typical CVD. Vascular progerin generation in young non-HGPS individuals, which significantly increases throughout life, strongly suggests that progerin has a role in the CV aging of the general population. PMID:20798379

  18. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    There are two important points of view on inclusion or subtype polymorphism in object-oriented programs, namely polymorphic access and dynamic dispatch. These features are essential for object-oriented programming, and it is worthwhile to consider whether they are supported in aspect-oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using AspectJ as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety.

  19. Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image acquisition systems (resolution, colour temperature, focus, brightness, and quality evaluation procedures, display resolution data, implemented image formats, storage, cycle frequency, backup procedures, operation system, and external system accessibility. The lowest third level describes the permitted limits and threshold in detail. At present, an applicable standard including all mentioned features does not exist to our knowledge; some aspects can be taken from radiological standards (PACS, DICOM 3; others require specific solutions or are not covered yet. Conclusion The progress in virtual microscopy and application of artificial intelligence (AI in tissue-based diagnosis demands fast preparation and implementation of an internationally acceptable standard. The described hierarchic order as well as analytic investigation in all potentially necessary aspects and details offers an appropriate tool to specifically determine standardized requirements.

  20. Theoretical aspects of spin physics

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    A summary is given of how spin enters in collinearly factorizing processes. Next, theoretical aspects of polarization in processes beyond collinear factorization are discussed in more detail, with special focus on recent developments concerning the color gauge invariant definitions of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions, such as the Sivers and Collins effect functions. This has particular relevance for azimuthal single spin asymmetries, whi...

  1. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    OpenAIRE

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohy...

  2. Pathology Case Study: Hemangioma and Severe Thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Franklin

    This is a transfusion pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 3-week-old female has hemangioma and severe thrombocytopenia. Visitors are given laboratory values and images, and are granted the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology medicine.

  3. Gastrointestinal pathology in neonates: new imaging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Stephanie; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2010-06-15

    The mainstay of imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) pathology in infants has always been and still is the plain radiograph of the abdomen and conventional contrast studies. In this review emphasis is placed on the situations where there are new imaging strategies and alternative modalities of imaging, including US, CT, MRI and radionuclide studies. This review will deal with GI pathology in the newborn and in the older neonate. It will also refer to any new approaches to imaging GI pathology in the premature infant. Finally the review will address how antenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities has changed the imaging strategy and management of the neonate. (orig.)

  4. Treatment of pathologic fractures after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five patients with malignant musculoskeletal tumors who had pathologic fractures after radiation therapy were studied clinically. All patients had osteoporotic changes at the irradiation site before being fractured. The pathologic fractures occurred from 2 to 8 years after irradiation. One patient was treated with gyps fixation, one with plating, three had intramedullary nailing. Three patients who were treated by plating or intramedullary nailing developed bone union, but this took more than one year. Non-union occurred in two patients who received more than 80 Gy irradiation. Intramedullary nailing is a useful method for treatment of pathologic fractures after irradiation. (author)

  5. University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

    2014-12-01

    We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030

  6. Clinical and pharmacological aspects of inflammatory demyelinating diseases in childhood: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalice, Alberto; Parisi, Pasquale; Papetti, Laura; Nicita, Francesco; Ursitti, Fabiana; Del Balzo, Francesca; Properzi, Enrico; Verrotti, Alberto; Ruggieri, Martino; Iannetti, Paola

    2010-06-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases comprise a spectrum of disorders affecting the myelin of the central and peripheral nervous system. These diseases can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, radiological, laboratory and pathological findings. Recent studies have contributed to current awareness that inflammatory demyelinating diseases are not restricted to the adult age group, but are more common in pediatric age than previously believed. Some of pediatric inflammatory demyelinating diseases carry an unfavorable long-term prognosis but appropriate treatments can improve the outcome. The possibility of physical and cognitive disability resulting from these diseases, highlights the urgent need for therapeutic strategies for neurorehabilitation, neuroregeneration, and neurorepair. This review discusses characteristics of primary demyelinating diseases more frequently observed in childhood, focusing on epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatments. PMID:21119885

  7. Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal KÖSEMEHMETO?LU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In many recent studies in the literature have described and commented on “competency based resident training” in pathology. According to this model, competencies are subclassified in 6 main categories: Patient care, medical knowledge, practice based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems based practice. Assessment of competency forms the main component of this model.Under the framework of Ankara Society of Pathology, a working group, composed of 11 residents, 6 of which representing the Training and Research Hospitals of Ministry of Health and the rest representing the university hospitals in Ankara, was established in order to participate in the think-tank about resident training in pathology. A questionnaire, composed of 12 questions, was prepared. According to this questionnaire, the number of trainers in the university hospitals is much higher than in the commercial hospitals. While the total number of cases and cases per resident do not differ between the university and commercial hospitals, microscopes used for the educational purposes are significantly less in the commercial hospitals, that is due to less number of binocular microscopes. The amount of resident training program, which consists of intra and intersectional meetings, are similar in the university and commercial hospitals, however, theoretic lectures are given only in 3 departments. Residents working in the university hospitals have obviously heavier burden than in the commercial hospitals. Lastly, residents generally exclaimed that the time dedicated to the macroscopy training is less sufficient than time used for the microscopy training.The factors affecting the training of resident in pathology are divided into two main groups: 1 Factors directly affecting training (quality of trainer, time dedicated for education, feed back, eg. and 2 Conditions which waste residents' time. For instant, workload which does need qualified staff and increases the burden on residents may be reassigned to medical secretary or pathology assistants; therefore energy of residents can be saved for educational activities. Optimization of physical working conditions, assortment of training programs, rotation in lacking subjects and consultations will enhance the quality of the education of the resident. Feedback assessment of trainer and trainee is an essential part of a training program.In conclusion, an ideal resident from the resident's point of view is the person who is endowed with medical and pathological knowledge, orderly interrelates with staff, professionally communicates with clinicians, manages a laboratory and is trained hard to achieve all the above mentioned competencies.

  8. [Pathological laughter after the brainstem infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderq, C; Drouineau, J; Rosier, M P; Alvarez, A; Gil, R; Neau, J P

    2000-03-01

    We report a case of 'fou rire prodromique' heralding a brainstem infarct with favorable prognosis after thrombolysis. Different clinical forms of pathological laughter, the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinico-anatomical correlations of this rare phenomenon are discussed. PMID:10740101

  9. Environment Contamination as Factor of Oncologic Pathologies

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Assessment of Technogenic and Radiation Risk Factors Giving Rise to Oncologic Pathologies of the Population Dwelling in a Region of Intensive Technogenic Effect upon the Environment (Taking the Mangistau Area of the RK as an Example)

  10. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  11. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  12. Proceedings of the second international molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Campbell, Peter T; Nishihara, Reiko; Phipps, Amanda I; Beck, Andrew H; Sherman, Mark E; Chan, Andrew T; Troester, Melissa A; Bass, Adam J; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Irizarry, Rafael A; Kelsey, Karl T; Nan, Hongmei; Peters, Ulrike; Poole, Elizabeth M; Qian, Zhi Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Zhang, Xuehong; Giovannucci, Edward L; van den Brandt, Piet A; Rosner, Bernard A; Wang, Molin; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Begg, Colin B

    2015-07-01

    Disease classification system increasingly incorporates information on pathogenic mechanisms to predict clinical outcomes and response to therapy and intervention. Technological advancements to interrogate omics (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, interactomics, etc.) provide widely open opportunities in population-based research. Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) represents integrative science of molecular pathology and epidemiology. This unified paradigm requires multidisciplinary collaboration between pathology, epidemiology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. Integration of these fields enables better understanding of etiologic heterogeneity, disease continuum, causal inference, and the impact of environment, diet, lifestyle, host factors (including genetics and immunity), and their interactions on disease evolution. Hence, the Second International MPE Meeting was held in Boston in December 2014, with aims to: (1) develop conceptual and practical frameworks; (2) cultivate and expand opportunities; (3) address challenges; and (4) initiate the effort of specifying guidelines for MPE. The meeting mainly consisted of presentations of method developments and recent data in various malignant neoplasms and tumors (breast, prostate, ovarian and colorectal cancers, renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and leukemia), followed by open discussion sessions on challenges and future plans. In particular, we recognized need for efforts to further develop statistical methodologies. This meeting provided an unprecedented opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration, consistent with the purposes of the Big Data to Knowledge, Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology, and Precision Medicine Initiative of the US National Institute of Health. The MPE meeting series can help advance transdisciplinary population science and optimize training and education systems for twenty-first century medicine and public health. PMID:25956270

  13. UpdatIng Course on Anatomic Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Chp, Servic?o Anatomia Patolo?gica Do

    2012-01-01

    Course Description: We are pleased to announce the 1st edition of our course entitled “Curso de Actualização em Anatomia Patológica Centro Hospitalar do Porto 2012”. The course is organized by Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto [Portugal] and shall provide the highest level of subspecialty instruction by a distinguished faculty recognized in the fields of Anatomic Pathology. The educational event shall include 3 days of anatomic pathology theoretical and practical sessio...

  14. Types of Psychotherapy for Pathological Gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Timothy W

    2005-01-01

    Several types of psychotherapy are currently used to treat pathological gamblers. These include Gambler's Anonymous, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and family therapy. Research into which types of psychotherapy are the most effective for pathological gambling is limited but is a growing area of study. Group therapy, namely Gambler's Anonymous, provides peer support and structure. Cognitive behavior therapy aims to identify and correct cognitive distor...

  15. [Morphology and clinical aspects of immune thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, S; Arndt, R; Weinland, G; Schuppert, F

    1996-07-01

    The aetiopathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease is still a matter for discussion. Morphologically, these illnesses are associated with a broad spectrum of overlapping changes. Thus, pathology cannot serve as the logical basis for a new classification. Therefore this overview makes use of the conventional nomenclature of clinically established entities and includes recently defined lesions. Besides histological characteristics, details of differential diagnostic value are presented in the context of clinical and laboratory data relevant for pathological classification. PMID:8927594

  16. The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, David

    2015-01-01

    From a biological perspective aging (senescence) appears to be a form of complex disease syndrome, though this is not the traditional view. This essay aims to foster a realistic understanding of aging by scrutinizing ideas old and new. The conceptual division between aging-related diseases and an underlying, non-pathological aging process underpins various erroneous traditional ideas about aging. Among biogerontologists, another likely error involves the aspiration to treat the entire aging process, which recent advances suggest is somewhat utopian. It also risks neglecting a more modest but realizable goal: to develop preventative treatments that partially protect against aging. PMID:26136770

  17. Pathologic cellular events in smoking-related pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrower, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis, a debilitating inflammatory disorder, results from pancreatic injury. Alcohol abuse is the foremost cause, although cigarette smoking has recently surfaced as a distinct risk factor. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke and its toxins initiate pathological cellular events leading to pancreatitis, have not been clearly defined. Although cigarette smoke is composed of more than 4000 compounds, it is mainly nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which have been extensively studied with respect to pancreatic diseases. This review summarizes these research findings and highlights cellular pathways which may be of relevance in initiation and progression of smoking-related pancreatitis. PMID:25938854

  18. Digital pathology with Fourier ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Zheng, Guoan; Willems, Phil; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-06-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is a recently introduced method of acquiring high-resolution, wide field of view (FOV) giga-pixel histology images. The FPM procedure first acquires a sequence of low-resolution images of a sample under variable-angle illumination. It then combines these images using a novel phase retrieval algorithm to improve the employed microscope's resolution beyond its conventional limit. Here, we first describe how FPM's resolution improvement can enhance wide FOV histology imaging. Second, we show that FPM also records a thin sample's optical phase, which can help pathologists digitally extract as much information as possible from a given histology slide. PMID:25481664

  19. Borderline personality pathology and the stability of interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Hallquist, Michael N; Beeney, Joseph E; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are associated with the presence and severity of interpersonal problems. At the same time, individuals with BPD are heterogeneous with regard to the types of interpersonal problems they display. BPD is also associated with temporal instability in various domains (e.g., affective lability), and this characteristic raises questions about whether BPD is associated with changes in the expression of interpersonal dysfunction over time, which may contribute to the observed heterogeneity. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BPD features and the stability of interpersonal problems over the course of 1 year. Participants (N = 150) were assessed for borderline personality pathology at baseline and also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales at baseline and every 3 months over the course of a year. Baseline BPD was used to predict structured (i.e., latent growth trajectories) and unstructured (i.e., mean square of successive differences) change parameters in generalized interpersonal distress, agentic problems, and communal problems across assessment waves. Baseline BPD predicted individual means in generalized distress and unstructured change (i.e., instability) in agentic and communal problems across the year. Baseline BPD was not predictive, however, of structured change (i.e., linear change trajectories) for any aspect of interpersonal problems. These findings support the conclusion that interpersonal dysfunction in borderline pathology is stable in its severity but unstable in the style of its manifestation. PMID:24364612

  20. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; Rojo, Marcial García

    2009-01-01

    Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory. PMID:20430740

  1. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D?Šniz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  2. Promising Role of Melatonin as Neuroprotectant in Neurodegenerative Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neeraj; Biswas, Joyshree; Nath, C; Singh, Sarika

    2014-08-27

    Melatonin treatment showed a potent neuroprotective action in experimental models and in clinical studies. However, the entire disease prevention is not observed with melatonin treatment. Therefore, findings have suggested its future use in combination therapies for neurological diseases. Several studies have showed its free radical scavenging, antioxidant property, antiapoptotic activity, and its action towards enhanced mitochondrial function. It has direct and indirect effects on mitochondrial functions. Neurodegenerative disease pathology includes the impaired mitochondrial functions and apoptotic death of neurons due to energy crisis which could be prevented with antiapoptotic activity of melatonin. However, for the therapeutic use of melatonin, researchers also need to pay attention towards the various intermediary events taking place in apoptotic death of neurons during disease pathology. Age-related neurological diseases include the decreased level of melatonin in neuronal death. Therefore, it is worthwhile to discuss about the different functions of melatonin in aspect of its antioxidative property, its role in the enhancement of mitochondrial function, and its antiapoptotic attributes. This review summarizes the reports to date showing the potent role of melatonin in experimental models and clinical trials and discussing the employment of melatonin as future potent neuroprotective agent. PMID:25159482

  3. The present status of the use of isotopes and radiation in plant pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper it is not possible to cover the entire work done in plant pathology by means of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, it is possible to give a general survey of the methods used and the results obtained, citing some of the results obtained in the more important aspects of plant pathology such as - the effect of the various radiations upon pathogenic agents; the effect of the various radiations upon the host plant; some problems of the physiology of pathogenic micro-organisms studied with tracers; some problems of the physiology of the host plant studied with tracers; the use of radioactive isotopes in problems of different methods and techniques of diseases control in plants; and a few aspects of the use of nuclear energy connected with problems of preserving products of vegetable origin. 168 refs

  4. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  5. Mucociliary clearance : pathophysiological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Munkholm, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung diseases characterized by defective mucus clearance have resulted in a variety of therapies, which might be able to enhance clearance from the lungs. In addition, ways to study in vivo mucociliary clearance in humans have been developed. This can be used as a means to assess the effect of different pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical aspects of mucociliary clearance and to present a clinically applicable test that can be used for in vivo assessment of mucociliary clearance in patients. In addition, the reader will be presented with a protocol for this test, which has been validated and used as a diagnostic routine tool in the work-up of patients suspected for primary ciliary dyskinesia at Rigshospitalet, Denmark for over a decade.

  6. Molecular pathology of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Ft; Yan, P

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most intensively studied cancer types, partly because of its high prevalence but also because of the existence of its precursor lesions, tubular or villous adenomas, and more recently (sessile) serrated adenomas, which can be detected endoscopically and removed. The morphological steps in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence have been elucidated at a molecular level, which has been facilitated by identification of the genes responsible for familial intestinal cancer. However, apart from early detection of familial forms of CRC and its use in genetic counseling, until recently such detailed molecular knowledge has had little impact on clinical management of the disease. This has dramatically changed in the last decade. With drugs specifically targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) having been shown effective in CRC, mechanisms responsible for resistance have been explored. The finding that KRAS mutated cancers do not respond to anti-EGFR treatment has had a profound impact on clinical management and on molecular diagnostics of CRC. Additional genetic tests for mutations in NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA contribute to determining who to treat, and others will follow. New therapies effective in patients with advanced CRC are under investigation. Remaining burning questions for optimal management are which patients will relapse after resection of the primary tumor and which patients will respond to the standard 5FU-oxaliplatin adjuvant treatment regimen. Predictive tests to address these issues are eagerly awaited. New classifications of CRC, based on molecular parameters, are emerging, and we will be confronted with new subtypes of CRC, for which the definition is based on combinations of gene expression patterns, chromosomal alterations, gene mutations and epigenetic characteristics. This will be instrumental in designing new approaches for therapy but will also be translated into molecular diagnostics. Both will contribute to improved clinical management of CRC. PMID:25693079

  7. Towards Semantic Mutation Testing of Aspect-Oriented Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Azim Abdul Ghani

    2013-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programs have received much attention from software testing researchers. Various testing techniques and approaches have been proposed to tackle issues and challenges when testing aspect-oriented programs including traditional mutation testing. In traditional mutation testing of aspect-oriented programs, mutants are generated by making small changes to the syntax of the aspect-oriented language. Recently, a new approach known as semantic mutation testing ...

  8. Tense, aspect and relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Zegarac, V.

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to consider some consequences of the relevance theory of Sperber and Wilson (1986) for explaining a number of phenomena relating to verbal aspect. Chapter one introduces some basic notions relating to aspect and illustrates the interaction of aspect and tense and gives an outline of the main tenets of relevance theory. Chapter two considers the aspectual categories (simple-progressive) of English and (perfective-imperfective) of Serbo- Croat...

  9. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Rocha-e-Silva.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. METHODS: I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) [...] recently published (2008-2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. RESULTS: This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized.

  10. Oligodendroglioma: pathology, molecular mechanisms and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Pieter; van den Bent, Martin; Perry, Arie

    2015-06-01

    For nearly a century, the diagnosis and grading of oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas has been based on histopathology alone. Roughly 20 years ago, the first glioma-associated molecular signature was found with complete chromosome 1p and 19q codeletion being particularly common in histologically classic oligodendrogliomas. Subsequently, this codeletion appeared to not only carry diagnostic, but also prognostic and predictive information, the latter aspect only recently resolved after carefully constructed clinical trials with very long follow-up times. More recently described biomarkers, including the non-balanced translocation leading to 1p/19q codeletion, promoter hypermethylation of the MGMT gene, mutations of the IDH1 or IDH2 gene, and mutations of FUBP1 (on 1p) or CIC (on 19q), have greatly enhanced our understanding of oligodendroglioma biology, although their diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive roles are less clear. It has therefore been suggested that complete 1p/19q codeletion be required for the diagnosis of 'canonical oligodendroglioma'. This transition to an integrated morphological and molecular diagnosis may result in the disappearance of oligoastrocytoma as an entity, but brings new challenges as well. For instance it needs to be sorted out how (histopathological) criteria for grading of 'canonical oligodendrogliomas' should be adapted, how pediatric oligodendrogliomas (known to lack codeletions) should be defined, which platforms and cut-off levels should ideally be used for demonstration of particular molecular aberrations, and how the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma should be made in centers/countries where molecular diagnostics is not available. Meanwhile, smart integration of morphological and molecular information will lead to recognition of biologically much more uniform groups within the spectrum of diffuse gliomas and thereby facilitate tailored treatments for individual patients. PMID:25943885

  11. Psychotherapy of pathologic grief. Revisions and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynearson, E K

    1987-09-01

    A significant minority (14 per cent) of a nonpatient bereaved population may be presumed to develop intense and enduring pathologic grief responses. The promise of recovery with short-term, focused intervention appears to be misleading, as a sizable proportion of patients with pathologic grief will be unresponsive to treatment. Prospective studies have demonstrated a positive correlation of dependent attachment, conflicted attachment, and unexpected loss with specific pathologic grief syndromes; preliminary reports suggest that these specific grief syndromes require specific interventions. The presentation of a nonresponsive case illustrates the clinical application and limitation of a revised strategy of treatment. The development and maintenance of formative imagery and symbols is of crucial support to the patient and therapist. PMID:3684750

  12. Pathology and pathophysiology of pulmonary manifestations in leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Dolhnikoff

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonosis occurring as large outbreaks throughout the world caused by Leptospira interrogans. The incidence of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis has been reported to be increasing in the last years, affecting up to 70% of the patients. Alveolar hemorrhage presented as dyspnea and hemoptysis is the main pulmonary manifestation. The emergence of massive hemoptysis and acute respiratory distress syndrome has characterized the recent changes reported in the clinical patterns of leptospirosis. The pulmonary involvement has been emerged as a serious life threat, becoming the main cause of death due to leptospirosis in some countries. In this review we present the main clinical and pathological manifestations of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis, with special focus on recent data concerning the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying lung injury.

  13. Dopaminergic and clinical correlates of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MetteBuhlCallesen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic medication for motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease recently has been linked with impulse control disorders, including pathological gambling, which affects up to 8% of patients. Pathological gambling often is considered a behavioral addiction associated with disinhibition, risky decision-making, and altered striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Using [11C]raclopride with positron emission tomography, we assessed dopaminergic neurotransmission during Iowa Gambling Task performance. Here we present data from a single patient with Parkinson’s disease and concomitant pathological gambling. We noted a marked decrease in [11C]raclopride binding in the left ventral striatum upon gambling, indicating a gambling-induced dopamine release. The results imply that pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease is associated with a high dose of dopaminergic medication, pronounced motor symptomatology, young age at disease onset, high propensity for sensation seeking, and risky decision-making. Overall, the findings are consistent with the hypothesis of medication-related pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease and underscore the importance of taking clinical variables, such as age and personality, into account when patients with Parkinson’s disease are medicated, to reduce the risk of pathological gambling.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Elevated Ammonia Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwava, Kudakwashe

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 15-year-old boy presents to the hospital with a five-day history of nausea, vomiting, and low-grade fever. Visitors are given the examination and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Right Flank Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Rajiv

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 74-year-old male smoker presents with a month-long history of right flank pain. Visitors are given both microscopic and gross descriptions, immunohistochemistry, including images, and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Repeat Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Charles A.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 47-year-old woman has developed coronary disease following a heart transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

  17. Pathology Case Study: Palpable Breast Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Melina

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 43-year-old woman has, over the last two months, noticed a palpable and enlarging breast mass. Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

  18. Pathology Case Study: Right Breast Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amortegui, Antonio J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman found a mass in her right breast three weeks before seeking treatment. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Left Breast Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Diana

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an 80-year-old woman presents to the hospital with "a single, palpable, irregular mass in the left breast." Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  20. Pathology Case Study: Right Neck Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman developed a right parotid gland tumor, and experienced regrowth after its removal. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

  1. Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions. PMID:25810632

  2. Pathology Case Study: Left Upper Neck Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Fiona

    This surgical pathology case, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, illustrates the process of diagnosing the cause of a mass in the patientâ??s neck. Gross and microscopic descriptions of the surgically removed mass are included in the case study to aid in understanding the diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with the diagnostic process and techniques.

  3. Pathology Case Study: Progressive Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Paul S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of unremitting progressive lower back pain over the course of several months. Visitors are given both the microscopic and radiology descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal and soft tissue pathology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Complications of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a pregnant woman experienced venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Severe Headache and Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt, John P.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male transplant patient is suffering severe headaches. Visitors are given the hospital course record, radiographic and histologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and transplant pathology.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Systemic Lupus Erythematosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 45-year-old woman has a history of proteinuria, skin rash, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and Waldenstromâ??s Macroglobulinemia. Visitors are given the patient history and serum electrophoresis, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical immunology.

  7. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng

    2008-06-01

    The past century has seen tremendous changes in the scope and practice of pathology laboratories in tandem with the development of the medical services in Malaysia. Major progress was made in the areas of training and specialization of pathologists and laboratory technical staff. Today the pathology laboratory services have entered the International arena, and are propelled along the wave of globalization. Many new challenges have emerged as have new players in the field. Landmark developments over the past decade include the establishment of national quality assurance programmes, the mushrooming of private pathology laboratories, the establishment of a National Accreditation Standard for medical testing laboratories based on ISO 15189, and the passing of the Pathology Laboratory Act in Parliament in mid-2007. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 seeks to ensure that the pathology laboratory is accountable to the public, meets required standards of practice, participates in Quality Assurance programmes, is run by qualified staff, complies with safety requirements and is subject to continuous audit. The Act is applicable to all private laboratories (stand alone or hospital) and laboratories in statutory bodies (Universities, foundations). It is not applicable to public laboratories (established and operated by the government) and side-room laboratories established in clinics of registered medical or dental practitioners for their own patients (tests as in the First and Second Schedules respectively). Tests of the Third Schedule (home test blood glucose, urine glucose, urine pregnancy test) are also exempted. The Act has 13 Parts and provides for control of the pathology laboratory through approval (to establish and maintain) and licensing (to operate or provide). The approval or license may only be issued to a sole proprietor, partnership or body corporate, and then only if the entity includes a registered medical practitioner. Details of personnel qualifications and laboratory practices are left to be specified by the Director-General of Health, providing for a formal recognition process and room for revision as pathology practices evolve. Encompassed in the responsibilities of the licensee is the requirement that samples are received and results issued through, and management vested in, a registered medical or dental practitioner. This effectively prohibits "walk-ins" to the laboratory and indiscriminate public screening. The requirement for a person-in-charge in accordance with class and speciality of laboratory ensures that the laboratory is under the charge of the pathology profession. Examined carefully, the requirements of the Act are similar to laboratory accreditation, but are backed by legislation. Many of these details will be spelt out in the Regulations, and these in turn are likely to fall back on National professional guidelines, as accreditation does. Although not at first obvious, enforcement of the Act is based on self-regulation by pathology laboratory professionals. Sincere professional input is thus required to embrace its philosophy, ensure rational and transparent enforcement of legislation, and develop National guidelines for good pathology practices upon which enforcement may be based. PMID:19108405

  8. Recent progress in random magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, DH

    1992-01-01

    Spin glasses exhibit random magnetic ordering as a result of competing interactions such as exchange or anisotropy. While they are easily prepared, and many of their general properties have been described, a detailed understanding of their behaviour is still lacking after more than 30 years of study. This book reviews the progress that has been made over the last five years on several aspects of the spin glass problem. Unlike several recent books, the authors concentrate here on experimental results, limiting the theoretical discussion to efforts most directly related to such work. The field o

  9. Designing Aspects with AODL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Iqbal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a big gap in the level of maturity of implementation technologies and design strategies for aspect-oriented systems. Implementation-wise aspectoriented software development (AOSD has made remarkable progress and a number of efficient technologies have been developed but there is no de-facto design solution for AOSD available yet. Existing design strategies either provide strategies for designing aspects neglecting non-aspectual constructs or they provide complicated and hard-to-adopt strategies which are not easy towork with for traditional UML designers. This paper proposes a new design language for aspects which works with Unified Modelling Language in a single design environment. Some new design notations have been introduced for representing aspects and their key elements, and new models have been proposed to design structural and behavioural characteristics of aspects.

  10. Gastrointestinal Mesenchymal Neoplasms other than Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Focusing on Their Molecular Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Plesec, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mesenchymal tumors other than gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) are rare neoplasms, but they often enter the differential diagnosis of more common GI lesions. Some of these mesenchymal tumors in the GI tract have well understood molecular pathologic aspects, including desmoid tumors, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), clear cell sarcoma (CCS), inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP), and synovial sarcoma (SS). Molecular pathology is fast becoming a mainstream focus...

  11. Reactive microglia drive tau pathology and contribute to the spreading of pathological tau in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Jiang, Shanya; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M; Lamb, Bruce T; Bhaskar, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    Pathological aggregation of tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. We have previously shown that the deficiency of the microglial fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) led to the acceleration of tau pathology and memory impairment in an hTau mouse model of tauopathy. Here, we show that microglia drive tau pathology in a cell-autonomous manner. First, tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation occur as early as 2 months of age in hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice. Second, CD45(+) microglial activation correlates with the spatial memory deficit and spread of tau pathology in the anatomically connected regions of the hippocampus. Third, adoptive transfer of purified microglia derived from hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice induces tau hyperphosphorylation within the brains of non-transgenic recipient mice. Finally, inclusion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Kineret®) in the adoptive transfer inoculum significantly reduces microglia-induced tau pathology. Together, our results suggest that reactive microglia are sufficient to drive tau pathology and correlate with the spread of pathological tau in the brain. PMID:25833819

  12. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  13. Monoclonal antibodies : a tool for molluscan pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Mialhe, Eric; Boulo, Viviane; Grizel, Henri; Rogier, Herve?; Paolucci, Francis

    1988-01-01

    Hybridoma technology is reviewed, and the characteristics of monoclonal antibodies are compared with those of polyclonal antibodies. The contribution of monoclonal antibodies to molluscan pathology is developed with special emphasis on their use as diagnostic tools. The results of studies with monoclonal antibodies prepared against the protozoan oyster pathogen Bonamia ostreae are briefly described.

  14. Whole-slide imaging: routine pathologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Toby C; Swapp, Ryan E; Kaplan, Keith J

    2012-05-01

    Digital pathology systems offer pathologists an alternate, emerging mechanism to manage and interpret information. They offer increasingly fast and scalable hardware platforms for slide scanning and software that facilitates remote viewing, slide conferencing, archiving, and image analysis. Deployed initially and validated largely within the research and biopharmaceutical industries, WSI is increasingly being implemented for direct patient care. Improvements in image quality, scan times, and imageviewing browsers will hopefully allow pathologists to more seamlessly convert to digital pathology, much like our radiology colleagues have done before us. However, WSI creates both opportunities and challenges. Although niche applications of WSI technology for clinical, educational, and research purposes are clearly successful, it is evident that several areas still require attention and careful consideration before more widespread clinical adoption of WSI takes place. These include regulatory issues, development of standards of practice and validation guidelines, workflow modifications, as well as defining situations where WSI technology will really improve practice in a cost-effective way. Current progress on these and other issues, along with improving technology, will no doubt pave the way for increased adoption over the next decade, allowing the pathology community as a whole to harness the true potential of WSI for patient care. The digital decade will likely redefine how pathology is practiced and the role of the pathologist. PMID:22498580

  15. Identification of lobar fissures in pathological lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q; Hu, Y; Macgregor, J H; Gelfand, G

    2010-01-01

    Identification of lobar fissures in human lungs is a non-trivial task due to their variable shape and appearance, along with the low contrast and high noise in computed tomographic (CT) images. Pathologies in the lungs can further complicate this identification by deforming and/or disrupting the lobar fissures. Current algorithms rely on the general anatomy of the lungs to find fissures affected by pathologies. This can be unreliable as deformations and/or disruptions of these fissures will alter the general lung anatomy. To overcome this, we developed an algorithm with the following novelties: (1) a new application of neural network based texture analysis to generalize fissure regions; and (2) a new method of fissure surface identification. We tested our algorithm on CT image stacks from 8 anonymous patients with pathological lungs. Compared to manually segmented fissures, our algorithm produced an average mean difference of 0.71 mm and 0.68 mm for identifying the left and right oblique fissures, respectively. Using a 3-mm percentile measure, the algorithm yielded an average accuracy of 86.8% for the left oblique fissure with a mean worst-case error of 3.18 mm. For the right oblique fissure, the algorithm produced an accuracy of 88.8% with a mean worst-case error of 3.13 mm. The above results show feasibility of using our algorithm for identifying fissures in pathological lungs. PMID:21096257

  16. Risk factors of peri-implant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology. One-thousand, two-hundred and seventy-fifty patients (255 cases and 1020 controls), rehabilitated with dental implants, were included. Peri-implant pathology was defined as the presence of peri-implant pockets ? 5 mm, bleeding on probing, vertical bone loss, and loss of attachment ?2 mm. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. A logistic regression model was used, with estimation of the OR for each variable and interaction, with a level of significance of 5%. The risk factors for peri-implant pathology were: history of periodontitis (OR = 19), bacterial plaque (OR = 3.6), bleeding (OR = 2.9), bone level on the medium third of the implant (OR = 13.9), lack of prosthetic fit or non-optimal screw joint (OR = 5.9), metal-ceramic restorations (OR = 3.9), and the interaction between bacterial plaque and the proximity of other teeth or implants (PROXI) (OR = 4.3). PROXI (OR = 0.44) exerted a protective effect when independent. Based on the results, peri-implant pathology represents a group of multifactorial situations with interaction of biological and biomechanical components in its pathogenesis. It was possible to model the condition and to assess, with high precision, the risk profile of each patient. PMID:25894059

  17. Pathological Nurturance: The Root of Marital Discord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, John W.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental dynamic in the troubled marriage is seen as pathological nurturance, i.e., the perversion of the sense of caring. Derived from the early role reversal, it leads the spouses to take up hopeless tasks of recompense and rescue. The result is resistive, discordant behaviors as a means of coping. (Author)

  18. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ? Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ? Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ? Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ? Particulate Cr(VI) may augment severity and alter phenotype of ongoing allergic asthma.

  19. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ? Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ? Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ? Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ? Particulate Cr(VI) may augment severity and alter phenotype of ongoing allergic asthma.

  20. Physio-pathological roles of transglutaminase-catalyzed reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Ricotta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases (TGs are a large family of related and ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. The main activity of these enzymes is the cross-linking of a glutaminyl residue of a protein/peptide substrate to a lysyl residue of a protein/peptide co-substrate. In addition to lysyl residues, other second nucleophilic co-substrates may include monoamines or polyamines (to form mono- or bi-substituted /crosslinked adducts or -OH groups (to form ester linkages. In the absence of co-substrates, the nucleophile may be water, resulting in the net deamidation of the glutaminyl residue. The TG enzymes are also capable of catalyzing other reactions important for cell viability. The distribution and the physiological roles of TG enzymes have been widely studied in numerous cell types and tissues and their roles in several diseases have begun to be identified. “Tissue” TG (TG2, a member of the TG family of enzymes, has definitely been shown to be involved in the molecular mechanisms responsible for a very widespread human pathology: i.e. celiac disease (CD. TG activity has also been hypothesized to be directly involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for several other human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, which are often associated with CD. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, supranuclear palsy, Huntington’s disease and other recently identified polyglutamine diseases, are characterized, in part, by aberrant cerebral TG activity and by increased cross-linked proteins in affected brains. In this review, we discuss the physio-pathological role of TG-catalyzed reactions, with particular interest in the molecular mechanisms that could involve these enzymes in the physio-pathological processes responsible for human neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 Expression in Pathological Events

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve, Pilar; Bovolenta, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Secreted Frizzled Related Proteins (Sfrps) are a family of secreted proteins that can bind both to Wnt ligands and Frizzled receptors, thereby modulating the Wnt signalling cascades. Recent studies have shown that Sfrps can also interact with Wnt unrelated molecules such as RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, Tolloid metalloproteinases or integrin-fibronectin complexes. Alterations in the levels of Sfrp expression have been recently associated with different pathological cond...

  2. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad?? algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Padé algorithm does not facilitate caching of intermediate results, it was up to 3× faster than eigendecomposition on the same matrices. Conclusion Development of robust software for computing non-reversible dinucleotide, codon and higher evolutionary models requires implementation of the Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm.

  3. New aspects of the X-ray pathology of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraosseal pseudocyst(s) were observed in 16 cases out of 205 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. The pseudocysts were localized most frequently in the bones of the proximal joints of the hands; their occurence in the tarsal bones was extremely rare. All cases exhibited positive rheumatoid factor. On the basis of the radio-morphological characteristics demonstrated on the radiograms the term ''poliarthritis chronica progressiva granularis-pseudocystica'' is suggested for this special form of rheumatoid arthritis. (L.E.)

  4. Role of Yes-associated protein 1 in gliomas: pathologic and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhou

    2015-04-01

    The activation of proline-rich phosphoprotein Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) possesses a possible link between stem/progenitor cells, organ size, and cancer. YAP1 has been indicated as an oncoprotein, and overexpression of YAP1 is reported in many human brain tumors, including infiltrating gliomas. During normal brain development, the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) protein suppresses YAP1 activity in neural progenitor cells to promote guidepost cell differentiation, but loss of NF2 causes elevating YAP1 activity in midline neural progenitors, which disrupts guidepost formation. Overexpression of endogenous CD44 (cancer stem cell marker) promotes phosphorylation/inactivation of NF2, and upregulates YAP1 expression and leads to cancer cell resistance in glioblastoma. The hippo pathway is also related to the YAP1 action. However, the mechanism of YAP1 action in glioma is still far from clear understanding. Advances in clinical management based on an improved understanding of the function of YAP1 may help to serve as a molecular target in glioma therapeutics. Knockdown of YAP1 by shRNA technology has been shown to reduce glioma in vitro; however, clinical implications are still under investigation. YAP1 can be used as a diagnostic marker for gliomas to monitor the disease status and may help to evaluate its treatment effects. More functional experiments are needed to support the direct roles of YAP1 on gliomas at molecular and cellular levels. PMID:25750037

  5. Molecular, Functional, and Pathological Aspects of the Mitochondrial ADP/ATP Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dahout-Gonzalez (UMR 5092 CEA-CNRS-Université Joseph Fourier Département de Réponse et Dynamique Cellulaires)

    2006-08-01

    In providing the cell with ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation, the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier plays a central role in aerobic eukaryotic cells. Combining biochemical, genetic, and structural approaches contributes to understanding the molecular mechanism of this essential transport system, the dysfunction of which is implicated in neuromuscular diseases.

  6. [Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs--pathological, clinical, diagnosis and genetic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broschk, C; Distl, O

    2005-10-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart disease which is often found in humans and animals. The age of onset of this progressive disease varies between 3 and 7 years of age. A juvenile form of DCM has been found in Portuguese Water Dogs and Doberman Pinscher Dogs. Some breeds such as Doberman pinscher, Newfoundland, Portuguese Water dog, Boxer, Great Dane, Cocker Spaniel and Irish Wolfhound exhibit a higher prevalence to DCM. There also seems to be a sex predisposition as male dogs are affected more often than female dogs and in Great Danes an X-linked recessive inheritance is likely. In Newfoundland and Boxer an autosomal dominant inheritance was found whereas an autosomal recessive inheritance was described in Portuguese Water Dogs. Atrial fibrillation as a cause or consequence of DCM is assumed for certain breeds. The causes of DCM are widely unknown in dogs. A genetic basis for this heart disease seems to exist. Apart from a few exceptions the mode of inheritance and the possible underlying gene mutations are not known for DCM in dogs. In humans mutations in several genes responsible for DCM have been identified. Comparative genetic analyses in dogs using genes causing DCM in men and a genome-wide scan with anonymus markers were not able to detect causative mutations or genomic regions harboring gene loci linked to DCM. The investigation of the genetic basis of canine DCM may lead to new insights into the pathogenesis of DCM and may result in new therapeutic approaches and breeding strategies. PMID:16320572

  7. Cáncer de piel no melanoma: aspectos clínicos - patológicos / Non melanoma skin cancer: clinic-pathological aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Diaz Plasencia; Enrique, Tantalean - Ramella; Carlos, Garcia Peralta.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente retrospectivo evaluó a 120 pacientes con 130 lesiones de cáncer primario de la piel: 78 lesiones de carcinoma basocelular (CBC) y 52 de carcinoma epidermoide (CE) diagnosticados en el Hospital Belén, Trujillo, Perú, desde 1980 a 1990 con la finalidad de identificar sus características cl [...] ínicas e histopatológicas. El CE fue más frecuente en pacientes mayores de 80 años (p=0.044), del sexo masculino (p=0.025), se localizó con mayor frecuencia en trono y extremidades (p Abstract in english This retrospective analysis evaluate to 120 patients with 130 cancers of the skin with histologically proved diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (n=78) or squamous cell carcinoma (n=52) seen at Belen Hospital Trujillo, Peru, between 1980 and 1990 with the aim to identify their clinicopathologic featur [...] es. Squamous cell carcinomas was more frequent in patients older than 80 years of age (p=0.044), in men than in women (p=0.025), predominantly occurred on the trunk or extremities (p

  8. Obsessive-Compulsive Aspects and Pathological Gambling in an Italian Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Petruccelli; Pierluigi Diotaiuti; Valeria Verrastro; Irene Petruccelli; Maria Luisa Carenti; Domenico De Berardis; Felice Iasevoli; Alessandro Valchera; Michele Fornaro; Giovanni Martinotti; Massimo Di Giannantonio; Luigi Janiri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Gambling behaviour appears as repetitive and difficult to resist and seems to be aimed at neutralizing or reducing negative feelings such as anxiety and tension, confirming its similarities with the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Aims. Estimating the prevalence of gambling behaviour in an Italian sample and assessing the effects of sociodemographic variables and the correlations between gambling behaviour and obsessive-compulsive features. Methods. A sample of 300 Italian subjec...

  9. Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws: An Update on Clinical, Pathological and Management Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ficarra, Giuseppe; Beninati, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is mainly observed in patients with multiple myeloma and bone metastasis from solid tumors receiving iv bisphosphonate therapy. The reported incidence of BRONJ is significantly higher with the iv preparations zoledronic acid and pamidronate while the risk appears to be minimal for patients receiving oral bisphosphonates. Currently available published incidence data for BRONJ are based on retrospective studies and estimates of cumulative...

  10. [Pathology and clinical aspects of retarded child development. Diagnosis and therapy of defective development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senft, H H; Kugener, H; Korte, W

    1977-10-20

    21 cases of "small for date" pregnancies were analysed. Serial ultrasonic tracings and determinations of total estrogen excretion in the 24-hour-urine and of serum HPL concentration were carried out. The fetal heart rate was measured by cardiotocogram. Retrospectively, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to birth weight. All patients were treated with a combination of Complamin, Calciparin and Partusisten. Fetal growth retardation could not be stopped by this treatment; there was, however, definite fetal weight gain following long term therapy. Results of HPL and total estrogen determinations were inconclusive; in most cases, however, a fall of concentrations was observed. Following long term therapy a rise in concentration up to almost normal values was seen. The positive effect of therapy was best shown by serial cardiotograms. PMID:914199

  11. Application of tracer techniques to the study of trematode infections: Pathological and epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver fluke and blood fluke infections cause heavy losses in animal production. The infections are characterized by a concomitant anaemia and dysproteinaemia. A review is made of radioisotopic tracer studies which have contributed to an understanding of the dynamic processes underlying the blood changes. Such studies have provided important information about the activity of the parasites, for example, how they cause disease and how they influence animal production. Radioisotopic techniques have also been utilized in the study of free-living fluke larvae. A brief outline of principles and fields if investigations within this area is given. (author)

  12. Enfermedad hepática grasa: Aspectos patológicos / Pathological aspects of fatty liver disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rocío del Pilar, López Panqueva.

    2014-03-30

    Full Text Available En el hígado humano normal aproximadamente un 5% de su masa está compuesta por lípidos. Cuando tenemos aumento del depósito de grasa el término más utilizado es el de hígado graso o esteatosis e incluye el hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA) y el hígado graso de etiología alcohólica (HGA), siendo aún [...] la biopsia hepática considerada como el patrón de oro para determinar la severidad del daño hepático en cualquiera de estas entidades Abstract in english In a normal human liver 5% of its mass consists of lipids. When deposition of fat increases, the terms most often used are fatty liver or steatosis. This includes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease whose acronym is NAFLD and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). A liver biopsy is still considered to be the [...] gold standard for determining the severity of liver damage in either of these entities

  13. Recent code systems at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently several code systems have been developed and utilized at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. It is not easy to construct and maintain a code system, but the fact is not well known in the researchers. For this reason, it will be very useful to publish informations about design concepts, characteristics, necessary computer features and amounts of invested manpower for the developments of some recent JAERI code systems. In this report, a general view of required manpower on unification of nuclear codes is discussed and four code systems, i.e., SRAC for thermal reactor analysis, TRITON for Tokamak MHD analysis, SPEEDI for emergent environmental dose prediction and RADHEAT for radiation shielding analysis are presented. They are described from aspects of (1) purpose and schedule of development, (2) outline of system, (3) results of benchmark tests, (4) utilized computer features, (5) invested manpower, and (6) desirable computer features. Finally common aspects of four code systems from viewpoint of necessary computer hardwares and softwares are discussed for future development of code systems. (author)

  14. Luteolin reduces Alzheimer's disease pathologies induced by traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawmiller, Darrell; Li, Song; Shahaduzzaman, Md; Smith, Adam J; Obregon, Demian; Giunta, Brian; Borlongan, Cesar V; Sanberg, Paul R; Tan, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs in response to an acute insult to the head and is recognized as a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Indeed, recent studies have suggested a pathological overlap between TBI and AD, with both conditions exhibiting amyloid-beta (A?) deposits, tauopathy, and neuroinflammation. Additional studies involving animal models of AD indicate that some AD-related genotypic determinants may be critical factors enhancing temporal and phenotypic symptoms of TBI. Thus in the present study, we examined sub-acute effects of moderate TBI delivered by a gas-driven shock tube device in A? depositing Tg2576 mice. Three days later, significant increases in b-amyloid deposition, glycogen synthase-3 (GSK-3) activation, phospho-tau, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed. Importantly, peripheral treatment with the naturally occurring flavonoid, luteolin, significantly abolished these accelerated pathologies. This study lays the groundwork for a safe and natural compound that could prevent or treat TBI with minimal or no deleterious side effects in combat personnel and others at risk or who have experienced TBI. PMID:24413756

  15. Cortical Alzheimer Type Pathology Does Not Influence tau Pathology in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Kenichi; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by numerous senile plaques (SP) in addition to widespread neocortical neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Some elderly have pathologic aging (PA), which is characterized by numerous SP composed of diffuse amyloid deposits with few or no NFT confined to the limbic lobe. Both AD and PA represent a range of Alzheimer type pathology (ATP). Some cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) have concurrent ATP, but the relationship between ATP and PSP has not bee...

  16. General safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

  17. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  18. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    IULIA FLOCA

    2011-01-01

    Today the Romanian state gives some advantages to those who use mediation. If the Romanian state would take further steps, mediation would work as in the countries with old tradition. The article refers to success and failure got in the two years of practice. The mediation can be seen in two aspects: The first aspect regarding the mediation itself can lead to a mediation agreement. The mediation agreement gives both winnings to the conflict parts and professional satisfactions to the mediator...

  19. Designing Aspects with AODL

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib Iqbal; Gary Allen

    2011-01-01

    There is a big gap in the level of maturity of implementation technologies and design strategies for aspect-oriented systems. Implementation-wise aspectoriented software development (AOSD) has made remarkable progress and a number of efficient technologies have been developed but there is no de-facto design solution for AOSD available yet. Existing design strategies either provide strategies for designing aspects neglecting non-aspectual constructs or they provide complicated and hard-to-adop...

  20. Aspect Oriented Requirements Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Yakout A. Mohamed; Abd El Fatah .A. Hegazy; Ahmed R.Dawood

    2010-01-01

    Requirements engineering techniques that explicitly recognize the importance of clearly identifying and treating crosscutting concerns are called Aspect-oriented Requirements Engineering Approaches (AORE approaches). The emergence of aspect-oriented programming languages has raised the explicit need to identify crosscutting concerns already during the analysis phase. Besides this observation, the modular representation of crosscutting requirements is a first step to ensure traceability of cro...

  1. Optimising AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon

    2005-01-01

    AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension of Java, is becoming increasingly popular. However, not much work has been directed at optimising compilers for AspectJ. Optimising AOP languages provides many new and interesting challenges for compiler writers, and this paper identifies and addresses three such challenges. First, compiling around advice efficiently is particularly challenging. We provide a new code generation strategy for around advice, which (unlike previous implementations) both avoids the use of excessive inlining and the use of closures. We show it leads to more compact code, and can also improve run-time performance. Second, woven code sometimes includes run-time tests to determine whether advice should execute. One important case is the cflow pointcut which uses information about the dynamic calling context. Previous techniques for cflow were very costly in terms of both time and space. We present new techniques to minimise or eliminate the overhead of cflow using both intra- and inter-procedural analyses. Third, we have addressed the general problem of how to structure an optimising compiler so that traditional analyses can be easily adapted to the AOP setting. We have implemented all of the techniques in this paper in abc, our AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ, and we demonstrate significant speedups with empirical results. Some of our techniques have already been integrated into the production AspectJ compiler, ajc 1.2.1.

  2. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudari?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breedingfocuses recent progress in our understanding of thegenetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book isdivided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I,Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advancesin molecular biology and laboratory procedures thathave been developed recently to manipulate DNA.Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomicsapproaches form as a powerful tool for investigatingthe molecular mechanisms of the plant responses tovarious types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding forbiotic stress addresses issues related to application ofmolecular based strategies in order to increase soybeanresistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, RecentTechnology reviews recent technologies into the realmof soybean monitoring, processing and product use.While the information accumulated in this book is ofprimary interest for plant breeders, valuable insightsare also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists,physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists andstudents. The book is a result of efforts made by manyexperts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia,Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil,Mexico.

  3. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Nuclear aspects of few-baryon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in understanding the bound state properties of the trinucleons and the alpha particle in terms of a hadron picture of the nucleus is reviewed. The role of three-body forces and meson exchange currents is examined. novel aspects of few-body hypernuclei as well as unresolved issues in this S ? O sector are summarized

  5. Managing the Ethical Issues of Genomic Research using Pathology Specimens1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeps, Nikolajs; Bledsoe, Marianna J

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks of human biospecimens involving tissue taken from surgery require close relationships with diagnostic pathology practices. As most of the tissue will be analysed using genetic or genomic technologies there is the possibility that new information is created that could be of relevance to the donors. Although attention has been recently focused on the responsibilities that may arise from researchers and biobanks in terms of giving back individual genetic research results (IGRRs) to research participants, little has been said in relation to the role of pathology services. In this Commentary, we summarise the issues with respect to pathology services and what guidelines and professional practice documents say about their responsibilities. We also provide points to consider in the development of an ethically defensible plan for giving back individual research results.

  6. Pathological gamblers are more vulnerable to the illusion of control in a standard associative learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HelenaMatute

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (a that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (b, that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life.

  7. What would my avatar do? Gaming, pathology, and risky decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KiraBailey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has revealed a relationship between pathological video game use and increased impulsivity among children and adolescents. A few studies have also demonstrated increased risk-taking outside of the video game environment following game play, but this work has largely focused on one genre of video games (i.e., racing. Motivated by these findings, the aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between pathological and non-pathological video game use, impulsivity, and risky decision making. The current study also investigated the relationship between experience with two of the most popular genres of video games (i.e., first-person shooter and strategy and risky decision making. Consistent with previous work, approximately 7% of the current sample of college-aged adults met criteria for pathological video game use. The number of hours spent gaming per week was associated with increased impulsivity on a self-report measure and on the temporal discounting task. This relationship was sensitive to the genre of video game; specifically, experience with first-person shooter games was positively correlated with impulsivity, while experience with strategy games was negatively correlated with impulsivity. Hours per week and pathological symptoms predicted greater risk-taking in the risk task and the Iowa Gambling task, accompanied by worse overall performance, indicating that even when risky choices did not pay off, individuals who spent more time gaming and endorsed more symptoms of pathological gaming continued to make these choices. Based on these data, we suggest that the presence of pathological symptoms and the genre of video game (e.g., first-person shooter, strategy may be important factors in determining how the amount of game experience relates to impulsivity and risky-decision making.

  8. Public hospital pathology--at what cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G H; Pascoe, P J

    1994-01-01

    Public hospital laboratories have in the past fended off financial scrutiny and accountability on the grounds of their complexity and lack of compelling need. However, the cost of providing diagnostic laboratory services has now come under intense scrutiny because of budget reductions and options for private sector competition. Costing of pathology services is not difficult, but their organisation and outputs do have unique features that need to be understood and defined to ensure that the costing model used provides robust data that accurately reflects how resources are consumed. The cost data generated for diagnostic services can then be compared to the various benchmarks widely used for activity-based funding, such as the Commonwealth Medical Benefits Schedule and the pathology component of the AN-DRG Service Weights System, while the requirement and funding for other activities can be rationally determined. PMID:10140592

  9. Pathology Case Study: Severe Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, James

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 16 year old boy returns after a diagnosis of presumptive gastroenteritis. During his return visit he complained of unremitting severe sharp, crampy pain in the lower abdomen, with occasional radiation in the back. Visitors are given admission data, surgical notes, gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

  10. Frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen section diagnosis is extensively used in various branches of pathology, but its application in ophthalmic pathology was recognised only in the 1970s. We studied 10 sections of ocular and adenexal lesions by frozen section diagnosis, which included orbital lesions (4 cases, lid lesions (3 cases, and intraocular tissue (1 case. The time taken for processing ranged between 10 to 15 minutes. Diagnoses based on frozen section evaluation included lymphoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, solar keratosis, compound naevus, silicone oil globules in cataractous lens, neurofibromatosis, pseudotumour, retinoblastoma, and chronic blepharitis. Although further histopathologic examination correlated well with the frozen section (100% observations, the diagnosis was deferred in the case of naevus and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Our study shows that frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic surgery is quite reliable and is particularly useful in ocular adenexal lesions

  11. Pathology Case Study: Parotid Gland Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacic, Sanja

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular case, a 53-year-old woman was treated for a â??progressively enlarging, painless mass in the area of the left parotid gland.â? Gross and microscopic images and descriptions of the specimen removed from the patient are included in the case study. The â??Final Diagnosisâ? section provides the official diagnosis of the patient and a detailed description provided by the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of head and neck pathology.

  12. Pathology Case Study: Enlarging Right Parotid Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M. Beatriz S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 35-year-old man with no significant past medical history who developed a firm mass below the right ear over the past several months. Visitors are given patient history, radiology findings, and both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

  13. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

  14. Imaging of orbital and visual pathway pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Forell, W.S. (ed.) [Medical School Univ. of Mainz (Germany). Inst. of Neuroradiology

    2006-07-01

    This is one of the first books to deal with imaging of pathology of the entire visual system. It is divided into two parts, general and special. In the general part, the most important basics of modern imaging methods are discussed, but with less emphasis on the physical background than in purely neuro-/radiological textbooks. Chapters are devoted to the meticulous presentation of imaging anatomy of the orbit and intracranial visual pathway. The latest knowledge on the indication, technique, and results of functional MR imaging is presented. Visual system impairment in the pediatric age group is also discussed. The special part of the book provides detailed descriptions of the symptoms and clinical and imaging findings in individual patients with orbital and intracranial pathologies. This book is specifically designed to be of value not only to neuroradiologists but also to ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, oto-/rhino-laryngologists, and neurologists who require more detailed information on these special diseases. (orig.)

  15. Pathology Case Study: Neck and Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Vallo

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 28-year-old female who, after a car accident, complained of a sharp pain of the anterior and posterior base of the neck on expiration and with exertion. Visitors are given patient history, radiology results, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology.

  16. Neuronal Models for Studying Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Koechling

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia in the aged human population. It is characterized by the presence of two main pathological hallmarks in the brain: senile plaques containing ?-amyloid peptide and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, consisting of fibrillar polymers of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. Both of these histological characteristics of the disease have been simulated in genetically modified animals, which today include numerous mouse, fish, worm, and fly models of AD. The objective of this review is to present some of the main animal models that exist for reproducing symptoms of the disorder and their advantages and shortcomings as suitable models of the pathological processes. Moreover, we will discuss the results and conclusions which have been drawn from the use of these models so far and their contribution to the development of therapeutic applications for AD.

  17. Incidental bony pathology when reporting trauma orthopantomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions.

  18. Imaging of orbital and visual pathway pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of the first books to deal with imaging of pathology of the entire visual system. It is divided into two parts, general and special. In the general part, the most important basics of modern imaging methods are discussed, but with less emphasis on the physical background than in purely neuro-/radiological textbooks. Chapters are devoted to the meticulous presentation of imaging anatomy of the orbit and intracranial visual pathway. The latest knowledge on the indication, technique, and results of functional MR imaging is presented. Visual system impairment in the pediatric age group is also discussed. The special part of the book provides detailed descriptions of the symptoms and clinical and imaging findings in individual patients with orbital and intracranial pathologies. This book is specifically designed to be of value not only to neuroradiologists but also to ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, oto-/rhino-laryngologists, and neurologists who require more detailed information on these special diseases. (orig.)

  19. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users. PMID:26048507

  20. Pathology of Captive Moustached Tamarins (Saguinus mystax)

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Cheng, Lily I.; Claire, Marisa E. St; Ward, Jerrold M.; Elkins, William R.

    2008-01-01

    The pathology of 33 moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax) previously used in hepatitis A and GB virus studies is reported. Chronic lesions in colon, heart, and kidney were common in the monkeys and appeared not to be due to the experimental exposures. Colitis cystica profunda (CCP), a disease that affects humans and is characterized by the presence of mucin-filled epithelial downgrowths and cysts in the colonic submucosa, was found in 24 of the 33 (72.7%) tamarins. Interstitial myocardial fib...

  1. Sacral arcuate lines: Anatomy and pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sacrum is one of the most commonly radiographed bones of the human body as part of abdominal and pelvic radiologic examinations. This paper describes the radiologic anatomy of the sacral arcuate lines and presents a systematic approach to identifying pathologic conditions, for example, primary and metastatic malignancies, traumatic and osteoporotic fractures, vascular erosions from aneurysms, changes from neural tumors, and changes following radiation therapy

  2. Pathology Laboratories Productivity Evaluation in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutsal YÖRÜKO?LU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Efficiency criteria and automation in pathology laboratories have been set in a limited number of studies usually originated from the United States. A questionnaire has been prepared to determine the situation and define the criteria for adaptation in our country.Material and Method: The survey was sent to all pathology laboratories and, 302 responded. The survey questionned of pathology laboratories efficiencies, staff workloads, methods applied, devices used, and physical conditions. Work flow productivity was obtained by dividing the annual number of blocks to working hours multiplied by the number of technicians. The hospitals were categorized to 3 groups according to providing training or not and privacy, and to 4 groups according to the annual biopsy numbers. The data entered through the SPSS 16.0 statistical package program, analysis of distribution criteria, significance of the difference between means tests were used.Results: The annual biopsy numbers were significantly higher in education units, but below the limit of productivity levels for all laboratories. The device hardware and automation correlated with annual biopsy numbers. However, the laboratories of limited capacity have redundant automation. Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining numbers were high. Liquid-based cytology techniques were used more significantly in private hospitals. Archiving times were not standard. A serious shortage of working space in service hospitals was noted. Work flow productivity in education units was at the border, and low in other units.Conclusion: All pathology laboratories in our country should define and improve their productivities. Formalizing of archiving times is very important for future malpractice lawsuits.

  3. PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF IRANIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Haghighat Monfared; Nika Vatankhah

    2013-01-01

    Although textile industry lies upon a long antecedent in Iran, it suffers these days from a critical circumstance.The reasons, from which the existing problems of textile industry originate, must be recognized otherwise, there would be no possibility to find applicable solutions. Crisis discussion in this part is not new; this industry needs to be refashioned in many domains. In this way, pathological study of textile industry emerges as a vital investigational responsibility by which all sys...

  4. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Maffulli; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Filippo Spiezia; et al, ...

    2010-01-01

    Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Filippo Spiezia2, Vincenzo Denaro21Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT) hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter...

  5. The role of complement in ocular pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Bora, Nalini S; Jha, Purushottam; Bora, Puran S

    2008-01-01

    Functionally active complement system and complement regulatory proteins are present in the normal human and rodent eye. Complement activation and its regulation by ocular complement regulatory proteins contribute to the pathology of various ocular diseases including keratitis, uveitis and age-related macular degeneration. Furthermore, a strong relationship between age-related macular degeneration and polymorphism in the genes of certain complement components/complement regulatory proteins is...

  6. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Linnet; Kristine Rømer Thomsen; Arne Møller; Mette Buhl Callesen

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine playersrepresent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathologicalgambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time) on slot machines compared withnon-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathologicalgambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased...

  7. Informatics research using publicly available pathology data

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Jules J.

    2011-01-01

    The day has not arrived when pathology departments freely distribute their collected anatomic and clinical data for research purposes. Nonetheless, several valuable public domain data sets are currently available, from the U.S. Government. Two public data sets of special interest to pathologists are the SEER (the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program) public use data files, and the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) mortality files. T...

  8. Neurofibrillary pathology and aluminum in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, R. W.; Lee, V. M. Y.; Trojanowski, J. Q.

    1995-01-01

    Since the first reports of aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration in experimental animals, extensive studies have been performed to clarify the role played by aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional evidence implicating aluminum in AD includes elevated levels of aluminum in the AD brain, epidemiological data linking aluminum exposure to AD, and interactions between aluminum and protein components in the pathological lesions o...

  9. Pathological and evolutionary implications of retroviruses as mobile genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Madeline; Whitesell, Mackenzie; Brown, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in primate evolution that resulted in the incorporation of these elements into the human genome. Retroviruses are mobile genetic elements that have important roles in disease and primate evolution. We will further discuss the pathogenic potential of retroviruses, including their role in cancer biology, and will briefly summarize their evolutionary implications. PMID:24705263

  10. Pathological and Evolutionary Implications of Retroviruses as Mobile Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Brown

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in primate evolution that resulted in the incorporation of these elements into the human genome. Retroviruses are mobile genetic elements that have important roles in disease and primate evolution. We will further discuss the pathogenic potential of retroviruses, including their role in cancer biology, and will briefly summarize their evolutionary implications.

  11. Radiology and pathology correlation in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies generally pose a diagnostic dilemma as current diagnostic tools are imprecise. Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is considered as the gold standard however it has some limitations. Recently cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an excellent technique in diagnosing infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is increasingly being used. Characteristic pathologic and radiologic findings in most common infiltrative cardiomyopathies (amyloid, sarcoid and Fabry's) are discussed and correlated with relative CMR and histologic examples. There is fairly good correlation between the non-invasive radiologic and the invasive histologic findings in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. Non-invasive CMR with its high sensitivity and specificity has an excellent role in establishing the diagnosis and improving the prognosis of common infiltrative cardiomyopathies.

  12. Pathological laughter in a patient with trigeminal neurinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado André G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 47-year-old woman with a long history of anxiety and a more recent history of shock-like facial pain and episodes of laughter without any motivation. She could not explain the laughing bursts and did not have a sense of mirth preceding it. On neurological examination she presented a VI nerve palsy and trigeminal hypoesthesia (V2 and V3 on the right side. Magnetic resonance imaging exhibited a large cystic lesion on the right middle fossa causing significant compression on the brain stem. A frontoorbitozygomatic and pretemporal combined approach was performed. During intra and extradural exploration a large tumor was found on the trigeminal nerve. The whole lesion was resected, revealing to be a neurinoma on pathological exhamination. She maintained a VI nerve palsy but had complete remission of the unmotivated laughing episodes during the one year follow up.

  13. [Pathology of dermatoglyphics in ocular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarc?, A

    2000-01-01

    The paper studies dermatoglyphics, viewed from a pathological perspective, on a group of 200 blind subjects or suffering from other grave congenital ocular affections, many of them hereditary, living in the province of Moldavia, from which 400 finger prints and palms have been collected. The observation to be made in that the advanced degree of sight's affection, up to the total loss, is correlated with an ample and strong pathological charge of the digital and palmar dermatoglyphic image of the subjects affected, suggestively expressed at the sample's level by a higher incidence of the distortions with serious medical implications, quite close to that recorded at deaf-mutes, mental handicapped people, in the grave congenital cardio-vascular affections, or at parents with malformed children from Moldavia. From the multitude of dermatoglyphic distortions put into evidence, the author considers that it is only one that might be specific to the serious congenital grave ocular affections, that is a certain disposal of the epidermal ridges, as a dense or very dense network at the level of the Th/I, in a ratio of 80% with women and 38% with men. The very high frequency of this distortion for females subjects might assume that the gene responsible for such a pathological configuration is placed on chromosome X. PMID:12089910

  14. Metabolic Shifts during Aging and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Li, Ji

    2015-03-01

    The heart is a very special organ in the body and has a high requirement for metabolism due to its constant workload. As a consequence, to provide a consistent and sufficient energy a high steady-state demand of metabolism is required by the heart. When delicately balanced mechanisms are changed by physiological or pathophysiological conditions, the whole system's homeostasis will be altered to a new balance, which contributes to the pathologic process. So it is no wonder that almost every heart disease is related to metabolic shift. Furthermore, aging is also found to be related to the reduction in mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an energy sensor to detect intracellular ATP/AMP ratio and plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress. During different pathology (like myocardial ischemia and hypertension), the activation of cardiac AMPK appears to be essential for repairing cardiomyocyte's function by accelerating ATP generation, attenuating ATP depletion, and protecting the myocardium against cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In this overview, we will talk about the normal heart's metabolism, how metabolic shifts during aging and different pathologies, and how AMPK regulates metabolic changes during these conditions. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 667-686, 2015. PMID:25880509

  15. Capturing clinically significant eating pathology in adolescence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rasmus, Isomaa; Anna-Lisa, Isomaa; Mauri, Marttunen; Riittakerttu, Kaltiala-Heino.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Several large-scale studies on adolescent mental health have used questionnaire items derived from DSM-IV criteria to assess eating disorders. The aim of the present brief report was to analyse the capacity of self-reported eating disorder symptoms to capture clinically si [...] gnificant eating disorders. Methods: All pupils in the ninth grade (N = 606, response rate 98.2%, mean age = 15.4) of comprehensive school in a defined area were invited to participate in the study. Adolescents who reported some form of eating pathology (n = 126) were invited to an interview (RAB). Results: Anorexia based on the self-report resulted in a positive predictive value of 60.0% for lifetime and 20% for current eating disorder, when compared to the results in the RAB. No case of BN was detected by the RAB, but self-reported BN symptoms were predictive of both EDNOS and subclinical eating pathology. Conclusions: Self-reported eating disorder symptoms seem to be relatively good predictors of broadly defined eating pathology, but may result in overestimation of clinical conditions.

  16. Relationship between magnification and resolution in digital pathology systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sellaro, Tiffany L.; Filkins, Robert; Hoffman, Chelsea; Fine, Jeffrey L.; Ho, Jon; Parwani, Anil V.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Montalto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many pathology laboratories are implementing digital pathology systems. The image resolution and scanning (digitization) magnification can vary greatly between these digital pathology systems. In addition, when digital images are compared with viewing images using a microscope, the cellular features can vary in size. This article highlights differences in magnification and resolution between the conventional microscopes and the digital pathology systems. As more pathologists adopt digital pat...

  17. A Flexible, Open, Decentralized System for Digital Pathology Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Robert; Smith, David E.; KUMARAGURUPARAN, Gowri; Chervenak, Ann; Lewis, Anne D.; HYDE, Dallas M.; Kesselman, Carl

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution digital imaging is enabling digital archiving and sharing of digitized microscopy slides and new methods for digital pathology. Collaborative research centers, outsourced medical services, and multi-site organizations stand to benefit from sharing pathology data in a digital pathology network. Yet significant technological challenges remain due to the large size and volume of digitized whole slide images. While information systems do exist for managing local pathology laborato...

  18. Recent advances in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins KJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly J Perkins,1,2 Kay E Davies21Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, 2MRC Functional Genomics Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKAbstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, an allelic X-linked progressive muscle-wasting disease, is one of the most common single-gene disorders in the developed world. Despite knowledge of the underlying genetic causation and resultant pathophysiology from lack of dystrophin protein at the muscle sarcolemma, clinical intervention is currently restricted to symptom management. In recent years, however, unprecedented advances in strategies devised to correct the primary defect through gene- and cell-based therapeutics hold particular promise for treating dystrophic muscle. Conventional gene replacement and endogenous modification strategies have greatly benefited from continued improvements in encapsidation capacity, transduction efficiency, and systemic delivery. In particular, RNA-based modifying approaches such as exon skipping enable expression of a shorter but functional dystrophin protein and rapid progress toward clinical application. Emerging combined gene- and cell-therapy strategies also illustrate particular promise in enabling ex vivo genetic correction and autologous transplantation to circumvent a number of immune challenges. These approaches are complemented by a vast array of pharmacological approaches, in particular the successful identification of molecules that enable functional replacement or ameliorate secondary DMD pathology. Animal models have been instrumental in providing proof of principle for many of these strategies, leading to several recent trials that have investigated their efficacy in DMD patients. Although none has reached the point of clinical use, rapid improvements in experimental technology and design draw this goal ever closer. Here, we review therapeutic approaches to DMD, with particular emphasis on recent progress in strategic development, preclinical evaluation and establishment of clinical efficacy. Further, we discuss the numerous challenges faced and synergistic approaches being devised to combat dystrophic pathology effectively.Keywords: dystrophy, animal models, pharmacological, exon skipping, gene therapy, utrophin

  19. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  20. Tc and R M encephalic: normal and pathological patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about the basic concepts of CT and MR encephalic: The physical principles and the use of iodine allow to detect neoplasms, infections, vascular alterations and inflammation. CT is essential in traumatic pathology to discard possible bleeding, CT angiography, tumor pathology and infections, calcifications and osseous lesions, secondary indications, pathology of cranial pairs, epilepsy, encephalitis, etc.

  1. The distal semimembranosus complex: normal MR anatomy, variants, biomechanics and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the normal MR anatomy and variations of the distal semimembranosus tendinous arms and the posterior oblique ligament as seen in the three orthogonal planes, to review the biomechanics of this complex and to illustrate pathologic examples. The distal semimembranosus tendon divides into five tendinous arms named the anterior, direct, capsular, inferior and the oblique popliteal ligament. These arms intertwine with the branches of the posterior oblique ligament in the posterior medial aspect of the knee, providing stability. This tendon-ligamentous complex also acts synergistically with the popliteus muscle and actively pulls the posterior horn of the medial meniscus during knee flexion. Pathologic conditions involving this complex include complete and partial tears, insertional tendinosis, avulsion fractures and bursitis. (orig.)

  2. A New Approach to the Treatment of Combined Pathology of Male Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Artifexov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to develop an adequate pathogenetically supported algorithm of correction of combined pathology of male sexuality relying on pathogenetic aspects of its formation. Materials and methods. There were analyzed the treatment results of 120 men with chronic prostatitis, prostatic hyperplasia, and impotency. 60 men received traditional treatment, and 60 men were treated according to the developed algorithm. Results. The proposed algorithm of combined therapy of sexual pathology, including chronic diseases of the prostate gland and sexual dysfunction with primary correction of sexual status taking into account the specificity of pathogenesis in each case was found to be reliably more effective than the attempts to restore sexual status under traditional urologic approaches aimed at minimizing symptoms indicating at first glance a possible organic lesions of the prostate gland.

  3. Guidelines for the delivery of speech-language pathology and audiology services in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Due to changing demographics, consumer preference, and priorities of the total health care delivery system, home care services are increasingly vital to the safety, well-being, and quality of life of many people. Consequently, the number of persons who need home-based speech-language pathology and audiology services is increasing. These guidelines cover the professional service components and related aspects of the home care model. It is ASHA's position that home-based speech-language pathology and audiology services should be conducted by certified (and licensed where applicable) speech-language pathologists and audiologists, or by individuals who meet the educational requirements for certification and are receiving the supervised experience required for certification (Asha, 1981). These guidelines have been formulated to assist the speech-language pathologist and audiologist providing services in the unique environment of the home. The intent of these guidelines is to facilitate integration of services, cost-effectiveness and quality of client care. PMID:2222567

  4. Computed tomography of the retroperitoneum: an anatomical and pathological atlas with emphasis on the fascial planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is to provide a descriptive clinical pathological CT atlas of a range of conditions involving retroperitoneum and neighbouring organs and structures (excluding the pelvic part of the retroperitoneum). Chapter 1 describes the patient material studied, some aspects of CT techniques and patient handling. Chapter 2 describes the anatomy of the renal fascia based upon reports derived from the literature and is followed by our CT observations in more than 5000 abdominal CT examinations. In short it is an anatomical CT atlas. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 deal with reactions of the fascial structures in different pathological conditions caused by major disease entities. The patients were scanned for these diseases, of which anatomical topographical appearances and spread are described in the general considerations, followed by CT findings and illustrative cases, combined with abstracted experience from other workers. (Auth.)

  5. Guidelines for resident training in veterinary clinical pathology. III: cytopathology and surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney, Beverly A; Dial, Sharon M; Christopher, Mary M

    2009-09-01

    The Education Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology has identified a need for improved structure and guidance of training residents in clinical pathology. This article is the third in a series of articles that address this need. The goals of this article are to describe learning objectives and competencies in knowledge, abilities, and skills in cytopathology and surgical pathology (CSP); provide options and ideas for training activities; and identify resources in veterinary CSP for faculty, training program coordinators, and residents. Guidelines were developed in consultation with Education Committee members and peer experts and with evaluation of the literature. The primary objectives of training in CSP are: (1) to develop a thorough, extensive, and relevant knowledge base of biomedical and clinical sciences applicable to the practice of CSP in domestic animals, laboratory animals, and other nondomestic animal species; (2) to be able to reason, think critically, investigate, use scientific evidence, and communicate effectively when making diagnoses and consulting and to improve and advance the practice of pathology; and (3) to acquire selected technical skills used in CSP and pathology laboratory management. These guidelines define expected competencies that will help ensure proficiency, leadership, and the advancement of knowledge in veterinary CSP and will provide a useful framework for didactic and clinical activities in resident-training programs. PMID:19619150

  6. Aspect Oriented Requirements Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yakout A. Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirements engineering techniques that explicitly recognize the importance of clearly identifying and treating crosscutting concerns are called Aspect-oriented Requirements Engineering Approaches (AORE approaches. The emergence of aspect-oriented programming languages has raised the explicit need to identify crosscutting concerns already during the analysis phase. Besides this observation, the modular representation of crosscutting requirements is a first step to ensure traceability of crosscutting concerns through all other artifacts of the software lifecycle (architecture, design and implementation.Aspect-oriented requirements engineering approaches improve existing requirements engineering approaches through an explicit representation (and modularization of concerns that were otherwise spread throughout other requirements artifacts (such as use cases, goal models, viewpoints, etc..AORE approaches adopt the principle of separation of concerns at the analysis phase (the early separation of concerns. In other words, AORE approaches provide a representation of crosscutting concerns in requirements artifacts.

  7. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  8. Applying aspects to a real-time embedded operating system

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Francisco; Silva, Carlos A.; Montenegro, Sérgio; Tavares, Adriano

    2007-01-01

    The application of aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to the embedded operating system domain is still a very controversial topic, as this area demands high performance and small memory footprint. However, recent studies quantifying aspects overheads in AspectC++ show that the resource cost is very low. Therefore, operating system development may benefit with the modularization of crosscutting concerns and system specialization offered by AOP. This paper addresses our experience in applying...

  9. Coupling Metrics for Aspect Oriented Programming -A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kotrappa Sirbi,; Prakash Jayanth Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Metrics are an important technique in quantifying desirable software and software development characteristics of aspect- oriented software development (AOSD).Over the last few years, a growing number of studies have explored how Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) might impact software maintainability. In this paper, we present a systematic review of recent AO programs and designs metrics studies. We look at attributes most frequently used as indicators of maintainability in current aspect-orie...

  10. Digital pathology in drug discovery and development: multisite integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Steven J

    2009-10-01

    Digital pathology is an emerging technology that provides an image-based environment for managing and interpreting the information generated from a digitized glass slide, offering substantial improvements in pharmaceutical drug development across discovery, preclinical GLP pathology and oncology clinical trials. Digital pathology is transforming global pharmaceutical research by enabling data sharing to integrate dispersed pharma pathology labs around the world. This article reviews the stages of multisite digital pathology integration in large pharmaceutical companies, offering suggestions for success and highlighting challenges. PMID:19596461

  11. Primary Ileocaecal Lymphoma: Clinico Pathological Features And Result of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokat H.Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad, N.A. Wani, Mohd Y.Kharadi, Azra Shah, Gul javed, T.J.Qureshi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to establish the clinico-pathological features and response totreatment in primary ileocaecal lymphomas. Fifteen patients with primary ileocaecal lymphomawere analyzed with respect to clinical presentation, histopathological aspects and response to varioustreatment modalities. Abdominal pain and a palpable abdominal mass were the commonest presentingfeatures. Ten (66.66% patients had clinical stage liE disease, four (26.66% had stage IE, and onepatient (6.66% had stage IV disease. Malignant lymphoma small lymphocytic (MLSL was presentin 40% of patients followed by malignant lymphoma diffuse large cell (MLDLC in 26.26% andmalignant lymphoma diffuse small cleaved cell (MLDSC in 20% ofpatients. Malignant lymphomadiffuse mixed (MLDM and malignant lymphoma lymphoblastic (MLL was present in 6.66% ofpatients in each. All the patients underwent laparotomy with 14 undergoing surgical resection whichincluded resection of terminal ileum. In one patient only, a biopsy was taken. Combinationchemotherapy (CCT, 4 to 6 cycles ofCHOP/CVP was used in all the patients. Three patients withpersistent residual disease after surgery and CCT were treated with 35 Grays (Gy ofexternal beamradiotherapy on a tele-cobalt unit at 80 cms ofsource to skin distance. Eleven (73% patients remaineddisease free at 10 months to 14 years from the start of treatment. The survival trends indicate apoorer outcome for more advanced cl inical stage. A well designed prospective and randomized trialbased on a large number of patients is essential to work out an optimal management policy inprimary ileocaecal lymphoma.

  12. TESTICULAR CANCER – CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE PATHOLOGY PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marinca

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer (TC may originate in the structure of the seminiferous tubule or the interstitial tissue, but the vast majority (> 95% arise from the germinal epithelium. Germ cell tumors (GCT are classified as seminomas (S, 50% of TC, non-seminomas (NS, 40%, and tumors composed of several cell lines (mixed-type tumors, MT, 10%. We reevaluated the available specimens for 39 cases of GCT (15 S, 12 NS, 12 MT. The major distinction to be made was between pure S and NS (including MT, but additional data were obtained in order to assess and quantify several other histological features of potential interest (share of different tumor subtypes, cytoplasm staining, intratumoral necrosis, lymphocytic infiltration, invasion of tunica albuginea and rete testis, tumor emboli, spermatogenesis not evaluated during the initial (diagnostic examination. Their impact on disease-free (DFS and overall survival (OS was also evaluated. Mean follow-up duration was 47.11 months (range 4.73-104.0 months. We found the vascular component of the tumor (p=0,034 to be linked to DFS of NS and only the lymphocytic infiltrate (p=0,0001 to both DFS and OS in S. The pathology exam can be considered as an independent prognostic factor of utmost importance in TC, and might need to include additional information about these two aspects and possibly others, but research on a larger number of patients is needed.

  13. Jogo patológico e motivação para mudança de comportamento / Pathological gambling and motivation for behavior change

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Cauduro de, Souza; Jaqueline Garcia da, Silva; Margareth da Silva, Oliveira; Simone Armentano, Bittencourt; Suzana Dias, Freire.

    Full Text Available O Jogo Patológico é um transtorno com impacto significativo na sociedade, acarretando prejuízos sociais, financeiros e emocionais aos indivíduos. Neste artigo, realizou-se uma revisão sobre a patologia que envolve o hábito de jogar e as possibilidades terapêuticas envolvidas, principalmente o aspect [...] o motivacional como fator essencial no tratamento. Considerando que a motivação para mudança é um importante aspecto a ser considerado na elaboração de estratégias e intervenções nesta patologia, a presente revisão relaciona o Jogo Patológico com o tema da motivação para mudança. Foram consultadas as bases de dados Pschynfo, Web of Science, Medline e Lilacs com os descritores pathological gambling, gamblers, treatment, stages of change, motivational interviewing e readiness to change, entre 1990 e 2008. Também foram analisados livros e artigos que não se encontravam nas referências das fontes indexadas. Da literatura científica pesquisada, observou-se que a maioria dos estudos sugere mais pesquisas com ensaios controlados para tratamento desta patologia e ressalta que a motivação do paciente parece ser fundamental como fator preditivo em qualquer modalidade terapêutica. Abstract in english Pathological Gambling is a disorder with a significant impact on society, causing social, financial and emotional injuries to individuals. In this paper, we conducted a review of scientific literature on Pathological Gambling, focusing on aspects related to this disorder, and its therapeutic possibi [...] lities, especially the motivational aspect as an essential factor to treatment. Considering motivation to change as an important issue to be considered in order to develop treatment strategies and interventions for this disorder, this review related Pathological Gambling to motivation to change. The following databases were consulted: Pschynfo, Web of Science, Medline and Lilacs; using the keywords pathological gambling, gamblers, treatment, stages of change, motivational interviewing and readiness to change, between 1990 and 2008. We also examined books and articles that were not in the references of the indexed sources. From the scientific literature searched, it was observed that most studies suggest the need for more research with controlled trials to treat this condition; and the motivation of the patient appears to be crucial as a predictive factor in any therapeutic modality.

  14. Cognitive plasticity in normal and pathological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Botella, Juan; Zamarrón, María Dolores; Molina, María Ángeles; Cabras, Emilia; Schettini, Rocío; Tárraga, Lluis

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the present study is to examine to what extent age and cognitive impairment contribute to learning performance (cognitive plasticity, cognitive modifiability, or learning potential). To address this question, participants coming from four studies (Longitudinal Study of Active Aging, age range, 55-75 years, N = 458; Longitudinal Study in the very old [90+], age range, 90-102, N = 188, and Cognitive Plasticity within the Course of Cognitive Impairment, 97 "Normal", 57 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 98 Alzheimer's disease [AD] patients) were examined through a measure of verbal learning (developed from Rey). The results show that all age, MCI, and AD groups learned across the five learning trials of that test, but significant differences were found due to age, pathology, and education. The effects of pathology (MCI and AD) can be expressed in a metric of "years of normal decline by age"; specifically, being MCI means suffering an impairment in performance that is equivalent to the decline of a normal individual during 15 years, whereas the impact of AD is equivalent to 22.7 years. Likewise, the improvement associated with about 5 years of education is equivalent to about 1 year less of normal aging. Also, the two pathological groups significantly differed from "normal" groups in the delayed trial of the test. The most dramatic difference is that between the "normal" group and the AD patients, which shows relatively poorer performance for the AD group in the delayed trial than in the first learning trial. The potential role of this unique effect for quick detection purposes of AD is assessed (in the 75-89 years age range, sensitivity and specificity equal 0.813 and 0.917, respectively). PMID:22291469

  15. Social Aspects of Virtual Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Shwarts-Asher, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    There has been a transformation from individual work to team work in the last few decades (Ilgen, 1999), and many organizations use teams for many activities done by individuals in the past (Boyett & Conn, 1992 ; Katzenbach & Smith, 1993). In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in computer-mediated groups because of the increases in globalization of business operations leading to geographically dispersed executives and decision makers. However, what seems to be lacking is some focus in terms of problem settings and corresponding tools to support collaborative decision making. The research question of this study deals with the dynamics of virtual teams' members. A model, suggesting that team dynamics can increase the teams' output, is presented, and a methodology to examine the model is illustrated. An experiment was performed, in which subjects, who were grouped into teams, had to share information in order to complete a task. The findings indicate that the social aspect of the virtual tea...

  16. Perspectives on low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of the low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron configuration is discussed from the point of view of plasma confinement. Recent numerical results on the configuration study and the experimental data base are reviewed. (author)

  17. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made

  18. Gout. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  19. Cognitive Aspects of Gerrymandering

    OpenAIRE

    Casati, Roberto

    2001-01-01

    Some philosochical and cognitive aspects of political gerrymandering are investigated. The basic assumption of gerrymandering practices is that regions be connected. This assumption is questioned, as it seems to result for a cognitive bias for connectedness (a preference for unitary objects).

  20. Chiral models: geometric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review on nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric chiral models is presented. The main attention is paid to geometric aspects of the Calabi-Yau varieties. Instanton solutions of the chiral models with nontrivial topology, the Kahler Ricci-plane varieties in particular, are considered. 197 refs

  1. Recent advances in coronal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Ineke; Browning, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    The solar corona, the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, is orders of magnitude hotter than the solar surface. This ‘coronal heating problem’ requires the identification of a heat source to balance losses due to thermal conduction, radiation and (in some locations) convection. The review papers in this Theo Murphy meeting issue present an overview of recent observational findings, large- and small-scale numerical modelling of physical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere and other aspects which may affect our understanding of the proposed heating mechanisms. At the same time, they also set out the directions and challenges which must be tackled by future research. In this brief introduction, we summarize some of the issues and themes which reoccur throughout this issue. PMID:25897095

  2. Recent advances in coronal heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Ineke; Browning, Philippa

    2015-05-28

    The solar corona, the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, is orders of magnitude hotter than the solar surface. This 'coronal heating problem' requires the identification of a heat source to balance losses due to thermal conduction, radiation and (in some locations) convection. The review papers in this Theo Murphy meeting issue present an overview of recent observational findings, large- and small-scale numerical modelling of physical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere and other aspects which may affect our understanding of the proposed heating mechanisms. At the same time, they also set out the directions and challenges which must be tackled by future research. In this brief introduction, we summarize some of the issues and themes which reoccur throughout this issue. PMID:25897095

  3. Relationship between trauma narratives and trauma pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, N; Stafford, J; Freshman, M S; Foa, E B

    1998-04-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between posttrauma pathology and the level of articulation (complexity) in rape narratives recounted by victims shortly after the assault. Degree of articulation was operationalized as the reading level of the narrative as determined by a computer program. Shortly after the trauma, reading level was correlated with severity of anxiety but not with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Degree of the narrative articulation shortly after the trauma, however, was related to severity of later PTSD. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the less developed trauma narratives hinder recovery from trauma. PMID:9565923

  4. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, James

    This cytogenetics case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 4-year-old female with a history of chronic otitis media. Results from a cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Rajendra

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman was diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, and became a candidate for a bone marrow transplant. Visitors can view both PB Count Chart and Flow Cytometry, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of hematopathology.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Progressive Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böker, Dieter-Karsten

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman sought help for an progressive eight-year diminished sense of hearing, which developed with vertigo and left-side tinnitus. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of Neuropathology.

  7. Historical descriptions of physicians' personal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghany, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    There were many instances in the history of medicine when doctors reported on their suffering from diseases or injuries and how they were managed. Orthopaedic surgery saw many examples of such self-reports. Do surgeons describe their own pathologies in the same way they do those of their patients? Also what did such self reports change in the orthopaedic practice of their times and thereafter? The aim of this paper is to review some historical self-reports in which eminent general and orthopaedic surgeons reported their own orthopaedic ailments. Many such reports broke prevalent myths and made significant changes in the orthopaedic thought and methodology. PMID:25743029

  8. Pathology Case Study: Acute Onset of Epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Andrea Cortese

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 77-year-old white male who presented to the emergency department with persistent nose bleeding. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, treatment data, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  9. Pathology Case Study: Anemia and Thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Melissa B.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 3-year old presented to the hospital with a history of thrombocytopenia, nosebleeds, and easy bruising for two weeks . Visitors are given the peripheral blood and bone marrow description and diagnosis, family history, and hemoglobin electrophoresis, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  10. Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. 27 references

  11. Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N P; Kumar, R; Kinkhabwala, M; Wengrover, S I

    1988-01-01

    With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. PMID:3293918

  12. Pathology Case Study: Transient Ischemic Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Nancy

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man experienced diminished use of his right hand, and slurred speech. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Pineal Gland Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezube, Bruce J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old diabetic woman presents to the hospital a two-week history of confusion, disorientation, and short-term memory loss. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Right Neck Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Fiona

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 79-year-old man with "cervical, axillary, inguinal, and abdominal lymphadenopathy whose case was sent for consultation." Visitors are given the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  15. The Plant Pathology Internet Guide Book: PPIGB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraska, Thorsten.

    1997-01-01

    Dr. Thorsten Kraska of the Institute for Plant Diseases at the University of Bonn, Germany, writes, compiles and maintains this meta-site of Internet resources on plant pathology, applied entomology, and related fields. The site is divided into topical sections (including mycology, nematology, virology, pesticides, and biotechnology) and sections based on the format of a given resource (journals, newsgroups, databases, culture collections, conferences, and software). All sites are examined and annotated by Dr. Kraska before being added, and "extraordinary" sites are marked with a "TIP" icon.

  16. Pathology Case Study: A Nasopharyngeal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Leon, 1941-

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular case, an 87-year-old woman was admitted due to recurrent epistaxis. The patientâ??s history, test results, and microscopic description are all included in the case study to aid in understanding the patientâ??s diagnosis. The â??Final Diagnosisâ? section provides the official final diagnosis of the patient and a detailed description provided by the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease.

  17. Subduction modelling with ASPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

  18. An anatomo-pathological study of injury development in the pig following acute local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and anatomo-pathological evolution of the injuries due to acute collimated exposure (192Ir) of pigs' thigh has been studied. After a first stage of superficial injuries -coagulation and ischemic necrosis- spreading on during the first three weeks, there followed a stage of fast extension of deep injuries, especially at the beginning of the third month following exposure. Together with the destructive injuries, a very large mutilating sclerosis developed from the fourth week; its particular characteristics -pseudosarcomatous aspect and anarchistic vascularization- did not allow to stop the evolution of tissular impairment

  19. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The meA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA exposure levels and MN frequency (r = 0.384, p = 0.001) and TL (r = 0.333, p = 0.005). Regarding the genetic polymorphisms studied, no significant effect was found on the genotoxic endpoints. The results of the present biomonitoring study emphasize the need to develop safety programs

  20. CT pathologic correlative study of BOOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) was proposed as a new infiltrative lung disease in 1985, we think it has two radiologic problems. First, in spite of interstitial pneumonia, about half of chest radiographs of BOOP has been reported to show alveolar opacities. Second, because radiologic features of both some cases of BOOP and of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) show reticular shadows on chest radiographs, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between two diseases. We correlated CT images with open lung biopsy specimens and evaluated CT's ability to differentiate BOOP from UIP. CT findings of all cases of BOOP were : 1) markedly increased dense infiltrates of various sizes which demarcated sharply from normal lung field. Air bronchogram was always present. 2) less dense images were seen which also stood out against the normal lung field. The former corresponded to air space consolidation formed by organized exudates and inflammatory cells within alveolar ducts and alveoli, while the latter indicated luminal and mural alveolitis. Both findings were sharply delineated from each other probably because of intervening interlobular septa. Conglomerated small cystic shadows and air bronchiolograms within areas of intense lung density were seen in CT images of most of 28 patients with UIP. Those findings proved to correspond to macroscopic or microscopic honey combing which were not seen in our cases of BOOP. These radiologic and pathologic fea BOOP. These radiologic and pathologic features of UIP were different from those of BOOP. (author)

  1. Progressive supranuclear palsy: MRI and pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate brain atrophy and signal intensity changes on MRI in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and to correlate them with pathological features. We reviewed MRI and brain specimens of six patients with PSP, nine with Parkinson's disease (PD) and six with striatonigral degeneration (SND). Sagittal T1-weighted images showed that four patients with PSP had obvious reduction of anteroposterior midbrain diameter. T2-weighted images demonstrated diffuse high-signal lesions in the tegmentum and tectum of the midbrain of four patients, the upper pontine tegmentum of four, and the lower pontine tegmentum of two, but in no patient with PD or SND. The inferior olivary nuclei gave high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in one patient with PSP. These signal intensity changes were consistent with the pathological findings. One patient with PSP showed abnormal signal intensity in the upper pontine tegmentum without atrophy of the midbrain. Midbrain atrophy and diffuse high-signal lesions on T2-weighted images in the tegmentum and tectum of the brain stem are characteristic of PSP. (orig.). With 9 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Pathology Case Study: Substernal Chest Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Larry

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology featuring a 49-year-old married white male school teacher was a 2 pack/day smoker with a history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and obesity, and a family history of coronary artery disease. He was awakened from his sleep at 03:00 with crushing substernal chest pain which radiated to his left arm and was accompanied by shortness of breath. This case study provides learning objectives along with autopsy findings both gross and microscopic in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  3. The preanalytic phase in veterinary clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. PMID:25438659

  4. Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallès, Vicenç

    2015-02-01

    There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. PMID:25434846

  5. Toxicologic pathology in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlin, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Toxicology is and will be heavily influenced by advances in many scientific disciplines. For toxicologic pathology, particularly relevant are the increasing array of molecular methods providing deeper insights into toxicity pathways, in vivo imaging techniques visualizing toxicodynamics and more powerful computers anticipated to allow (partly) automated morphological diagnoses. It appears unlikely that, in a foreseeable future, animal studies can be replaced by in silico and in vitro studies or longer term in vivo studies by investigations of biomarkers including toxicogenomics of shorter term studies, though the importance of such approaches will continue to increase. In addition to changes based on scientific progress, the work of toxicopathologists is and will be affected by social and financial factors, among them stagnating budgets, globalization, and outsourcing. The number of toxicopathologists in North America, Europe, and the Far East is not expected to grow. Many toxicopathologists will likely spend less time at the microscope but will be more heavily involved in early research activities, imaging, and as generalists with a broad biological understanding in evaluation and management of toxicity. Toxicologic pathology will remain important and is indispensable for validation of new methods, quality assurance of established methods, and for areas without good alternative methods. PMID:23143188

  6. Virtual slides: application in pulmonary pathology consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha? Wojciechowski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Slide (VS is an interactive microscope emulator that presents a complete digitized tissue section via the Internet. A successful implementation of VS has been observed for educational, research venues and quality control. VS acquisition for consultative pathology is not so common. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and usability of VS in the consultative pulmonary telepathology. 20 lung tumors entered the study. The performance was programmed for 2 medical centers specialized in pulmonary pathology (beginner and advancer in telepathology. A high-quality VSs were prepared by Coolscope (Nikon, Eclipsnet VSL, Japan, and were evaluated via the Internet. The cases were reviewed for the second time with conventional light microscope. VS diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability were evaluated. Also the time taken by examiners to render the diagnoses and time needed to scan the microscopic slide were analyzed. Percentage concordance between original glass-slides diagnosis and diagnosis for VSs was very high. Pathologists found the download speed of VSs adequate; experience in telepathology reduced the time of VS diagnosis. VS implementation suggests advantages for teleconsulation and education but also indicate some technical limitations. This is the first Polish trial of VS implementation in telepathology consultative service.

  7. Groove pancreatic carcinomas: radiological and pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of pancreatic head carcinomas mainly invading the groove between the duodenum and the pancreatic head. Nine patients with pathologically proven pancreatic head carcinomas underwent thin-slice dynamic CT, MR imaging, duodenal endoscopy, and angiography (seven patients). Plate-like masses within the groove region were seen in all cases, which showed hypointensity on T1-weighted images and slight hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images. The masses appeared hypovascular in the early phase and delayed enhancement in the late phase of dynamic CT and MR imaging. On MR cholangiopancreatography, stenosis of intrapancreatic common bile duct was seen in all patients, whereas stenosis of the main pancreatic duct was seen in only three cases. Endoscopy revealed luminal narrowing of the duodenum in all patients, and duodenal mucosal biopsy demonstrated adenocarcinoma in seven patients. Abdominal arteriography showed serrated encasement of peripancreatic arteries in seven patients who received angiographic examinations. The CT and MR imaging findings of groove pancreatic carcinomas resemble those of groove pancreatitis. Differential diagnosis may be achieved by the pathological diagnosis of a biopsy specimen of the duodenal mucosa and arterial encasement on arteriography. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of intracavernous pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, Masaki; Yasui, Toshihiro; Yagura, Hisatsugu; Fu, Yoshihiko; Baba, Mitsuru (Baba Memorial Hospital, Sakai, Osaka (Japan)); Hakuba, Akira; Nishimura, Shuro

    1989-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of intracavernous pathology, T{sub 1}-weighted spin echo images of four vascular lesions and 10 neoplastic lesions with surgically confirmed cavernous sinus (CS) invasion were reviewed retrospectively. In one case of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) and one of dural arteriovenous malformation (AVM), the internal carotid artery (ICA) and rapid shunted flow were depicted as signal voids, and the relationship between the ICA and shunted flow was clearly shown. Normal venous flow appeared as a low-intensity area and was observed even in the presence of the CCF and dural AVM. In two cases of thrombosed aneurysms, the thrombosis was clearly demonstrated, along with patent arterial flow in one case; in the other case, however, it was impossible to differentiate patent arterial flow from calcification. The intensity of all neoplastic lesions was similar to that of the cerebral cortex. The relationship between the ICA and the tumors was clearly demonstrated. The visual pathways were also plainly shown unless they were involved, or markedly compressed, by tumor. CS invasion was strongly associated with four findings: (1) encasement of the ICA by the tumor; (2) marked displacement of the ICA; (3) absence of low intensity, which reflects normal venous flow, in the CS; and (4) extension of extrasellar tumors to the medial wall or of intrasellar tumors to the lateral wall. MR imaging was judged promising in the evaluation of intracavernous pathology. (author).

  9. Gastrointestinal Mesenchymal Neoplasms other than Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Focusing on Their Molecular Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesec, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mesenchymal tumors other than gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) are rare neoplasms, but they often enter the differential diagnosis of more common GI lesions. Some of these mesenchymal tumors in the GI tract have well understood molecular pathologic aspects, including desmoid tumors, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), clear cell sarcoma (CCS), inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP), and synovial sarcoma (SS). Molecular pathology is fast becoming a mainstream focus in laboratories because it aids in the precise classification of tumors, may be prognostic, and may help predict response to therapy. The following review is not intended as an exhaustive summary of all mesenchymal tumors that have been reported to involve the GI tract, but instead will highlight the current knowledge of the most important non-GIST GI mesenchymal neoplasms, focusing on those tumors with well-characterized molecular pathology and how the molecular pathologic features impact current diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic standards. PMID:21403834

  10. Basic pathologies of neurodegenerative dementias and their relevance for state-of-the-art molecular imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising life-expectancy in the modern society has resulted in a rapidly growing prevalence of dementia, particularly of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dementia turns into one of the most common age-related disorders with deleterious consequences for the concerned patients and their relatives, as well as worrying effects on the socio-economic systems. These facts justify strengthened scientific efforts to identify the pathologic origin of dementing disorders, to improve diagnosis, and to interfere therapeutically with the disease progression. In the recent years, remarkable progress has been made concerning the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence indicates that a common basis of many neurodegenerative dementias can be found in increased production, misfolding and pathological aggregation of proteins, such as ss-amyloid, tau protein, a-synuclein, or the recently described ubiquitinated TDP-43. This progressive insight in pathological processes is paralleled by the development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the exact contribution or mechanism of different pathologies with regard to the development of disease is not yet sufficiently clear. Considerable overlap of pathologies has been documented in different types of clinically defined dementias post mortem, and it has been difficult to correlate post mortem histopathology data with disease-expression during life. Molecular imaging procedures muring life. Molecular imaging procedures may play a valuable role to circumvent this limitation. In general, methods of molecular imaging have recently experienced an impressive advance, with numerous new and improved technologies emerging. These exciting tools may play a key role in the future regarding the evaluation of pathomechanisms, preclinical evaluation of new diagnostic procedures in animal models, selection of patients for clinical trials, and therapy monitoring. In this overview, molecular key pathologies, which are currently regarded to be strongly associated with the development of different dementias, will be shortly summarized; it will also be discussed how state-of-the-art imaging technology can assist to visualize these processes now and in the future. (orig.)

  11. AspectJ in action practical aspect-oriented programming

    CERN Document Server

    Laddad, Ramnivas

    2003-01-01

    A guide to aspect-oriented programming and the AspectJ language, this book provides code examples that enable quick implementation of functionality in a system. Thorough introductions to AOP and AspectJ will help developers learn or advance their knowledge of AspectJ. Examples of everyday situations in which AspectJ solutions can be applied, such as logging, policy enforcement, resource pooling, business logic, thread-safety, authentication and authorization, and transaction management are provided. In addition, design patterns and idioms are covered, as is business rule implementation. The latest technologies, such as JEES, JAAS, and log4j, are explained and connected with AspectJ.

  12. Residency choices by graduating medical students: why not pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tawny; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ford, Jason C

    2011-06-01

    Pathology is an unpopular residency choice for medical students worldwide. In some countries, this has contributed to a crisis in pathologist human resources that has affected the quality of clinical laboratories. Several previous studies have used information from junior medical students and from residents to suggest ways of improving pathology recruitment. There are, however, no published studies of pathology residency choice that focus on the senior medical students who must be recruited. This study uses focus groups of senior medical students to explore both general and pathology-specific influences on residency choice. Several general influences are identified, including students' expectations for their future clinical practices, their own clinical rotation experiences, influences from other people including mentors, and their choice to reject certain fields. Several specific antipathology influences are also revealed, including negative stereotypes about pathologists, a perceived incompatibility of personality between most medical students (extroverted) and pathologists (introverted), and perceptions of pathologists as being in some ways nonmedical. The most important antipathology influence was that, from the students' perspective, pathology was utterly invisible in clinical practice. Most students did not consider and then reject a pathology residency: instead, pathology was completely ignored. Given the importance of clerkship electives in influencing medical student career choice, promoting clerkship experiences in pathology may improve recruitment. However, departments of pathology must first make pathology visible to students and teach them how pathologists contribute to clinical care. PMID:21292295

  13. Interfaces with English aspect diachronic and empirical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegeler, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The field of verbal aspect has been a focus for the derivation of a multiplicity of theoretical approaches ranging over decades of linguistic research. From the point of view of recent studies, though, there has been relatively little emphasis on the nature of the interaction of aspect with other categories, and the ways in which our knowledge of aspect acts as a primary semantic contributor to the creation of other basic verbal parameters such as tense and modality. This book aims to cross some of the categorial borders, using a collection of studies on the interfaces of English aspect with o

  14. Luteolin Reduces Alzheimer’s Disease Pathologies Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Darrell Sawmiller; Song Li; Md Shahaduzzaman; Smith, Adam J.; Demian Obregon; Brian Giunta; Borlongan, Cesar V.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Jun Tan

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs in response to an acute insult to the head and is recognized as a major risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Indeed, recent studies have suggested a pathological overlap between TBI and AD, with both conditions exhibiting amyloid-beta (A?) deposits, tauopathy, and neuroinflammation. Additional studies involving animal models of AD indicate that some AD-related genotypic determinants may be critical factors enhancing temporal and phenotypic symptoms ...

  15. mTOR attenuates the inflammatory response in cardiomyocytes and prevents cardiac dysfunction in pathological hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaoxiao; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Xiao, Chun-Yang; Kinsella, Stuart D.; Rosenberg, Michael A; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Hara, Kenta; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Matsui, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by rapamycin suppresses myocardial hypertrophy. However, the role of mTOR in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in pathological hypertrophy has not been fully defined. Interestingly, recent reports indicate that the inflammatory response, which plays an important role in the development of heart failure, is enhanced by rapamycin under certain conditions. Our aim in this study was to determine the i...

  16. Immune genes are associated with human glioblastoma pathology and patient survival

    OpenAIRE

    Vauléon Elodie; Tony Avril; Hamlat Abderrahmane; Etcheverry Amandine; Chiforeanu Dan; Menei Philippe; Mosser Jean; Quillien Véronique; Aubry Marc

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. Several recent transcriptomic studies in GBM have identified different signatures involving immune genes associated with GBM pathology, overall survival (OS) or response to treatment. Methods In order to clarify the immune signatures found in GBM, we performed a co-expression network analysis that grouped 791 immune-associated genes (IA genes) in large clusters using a combined dataset of 161 G...

  17. Pathological documentation of complete elimination of Barrett's metaplasia following endoscopic multipolar electrocoagulation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fennerty, M.; Corless, C.; Sheppard, B.; Faigel, D.; Lieberman, D.; Sampliner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The previous paradigm that Barrett's is an irreversible premalignant lesion has recently been challenged by a proliferation of reports documenting elimination of Barrett's by a variety of endoscopic techniques. Whether Barrett's is entirely eliminated is unknown as endoscopic biopsy samples the surface of the epithelium only. Numerous reports document underlying specialised columnar epithelium in many of these trials. Until now there have been no reports of pathological examination of the ent...

  18. Introduction of virtual microscopy in routine surgical pathology - a hypothesis and personal view from Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The technology of whole image acquisition from histological glass slides (Virtual slides, (VS)) and its associated software such as image storage, viewers, and virtual microscopy (VM), has matured in the recent years. There is an ongoing discussion whether to introduce VM into routine diagnostic surgical pathology (tissue-based diagnosis) or not, and if these are to be introduced how best to do this. The discussion also centres around how to substantially define the mandatory standar...

  19. FUS pathology defines the majority of tau-and TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Urwin, H.; Josephs, K. A.; Rohrer, J. D.; Mackenzie, I. R. A.; Neumann, H. A. M.; Authier, A.; Seelaar, H.; Swieten, J. C.; Brown, J. M.; Johannsen, P.; Nielsen, J. E.; Holm, I. E.; Dickson, D.; Rademakers, R.; Graff-radford, N. R.

    2010-01-01

    Through an international consortium, we have collected 37 tau-and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases, and present here the first comprehensive analysis of these cases in terms of neuropathology, genetics, demographics and clinical data. 92% (34/37) had fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein pathology, indicating that FTLD-FUS is an important FTLD subtype. This FTLD-FUS collection specifically focussed on aFTLD-U cases, one of three recently def...

  20. Comparative murine norovirus studies reveal a lack of correlation between intestinal virus titers and enteric pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Liu, Guangliang; Reinhard, Mary K.; Hsu, Charlie C.; Livingston, Robert S.; Karst, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Human noroviruses are significant emerging pathogens, causing the majority of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The recent discovery of 30 murine norovirus strains is beginning to facilitate a detailed investigation of norovirus pathogenesis. Here, we have performed an in vivo comparative analysis of two murine norovirus strains, MNV-1 and MNV-3. In immunocompetent mice, MNV-1 caused modest intestinal pathology whereas MNV-3 was attenuated compared to MNV-1. Surprisingly thou...

  1. Ganglioneuroblastoma of the Hypothalamus: Radiologic and Pathological Findings of a Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganglion cell tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are uncommon. There have been few reports in the literature about ganglion cell tumors that arise from the spinal cord, pineal gland, cerebral hemisphere or cerebellum. We recently experienced a case of ganglioneuroblastoma that developed from the hypothalamus in 4-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ganglioneuroblastoma in the hypothalamus. We report on this case and we present the neuroimaging and pathologic findings

  2. Typhoid fever - clinical and endoscopic aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Murinello; A., Morbey; J. Figueira, Coelho; P., Mendonça; A. C., Pires; V. Magalhães, Ramalho; N. Carrilho, Ribeiro; A., Lázaro; H., Peres; J., Netta.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre tifóide é uma infecção intestinal causada pela Salmonella typhi, manifestada por quadro septicémico, ocorrendo incidência elevada de casos em regiões com deficientes condições sanitárias, através do consumo de água e alimentos contaminados por fezes de indivíduos doentes ou portadores assint [...] omáticos. Em países desenvolvidos os casos verificados são geralmente “importados”. A observação endoscópica das ulcerações da ileocolite tífica tem sido raramente descrita, não havendo referências prévias em Portugal da documentação colonoscópica das ulcerações tíficas. Baseados num caso clínico, os autores fazem uma revisão sobre febre tifóide, no que concerne à patogenia, histopatologia, quadro clínico, aspectos endoscópicos das ulcerações, e terapêutica antibiótica aconselhada nos casos de estirpes de Salmonella typhi sensíveis ou resistentes a vários grupos de antibióticos. Abstract in english Typhoid fever is an enteric disease due to Salmonella typhi, presenting as a septicaemic illness, affecting an elevated number of people living in regions with poor sanitary conditions, acquired through the ingestion of water and food contaminated by feces of acutely ill patients or chronic carriers [...] of the microorganism. In developed countries the disease is usually “imported”. Colonoscopic demonstration of ulcerations of typhoid ileocolitis is scarcely referred in medical literature, and there are no previous references to endoscopic aspects of typhoid ileocolitis in Portugal. Based on this, the authors review typhoid fever as far as are pathogeny, pathology, clinical picture and colonoscopic aspects are concerned as well as therapy recommended for susceptible and resistant strains of Salmonella typhi.

  3. Typhoid fever - clinical and endoscopic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murinello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is an enteric disease due to Salmonella typhi, presenting as a septicaemic illness, affecting an elevated number of people living in regions with poor sanitary conditions, acquired through the ingestion of water and food contaminated by feces of acutely ill patients or chronic carriers of the microorganism. In developed countries the disease is usually “imported”. Colonoscopic demonstration of ulcerations of typhoid ileocolitis is scarcely referred in medical literature, and there are no previous references to endoscopic aspects of typhoid ileocolitis in Portugal. Based on this, the authors review typhoid fever as far as are pathogeny, pathology, clinical picture and colonoscopic aspects are concerned as well as therapy recommended for susceptible and resistant strains of Salmonella typhi.A febre tifóide é uma infecção intestinal causada pela Salmonella typhi, manifestada por quadro septicémico, ocorrendo incidência elevada de casos em regiões com deficientes condições sanitárias, através do consumo de água e alimentos contaminados por fezes de indivíduos doentes ou portadores assintomáticos. Em países desenvolvidos os casos verificados são geralmente “importados”. A observação endoscópica das ulcerações da ileocolite tífica tem sido raramente descrita, não havendo referências prévias em Portugal da documentação colonoscópica das ulcerações tíficas. Baseados num caso clínico, os autores fazem uma revisão sobre febre tifóide, no que concerne à patogenia, histopatologia, quadro clínico, aspectos endoscópicos das ulcerações, e terapêutica antibiótica aconselhada nos casos de estirpes de Salmonella typhi sensíveis ou resistentes a vários grupos de antibióticos.

  4. Perinatal pathology: the role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavino Faa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathologists and clinicians come together and exchange views, they instil in one another doubts, they break down barriers. Asphyxia, respiratory distress, sepsis, multi-organ failure (MOF, cerebral ischemia and neuroprotection, necrotizing enteritis, renal and biliary pathology (including congenital nephrotic syndrome, injury caused by drugs, cardiac decompensation, placental pathology, neonatal issues in mothers with tumor: these are the topics debated, in the true sense of the word, by perinatologists and pathologists. In some pathologies (e.g. MOF the pathophysiology is surprisingly the same in the neonate and the adult.  Different disciplines deal for example with immunohistochemistry and metabolomics with the processing of thousands of data in search of something that cannot be found with the classic criteria of anamnesis, objective examination, laboratory tests and imaging. Big data and information science promise to change the world. To come to grips with the extreme biological complexity of our organism and each of our organs, the completeness of enormous amounts of data is of extraordinary value if assessed holistically with the “omic” disciplines. Thus we have the possibility of understanding our extraordinary interindividual variability. The new technologies and their application do not diminish the role of physicians: on the contrary, they represent a formidable instrument for extending their diagnostic potential and make possible 5-P medicine: personalized, prospective, predictive, preventive, participatory.  Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  5. Historical aspects of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    “Anxiety” is a key term for behavioral, psychoanalytic, neuroendocrine, and psychopharmacological observations and theories. Commenting on its historical aspects is difficult, since history is properly a study of primary data. Unfortunately, much clinical anecdote does not correspond to factual records of a long time ago. Even reports of objective studies may suffer from allegiance effects. This essay therefore primarily reflects the personal impact of others' work against the background ...

  6. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of...

  7. LNG project - contractual aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno Almeida

    2008-07-01

    This paper intends to provide from the legal point of view an outline of the main challenges of a LNG project in the upstream, regulatory aspects, liquefaction, financing and midstream through a basic checklist; an overview of the contractual complexity of a LNG project; some basic discussion of particular LNG contract clauses; and a comparative analysis between the classic clauses of a Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) through a gas pipeline and LNG logistic. (author)

  8. Aspects of B physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof

  9. $B$ Physics: Theoretical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, Jonathan L.

    1995-01-01

    Some aspects of $B$ physics relevant for experiments in hadron colliders are discussed. These include the determination of parameters of the CKM Matrix and confirmation of its role in CP violation, studies of mixing of nonstrange and strange $B$ mesons, lifetimes of hadrons containing $b$ quarks, the use of ``same-side'' tagging of neutral $B$ mesons via correlations with charged pions through fragmentation or resonances, and the determination of CKM phases through the study...

  10. Myelomeningocele: neglected aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Christopher R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The commonest cause of neurogenic bladder in children is myelomeningocele. Survival of children is much improved in the Western world, but by 35 years old, about 50% will have died. In adults, the commonest causes of death are lung and heart diseases. All physical aspects deteriorate with age, especially in those with thoracic lesions. Those who walk in childhood have a 20–50% chance of becoming wheelchair dependent as adults. Immobility, poor respiratory reserve, obesity, latex allergy an...

  11. Electrochemical kinetics theoretical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Vetter, Klaus J

    1967-01-01

    Electrochemical Kinetics: Theoretical Aspects focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations in electrochemical kinetics. The book first offers information on electrochemical thermodynamics and the theory of overvoltage. Topics include equilibrium potentials, concepts and definitions, electrical double layer and electrocapillarity, and charge-transfer, diffusion, and reaction overvoltage. Crystallization overvoltage, total overvoltage, and resistance polarization are also discussed. The text then examines the methods of determining electrochemical reaction mechanisms

  12. Coupling Metrics for Aspect Oriented Programming -A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrappa Sirbi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metrics are an important technique in quantifying desirable software and software development characteristics of aspect- oriented software development (AOSD.Over the last few years, a growing number of studies have explored how Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP might impact software maintainability. In this paper, we present a systematic review of recent AO programs and designs metrics studies. We look at attributes most frequently used as indicators of maintainability in current aspect-oriented (AO programs. In this review work consolidates data from recent research results, highlights circumstances when the applied metrics suitable to AO programs and draws attention to deficiencies where AO metrics need to be improved.

  13. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA FLOCA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today the Romanian state gives some advantages to those who use mediation. If the Romanian state would take further steps, mediation would work as in the countries with old tradition. The article refers to success and failure got in the two years of practice. The mediation can be seen in two aspects: The first aspect regarding the mediation itself can lead to a mediation agreement. The mediation agreement gives both winnings to the conflict parts and professional satisfactions to the mediator. The second part concerns the mediation contract. It is very important for the mediator who wants to practice and to gain money. The mediation will work in Romania when the mediator passes from the pro-bono stage to winnings. The article refers to the conditions of the appearance of mediation in Romania, the purpose for which it was founded, the usefulness of mediations to relieve the number of court cases and increase the efficiency of the courts, as well as the results obtained from the adoption of the mediation laws until now. The practical aspects leading to the mode in which Romanians perceive mediation and wish to participate or not in the sessions of mediation Recommendations for promoting mediation in Romania

  14. Recent evolutions of refrigerating machineries and heat pumps; Evolutions recentes des machines a froid et thermopompes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 10 papers (or series of transparencies) concerning some recent developments about refrigerating machineries and heat pumps as used in space heating, air-conditioning and industrial refrigeration. Various aspects are developed: thermodynamic cycles, thermal performances, dimensioning, modeling, refrigerants substitution, design of flanged exchangers, compressors etc.. (J.S.)

  15. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (?-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  16. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by (13)C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  17. Cognitive plasticity in normal and pathological aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Ballesteros R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros1, Juan Botella1, María Dolores Zamarrón1, María Ángeles Molina1, Emilia Cabras1, Rocío Schettini1, Lluis Tárraga21Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 2ACE Foundation, Catalonian Institute of Applied Neurosciences, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: The main goal of the present study is to examine to what extent age and cognitive impairment contribute to learning performance (cognitive plasticity, cognitive modifiability, or learning potential. To address this question, participants coming from four studies (Longitudinal Study of Active Aging, age range, 55–75 years, N = 458; Longitudinal Study in the very old [90+], age range, 90–102, N = 188, and Cognitive Plasticity within the Course of Cognitive Impairment, 97 “Normal”, 57 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 98 Alzheimer's disease [AD] patients were examined through a measure of verbal learning (developed from Rey. The results show that all age, MCI, and AD groups learned across the five learning trials of that test, but significant differences were found due to age, pathology, and education. The effects of pathology (MCI and AD can be expressed in a metric of “years of normal decline by age”; specifically, being MCI means suffering an impairment in performance that is equivalent to the decline of a normal individual during 15 years, whereas the impact of AD is equivalent to 22.7 years. Likewise, the improvement associated with about 5 years of education is equivalent to about 1 year less of normal aging. Also, the two pathological groups significantly differed from “normal” groups in the delayed trial of the test. The most dramatic difference is that between the “normal” group and the AD patients, which shows relatively poorer performance for the AD group in the delayed trial than in the first learning trial. The potential role of this unique effect for quick detection purposes of AD is assessed (in the 75–89 years age range, sensitivity and specificity equal 0.813 and 0.917, respectively.Keywords: cognitive plasticity, cognitive modifiability, learning age, aging, Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment

  18. Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler wanted as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site, extent, and anatomic relationships; thus, the principal aims of the study were therefore met. Once the technique of examination is mastered, sonography should be recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation process post-ganglionic brachial plexus pathology. Most disadvantages are related to the restricted field of view and inability to overcome bonny obstacles particularly in evaluating pre-ganglionic region. As sonography is frequently employed for investigation of the supraclavicular region, awareness of the radiologist to the findings described may enable the early recognition of pathologies involving or threatening to involve the brachial plexus. (orig.)

  19. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafate, Sara; Buist, Arjan; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Vijayan, Vinoy; Daneels, Guy; de Strooper, Bart; de Wit, Joris; Verstreken, Patrik; Moechars, Diederik

    2015-05-26

    Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology. PMID:25981034

  20. Pathology Case Study: SLE, Paraproteinemia and Polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-

    This neuropathology case study is provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This particular case involves the diagnosis of an elderly woman with a history of the following conditions: polyarticular arthritis, butterfly rash, and Sicca syndrome. A detailed history of the patient provides all the necessary background information, and the microscopic description and images provide the necessary information to help diagnose her. The official diagnosis of this patient is provided in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section, and is accompanied by a discussion of the case and a short list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  1. Molecular Pathology of Human Prion Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative conditions in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize the molecular background of phenotypic variability, relation of prion protein (PrP to other proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, and pathogenesis of neuronal vulnerability. PrP exists in different forms that may be present in both diseased and non-diseased brain, however, abundant disease-associated PrP together with tissue pathology characterizes prion diseases and associates with transmissibility. Prion diseases have different etiological background with distinct pathogenesis and phenotype. Mutations of the prion protein gene are associated with genetic forms. The codon 129 polymorphism in combination with the Western blot pattern of PrP after proteinase K digestion serves as a basis for molecular subtyping of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Tissue damage may result from several parallel, interacting or subsequent pathways that involve cellular systems associated with synapses, protein processing, oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis.

  2. Tomographic and pathological findings in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Pneumology

    2011-07-15

    Objective: To analyze radiological findings observed at high-resolution computed tomography in patients with sarcoidosis, and establishing their correlation with pathological findings. Materials and Methods: High-resolution computed tomography findings in ten patients with sarcoidosis were reviewed and correlated with findings in specimens obtained by surgical biopsy or at necropsy of four of such patients. Results: The most frequently observed finding was presence of nodules with perilymphatic distribution, predominating along bronchovascular sheaths and pleural surface, with subpleural nodules and nodular scissurae. Other less frequent findings were ground-glass attenuation and interlobular septa thickening. Conclusion: In general, all the mentioned findings demonstrated anatomopathological correlation with development of granulomas in these regions. (author)

  3. Gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology in alpers disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Raj P; Fligner, Corinne; Maghsoodi, Bita; Jaffe, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    Alpers disease is a recessive mitochondrial disorder caused by mutations in POLG1 and characterized primarily by progressive neurological and hepatic degeneration. Intestinal dysmotility is a frequent symptom, but it is often overshadowed by other clinical manifestations. The onset and progression of Alpers disease vary; however, most patients die during childhood, often before a specific diagnosis has been established. The gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology of 4 patients, obtained largely from postmortem specimens, showed distinctive eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules in a subset of enteric ganglia and patchy atrophy of small intestinal muscularis externa. The cytoplasmic inclusions corresponded to abnormal mitochondria, which have been reported previously in another mitochondrial disorder (mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy) but not in Alpers disease. Recognition of these distinctive light microscopic findings, in an appropriate clinical setting, should prompt the evaluation of an underlying primary mitochondriopathy. PMID:21451360

  4. Nanomechanics of functional and pathological amyloid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2011-08-01

    Amyloid or amyloid-like fibrils represent a general class of nanomaterials that can be formed from many different peptides and proteins. Although these structures have an important role in neurodegenerative disorders, amyloid materials have also been exploited for functional purposes by organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals. Here we review the functional and pathological roles of amyloid materials and discuss how they can be linked back to their nanoscale origins in the structure and nanomechanics of these materials. We focus on insights both from experiments and simulations, and discuss how comparisons between functional protein filaments and structures that are assembled abnormally can shed light on the fundamental material selection criteria that lead to evolutionary bias in multiscale material design in nature.

  5. Pathology of motivation system – reasons and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define the dysfunction of the motivational process and the presentation accompanying this issue causes and effects. Pathologies of the incentive system in this day and age are quite a frequently occurring phenomenon in Polish companies. This is accompanied by increasing ignorance of employers in the area of motivation, incompetence immediate superiors in the field of personnel management, as well as advancing the level of unemployment. Employees are evaluated through the prism of cheap labour and so they are treated. Lack of motivation and appropriate way to combat forms of harassment or discrimination in the workplace causes subordinates loss of self-esteem and commitment to duties performed. Thus, this could lead to excessive stress or so burnout, and sometimes even the death of the employee.

  6. Teaching Resources: Botany and Plant Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether you are a tried and true botanist or just getting started, this website from Purdue University will be an invaluable resource for educators, students, and others with an interest in plant pathology and allied fields. The lessons, links, and teaching materials here are divided into five sections, including "Presentations", "Slidesets", and "Professors in the Classroom". For starters, the "Professors in the Classroom" area contains a brief introduction on the relevance of agricultural research from Professor Ray Martyn and a similar feature on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Moving on, the "Slidesets" area contains high-resolution images of various plants compiled by Professor Gregory Shaner for one of his botany courses. The site is rounded out by the "Teaching Materials" area, which features several lesson plans about fungi.

  7. Pathology Case Study: Occipital Bone Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which a "5-month old boy presented with a hard, non-tender swelling behind the left ear, first noticed when he was 2 months old." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  8. The blood rheology in renal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cindio, Bruno; Gabriele, Domenico; Catapano, Gerardo; Fata, Paola; Hackel, Rene; Bonofiglio, Renzo

    2007-01-01

    The blood is a viscoelastic material often studied as a Newtonian or non-linear liquid. Some pathologies and extracorporeal blood treatment processes may affect both the liquid and solid blood component. An adequate rheological technique, able to detect these alterations, may provide clinicians with an important diagnostic aid. Creep tests consisting in the application of a constant stress are very promising because they may roughly separate the liquid-like (i.e., at long response times) from the solid-like (i.e., at short response times) component of the blood rheological behaviour. In this paper, some preliminary results obtained in creep tests on healthy and uremic individuals are reported showing the potentiality of this technique. PMID:17634664

  9. Chondroblastoma patella presenting as a pathological fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudi Narayan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old male presented with an inability to walk after a trivial fall. He had pain and mild swelling anterior to the right knee for the past one year. X-ray showed a transverse fracture of patella with a lytic lesion occupying most of the two halves of the patella. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the lytic lesion revealed a few osteoclastic giant cells and occasional osteoblasts against a hemorrhagic background. Patellectomy was performed. Histology revealed trabecular bone admixed with proliferating chondroid tissue at places admixed with myxoid and fibrous tissue with focal areas of calcification suggestive of chondroblastoma. Focal areas showed osteoclastic giant cells with areas of hemorrhage. The purpose is to present a rare tumor occurring at an unusual site which presented as pathological fracture.

  10. Orofacial granulomatosis: clinical signs of different pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Giuseppe; Dioguardi, Mario; Giannatempo, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Testa, Nunzio Francesco; Cocchi, Roberto; De Lillo, Alfredo; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is an uncommon disease characterized by persistent or recurrent soft tissue enlargement, oral ulceration and a variety of other orofacial features. It could be an oral manifestation of a systemic disease. For a correct differential diagnosis, local and systemic conditions characterized by granulomatous inflammation should be excluded using appropriate clinical and laboratory investigations. In fact, the diagnosis of OFG may be confirmed only by histopathological identification of noncaseating granulomas. The literature from 1943 to 2014 was reviewed with emphasis on the etiology of OFG and on clinical manifestations of systemic pathologies associated with OFG. The precise cause of OFG is still unknown, although several theories have been suggested, such as infection, hereditary factors and allergy. OFG is a disease that has a wide spectrum of presentation, which may include the oral manifestation of a systemic condition such as Crohn's disease, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. PMID:25592641

  11. Detección de patologías derivadas de las afecciones diabéticas: una revisión del análisis digital de imágenes de retina / The detection of pathologies from diabetic disease: a review of digital retinal image analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Rudas; Germán, Sánchez Torres.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las afecciones diabéticas tienen impacto sobre el deterioro de las estructuras internas del sistema circulatorio de la retina. La retinopatía diabética es considerada la causa principal de ceguera en poblaciones adultas, este aspecto ha motivado el desarrollo de numerosos trabajos relacionad [...] os con la inclusión de técnicas computacionales en el análisis de retinografías. Este trabajo examina y describe la literatura reciente relacionada con el procesamiento digital de retinografías, particularmente la automatización de los procesos de detección, segmentación y localización de patologías derivadas de las afecciones producidas por el padecimiento de la retinopatía diabética. Se realizó una clasificación basada en el tipo de patología, lesiones oscuras y lesiones brillantes. Abstract in english Abstract Diabetic diseases affect the internal structures of the retina circulatory system. Diabetic retinopathy is considered the leading cause of blindness in adult populations; this aspect has motivated the development of several works related to the inclusion of computational techniques for anal [...] ysis of retinal images. In this paper, we review and describe recent literature regarding digital retinal processing, particularly the automation of detection, segmentation and location of pathology processes, arising from diabetic retinopathy condition. A pathology type-based classification was performed.

  12. Pathological response grade of colorectal liver metastases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gabriel; Hassanain, Mazen; Chaudhury, Prosanto; Vrochides, Dionisios; Neville, Amy; Cesari, Matthew; Kavan, Petr; Marcus, Victoria; Metrakos, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: The complete resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer is the major determinant of longterm survival. The effectiveness of current chemotherapy regimens has made treatment algorithms more flexible and resulted in many different options. Recently, the pathological response to chemotherapy has emerged as another important prognostic marker. Different systems have been used to grade the pathological response in these patients. Methods: This study prospectively evaluates the prognostic value of the pathological response grade (PRG) in liver metastases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Between 2002 and 2006, 50 patients were treated with a sandwich chemotherapy regimen and underwent liver resection. Complete resection was achieved in 45 patients (90%). A strong pathological response to chemotherapy (<10% viable tumour cells in all lesions) was seen in 17 patients (34%). It was associated with a statistically significant longer overall survival (P= 0.019) and was also identified on multivariate analysis as an independent predictor of survival (odds ratio = 243). Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates the prognostic potential of the PRG, which could be used clinically to select patients for an aggressive multimodal adjuvant algorithm. Larger multicentre studies are required to validate this particular grading system. The keys to longterm survival are resectability and chemo-responsiveness. PMID:20590898

  13. Pathology Case Study: Multiple Myxomas and Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, Mohamed

    This is a endocrine pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 36-year-old white female has multiple myxomas and thyroid cancer. Visitors are given examination and laboratory data and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

  14. TOTAL THYROIDECTOMY IN THE TREATMENT OF BENIGN PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Saviano, M.

    2010-01-01

    Total thyroidectomy or subtotal thyroidectomy performed in benign pathology of thyroid? Methods: To answer this question we performed a retrospective study on 1103 cases with this pathology: 1082 cases first intervention and 51 cases for relapse pathology. Preoperative diagnosis included: evaluation of the functionality of the thyroid by lab tests, endocrinology exam, ORL exam, anhéstesiologique exam, chest radiograph, CT/MRI neck and thorax, ultrasound, scintigraphy, fine-needle aspiration ...

  15. Gray Matter Pathology in MS: Neuroimaging and Clinical Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Morris Honce

    2013-01-01

    It is abundantly clear that there is extensive gray matter pathology occurring in multiple sclerosis. While attention to gray matter pathology was initially limited to studies of autopsy specimens and biopsies, the development of new MRI techniques has allowed assessment of gray matter pathology in vivo. Current MRI techniques allow the direct visualization of gray matter demyelinating lesions, the quantification of diffuse damage to normal appearing gray matter, and the direct measurement of...

  16. Management of intracranial pathology during pregnancy: Case example and review of management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M.; Braca, John A.; Jensen, Randy L.; Duckworth, Edward A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intracranial tumors during pregnancy are uncommon, and they present an interesting challenge to both the neurosurgeon and the obstetrician. Special considerations must be made in every aspect of care. The authors use the rare case of a 27-year-old pregnant female with suspected pineal region tumor eventually diagnosed as a thalamic region ganglioglioma to review the current literature on management of pathology in this unique patient population. Case Description: A 27-year-old female who was 26 weeks pregnant presented to her obstetrician with complaints of headaches, blurriness of vision, and left-sided numbness and tingling. She was diagnosed with 1-cm mass in the pineal region and obstructive hydrocephalus. She initially underwent an endoscopic third ventriculostomy with biopsy of what appeared grossly to be a thalamic mass. The child was delivered via cesarean section at 39 weeks. Serial postpartum imaging demonstrated increasing tumor size and enhancement, which led the authors to proceed with subtotal resection via a supracerebellar infratentorial approach with stereotactic neuronavigation. Tissue specimens obtained for pathological analysis resulted in a revised diagnosis of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II ganglioglioma. Conclusions: Pregnancy presents a challenge for any patient requiring neurosurgical intervention. We present an interesting case example with a rare central nervous system neoplasm and discuss the management of intracranial pathology in pregnant patients. PMID:25883835

  17. Jogo patológico: uma abordagem terapêutica combinada / Pathological gambling: a combined therapeutic strategy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Engel de, Oliveira; Ana Cristina, Sáad.

    Full Text Available Jogo patológico é um transtorno psiquiátrico inserido nos manuais diagnósticos há pouco mais de 20 anos, sendo até hoje pouco estudado. Pode ser considerado um transtorno do espectro impulsivo-compulsivo, apresentando características compartilhadas com os transtornos por uso de substâncias psicoativ [...] as. São identificadas três fases no comportamento de jogar: fase da vitória, da perda e do desespero. Neste artigo será apresentado o caso clínico de uma paciente com o diagnóstico de jogo patológico. Pretendemos com este caso discutir os aspectos relacionados com a abordagem combinada do caso (medicamentosa e psicológica) e as teorias atuais a respeito do jogo patológico. Abstract in english Pathological gambling has been considered a psychiatric disorder for no longer than 20 years, still being not well studied. It can be considered an impulsive-compulsive spectrum disorder with shared characteristics with substance use disorder. There are three phases that can be identified in the gam [...] bling behavior: victory, loss and despair. This article will show a case report of a patient diagnosed as pathological gambler. We intend to discuss some aspects related to the combined approach (medication plus psychotherapy) and present theories about pathological gambling.

  18. The "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE) study program: design and fieldwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Anja; Westram, Anja; Jeske, Christine; de Brito, Susanna; Glorius, Sonja; Schön, Daniela; Porz, Sarah; Gürtler, Diana; Kastirke, Nadin; Hayer, Tobias; Jacobi, Frank; Lucht, Michael; Premper, Volker; Gilberg, Reiner; Hess, Doris; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    The German federal states initiated the "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE) program to evaluate the public health relevance of pathological gambling. The aim of PAGE was to estimate the prevalence of pathological gambling and cover the heterogenic presentation in the population with respect to comorbid substance use and mental disorders, risk and protective factors, course aspects, treatment utilization, triggering and maintenance factors of remission, and biological markers. This paper describes the methodological details of the study and reports basic prevalence data. Two sampling frames (landline and mobile telephone numbers) were used to generate a random sample from the general population consisting of 15,023 individuals (ages 14 to 64) completing a telephone interview. Additionally, high-risk populations have been approached in gambling locations, via media announcements, outpatient addiction services, debt counselors, probation assistants, self-help groups and specialized inpatient treatment facilities. The assessment included two steps: (1) a diagnostic interview comprising the gambling section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for case finding; (2) an in-depth clinical interview with participants reporting gambling problems. The in-depth clinical interview was completed by 594 participants, who were recruited from the general or high-risk populations. The program provides a rich epidemiological database which is available as a scientific use file. PMID:25583586

  19. Information and Computation: Classical and Quantum Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, A.; Martin-delgado, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Quantum theory has found a new field of applications in the realm of information and computation during the recent years. This paper reviews how quantum physics allows information coding in classically unexpected and subtle nonlocal ways, as well as information processing with an efficiency largely surpassing that of the present and foreseeable classical computers. Some outstanding aspects of classical and quantum information theory will be addressed here. Quantum teleportat...

  20. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29