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1

Uterus MRI. Normal and pathological aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a non invasive procedure, is taking a place of growing importance as a means of radiological exploration. Its use in uterine pathologies has shown considerable developments. This requires an excellent knowledge of the normal and pathological aspects of the uterus. In fact it exists a zonal anatomy of the uterus which varies according to hormonal impregnation and this is very well seen by MRI. MRI gives excellent results in the diagnosis and study of different uterine pathologies. The radiological appearance of leiomyomas differs depending on the presence or not of degenerative changes within them. Uterine adenomyosis is also well studied by MRI. Lastly different studies in the literature have shown MRI to be a reliable method of exploration with a high degree of fiability, specificity and sensibility to study the local spread of malignant uterine diseases. The authors report their experience and also that present in the literature concerning the study of the uterus by MRI

1991-01-01

2

Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry and aspirate morphology are discussed where translation to the BMB is possible. Classifications undergo constant cha...

Walt, Jon

2009-01-01

3

Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry and aspirate morphology are discussed where translation to the BMB is possible. Classifications undergo constant change, and several publications address the redefinition of the cut off points between malignancy, benign, and normal. Lastly, current scientific research is presented where it is relevant to the understanding of BMB pathobiology. PMID:20309423

van der Walt, Jon

2009-01-01

4

Serrated polyposis syndrome: Molecular, pathological and clinical aspects  

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Hyperplastic polyps have traditionally been considered not to have malignant potential. New pathological classification of serrated polyps and recent discoveries about the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis have revolutionized the concepts and revitalized the research in this area. Until recently, it has been thought that most colorectal cancers arise from conventional adenomas via the traditional tumor suppressor pathway initiated by a mutation of the APC gene, but it has been found that thi...

2012-01-01

5

Uterus MRI. Normal and pathological aspects. IRM de l'uterus. Aspects normaux et pathologiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a non invasive procedure, is taking a place of growing importance as a means of radiological exploration. Its use in uterine pathologies has shown considerable developments. This requires an excellent knowledge of the normal and pathological aspects of the uterus. In fact it exists a zonal anatomy of the uterus which varies according to hormonal impregnation and this is very well seen by MRI. MRI gives excellent results in the diagnosis and study of different uterine pathologies. The radiological appearance of leiomyomas differs depending on the presence or not of degenerative changes within them. Uterine adenomyosis is also well studied by MRI. Lastly different studies in the literature have shown MRI to be a reliable method of exploration with a high degree of fiability, specificity and sensibility to study the local spread of malignant uterine diseases. The authors report their experience and also that present in the literature concerning the study of the uterus by MRI. 44 refs.

Moulin, G.; Bartoli, J.M.; Gaubert, J.Y.; Bayle, O.; Distefano-Louineau, D.; Kasbarian, M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire La Timone, 13 - Marseille (FR))

1991-01-01

6

Environmental health aspects of hazardous and radioactive pathological waste incineration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) has recently begun testing and operation of a new pathological waste destructor to threat and dispose of a variety of wastes common to biomedical research institutions. Research projects at ITRI evaluate the health effects of inhaled potentially toxic materials. Some of the wastes generated by these projects that are processed in the waste treatment system include: (1) animal tissue and excreta that may be contaminated with toxic materials; (2) aqueous, low-level radioactive wastes; (3) nonhalogenated organic solvents and liquids, including liquid scintillation vials; and (4) various chemicals used in toxicological research. Stack air samples were taken for 14CO2, 3H2O and particulate radioisotopes. Continuous stack monitoring of CO was done along with isokinetic sampling for particulates. Random grab samples of ash were analyzed for organics and radioactivity. Personal and area air samples within the waste treatment building were taken for radioactivity, CO, CO2 and a hazardous waste surrogate, acetone

1989-01-01

7

Sedimentology: Recent developments and applied aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book reflects some of the developments which have occurred in sedimentology during the last two decades. It identifies problems of concern to sedimentologists. Topics covered include the following: loose-boundary hydraulics and fluid mechanics: selected advances since 1961; clastic facies models and facies analysis; recent shelf clastic sediments; deep-sea clastics; deep-sea pelagic sediments and palaeo-oceanography; facies analysis of volcaniclastic sediments; shallow-marine carbonate facies and facies models; diagenesis of shallow-marine carbonates; clastic diagenesis; sedimentary ore deposits; role of clastic sedimentology in the exploration and production of oil and gas in the North Sea; and carbonate facies analysis in the exploration for hydrocarbons: a case-study from the Cretaceous in the Middle East.

Brenchley, P.J.

1985-01-01

8

Pathology is a critical aspect of preclinical aging studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental design for mouse aging studies has historically involved lifespan, but it is now clear that survival data without pathology data limit the information that can be obtained on aging animals. This limitation becomes more serious when interventions of any sort are implemented. Pathology gives an insight into the health of an animal by revealing lesions not readily observable in the live animal. As such, it is a snapshot of disease conditions at the time of death. Therefore, a long-term goal is to establish pathology information as an essential component of studies involving health span and lifespan of aging animals. Given that pathology assessment is essential to help define the progression of lesions associated with aging, the real challenge is including it in aging studies because there is currently a lack of specialized expertise and resources. An increase in the level and scope of pathology assessment of tissues from old mice involved in aging studies is needed. A focus on the correlation of pathology data with longitudinal and cross-sectional lifespan data and health span physiology data can be established by enhancing standard histologic assessment of lesions observed in tissues from old mice. An environment for the development and integration of pathology data into aging studies of mice is needed to encourage more pathologists and other scientists to specialize in pathology of aging, and establish relevant standards to compare with other species including humans. Such results will have an important positive impact on aging studies because of the significant empowerment on data analyses and interpretation.

Warren Ladiges

2013-08-01

9

Aspects of ecological radiation endocrinology and occupational pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The collection consists of works on radiation endocrinology and occupational pathology in different branches of industry - petroleum, mining, cotton, non-ferrous metallurgy as well as agriculture. Collection is intended for endocrinologists and occupational pathologists, for specialists of labour protection and occupational safety, for doctors examining of industrial and agricultural workers (author)

1997-01-01

10

Personality pathology and daily aspects of marital functioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with a host of interpersonal problems, including unstable and dysfunctional romantic relationships. In previous research, PD symptoms have been linked to one's own and spouse's self-reported level of marital satisfaction and marital conflict. The current study extends on this work by examining whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) PD criteria would predict aspects of daily marital functioning. A total of 99 newlywed couples (N = 198) recruited from the community were assessed for PD symptoms using a self-report measure and subsequently completed a 6-day diary protocol. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the association of PD symptoms with three major aspects of daily functioning: overall relationship sentiment, serious conflicts with one's spouse, and quality of interactions. Results indicated that PD symptoms significantly predicted aspects of all three measures of daily functioning. The individual PDs generally showed the greatest associations with aspects of conflict. Paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PD scores were significantly negatively related to overall relationship sentiment whereas Cluster A and Cluster C PD scores negatively predicted various daily interaction behaviors. Findings provide insight into the mechanisms that might explain the associations between PD symptoms and overall measures of relationship functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24364502

South, Susan C

2014-04-01

11

Fabry disease: recent advances in pathology, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In Fabry disease (?-galactosidase A deficiency) accumulation of Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) leads to progressive organ failure and premature death. The introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was the beginning of a new era in this disorder, and has prompted a broad range of research activities. This review aims to summarize recent developments and progress with high impact for Fabry disease. Methods A Pubmed analysis was performed u...

Hoffmann Björn

2009-01-01

12

Pathological aspects of the intraductal spread of breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intraductal spread of breast cancer is a major cause of local recurrence following breast-conserving therapy. To properly understand this pathology, three-dimensional (3D) cancer localization within the mammary ductal-lobular system (MDLS) is necessary. To this end we generated computer-assisted 3D reconstructions of all MDLSs using 2-mm-thick serial sections of surgically resected specimens. We then analyzed the characteristics of intraductal spread of breast cancer. In our study of quadrantectomy specimens from patients with primary invasive breast carcinoma, the intraductal spread of breast cancer was found to be continuous from the invasive tumor and spreading along the mammary glandular tree. The pattern is categorized into three types: the central type, the peripheral type, and the extensive type. The central type was found to be most common. A 3D analysis of total mastectomy specimen from a patient with primary non-invasive breast carcinoma revealed regional intraductal spread extending within and filling a single MDLS. The analysis also revealed the presence of ductal anastomoses connecting adjacent MDLSs. These ductal anastomoses were found to be an anatomical risk factor for extensive intraductal spread of breast cancer across multiple MDLSs. To minimize residual non-invasive components of breast carcinoma in the conserved breast, which is strongly associated with the outcome of local control of breast-conserving therapy, it is necessary to determine the optimum surgical margins in a flexible, patient-specific manner. This determination should be based on anatomical characteristics of the MDLS, such as those identified in the present study. PMID:22203583

Ohtake, Tohru; Yasuda, Mitsuhiko; Ito, Jun; Watanabe, Kumiko; Gonda, Kenji; Abe, Noriko; Ishii, Maiko; Sato, Yu; Momma, Tomoyuki; Takenoshita, Seiichi

2013-01-01

13

First identification of canine distemper virus in hoary fox (Lycalopex vetulus): pathologic aspects and virus phylogeny.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine distemper virus (CDV) has been reported in several wild animal species, but there have been no reports of CDV in hoary fox (Lycalopex vetulus). This paper characterizes the first case of natural CDV infection in hoary fox, including the clinical and pathologic aspects of the disease as well as the viral strain phylogeny. PMID:20090049

Megid, Jane; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Amorin, Renee Laufer; Cortez, Adriana; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; da Costa, Luciana Fachini; Fornazari, Felipe; Cipriano, Joseane Regina Bosso; Cremasco, Arita; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José

2010-01-01

14

Physics aspects of recent and future concepts in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The development of 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), in which the high dose volume matches as closely as possible the target volume and avoids therefore normal tissue irradiation as far as possible, has been a major theme in radiotherapy for improving the therapeutic window. Conformal radiotherapy is not a new concept but only the technological improvements of the last decade allow its clinical implementation. More recent and advanced forms of 3D-CRT are intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). IMRT uses an additional degree of freedom to achieve a new class of conformation: the variation of the primary beam intensity. SRT is based on a three dimensional stereotactic coordinate system which is correlated with the patient and the treatment facility through modern imaging technology. IMRT and SRT are related by common features, e.g. high dose gradients and small fields which require a high geometric precision. A high dosimetric and geometric precision can only be based on a detailed knowledge of the patient specific anatomy. Therefore, IMRT and SRT need to underlie multi-modality imaging studies. Both IMRT and SRT utilize photon beams and multiple field arrangements which increase the volumes of healthy tissue receiving low doses. Photons have a low selectivity along the beam direction implying that the sharp dose gradients are to be compromised. The increased low dose volume as well as the low selectivity of photon beams can be over-come by using proton or ions. Brachytherapy, a form of radiotherapy where encapsuled radioactive sources are placed directly in or in the vicinity of the tumor, is by definition conformal. Endovascular brachytherapy has become a promising new field in radiotherapy for the prevention of (re)stenosis after angioplasty. Although many clinical trials have been performed during the last years specific aspects related to endovascular brachytherapy have not been addressed clearly, such as the optimal dose level for treating coronary arteries. Another field of investigation is the comparison of beta radiation and gamma radiation for of this treatment modality. Because conventional conformal radiotherapy has been a major research subject during the last decade its place in radiation therapy practice is assured. In a similar way, recent and future concepts in radiotherapy such as SRT, IMRT, hadron therapy or endovascular brachytherapy need to be further investigated until their full potential can be demonstrated. (author)

2001-09-17

15

Pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 29 chapters. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Systemic Diseases; Cell Injury; Inflammation; The Gastrointestinal o Tract; The Pancreas; Environmental and Nutritional Pathology; Infectious and Parasitic Diseases; and Blood Vessels.

Rubin, E.; Farber, J.L. (Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (US))

1988-01-01

16

Feline panleukopenia virus revisited : molecular characteristics and pathological lesions associated with three recent isolates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The low incidence of clinical signs or pathological lesions compatible with feline panleukopenia in cats has created the perception among practitioners that the disease has disappeared since the emergence of canine parvovirus type 2 in the late 1970s.Three parvoviruses that were recently isolated from a domestic cat and 2 cheetahs in cell culture or detected by means of the polymerase chain reaction were shown to be typical feline parvoviruses. Phylogenetic comparison with other FPV isolates ...

Vuuren, M.; Steinel, A.; Goosen, T.; Lane, E.; Lugt, J.; Pearson, J.; Truyen, U.

2012-01-01

17

Some problems of human adaptation and ecology under the aspect of general pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

The main problems of human adaptation at the level of the body and the population in connection with the features of current morbidity of the population and certain demographic processes are analyzed. The concepts of health and adaptation of the individual and human populations are determined. The importance of the anthropo-ecological approach to the investigation of the adaptation process of human populations is demonstrated. Certain features of the etiopathogenesis of diseases are considered in connection with the population-ecological regularities of human adaptation. The importance of research on general pathology aspects of adaptation and the ecology of man for planning, and organization of public health protection is discussed.

Kaznacheyev, V. P.

1980-01-01

18

Feline panleukopenia virus revisited : molecular characteristics and pathological lesions associated with three recent isolates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The low incidence of clinical signs or pathological lesions compatible with feline panleukopenia in cats has created the perception among practitioners that the disease has disappeared since the emergence of canine parvovirus type 2 in the late 1970s.Three parvoviruses that were recently isolated from a domestic cat and 2 cheetahs in cell culture or detected by means of the polymerase chain reaction were shown to be typical feline parvoviruses. Phylogenetic comparison with other FPV isolates did not reveal a particular African cluster.

M. Van Vuuren

2012-07-01

19

Some recent aspects of random conformally invariant systems  

CERN Document Server

These are the lecture notes from a course given in July 2005 at the summer school in Les Houches. We describe some recent results concerning two-dimensional conformally invariant systems. In particular, we discuss conformally invariant measures on loops and conformal loop-ensembles (CLE).

Werner, W

2005-01-01

20

Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. This average age was 46.9 years for men and 43.8 years for women. The most frequent cancers for men were prostate cancer (12.9%), nonmelanoma skin cancer (10.4%), and gastric cancer (10.3%). For women it was breast cancer (27.1%), cervix cancer (11.2%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.3%). Histologically, it was carcinomas in 68.1% of the cases, sarcomas in 11% of the cases and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in 12.6% of the cases. Children cancers were primarily Burkitt lymphoma (27.9% of cases) and retinoblastoma (8.5% of cases). Conclusion. This study shows that cancers are frequent in Togo and emphasizes on the necessity of having a cancer register for the prevention and the control of this disease in Togo.

Amegbor, Koffi; Darre, Tchin; Ayena, Koffi Didier; Padaro, Essohana; Tengue, Kodjo; Abalo, Anani; Napo-Koura, Gado

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Molecular diagnosis of sepsis: New aspects and recent developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

By shortening the time to pathogen identification and allowing for detection of organisms missed by blood culture, new molecular methods may provide clinical benefits for the management of patients with sepsis. While a number of reviews on the diagnosis of sepsis have recently been published we here present up-to-date new developments including multiplex PCR, mass spectrometry and array techniques. We focus on those techniques that are commercially available and for which clinical studies have been performed and published. PMID:24678402

Liesenfeld, O; Lehman, L; Hunfeld, K-P; Kost, G

2014-03-01

22

Recently identified molecular aspects of intestinal iron absorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene mapping techniques to identify gene mutations in humans and animals with phenotypic abnormalities in iron metabolism are providing important insights into the probable molecular mediators of intestinal iron absorption. Positional gene cloning in humans with hereditary hemochromatosis has identified a mutation in a novel major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene called HFE that is likely to be involved in regulating intestinal iron absorption. In addition, recent observations based on positional cloning strategies in the mk/mk mouse and the Belgrade (b/b) rat rodent models of hypochromic, microcytic anemia have shown that the phenotypic abnormality in iron metabolism is associated with a mutation in the Nramp2 gene. Functional cloning studies in Xenopus oocytes have characterized DCT1 (Nramp2) as an iron-regulated proton-coupled divalent cation transporter. Nramp2 is likely to be the membrane transporter that functions in controlling iron entry across the apical membrane and in the export of iron out of endosomal vesicles. The observation that the expression of both HFE and Nramp2 mRNAs are reciprocally regulated by cellular iron status in Caco-2 cells, a human intestinal cell line, lends additional credence to the notion that these proteins may work in concert to regulate intestinal iron absorption. PMID:9808632

Wood, R J; Han, O

1998-11-01

23

Bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii: clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects in a Brazilian dairy herd.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of protothecal mastitis in a Brazilian dairy herd are described. Prototheca zopfii infection was diagnosed in 11 of 121 milking cows. Clinical mastitis refractory to usual therapy was observed in 7 cows. Several environmental conditions conducive to the growth of Prototheca spp., such as wetness, muddiness and the presence of organic material, were present in the dairy. Improper milking practices and insanitary infusion of the intramammary antibiotics were also observed. Six cows with protothecal mastitis were slaughtered and the affected quarters of each cow were examined by histology and immunohistochemical staining for bovine keratin and P. zopfii. The histological lesions were characterized by interstitial infiltrates of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes; algae were seen in the alveolar lumen and interstitium. The lack of a positive reaction with an antiserum against bovine keratin in the mammary alveolar epithelial layer in some affected areas suggests destruction of milk-producing tissues, which may be related to the low milk production observed. The algal organisms stained positively with a polyclonal antibody against P. zopfii. PMID:11770201

Corbellini, L G; Driemeier, D; Cruz, C; Dias, M M; Ferreiro, L

2001-12-01

24

Diagnostic aspects of radionuclide examination of regional pulmonary ventilation in children with chronic bronchopulmonary pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Redionuclide examinations with "1"33Xe of regional pulmonary ventilation in 133 children aged from 6 to 15 with different forms of chronic pulmonary pathology are carried out. Radionuclide examination is highly informative and enables to determine the character, degree and spreading of respiratory distress. The examination is well endured by children and may be repeated during clinical treatment of a patient

1985-01-01

25

Recent aspects on possible interrelation between precursory electric signals and anomalous bioeffects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A possible geophysical mechanism based on the conception of criticality and on new aspects of biological effects caused by electromagnetic fields is discussed as a stimulus to the unusual animal behavior prior to large earthquakes. This mechanism is related to transient electric signals of low frequency and intensity, which are emitted from the pre-focal area several days before the impending earthquake and fulfill all the conditions set by a recent bioeffect model.

Dologlou, E.

2010-01-01

26

Morpho-structural aspects concerning the healthy liver comparative to the pathological one  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyzes the microscopic modifications of the liver, on a batch of dead patients,suffering from hepato-cellular affections, all from the Districtual Hospital of Botosani, between September-November 2008. The patological aspects of the liver, in its every form, are observed especially in men which are big alcohol consumers. The normal structure of the liver is obviously transforming in hepatic diseases like alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, liver cancer and hydatid cyst.

Gianina Comanescu

2009-03-01

27

On Linguistic and Interactive Aspects of Infant-Adult Communication in a Pathological Perspective  

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This is a preliminary report of a study of some linguistic and interactive aspects available in an adult-child dyad where the child is partially hearing impaired, during the ages 8 - 20 months. The investigation involves a male child, born with Hemifacial Microsomia. Audio and video recordings are used to collect data on child vocalization and parent-child interaction. Eye-tracking is used to measure eye movements when presented with audio-visual stimuli. SECDI forms are applied to observe th...

2005-01-01

28

Epidemiologic aspects in esophageal pathology focusing on gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the main epidemiologic characteristics of esophageal pathology,insisting on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, Barrett’s esophagus (BE and to evaluate therelationship between these conditions and some widely spread risk factors. Material and methods: Datawere collected from clinical file records archive, endoscopy reports and histopatologic reports and slidesfor 8225 patients (01.01.2005-31.07.2007 who presented esophageal changes during upper digestiveendoscopy. We used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess the normality of variables distribution and thenwe used parametric or non-parametric tests along with multivariate analysis. Results: BE is associatedwith male sex (r=0.039; pHelicobacter pylori (Hp infection(r=0.024; p=0.02. Age is not an important factor (OR=0.99; p=0.03. Presence of sliding hiatal hernia(SHH is influenced by body mass index (r=0.533; p<0.001 and female sex (p=0.001. SHH sizeinfluences the severity of esophagitis (r=0.04; p<0.01. The most frequent type of metaplasia is theincomplete intestinal one and the most frequent form of esophageal cancer is adenocarcinoma.Conclusion: BE is associated positively with GERD, esophagitis, male sex and negatively with Hp andesophageal varices. SHH influences severity of esophagitis and is more frequent in female patients.Adenocarcinoma is more frequent that squamous esophageal cancer.

George S?raci

2011-11-01

29

Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developed in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolution, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies. (author)

1984-01-01

30

Identifying aspects of Ambient Intelligence through a review of recent developments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has already been realized by the scientific and technical community that a new form of technology is going to lead the future technological developments. This technology will be more human-centric and will be more and more “hidden” within everyday-life objects. It will be smarter, personalized, pervasive and ubiquitous. This technology includes what is called Ambient Intelligence (AmI. In this paper, we identify the main aspects of AmI through a review of the recent developments that have been achieved in these aspects of AmI and Ambient Intelligence Environments (AmIEs, as well as point out the problems yet to be solved and the visions of the future.

Maria Charalampidou

2012-06-01

31

Preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation: specific aspects of borderline personality disorder or general dimensions of personality pathology?  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934

Scott, Lori N; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A; Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A

2013-08-01

32

Clinical, endocrinological and pathological aspects of beta-HCG-positive seminoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important aspects of the clinical findings, endocrinology and course of the disease in 14 patients with the histological diagnosis of pure seminoma of the tests and positive serum beta-HCG levels are presented. In addition to routine investigations, immunohistochemical examination of the formalin-fixed specimen by the immunoperoxidase technique was also carried out. Serum alpha-feto-protein levels remained normal in all 14 patients. There was no correlation between serum beta-HCG level and tumour stage. The longest period of observation was 76 months and the shortest 8 months. Patients with no evidence of metastatic diasease (5 patients, N0M0) or patients with low-stage disease (5 patients, N1 or N2M0) respond very well to radiotherapy. 4 patients (N3-N4M0) with large retroperitoneal metastases or distant lymph node metastases underwent different combinations of treatment. (Author)

1984-01-01

33

Cisto mesentérico: aspectos clínicos e anátomopatológicos Mesenteric cyst: clinical and pathological aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo-patológicos e terapêuticos de cistos mesentéricos atendidos em hospitais do Estado de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal, consistindo de um levantamento de uma série de casos de cistos mesentéricos, nos arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe no período de 1995 a 2007. Revisaram-se os prontuários dos pacientes para coleta de dados: gênero, idade, quadro clínico, exames complementares e abordagem terapêutica. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 18 casos de cistos mesentéricos. O gênero predominante foi o feminino (72,2%. A média de idade dos pacientes ao diagnóstico foi de 30,48 anos. Os sintomas mais freqüentes foram dor e massa abdominal. A ultra-sonografia de abdome, realizada em todos os pacientes, não foi conclusiva em metade dos casos. Tomografia computadorizada de abdome com contraste foi realizada em seis casos, sendo a tumoração cística bem evidenciada em todos estes. Quanto ao tipo histopatológico foram encontrados oito linfangiomas, oito cistos mesoteliais, um cisto hemorrágico em organização e um cisto mucinoso. O tratamento cirúrgico foi empregado em todos os casos. Hemorragia intracística foi a principal complicação apresentada, ocorrendo em três casos. CONCLUSÃO: Os cistos mesentéricos apresentaram-se clinicamente com sintomas inespecíficos e pouco sintomáticos. Quanto ao diagnóstico, a tomografia computadorizada mostrou ser mais efetiva que a ultrassonografia. Linfangiomas e mesoteliomas foram encontrados em proporções iguais. A ressecção completa do cisto foi o tratamento de eleição e não houve óbitos no pós-operatório.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic and therapeutic characteristics of the mesenteric cysts in hospitals of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: Mesenteric cysts were assessed by a non-interventional cross-sectional study from the archives of the Pathology Laboratory of Federal University of Sergipe between 1995 and 2007. The charts of the patients were reviewed in order to find out: gender, age, clinical findings, complementary exams and therapeutic approach. RESULTS: Eighteen cases of mesenteric cysts were found. Females were more affected (72.2%. Mean of age of the patients was 30.46. More frequent symptoms were pain and abdominal mass. Ultrasonography of abdomen, performed in all patients, was not conclusive in half of the cases. CTscan of abdomen with contrast was performed in six cases, being cystic tumor well identified in all of them. Regarding histopathology, 6 lymphangiomas, 8 mesotheliomas, 1 hemorrhagic cyst in organization and 1 mucinous cyst were found. Surgical treatment was performed in all cases. Intracystic bleeding was the main complication in 3 cases. CONCLUSION: The mesenteric cysts presented clinically with unspecific symptoms. CTscan was more effective than ultrasonography for the diagnosis. Lymphangiomas and mesothelioma had been found in equal ratios. The complete ressection of the cyst was the treatment of election. There were no deaths in postoperative period.

Wagner Barreto de Santana

2010-08-01

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Bronquiolite constritiva: aspectos tomográficos e correlação anatomopatológica / Constrictive bronchiolitis: tomographic aspects and pathologic correlation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam os principais aspectos da bronquiolite constritiva na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução (TCAR) do tórax em ins e expiração, e os comparam aos achados anatomopatológicos, mediante estudo de três casos da doença em mulheres com idade entre 29 e 46 anos que apresentavam di [...] spnéia incaracterística, de caráter progressivo, encaminhadas para realização de espirometria, TCAR do tórax e biópsia pulmonar. A TCAR do tórax em ins e expiração demonstrou, em dois casos, padrão de atenuação em mosaico difuso, acentuado na expiração. No terceiro caso foram observados nódulos centrolobulares, não sendo realizado estudo em expiração. O material histopatológico demonstrou estenose importante de luzes bronquiolares por espessamento fibroso da lâmina própria e atrofia do epitélio bronquiolar, alterações diagnósticas da bronquiolite constritiva. A realização de TCAR do tórax em ins e expiração mostrou-se de fundamental importância na suspeição de doenças relacionadas à obstrução de pequenas vias aéreas, sendo o aspecto de atenuação em mosaico na expiração característico da topografia periférica das lesões. O diagnóstico de bronquiolite constritiva deve ser confirmado por biópsia pulmonar por meio de toracotomia. Abstract in english We report the main findings of inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax in three women aged between 29 and 46 years with constrictive bronchiolitis and compare these results with the anatomopathological findings. The three women presented with progressive n [...] oncharacteristic dyspnea and were submitted to pulmonary function tests, HRCT of the thorax and lung biopsy. In two of the patients, inspiratory and expiratory HRCT of the thorax demonstrated a mosaic attenuation pattern that was accentuated during expiration. The expiratory phase was not performed in the third patient who presented centrilobular nodules. The pathology studies revealed significant bronchiolar stenosis due to fibrous thickening of the lamina propria and atrophy of the bronchiolar epithelium, which are diagnostic findings of constrictive bronchiolitis. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT demonstrated to be of fundamental importance in the assessment of patients with diseases that cause obstruction of small airways. The mosaic attenuation pattern in the expiratory phase is characteristic of the peripheral topography of the lesions. The diagnosis of constrictive bronchiolitis should be confirmed by lung biopsy.

Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Marchiori, Edson; Souza, Irene Vieira; Esposito, Concetta.

35

Bronquiolite constritiva: aspectos tomográficos e correlação anatomopatológica Constrictive bronchiolitis: tomographic aspects and pathologic correlation  

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Full Text Available Os autores relatam os principais aspectos da bronquiolite constritiva na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução (TCAR do tórax em ins e expiração, e os comparam aos achados anatomopatológicos, mediante estudo de três casos da doença em mulheres com idade entre 29 e 46 anos que apresentavam dispnéia incaracterística, de caráter progressivo, encaminhadas para realização de espirometria, TCAR do tórax e biópsia pulmonar. A TCAR do tórax em ins e expiração demonstrou, em dois casos, padrão de atenuação em mosaico difuso, acentuado na expiração. No terceiro caso foram observados nódulos centrolobulares, não sendo realizado estudo em expiração. O material histopatológico demonstrou estenose importante de luzes bronquiolares por espessamento fibroso da lâmina própria e atrofia do epitélio bronquiolar, alterações diagnósticas da bronquiolite constritiva. A realização de TCAR do tórax em ins e expiração mostrou-se de fundamental importância na suspeição de doenças relacionadas à obstrução de pequenas vias aéreas, sendo o aspecto de atenuação em mosaico na expiração característico da topografia periférica das lesões. O diagnóstico de bronquiolite constritiva deve ser confirmado por biópsia pulmonar por meio de toracotomia.We report the main findings of inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT of the thorax in three women aged between 29 and 46 years with constrictive bronchiolitis and compare these results with the anatomopathological findings. The three women presented with progressive noncharacteristic dyspnea and were submitted to pulmonary function tests, HRCT of the thorax and lung biopsy. In two of the patients, inspiratory and expiratory HRCT of the thorax demonstrated a mosaic attenuation pattern that was accentuated during expiration. The expiratory phase was not performed in the third patient who presented centrilobular nodules. The pathology studies revealed significant bronchiolar stenosis due to fibrous thickening of the lamina propria and atrophy of the bronchiolar epithelium, which are diagnostic findings of constrictive bronchiolitis. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT demonstrated to be of fundamental importance in the assessment of patients with diseases that cause obstruction of small airways. The mosaic attenuation pattern in the expiratory phase is characteristic of the peripheral topography of the lesions. The diagnosis of constrictive bronchiolitis should be confirmed by lung biopsy.

Luiz Felipe Nobre

2002-11-01

36

Clinical, endocrinological and pathological aspects of beta-HCG-positive seminoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most important aspects of the clinical findings, endocrinology and course of the disease in 14 patients with the histological diagnosis of pure seminoma of the tests and positive serum beta-HCG levels are presented. In addition to routine investigations, immunohistochemical examination of the formalin-fixed specimen by the immunoperoxidase technique was also carried out. Serum alpha-feto-protein levels remained normal in all 14 patients. There was no correlation between serum beta-HCG level and tumour stage. The longest period of observation was 76 months and the shortest 8 months. Patients with no evidence of metastatic diasease (5 patients, N/sub 0/M/sub 0/) or patients with low-stage disease (5 patients, N/sub 1/ or N/sub 2/M/sub 0/) respond very well to radiotherapy. 4 patients (N/sub 3/-N/sub 4/M/sub 0/) with large retroperitoneal metastases or distant lymph node metastases underwent different combinations of treatment.

Kuber, W. (Schwerpunkt-Krankenhaus Oberwart (Austria). Urologische Abt.); Kratzik, Ch. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Urologische Klinik); Susani, M. (Allgemeine Poliklinik Wien (Austria). Pathologisches Inst.)

1984-01-01

37

Pathology, clinical features and treatments of congenital copper metabolic disorders--focus on neurologic aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic disorders of copper metabolism, including Menkes kinky hair disease (MD), occipital horn syndrome (OHS) and Wilson's disease (WD) are reviewed with a focus on the neurological aspects. MD and OHS are X-linked recessive disorders characterized by a copper deficiency. Typical features of MD, such as neurologic disturbances, connective tissue disorders and hair abnormalities, can be explained by the abnormally low activity of copper-dependent enzymes. The current standard-of-care for treatment of MD is parenteral administration of copper-histidine. When the treatment is initiated in newborn babies, neurologic degeneration can be prevented, but delayed treatment is considerably less effective. Moreover, copper-histidine treatment does not improve connective tissue disorders. Novel treatments targeting neurologic and connective tissue disorders need to be developed. OHS is the mildest form of MD and is characterized by connective tissue abnormalities. Although formal trials have not been conducted for OHS, OHS patients are typically treated in a similar manner to MD. WD is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the toxic effects of chronic exposure to high levels of copper. Although the hepatic and nervous systems are typically most severely affected, initial symptoms are variable, making an early diagnosis difficult. Because early treatments are often critical, especially in patients with neurologic disorders, medical education efforts for an early diagnosis should target primary care physicians. Chelating agents and zinc are effective for the treatment of WD, but neurologic symptoms become temporarily worse just after treatment with chelating agents. Neurologic worsening in patients treated with tetrathiomolybdate has been reported to be lower than rates of neurologic worsening when treating with other chelating agents. PMID:21112168

Kodama, Hiroko; Fujisawa, Chie; Bhadhprasit, Wattanaporn

2011-03-01

38

The urea transporter family (SLC14): physiological, pathological and structural aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urea transporters (UTs) belonging to the solute carrier 14 (SLC14) family comprise two genes with a total of eight isoforms in mammals, UT-A1 to -A6 encoded by SLC14A2 and UT-B1 to -B2 encoded by SLC14A1. Recent efforts have been directed toward understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of UTs using transgenic mouse models and heterologous expression systems, leading to important new insights. Urea uptake by UT-A1 and UT-A3 in the kidney inner medullary collecting duct and by UT-B1 in the descending vasa recta for the countercurrent exchange system are chiefly responsible for medullary urea accumulation in the urinary concentration process. Vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone, regulates UT-A isoforms via the phosphorylation and trafficking of the glycosylated transporters to the plasma membrane that occurs to maintain equilibrium with the exocytosis and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathways. UT-B isoforms are also important in several cellular functions, including urea nitrogen salvaging in the colon, nitric oxide pathway modulation in the hippocampus, and the normal cardiac conduction system. In addition, genomic linkage studies have revealed potential additional roles for SLC14A1 and SLC14A2 in hypertension and bladder carcinogenesis. The precise role of UT-A2 and presence of the urea recycling pathway in normal kidney are issues to be further explored. This review provides an update of these advances and their implications for our current understanding of the SLC14 UTs. PMID:23506873

Shayakul, Chairat; Clémençon, Benjamin; Hediger, Matthias A

2013-01-01

39

Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia under the recent crisis  

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Full Text Available Territorial cohesion has been one of the most prominent topics of discourse among spatial planners, urban sociologists, economists and experts from various other fields. Territorial systems with high degree of cohesion are better equipped to withstand the external pressures and situational imbalancies. Recent global crisis exposed these imbalancies and challenged the smooth and balanced spatial development of European countries. Major economic setbacks influenced entire society in Slovakia. Global financial crisis evaporated the ultimate growth of Slovak economics and exposed hidden imbalancies of development policies solely related to GDP growth instead of creating the fundaments for sustainability in the transition economy. Spatial polarization on different levels of society weakened down the overall (mainly social cohesion and highlighted the problems of marginalized regions and social groups. Social aspects of territorial and spatial processes are more visible than ever before and regional disparities are becoming more prominent issue in political and scientific discourse. Despite the deep profilation of regional identity and place attachment, there are still considerable distinctions and disparities between metropolitan/urban and rural communities in terms of values, consumption patterns, life style, sense of solidarity or wealth distribution. Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia, mainly in the field of social cohesion are in the spotlight in this paper. Focus on integrative spatial development balancing the contradictions by effective mixture of general approach and reasonable and sensible differentiation is considered highly essential.

Jaššo Matej

2010-01-01

40

Some unique aspects of recent nuclear-pumped lasers developed at the University of Illinois  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unique aspects of three nuclear-pumped lasers (NPLs) are reviewed. These include surface effects in the atomic nitrogen NPL that employs Ne-N2 mixtures, energy storage in the atomic carbon NPL employing Ne or He mixed with CO or CO2, and charge-exchange pumping of the Ne-Hg NPL. Recent results from nuclear pumping of XeF* at 353 nm are also presented. Excimer formation at approximately 50% efficiency and a gain of approximately 0.01 to 0.02%/cm are reported in mixtures of Ar-Xe-NF3 with a pump power density of approximately 40W/cm3. These results are shown to be consistent with electron-beam lasers using much larger power densities on the basis of the quasi-steady state nature of present pumping

1978-05-25

 
 
 
 
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Environmental aspects of recent trend in managing fusion radwaste: Recycling and clearance, avoiding disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Since the inception of the fusion projects in the early 1970s, the majority of power plant designs have focused on the disposal of the low-level waste in geological repositories as the main option for handling the replaceable and life-of-plant components, adopting the preferred fission waste management approach. It is timely to develop a new radwaste management framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous studies and the environmental, political, and present reality. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion radwaste, replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, such as recycling and clearance. These approaches became more technically feasible in recent years with the development of radiation-hardened remote handling (RH) tools and the introduction of the clearance category for slightly radioactive materials by IAEA and national nuclear agencies. We applied all scenarios to selected U.S. fusion studies. While recycling and clearance appeared technically attractive and judged, in some cases, a must requirement to control the radwaste stream, the disposal scheme emerged as the preferred option for a specific IFE component for economic reasons. This suggests that the technical and economic aspects, along with the environmental and safety related concerns, must all be addressed during the selection process of the most suitable waste management approach. To make fusion a viable energy source with minimal environmental impact, we highly recommend recycling and clearing all fusion components, if economically and technologically feasible, avoiding the geological burial approach. Additional tasks should be investigated to enhance prospects for a successful fusion management scheme. These include the key issues and challenges for disposal, recycling, and clearance, the limited capacity of existing repositories, the status of the recycling infrastructure, the development of advanced RH equipment, the notable discrepancies between the various clearance standards, the need for new clearance guidelines for fusion-specific radioisotopes, the availability of a commercial market for cleared materials, and the acceptability of the nuclear industry to recyclable materials. (author)

2007-06-20

42

Physiological and pathological aspects of A? in iron homeostasis via 5'UTR in the APP mRNA and the therapeutic use of iron-chelators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many studies have highlighted the pathological involvement of iron accumulation and iron-related oxidative stress (OS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iron was further demonstrated to modulate expression of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor holo-protein (APP) by a mechanism similar to that of regulation of ferritin-L and -H mRNA translation through an iron-responsive element (IRE) in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs). Here, we discuss two aspects of the link between iron and AD, in relation t...

2008-01-01

43

Physiological and pathological aspects of A? in iron homeostasis via 5'UTR in the APP mRNA and the therapeutic use of iron-chelators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Many studies have highlighted the pathological involvement of iron accumulation and iron-related oxidative stress (OS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iron was further demonstrated to modulate expression of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor holo-protein (APP) by a mechanism similar to that of regulation of ferritin-L and -H mRNA translation through an iron-responsive element (IRE) in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs). Here, we discuss two aspects of the link between iron an...

2008-01-01

44

Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent Earthquakes, and Consequential Mudflows and Landslides, held in Moscow, October 1989. The annexes to the document provide information on the participants, the work programme and the resolution adopted at each of the seminars. Refs, figs and tabs

1988-10-17

45

The neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT: Update on data analysis and recent results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the retardation spectrometer aSPECT is to determine the antineutrino electron angular correlation coefficient a with high precision in free neutron decay. By measuring the recoil spectrum of the proton precisely, tests of the validity of the Standard Model become possible. Of great interest are the search for scalar and tensor interactions and to test the unitarity of the CKM matrix. From a beam time performed at the research reactor of the ILL in Grenoble/ France in April/ May 2008 we expect a relative precision of ?a/a < 5%, which is the present error of prior determinations of a. In this talk selected topics from the on-going data analysis are presented, including a discussion of the main systematic effects, their corrections and impact on the extracted value of a.

2010-03-15

46

The neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT: Update on data analysis and recent results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the retardation spectrometer aSPECT is to determine the antineutrino electron angular correlation coefficient a with high precision in free neutron decay. By measuring the recoil spectrum of the proton precisely, tests of the validity of the Standard Model become possible. Of great interest are the search for scalar and tensor interactions and to test the unitarity of the CKM matrix. From a beam time performed at the research reactor of the ILL in Grenoble/ France in April/ May 2008 we expect a relative precision of {delta}a/a < 5%, which is the present error of prior determinations of a. In this talk selected topics from the on-going data analysis are presented, including a discussion of the main systematic effects, their corrections and impact on the extracted value of a.

Borg, Michael; Ayala Guardia, Fidel; Heil, Werner; Munoz Horta, Raquel; Konrad, Gertrud; Ostrick, Beatrix [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Baessler, Stefan [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Glueck, Ferenc [IEKP, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Konorov, Igor [Physik-Department E18, TU Muenchen (Germany); Simson, Martin; Soldner, Torsten; Zimmer, Oliver [Physik-Department E18, TU Muenchen (Germany); Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Wirth, Hans-Friedrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen (Germany)

2010-07-01

47

Review of the microbiological, pathological, and clinical aspects of bovine mastitis caused by the alga Prototheca zopfii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mastitis caused by P. zopfii alga is a disease of high-producing, machine-milked dairy cows. It occurs worldwide in tropical and temperate climatic areas, and mostly appears sporadically in a therapy-resistant form. However, in poorly managed dairy herds it may be endemic, causing serious economic losses as a result of decreased milk quality and quantity and culling of infected animals. The biological properties of this pathogenic alga, the laboratory methods available for its isolation and identification, the pathological and clinical features of this form of mastitis, and the principles of its control are reviewed in this paper. PMID:11361099

Jánosi, S; Rátz, F; Szigeti, G; Kulcsár, M; Kerényi, J; Laukó, T; Katona, F; Huszenicza, G

2001-04-01

48

The energy aspects of recent proposals for ''piping'' daylight into buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently there has been increased interest in using daylight in the built environment. There are several reasons for this. One is the reinforcement of the assumption that using daylight as a partial substitute for electric light is economically beneficial for building operators. There are also undebated benefits from reducing consumption of fossilgenerated energy during critical ''peak demand'' hours. Another reason is architects' recently revived affection for the qualitative superiority of daylight. In this context interest has grown in new and previously introduced proposals for channelling (''piping'') daylight into spaces that do not have direct access to daylight. This paper will present some of those proposals and classify in general terms their architectural feasibility. The paper will also focus on a comparative analysis of their photometric transmittance potentials, relating those results to a discussion of energy management questions.

Spitzglas, N.

1983-12-01

49

Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia under the recent crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Territorial cohesion has been one of the most prominent topics of discourse among spatial planners, urban sociologists, economists and experts from various other fields. Territorial systems with high degree of cohesion are better equipped to withstand the external pressures and situational imbalancies. Recent global crisis exposed these imbalancies and challenged the smooth and balanced spatial development of European countries. Major economic setbacks influenced entire society in Slova...

2010-01-01

50

Recent food irradiation studies in Japan. In relation to wholesomeness aspects and detection methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wholesomeness studies relevant to eliminate the fear of consumers to eat irradiated foods and the development of their detection methods useful for administrative control or the choice of consumers have become increasingly important for the commercialization of food irradiation. In recent years, some remarkable progress in these studies has been made also in Japan. The irradiation treatment of foods was investigated on the introduction of radioactivity in foods, the change of food components, the induction of mutagenicity and microbial toxin production. The harmful effect was not found. As the detection methods for irradiated foods, impedance measuring technique, germination test, viscosity-measuring method and ESR spectrometry and the determination of H_2 or CO level retained in irradiated foods have been developed. Also the dose rate dependence of the response of cellulose triacetate and radiochromic film dosimeters is reported. On the effect of radiation to various foods, investigations were carried out. (K.I.)

1994-02-02

51

Some aspects of polymer translocation dynamics through nanopore: comparison of recent the theories with simulation results  

Science.gov (United States)

Translocation of a flexible poymer chain through a narrow pore has still remained an active field of research. Earlier theoretical studies of Sung and Park,ootnotetextW. Sung and P. J. Park, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 783 (1996). Muthukumar,ootnotetextM. Muthukumar, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10371 (1999). Chuang, Kantor and Kardar, Kantor and KardarootnotetextJ. Chuang, Y. Kantor and M. Kardar, Phys. Rev. E 65, 011802 (2001); Y. Kantor and M. Kardar, ibid. 69, 021806 (2004). for a flexible chain have been complemented by more recent theories of SakaueootnotetextT. Sakaue, Phys. Rev. E 76, 021803 (2007); ibid. 81, 041808 (2010). where tension propagation(TP) along the chain backbone at the cis side resulting in a nonuniform stretching of the chain has been proposed to be a key input for theoretical studies. Recently these elements of the TP theory has been incorporated in to a Brownian dynamics (BDTP) scheme and numerical studies of the equations of motion are in excellent agreement with prior simulation studies.ootnotetextT. Ikonen, A. Bhattacharya, T. Ala-Nissila and W. Sung (submitted). A driven translocating chain is essentially out-of-equilibriumootnotetextA. Bhattacharya and Kurt Binder, Phys. Rev. E. 81, 041804 (2010); A. Bhattacharya et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 29, 423 (2009). which results in cis-trans asymmetries both in ocnformations and in dynamics. Therefore, results from theoretical studies should capture these features. In this talk first I will first present results from Langevin dynamics simulation citing several cases where how this cis-trans asymmetry affects the chain conformations and the translocation dynamics. Then I will dicuss relevance of these results in the context of exisiting theories.

Bhattacharya, Aniket

2012-02-01

52

Recent aspects of steroid biosynthesis in male sex differentiation. Clinical studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent discoveries in molecular biology have much clarified the regulation and function of steroid-converting enzymes. Most progress has been made in the area of cytochromes, which regulate the side chain cleavage of cholesterol (P-450 SCC) and the 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-desmolase (or 17,20-lyase) activities (P-450 17 alpha), as well as in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Nevertheless, there are some discrepancies between fundamental knowledge and clinical experience, which are difficult to understand: why is it for example possible that cases with 'pure' 17 alpha-hydroxylase or 17,20-desmolase deficiency exist, when there is only one cytochrome regulating both steps? After a brief review of clinical and biochemical findings in the various defects of testosterone biosynthesis, a case is discussed, which is of interest in this respect. This XY patient with female external genitalia, who has been shown to have compound heterozygous mutations, had 'pure' 17,20-desmolase deficiency up to adolescence, but additional 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency with hypertension developed thereafter. From this observation, it has to be concluded that as yet unknown, possibly age-dependent modulating factors exist, which influence the activity of the cytochrome. Also the estrogen replacement given to the patient might have played a role in this change. PMID:1307738

Zachmann, M

1992-01-01

53

Envelhecimento tireoidiano: Aspectos fisiológicos e patológicos / Thyroid aging: Physiological and pathological aspects / Envejecimiento de la tiroides: Aspectos fisiológicos y patológicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O envelhecimento populacional é, hoje, um proeminente fenômeno mundial que, no Brasil, traduz-se em transições demográficas e epidemiológicas. Pode-se definir o envelhecimento como um processo fisiológico dos seres vivos, com decurso lento e contínuo, conduzindo a uma diminuição progressiva da reser [...] va funcional dos diferentes órgãos e sistemas. Existem muitas teorias sobre os mecanismos que levam ao envelhecimento; entretanto, nenhuma delas, isoladamente, consegue explicar a complexidade da verdade biológica presente no processo de envelhecer. Embora o declínio biológico seja considerado "normal" no processo de envelhecimento, o limiar entre o fisiológico e patológico é, muitas vezes, controverso. Nesse trabalho a proposta é discutir as conseqüências do envelhecimento sobre a tireóide e os determinantes da diminuição da produção dos seus hormônios, tentando estabelecer o que poderia ser considerado como processo adaptativo e, portanto, fisiológico, e o que seria, de fato, patológico, merecedor de intervenção terapêutica. Abstract in spanish El envejecimiento de la población es un fenómeno mundial prominente. En Brasil tal hecho se expresa por transiciones demográficas y epidemiológicas. El envejecimiento se define como proceso fisiológico de la vida, lento y continuo, que lleva a una reducción gradual de la reserva funcional de los div [...] ersos órganos y sistemas. Muchas teorías existen acerca de los mecanismos del envejecimiento; sin embargo, ninguna de ellas, por separado, logra explicar la complejidad de ese proceso biológico. Aunque el envejecimiento sea considerado como "normal", el límite entre el proceso fisiológico y el patológico es a menudo controversial. En este trabajo se discute las consecuencias del envejecimiento en la glándula tiroides y la reducción de su producción hormonal, estableciendo aquello que podría ser considerado como un proceso adaptador y, por lo tanto, fisiológico y aquello que sería, de hecho, patológico, ameritando la intervención terapéutica. Abstract in english Population aging is a prominent worldwide phenomenon. In Brazil, it is expressed by demographic and epidemiologic transitions. Aging can be defined as a physiological process of living beings, slow and continuous, leading to a gradual reduction of the functional reserve of the different organs and s [...] ystems. Many theories exist about the mechanisms of aging; however, none of them, separately, explains the complexity of that biological process. Although aging is considered to be "normal", the limit between the physiological and pathological process is often controversial. In this paper, the consequences of aging on the thyroid gland and its hormone production reduction are discussed, attempting to establish what could be considered as an adaptative process and, therefore, physiological, and what would be in fact pathological, meriting therapeutical intervention.

Fernanda, Silveira Tavares; Adriano, Bueno Tavares; Otávio de Toledo, Nóbrega; Margô Gomes de Oliveira, Karnikowski.

54

Aspectos patológicos de 155 casos fatais de cães atropelados por veículos automotivos Pathological aspects of 155 fatal cases of dogs victimized by motor vehicles accidents  

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Full Text Available O atropelamento por veículos automotivos contribui significativamente para as estatísticas de morte em cães. Entretanto, há poucos estudos sobre os aspectos patológicos reportados na literatura. Este artigo descreve 155 casos fatais de atropelamento por veículos automotivos em cães. Dos 155 cães atropelados, em 138 (89,0% havia lesões que explicavam a morte ou a razão para a eutanásia desses cães. Essas lesões incluíram traumatismo espinhal-medular (43 [27,7%], ruptura de órgãos parenquimatosos (40 [25,8%], traumatismo cranioencefálico (28 [18,1%], ruptura de órgãos ocos (16 [10,3%], fratura de costelas com laceração de órgãos parenquimatosos (15 [9,7%] e ruptura de diafragma com deslocamento de vísceras abdominais para a cavidade torácica (10 [6,4%].Motor vehicle-related trauma significantly contributes to death statistics of dogs. There are however few documented reports on the pathological aspects of such cases. This paper describes 155 fatal cases of dogs victimized by motor vehicle accidents. In 138 (89.0% of the 155 dogs hit by motor vehicles there were lesions that could explain the death or reason for these dogs being euthanatized. These lesions included vertebrospinal trauma (43 [27.7%], rupture of parenchymal organs (40 [25.8%], cranioencephalic trauma (28 [18.1%], rupture of hollow organs (16 [10.3%], rib fracture with subsequent laceration of parenchymal organs (15 [9.7%], and diaphragmatic rupture with displacement of abdominal viscera into the thoracic cavity (10 [6.4%].

Rafael Almeida Fighera

2008-08-01

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Consensus Paper: Pathological Role of the Cerebellum in Autism  

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There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar ...

Fatemi, S. Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L.; Blaha, Charles D.; Blatt, Gene J.; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R.; Dickson, Price E.; Estes, Annette M.; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H.; Kemper, Thomas L.; King, Bryan H.

2012-01-01

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Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro / Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Ri [...] o de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano. Abstract in english Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eigh [...] t cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were proeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with mico

Yamasaki, Elise M; Tokarnia, Carlos H; Galvão, Alexandre; Gomes, Marcos J.P; Chies, José A.B; Veit, Tiago Degani; Aragão, Ana Paula; Brito, Marilene F.

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Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd  

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Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano.Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eight cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were proeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with micobactin and on IS900 PCR. After the adoption of control measures, as slaughter of cows with clini

Elise M Yamasaki

2010-11-01

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Uromodulin storage diseases: clinical aspects and mechanisms  

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The recent discovery of mutations in the uromodulin gene ( UMOD ) in patients with medullary cystic kidney disease type 2 (MCKD2), familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN), and glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) provides the opportunity for a revision of pathogenic aspects and puts forth the basis for a renewed classification. This review focuses on clinical, pathological, and cell biology advances in UMOD -related pathological states, including a review of the associated clinica...

Amoroso, Antonio

2004-01-01

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Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em uma criação intensiva de bovinos de leite no município de Capela de Santana, RS. Sinais clínicos foram observados em oito de um total de 345 bovinos e consistiam em diarréia crônica refratária ao tratamento, emagrecimento progressi [...] vo e queda da produção de leite. As principais lesões macroscópicas, observadas nos oito animais eutanasiados e necropsiados, incluíam intestino delgado com acentuado espessamento da parede e superfície mucosa de aspecto reticulado, semelhante às circunvoluções cerebrais, lesão essa perceptível através da serosa. A luz intestinal estava preenchida por conteúdo fluido e de aspecto leitoso. Os vasos linfáticos do mesentério mostravam-se mais evidentes, sendo que alguns tinham aspecto varicoso. Os linfonodos mesentéricos estavam aumentados de volume e, ao corte, fluía grande quantidade de líquido leitoso. Focos de mineralização foram observados na íntima das artérias, nas válvulas cardíacas e na serosa do rúmen. Havia também edema das dobras do abomaso e do mesentério e atrofia do lobo caudado do fígado. As principais lesões microscópicas incluíam enterite, linfadenite e linfangite granulomatosas que se caracterizavam por infiltrado inflamatório composto por macrófagos, células epitelióides e células gigantes de Langhans que continham grande quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes. As lesões vasculares consistiam em degeneração e mineralização das túnicas íntima e média das artérias de grande calibre associadas à proliferação de colágeno. Havia calcificação da serosa do rúmen, atrofia hepatocelular difusa e hepatite granulomatosa multifocal. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis foi cultivado em meio de Herrold enriquecido com micobactina a partir de raspados do intestino em todas as oito amostras enviadas para exame bacteriológico. Abstract in english The clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in a dairy herd in the county of Capela de Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, are described. Clinical signs in eight cows out of 345 cattle included chronic diarrhea refractory to treatment, progressive emaciation and decreas [...] ed milk production. Necropsy findings included severe and diffuse thickening of the mucosa of the small intestine with exaggerated reticular pattern, reflected in the serosal surface, similar to cerebral gyri. Intestinal loops were filled with whitish watery contents. The lymphatic vessels of the intestinal serosa and of the mesentery were thickened and tortuous. The mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and, on cut surface, there were oozing of milky fluid. Plaques of mineralization were evident in the intima of larger arteries, in the endocardium of the heart valves and in the ruminal serosa. There was also edema of the abomasal folds and atrophy of the caudate lobe of the liver. The main histopathological findings were granulomatous enteritis, lymphadenitis and lymphangitis. The inflammatory infiltrate was composed of macrophages, epithelioid cells and Langhans' giant cells containing large numbers of acid-fast bacilli. Vascular lesions included degeneration, calcification and collagen proliferation of the intima and media of larger arteries. Other microscopic lesions included calcification of the ruminal serosa, diffuse hepatocellular atrophy and multifocal granulomatous hepatitis. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was cultured in Herrold's medium enriched with mycobactin from all the eight samples of intestinal scrapings submitted to bacteriological examination.

David, Driemeier; Claudio Estevão Farias, Cruz; Marcos José Pereira, Gomes; Luís Gustavo, Corbellini; Alexandre Paulino, Loretti; Edson Moleta, Colodel.

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Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Gurltia paralysans em gatos Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of Gurltia paralysans infection in cats  

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Full Text Available Nos últimos 20 anos, uma doença neurológica desconhecida acometeu populações de gatos da Região da Campanha do RS e tornou-se um desafio diagnóstico para os veterinários locais. Os gatos afetados desenvolviam inicialmente paralisia da cauda, seguida de paraparesia progressiva nos membros pélvicos, alteração da marcha, posição plantígrada e ataxia proprioceptiva. Após longos períodos de evolução clínica (12-24 meses, quando se tornavam marcadamente paraparéticos e começavam a apresentar escaras de decúbito, eram sacrificados pelos proprietários. Na necropsia, demonstravam graus variados de atrofia dos músculos pélvicos e algum grau de avermelhamento das meninges entre T10 e L7, devido à presença de miríades de pequenos vasos sanguíneos, uma típica lesão varicosa, semelhante a um hamartoma vascular. Histologicamente, tais lesões consistiam de distensão do espaço subaracnóideo por vasos sanguíneos dilatados e tortuosos, repletos de sangue e, ocasionalmente, de trombos, que ocluíam parcial ou totalmente seus lúmens. Essas varizes venulares eram aleatoriamente circundadas por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso ou linfocítico com pequenos focos de eosinófilos maduros. No lúmen das vênulas varicosas havia secções transversais e longitudinais de parasitos. Com base na morfologia desses parasitos, em sua localização anatômica (vasos sanguíneos meníngeos e na espécie afetada (gato, o nematódeo foi identificado como Gurltia paralysans. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar em detalhes os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos dessa intrigante mielopatia de gatos e estabelecer definitivamente seu diagnóstico definitivo: paraplegia crural parasitária felina, uma doença descoberta no Chile, na década de 1930, e agora, pela primeira vez, descrita no Brasil.In the last 20 years, an unknown neurological disease affected cat populations in the Western Border Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The onset of the disease was characterized by tail paralysis, followed by progressive paraparesis in the pelvic limbs, difficulty in ambulation and proprioceptive ataxia. After long prolonged clinical courses (12-24 months, when then affected cats became severely paraparetic and start to develop pressure sores do to decubitus, they were destroyed by the owners. At necropsy there were variable degrees of skeletal muscle atrophy of the pelvic muscles and some degree of reddening of the meninges at the level of T10-L7, due to the presence of a myriad of small blood vessels, as a typical varicose lesion that resembled a vascular hamartoma. Histologically, such lesions consisted of distension of the subarachnoid space due to a collection of dilated, blood-filled, tortuous blood vessels the lumina of which were occasionally partially or completely occluded by thrombi. Those varices were randomly surrounded by a lymphocytic or granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate with small foci of mature eosinophils. In the lumina of these varicose venules cross and longitudinal sections of nematode parasites could be observed. Based on the morphology of these parasites, in their anatomical localization (meningeal blood vessels and in the species (cat affected the nematode was identified as Gurltia paralysans. This paper describes detailed aspects of the epidemiology, clinical disease and pathology of this intriguing feline myelopathy and the definitive diagnosis of the condition: Feline crural parasitic paraplegia, a disease first described in Chile in the 1930's and now, for the first time, in Brazil.

Monique Togni

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Gurltia paralysans em gatos / Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of Gurltia paralysans infection in cats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos 20 anos, uma doença neurológica desconhecida acometeu populações de gatos da Região da Campanha do RS e tornou-se um desafio diagnóstico para os veterinários locais. Os gatos afetados desenvolviam inicialmente paralisia da cauda, seguida de paraparesia progressiva nos membros pélvicos, a [...] lteração da marcha, posição plantígrada e ataxia proprioceptiva. Após longos períodos de evolução clínica (12-24 meses), quando se tornavam marcadamente paraparéticos e começavam a apresentar escaras de decúbito, eram sacrificados pelos proprietários. Na necropsia, demonstravam graus variados de atrofia dos músculos pélvicos e algum grau de avermelhamento das meninges entre T10 e L7, devido à presença de miríades de pequenos vasos sanguíneos, uma típica lesão varicosa, semelhante a um hamartoma vascular. Histologicamente, tais lesões consistiam de distensão do espaço subaracnóideo por vasos sanguíneos dilatados e tortuosos, repletos de sangue e, ocasionalmente, de trombos, que ocluíam parcial ou totalmente seus lúmens. Essas varizes venulares eram aleatoriamente circundadas por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso ou linfocítico com pequenos focos de eosinófilos maduros. No lúmen das vênulas varicosas havia secções transversais e longitudinais de parasitos. Com base na morfologia desses parasitos, em sua localização anatômica (vasos sanguíneos meníngeos) e na espécie afetada (gato), o nematódeo foi identificado como Gurltia paralysans. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar em detalhes os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos dessa intrigante mielopatia de gatos e estabelecer definitivamente seu diagnóstico definitivo: paraplegia crural parasitária felina, uma doença descoberta no Chile, na década de 1930, e agora, pela primeira vez, descrita no Brasil. Abstract in english In the last 20 years, an unknown neurological disease affected cat populations in the Western Border Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The onset of the disease was characterized by tail paralysis, followed by progressive paraparesis in the pelvic limbs, difficulty in ambulation and p [...] roprioceptive ataxia. After long prolonged clinical courses (12-24 months), when then affected cats became severely paraparetic and start to develop pressure sores do to decubitus, they were destroyed by the owners. At necropsy there were variable degrees of skeletal muscle atrophy of the pelvic muscles and some degree of reddening of the meninges at the level of T10-L7, due to the presence of a myriad of small blood vessels, as a typical varicose lesion that resembled a vascular hamartoma. Histologically, such lesions consisted of distension of the subarachnoid space due to a collection of dilated, blood-filled, tortuous blood vessels the lumina of which were occasionally partially or completely occluded by thrombi. Those varices were randomly surrounded by a lymphocytic or granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate with small foci of mature eosinophils. In the lumina of these varicose venules cross and longitudinal sections of nematode parasites could be observed. Based on the morphology of these parasites, in their anatomical localization (meningeal blood vessels) and in the species (cat) affected the nematode was identified as Gurltia paralysans. This paper describes detailed aspects of the epidemiology, clinical disease and pathology of this intriguing feline myelopathy and the definitive diagnosis of the condition: Feline crural parasitic paraplegia, a disease first described in Chile in the 1930's and now, for the first time, in Brazil.

Monique, Togni; Welden, Panziera; Tatiana M., Souza; José C., Oliveira Filho; Alexandre, Mazzanti; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

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Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012 Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012  

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Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40, cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente, visto que na população total de cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063 essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respectivamente. Na necropsia (n=40, os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5% e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%, e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%, pulmão (60%, fígado (52,5%, peritônio (42,5%, rim (37,5%, encéfalo (30%, pleura (25% e coração (22,5%. Hemoperitônio (42,5% e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5% foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25, os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%, de baixo grau (64% e com estroma escasso (84%, mas frequentemente (68% havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28% e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12% foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24, utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma.Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Out of the studied cases (n=40, aged dogs (72.2% of the cases and dogs of German shepherd breed (20% of the cases were clearly more frequently affected since in the total population of necropsied dogs in the same period (n=7,063 this age group and breed were comparatively less represented (respectively 14.6% e 10.1% of the cases. At necropsy (n=40 most tumors (92.5% occurred as nodules and less frequently as masses (37.5%, affecting mainly the spleen (62.5%, lung (60%, liver (52.5%, peritoneum (42.5%, kidney (37.5%, brain (30%, pleura (25%, and heart (22.5%. Hemoperitoneum (42.5% of the cases and resultant anemia (22.5% of the cases were also observed. On histological examination (n=25, most hemangiosarcomas (84%, were, in general, well differentiated, of low grade (64% and possessed a scant stroma (84%, although frequently (68% focal areas with cells displaying some degree of atypia were seen. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and thrombosis were observed in all cases, however extramedullary hematopoiesis (28% and benign angiomatous proliferation (12% were less common findings. In all cases submitted to immunohistochemistry staining (n=24 the tumor cells displayed a finely granular positive staining when using anti-factor von Willebrand. Regarding anatomical classification, 55% of the hemangiosarcomas were considered as multicentric, 30% as primary tumors with one or more metastasis and 15% were solitary tumors. This paper discusses these results an suggests, based on the combination of affected organs, a scheme for setting apart primary hemangiosarcoma with metastasis from multicentric hemangiosarcoma, aiming to uniformize communication between pathologists regarding this tumor.

Mariana M. Flores

2012-12-01

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Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011) / Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2%) e hemorragia (75,5%), principalmente no pulmão (56,6%). Alterações [...] macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6%) e renais (50,9%) foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente), acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4%) e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%). Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%). Hepatomegalia (11,3%), nefromegalia (9,4%) e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8%) foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53), as lesões encontradas (98,1%) foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2%) e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8%) e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%), com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42), as lesões encontradas (97,6%) eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%), colestase intra-canalicular (33,3%) e necrose hepática (31%). Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%). Na histologia do pulmão (n=28), hemorragia (85,7%) e edema (57,1%) alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7%) e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9%) também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil) não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia. Abstract in english The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2%) and hemorrhage (75.5%), mainly in the lungs (56.6%). Gross hepatic (56.6%) and ren [...] al (50.9%) changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%), accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4%) and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%). Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%). Enlarged livers (11.3%), and kidneys (9.4%), and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8%) were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53), the encountered lesions (98.1%) were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2%) and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8%) and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%), with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42), the encountered lesions (97.6%) consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%), intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3%) and hepatocellular necrosis (31%). Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were

Tochetto, Camila; Flores, Mariana M.; Kommers, Glaucia D.; Barros, Claudio S.L.; Fighera, Rafael A..

64

Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012) / Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40), cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente), visto que na população total de [...] cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063) essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respectivamente). Na necropsia (n=40), os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5%) e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%), e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%), pulmão (60%), fígado (52,5%), peritônio (42,5%), rim (37,5%), encéfalo (30%), pleura (25%) e coração (22,5%). Hemoperitônio (42,5%) e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5%) foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25), os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%), de baixo grau (64%) e com estroma escasso (84%), mas frequentemente (68%) havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28%) e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12%) foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24), utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s) e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s) e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma. Abstract in english Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Out of the studied cases (n=40), aged dogs (72.2% of the cases) and dogs of German shepherd breed (20% of the cases) were clearly more frequently affected since in t [...] he total population of necropsied dogs in the same period (n=7,063) this age group and breed were comparatively less represented (respectively 14.6% e 10.1% of the cases). At necropsy (n=40) most tumors (92.5%) occurred as nodules and less frequently as masses (37.5%), affecting mainly the spleen (62.5%), lung (60%), liver (52.5%), peritoneum (42.5%), kidney (37.5%), brain (30%), pleura (25%), and heart (22.5%). Hemoperitoneum (42.5% of the cases) and resultant anemia (22.5% of the cases) were also observed. On histological examination (n=25), most hemangiosarcomas (84%), were, in general, well differentiated, of low grade (64%) and possessed a scant stroma (84%), although frequently (68%) focal areas with cells displaying some degree of atypia were seen. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and thrombosis were observed in all cases, however extramedullary hematopoiesis (28%) and benign angiomatous proliferation (12%) were less common findings. In all cases submitted to immunohistochemistry staining (n=24) the tumor cells displayed a finely granular positive staining when using anti-factor von Willebrand. Regarding anatomical classification, 55% of the hemangiosarcomas were considered as multicentric, 30% as primary tumors with one or more metastasis and 15% were solitary tumors. This paper discusses these results an suggests, based on the combination of affected organs, a scheme for setting apart primary hemangiosarcoma with metastasis from multicentric hemangiosarcoma, aiming to uniformize communication between pathologists regarding this tumor.

Mariana M., Flores; Welden, Panziera; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

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Competency-Based Pathology Residency Training Program: Hacettepe University Experience  

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Full Text Available Objective: Pathology residency training in the 21st century is being intensively discussed in order to revise the goals and methods of the program. Based on these discussions, a competency-based pathology residency training program was conducted at the Hacettepe University Pathology Department in 2002. We performed a survey in order to obtain more comprehensive data on the perceptions of strenghts and weaknesses of our competency-based pathology residency training program.Material and Method: A questionnaire consisting of 45 questions focused on microscopical and gross examination, intraoperative consultation, autopsy, cytopathology, molecular pathology and laboratory management, was completed by 5 pathology residents and 5 recent graduates.Results: Results from our survey suggested that the residents and recent graduates were generally confident in several aspects of pathology, but major deficiencies were noted in laboratory management and molecular diagnostic skills.Conclusion: The results of this survey will provide input for future pathology training programs in our department so that we will be able to train pathologists that are competent in pathology practice and prepared for the changing role of pathologists in patient care management in 21th century.

Figen SÖYLEMEZO?LU

2009-06-01

66

The Dangers of Failure Masking in Fault-Tolerant Software: Aspects of a Recent In-Flight Upset Event  

Science.gov (United States)

On 1 August 2005, a Boeing Company 777-200 aircraft, operating on an international passenger flight from Australia to Malaysia, was involved in a significant upset event while flying on autopilot. The Australian Transport Safety Bureau's investigation into the event discovered that an anomaly existed in the component software hierarchy that allowed inputs from a known faulty accelerometer to be processed by the air data inertial reference unit (ADIRU) and used by the primary flight computer, autopilot and other aircraft systems. This anomaly had existed in original ADIRU software, and had not been detected in the testing and certification process for the unit. This paper describes the software aspects of the incident in detail, and suggests possible implications concerning complex, safety-critical, fault-tolerant software.

Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

2007-01-01

67

Safety and Environmental Aspects of Inertial Fusion Energy: An Overview of Recent Activities and Developments in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past 2 yr, significant progress has been made in several areas related to the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of inertial fusion energy (IFE). An updated methodology has been developed, and accident analyses have been performed for two IFE conceptual power plants and a target fabrication facility. Parallel to the consequence analyses of different accident scenarios, ongoing studies of accident initiating events are being used to support safety assessment and create a basic framework of types of events to consider in future risk characterization of new plant designs. Target designers/fabrication specialists have been provided with ranking information related to the S and E characteristics of candidate target materials. We have revisited waste management options for IFE, introducing the concept of clearance versus the traditional shallow land burial. A brief summary of results in each of these activities is given, and plans for future work are outlined

2003-05-01

68

Approches actuelles au traitement du zona: Aspects controversés du traitement du zona  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herpes zoster is a very common pathology. A description of its clinical presentation and treatment in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients is provided. There is also a discussion of controversial aspects of treatment in the light of recent medical findings.

Bissonnette, R.; Leclerc, G.

1992-01-01

69

Polyphosphate: physiologic? pathologic? pharmacologic?  

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Polyphosphate, a linear polymer of inorganic phosphate found in bacteria, fungi, plants, and recently, human platelets, enhances fibrin clot structure and stability and may play a central role in both normal and pathologic coagulation.

Wolberg, Alisa S.

2008-01-01

70

Pathological gambling in women: a review  

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Full Text Available Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980. Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews of the past 10 years on clinical (sociodemographic, course and progression, psychiatric comorbidities, genetics, and personality and epidemiological aspects of female gamblers. Other relevant articles were also selected from reference lists. It is concluded that the current literature indicates some common characteristics in female and male gamblers, but it also indicates the possibility that each gender may carry etiopathogenic differences that when better understood should lead to improved treatment and prevention strategies.

Martins Silvia Saboia

2002-01-01

71

Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE.

Smolen, J.S.

1987-01-01

72

Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

1987-01-01

73

Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011 Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2% e hemorragia (75,5%, principalmente no pulmão (56,6%. Alterações macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6% e renais (50,9% foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente, acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4% e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%. Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%. Hepatomegalia (11,3%, nefromegalia (9,4% e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8% foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53, as lesões encontradas (98,1% foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2% e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8% e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%, com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42, as lesões encontradas (97,6% eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%, colestase intra-canalicular (33,3% e necrose hepática (31%. Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%. Na histologia do pulmão (n=28, hemorragia (85,7% e edema (57,1% alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7% e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9% também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia.The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2% and hemorrhage (75.5%, mainly in the lungs (56.6%. Gross hepatic (56.6% and renal (50.9% changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%, accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4% and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%. Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%. Enlarged livers (11.3%, and kidneys (9.4%, and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8% were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53, the encountered lesions (98.1% were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2% and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8% and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%, with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42, the encountered lesions (97.6% consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%, intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3% and hepatocellular necrosis (31%. Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were observed in several cases (42.8%. In the histopathology of the lung (n=28, alveolar hemorrhage (85.7% and edema (57.1% were rather frequent lesi

Camila Tochetto

2012-05-01

74

Aspectos más recientes en relación con la diabetes mellitus tipo MODY / Most recent aspects about type MODY diabetes mellitus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: la mejor comprensión fisiopatológica de la diabetes mellitus permite identificar diferentes tipos, entre ellos una variante monogénica denominada por sus siglas en inglés MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young). Objetivos: describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos, diagnóst [...] icos y terapéuticos de los diferentes subtipos MODY. Desarrollo: los pacientes con diabetes tipo MODY presentan un comportamiento similar a la diabetes mellitus del adulto. Se caracteriza por una alteración genética autosómica dominante inherente y primaria a un defecto en la secreción de insulina. Hasta el momento actual se aceptan 9 subtipos de MODY. Los subtipos 1, 3, 4, 5 y 6 afectan a genes que codifican a factores nucleares de trascripción, y el subtipo 2 al gen que codifica a la enzima glucoquinasa. Se caracterizan clínicamente por cuadros que oscilan entre hiperglucemias permanentes, leves o moderadas, con buen pronóstico clínico, y pocas complicaciones, hasta cuadros de hiperglucemias mantenidas acompañadas de complicaciones crónicas precoces y graves. Conclusiones: las personas que padecen diabetes tipo MODY no son tan infrecuentes como se piensa. La correcta y temprana identificación de la enfermedad permitirá una acción terapéutica más racional y adecuada para brindar la posibilidad de mejor calidad de vida de estas personas. Abstract in english Background: a better physiopathological understanding of diabetes mellitus allows identifying its different types such as a monogenic variant called MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young). Objectives: to describe the physiopathological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the differ [...] ent subtypes in MODY diabetes. Development: the patients with MODY diabetes behave similarly to those suffering diabetes mellitus in adults. It is characterized by inherited dominant autosomal genetic alteration which is primary to a defect in insulin secretion. Up to the present, 9 subtypes are accepted. The subtypes 1,3,4,5 and 6 affect gens coding for nuclear transcriptional factors whereas subtype 2 affects the gen coding for glycokinase enzyme. From the clinical viewpoint, they are characterized by conditions ranging from permanent, slight or moderate hyperglycemias, with good clinical prognosis and low complications, to sustained hyperglycemias accompanied by early chronic and serious complications. Conclusions: the people suffering MODY diabetes are not as uncommon as one might think. The correct and early detection will allow taking quick, adequate and more rational therapeutic actions to provide the patients with a better quality of life.

Conesa González, Ana Ibis; González Calero, Teresa Margarita.

75

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Recent aspect, a change from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron beam and a new protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1968, One-hundred seventy three patients with glioblastoma (n=81), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumor (n=32) were treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a combination of thermal neutron and BSH in 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MuITR n=98, KUR n=28, JRR-2 n=33). Out of 101 patients with glioma treated by BNCT under the recent protocol, 33 (10 glioblastoma, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, 9 low grade astrocytoma) patients lived or have lived longer than 3 years. Nine of these 33 lived or have lived longer than 10 years. According to the retrospective analysis, the important factors related to the clinical results were tumor dose radiation dose and maximum radiation dose in thermal brain cortex. The result was not satisfied as it was expected. Then, we decided to introduce mixed beams which contain thermal neutron and epithermal neutron beams. KUR was reconstructed in 1996 and developed to be available to use mixed beams. Following the shutdown of the JRR-2, JRR-4 was renewed for medical use in 1998. Both reactors have capacity to yield thermal neutron beam, epithermal neutron beam and mixed beams. The development of the neutron source lead us to make a new protocol. (author)

Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Dept. of Neurosurgery National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentsuji, Kagawa (Japan)

1999-08-01

76

Diagnosis, Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

2009-12-26

77

Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog / Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de ne [...] urônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma. Abstract in english A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with uppe [...] r motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

B.D.C., Martins; B.B.J., Torres; A.A.M., Rodriguez; C.O., Gamba; G.D., Cassali; G.E., Lavalle; G.D.C., Martins; E.G., Melo.

78

Morphological and pathological aspects of the rete ovarii in sheep (Ovis aries) / Aspectos morfológicos e patológicos da rete ovarii em ovinos - Ovis aries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram analisados histologicamente 64 ovários de ovelhas lanadas adultas, procedentes do Centro de Pesquisa dos Campos Sul Brasileiros-Embrapa, Bagé-RS. Constatou-se, em 55 dos 64 ovários (85,9%), a presença da rete ovarii, localizada no tecido periovariano, no hilo, na medular ou na cortical. À seme [...] lhança do observado em outros mamíferos, a rete ovarii na ovelha é morfologicamente dividida em três porções: rete intra-ovárica, rete conectante e rete extra-ovárica. Em cinco ovários (7,8%) foi possível verificar uma continuidade entre a rete extra-ovárica e a tuba uterina, sugerindo uma conexão tubo-retial, de maneira similar à descrita para bovinos e para a corça. Quanto à patologia da rete, observaram-se a formação de cistos envolvendo a rete conectante e/ou extra-ovárica em sete casos (10,9%) e um caso de hiperplasia da rete extra-ovárica (1,6%). Abstract in english Sixty-four ovaries of adult woolly sheep from the Centro de Pesquisa dos Campos Sul Brasileiros - Embrapa, Bagé-RS, Brazil, were analyzed histologically. The presence of the rete ovarii was detected in 55 of the 64 ovaries (85.9%), located in the periovarian tissue, in the hilus and in the medullary [...] or cortical regions. As also observed in other mammals, the rete ovarii of sheep is morphologically divided into three portions: intraovarian rete, connecting rete and extraovarian rete. Continuity between the extraovarian rete and the uterine tube was observed in five ovaries (7.8%), suggesting a tuboretial connection, as reported for cows and does. Pathological examination of the rete showed the formation of cysts surrounding the connecting and/or extraovarian rete in seven cases (10.9%) and one case of hyperplasia of the extraovarian rete (1.6%).

Cassali, G.D.; Nogueira, J.C.; Nascimento, E.F.; Cardoso, J.S.; Ferreira, D.L..

79

Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de neurônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma.

B.D.C. Martins

2013-04-01

80

Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio  

Science.gov (United States)

In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry (N-rays, polywater) as well as the recent case of cold fusion in electrochemistry involved research practices not clearly distinguishable from those in (revolutionary) science. The concept of 'pat...

2002-01-01

82

Pathological gambling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dissertation is divided into two parts. The subject of the first part was the collection of the demand gambling and the frequency of pathological gambling within specific person's groups (prisoners, guests of gambling halls, officials and medical students), to which a new psychometric instrument – the BIG (Berliner Inventar zum Glücksspielverhalten; Grüsser, Hesselbarth, Albrecht & Mörsen, 2006) – was introduced.

2012-01-01

83

Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are dr [...] iven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor.

M, Lawrie; A, Good.

84

'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry (N-rays, polywater as well as the recent case of cold fusion in electrochemistry involved research practices not clearly distinguishable from those in (revolutionary science. The concept of 'pathological science' was put forth nearly half a century ago in a seminar and lacks justification in contemporary understanding of science studies (history, philosophy, and sociology of science. It is time to abandon the phrase.

Henry H. Bauer

2002-04-01

85

Labyrinthine pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in detecting intralabyrinthine pathology. Enhancement of the membranous labyrinth was shown in 4 patients with labyrinthine schwannoma, 2 with suppurative labyrinthitis, 3 with autoimmune hearing loss (rheumatoid arthritis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome), and 2 with carcinoma of the ear invading the labyrinth. Slight partial labyrinthine enhancement was noticed in 2 of 5 patients with syphilitic hearing loss, one of 3 with viral labyrinthitis, one of 3 with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, and none of 2 with active otosclerosis. Except for a questionable enhancement within the cochlea in one case, MR failed to demonstrate any labyrinthine enhancement in 3 patients with classic features of Meniere disease. Labyrinthine involvement detectable at MR is noteworthy, and we recommend enhanced MR imaging when there is clinical evidence of intralabyrinthine pathology

1991-12-01

86

Occult carpal pathology: Tomographic evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pluridirectional tomography in coronal and sagittal planes has been used to identify occult carpal pathology in 23 patients with chronic wrist pain following recent or remote trauma. The tomographic studies have detected or further defined the carpal pathology in 22 of the 23 patients studied adding useful information concerning their clinical management. (orig.)

1986-01-01

87

Comparative molecular developmental aspects of the mammalian- and the avian lungs, and the insectan tracheal system by branching morphogenesis: recent advances and future directions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Gas exchangers fundamentally form by branching morphogenesis (BM, a mechanistically profoundly complex process which derives from coherent expression and regulation of multiple genes that direct cell-to-cell interactions, differentiation, and movements by signaling of various molecular morphogenetic cues at specific times and particular places in the developing organ. Coordinated expression of growth-instructing factors determines sizes and sites where bifurcation occurs, by how much a part elongates before it divides, and the angle at which branching occurs. BM is essentially induced by dualities of factors where through feedback- or feed forward loops agonists/antagonists are activated or repressed. The intricate transactions between the development orchestrating molecular factors determine the ultimate phenotype. From the primeval time when the transformation of unicellular organisms to multicellular ones occurred by systematic accretion of cells, BM has been perpetually conserved. Canonical signalling, transcriptional pathways, and other instructive molecular factors are commonly employed within and across species, tissues, and stages of development. While much still remain to be elucidated and some of what has been reported corroborated and reconciled with rest of existing data, notable progress has in recent times been made in understanding the mechanism of BM. By identifying and characterizing the morphogenetic drivers, and markers and their regulatory dynamics, the elemental underpinnings of BM have been more precisely explained. Broadening these insights will allow more effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions of developmental abnormalities and pathologies in pre- and postnatal lungs. Conservation of the molecular factors which are involved in the development of the lung (and other branched organs is a classic example of nature’s astuteness in economically utilizing finite resources. Once purposefully formed, well-tested and tried ways and means are adopted, preserved, and widely used to engineer the most optimal phenotypes. The material and time costs of developing utterly new instruments and routines with every drastic biological change (e.g. adaptation and speciation are circumvented. This should assure the best possible structures and therefore functions, ensuring survival and evolutionary success.

Maina John N

2012-08-01

88

Priorities in seed pathology research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of seedborne pathogens that might go undetected using more conventional means. These types of research will be fundamental in guaranteeing seed health quality standards and achieving phytosanitary requirements throughout the world in the new millennium.

Nameth S.T.

1998-01-01

89

The analysis of the recent economic and social aspects important for the management of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The management system of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic is using already more that ten years as a one tool a monetary value of man Sv. The appropriate values are published in the Decree on radiation protection and they are distinguished for different types and levels of exposure. The derivation of these values has been done about 15 years ago based on studies performed at the 90's. Recently the State Office for Nuclear Safety initiated a new pilot study with the following scope: 1-) To analyze the current economic approaches and techniques used for the determination of the monetary statistical value of the human life under new economical, political and social conditions; 2-) To design the mathematical model for the determination of the lost production and to gain economic and demographic data necessary for the calculation; 3-) To organize a pilot survey of the public opinion in the Czech Republic with the accent on the detriment caused by ionizing radiation and on the willingness to pay for the averted risk or to accept the compensation of the elevated risk. The first evaluation of the results shows that a new evaluated values are not significantly different for the currently used values in the legislation. Although the approaches of the life value estimation are different the valuation is relatively consistent and the average value of the statistical life fall into the range between 300 - 350 thousands CZK (app.10-13 ths EUR) per one year of life. The study confirmed a fact that the optimization of the processes covering the threat of the human health and life is very complicated, complex and demanding a multidisciplinary approach. The study and research will continue in the future focusing to the particular aspects of the problem. The poster will describe in details the methods used and will present the results achieved. (author)

2008-10-19

90

Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma".  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, "hilar and perihilar CC" are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed. PMID:23919110

Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

2013-07-15

91

Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CC arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB. IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8% were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%, four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed.

Víctor M Castellano-Megías

2013-01-01

92

Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately...

Castellano-meg Xed As, V. Xed Ctor M.; Carolina Ibarrola-de Andrés; Francisco Colina-Ruizdelgado

2013-01-01

93

Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Clinical Aspects, Pathology and Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary tumor of the liver. To further define its clinicopathology and surgical management, we reviewed our experience. Clinical presentations of 32 patients with ICC was similar to that with hepatocellular carcinoma. Jaundice occurred in only 27 percent. ICC was unresectable due to advanced disease stage in 81 percent. Six patients had curative resections with two 5 year disease free survivors. Underlying liver disea...

Schlinkert, Richard T.; Nagorney, David M.; Heerden, Jon A.; Adson, Martin A.

1992-01-01

94

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6 em gatos Epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6 in cats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6 foram estudados em 10 gatos que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos diferem daqueles previamente descritos na literatura nos seguintes aspectos: 1 a doença ocorreu na forma de um modelo bimodal relacionado à idade dos gatos afetados, em que 50% tinham 1-3 anos de idade e 50% tinham 10 anos de idade ou mais; 2 quase todos os gatos afetados (87,5% demonstravam policromasia, possivelmente decorrente de eritropoese extramedular; 3 em todos os casos havia múltiplos focos de células hematopoéticas, principalmente eritropoeticas, em múltiplos órgãos, que incluíam baço (85,7%, linfonodos (71,4%, fígado (57,1% e rim (28,6%; 4 em alguns casos (28,6% esses focos podiam ser vistos macroscopicamente, na forma de metástases, mas sempre diferiam histologicamente da medula óssea quanto à proporção dos precursores eritroides envolvidos; 5 em pelo menos um caso ocorreu um continuum patologicum até outra forma de LMA (LMA M4, um fenômeno denominado "infidelidade de linhagem". Esse artigo discute essas diferenças e reforça os critérios fundamentais para se estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo dessa que é a forma mais importante de leucemia em gatos na nossa região.The epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6 were studied in 10 cats that died from this condition. The results obtained in the present study differ from those previously described in the literature regarding the following aspects: 1 The disease occurred as a bimodal model related to the age of affected cats, in which 50% were1-3-years-old and 50% were 10 years-old or above; 2 almost all affected cats (87.5% displayed polychromasia, possible resulting from extramedullar erythropoiesis; 3 in all cases there were multiple foci of hematopoietic cells, mainly erythropoietic, in multiple organs including spleen (85.7%, lymph nodes (71.4%, liver (57.1%, and kidney (28.6%; 4 in some cases (28.6% these foci could be observed on gross examination as metastasis, but they always histologically differ from bone marrow in regard to the proportion of erythroid precursors involved; 5 at least in one case a continuum patologicum occurred with the condition evolving to another form of LMA (LMA M4, a phenomenon coined as "lineage infidelity". This paper discuss these differences and stresses the fundamental criteria to establish a definitive diagnosis of this condition, which is the most import form of leukemia in cats from our region.

Camila Tochetto

2011-07-01

95

Patogênese e achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Rangelia vitalii em 35 cães (1985-2009 Pathogenesis, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of Rangelia vitalii infection in 35 dogs (1985-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A patogênese e os achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção natural pelo protozoário Rangelia vitalii (rangeliose canina foram estudados em 35 cães que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos permitem o seguinte conjunto de conclusões: (1 causa doença hemolítica exclusivamente extravascular e de origem imunomediada; (2 cursa invariavelmente com algum grau de hemorragia à necropsia, mas nem sempre clinicamente perceptível; (3 os principais sinais que devem chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica são anemia, icterícia e esplenomegalia; (4 o principal achado hematológico e que deve chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica é a ocorrência de anemia com sinais de intensa regeneração eritroide; (5 os três principais diagnósticos diferenciais são leptospirose, babesiose e erliquiose monocitotrópica aguda; (6 a principal lesão observada é uma associação de hiperplasia linfoide com inflamação mononuclear, predominantemente plasmocitária, mas por vezes granulomatosa; (7 outras lesões frequentes são secundárias à marcada anemia regenerativa; (8 o agente etiológico pode ser facilmente encontrado, pois ocorre em grande quantidade na maioria dos tecidos, principalmente nos linfonodos, no baço, na medula óssea, no coração e nas tonsilas.The pathogenesis, clinical, hematological and pathological features of the natural infection by the protozoan organism Rangelia vitalii (canine rangeliosis was studied in 35 dogs that died due this condition. The results allow for the following set of conclusions on canine rangeliosis: (1 causes an exclusively extravascular immune mediated hemolysis; (2 is invariably associated with some degree of hemorrhage observed at necropsy, but no always clinically apparent; (3 the clinical signs that are the hallmark of the disease are anemia, icterus and splenomegaly; (4 the main hematological aspect that establishes a clinical suspect is the development of anemia with signs of intense erythroid regeneration; (5 the three main differential diagnosis are leptospirosis, babesiosis and e acute monocytotropic ehrlichiosis; (6 the main observed histopathological lesion is an association of lymphoid hyperplasia with mononuclear inflammatory reaction, predominantly plasmacytic, but occasionally granulomatous; (7 other frequently found lesions are secondary to a marked regenerative anemia; (8 large numbers of the etiologic agent can be easily demonstrate in most tissues, mainly in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, heart, and tonsils.

Rafael A Fighera

2010-11-01

96

Patogênese e achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Rangelia vitalii em 35 cães (1985-2009) / Pathogenesis, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of Rangelia vitalii infection in 35 dogs (1985-2009)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A patogênese e os achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção natural pelo protozoário Rangelia vitalii (rangeliose canina) foram estudados em 35 cães que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos permitem o seguinte conjunto de conclusões: (1) causa doença [...] hemolítica exclusivamente extravascular e de origem imunomediada; (2) cursa invariavelmente com algum grau de hemorragia à necropsia, mas nem sempre clinicamente perceptível; (3) os principais sinais que devem chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica são anemia, icterícia e esplenomegalia; (4) o principal achado hematológico e que deve chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica é a ocorrência de anemia com sinais de intensa regeneração eritroide; (5) os três principais diagnósticos diferenciais são leptospirose, babesiose e erliquiose monocitotrópica aguda; (6) a principal lesão observada é uma associação de hiperplasia linfoide com inflamação mononuclear, predominantemente plasmocitária, mas por vezes granulomatosa; (7) outras lesões frequentes são secundárias à marcada anemia regenerativa; (8) o agente etiológico pode ser facilmente encontrado, pois ocorre em grande quantidade na maioria dos tecidos, principalmente nos linfonodos, no baço, na medula óssea, no coração e nas tonsilas. Abstract in english The pathogenesis, clinical, hematological and pathological features of the natural infection by the protozoan organism Rangelia vitalii (canine rangeliosis) was studied in 35 dogs that died due this condition. The results allow for the following set of conclusions on canine rangeliosis: (1) causes a [...] n exclusively extravascular immune mediated hemolysis; (2) is invariably associated with some degree of hemorrhage observed at necropsy, but no always clinically apparent; (3) the clinical signs that are the hallmark of the disease are anemia, icterus and splenomegaly; (4) the main hematological aspect that establishes a clinical suspect is the development of anemia with signs of intense erythroid regeneration; (5) the three main differential diagnosis are leptospirosis, babesiosis and e acute monocytotropic ehrlichiosis; (6) the main observed histopathological lesion is an association of lymphoid hyperplasia with mononuclear inflammatory reaction, predominantly plasmacytic, but occasionally granulomatous; (7) other frequently found lesions are secondary to a marked regenerative anemia; (8) large numbers of the etiologic agent can be easily demonstrate in most tissues, mainly in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, heart, and tonsils.

Fighera, Rafael A; Souza, Tatiana M; Kommers, Glaucia G; Irigoyen, Luis Francisco; Barros, Claudio S.L.

97

Recent aspects of self-oscillating polymeric materials: designing self-oscillating polymers coupled with supramolecular chemistry and ionic liquid science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein, we summarise the recent developments in self-oscillating polymeric materials based on the concepts of supramolecular chemistry, where aggregates of molecular building blocks with non-covalent bonds evolve the temporal or spatiotemporal structure. By utilising the rhythmic oscillation of the association/dissociation of molecular aggregates coupled with the redox oscillation by the BZ reaction, novel soft materials that express similar functions as those of living matter will be achieved. Further, from the viewpoint of materials science, our recent approach to prepare self-oscillating materials that operate long-term under mild conditions will be introduced. PMID:24760146

Ueki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo

2014-05-14

98

Miocardite crônica em um cão naturalmente infectado com Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: aspectos clínicos e patológicos / Chronic myocarditis in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: clinical and pathological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença infecciosa crônica frequentemente fatal causada pela Leishmania infantum chagasi nas Américas. A enfermidade pode acometer vários órgãos, determinando diferentes manifestações clínicas. Contudo o envolvimento do coração raramente tem sido reportado em cães i [...] nfectados por Leishmania sp. Dessa forma, descreve-se um caso de miocardite crônica com repercussões clínicas e patológicas em um cão naturalmente infectado por Leishmania infantum chagasi. A positividade para Leishmaniose Visceral foi determinada pela presença de anticorpos antiLeishmania sp. nos testes sorológicos (RIFI, ELISA e DPP) e confirmada por visualização de formas amastigotas de Leishmania sp. em punção aspirativa do linfonodo poplíteo. O exame cardiovascular revelou alterações radiográficas, eletrocardiográficas, na pressão arterial e nos biomarcardores cardíacos. Após eutanásia, amostras de tecido cardíaco foram avaliadas histologicamente e submetidas à imunomarcação, onde foi observado infiltrado mononuclear (plasmo-histiolinfocitário), com presença de estruturas arredondadas de coloracão marrom-amareladas (imunomarcadas), indicando formas amastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi no miocárdio. Os aspectos etiopatogênicos da leishmaniose visceral sobre o miocárdio neste caso podem estar relacionados tanto à presença do parasita quanto à resposta "reacional inespecífica" do tecido à agressão do parasita no organismo. Todavia ainda não se sabem se as cepas de Leishmania infantum chagasi da região semiárida paraibana apresentam algum tropismo por tecido cardíaco ou se induzem a reação imunológica cruzada, com implicações clínicas. Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic, often fatal infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. The disease can affect many organs and may express different clinical forms. However, the involvement of the heart has rarely been reported in dogs infected by Leishmania s [...] p. Thus, we describe a case of chronic myocarditis with clinical and pathological effects in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Positivity for Visceral Leishmaniasis was determined by the presence of anti-Leishmania sp. in serological tests (IFAT, ELISA and DPP) and confirmed by visualization of amastigote forms of the parasite in the popliteal lymph node aspiration samples. The cardiovascular clinical examination showed changes in the radiographic, ECG, blood pressure and heart biomarkers. After euthanasia, heart tissue samples were histologically examined and underwent our immunohistochemistry assessment, where mononuclear infiltrate was observed (plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages) with the presence of rounded brownish-yellow (immunomarked) cells, indicating amastigotes of Leishmania infantum chagasi within the myocardium. The etiopathogenic aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in the myocardium in this case may be related either to the presence of the parasite or the "nonspecific reactive" response of the tissue attributable to the aggression of the parasite in the body. However, it is not known if the strains of Leishmania infantum chagasi found in the semi-arid of Paraíba have some tropism for cardiac tissue or if they induce immunological cross-reaction with clinical implications.

Mendes, R.S.; Gurjão, T.A.; Oliveira, L.M.; Santana, V.L.; Tafuri, W.L.; Santos, J.R.S.; Dantas, A.F.M.; Souza, A.P..

99

Recent Advances in Geriatric Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ageing is a natural process. In the words of Seneca;“Old age is an incurable disease”, but more recently,Sir James Sterling Ross commented: “You do not healold age. You protect it; you promote it; you extendit” [1]. These are in fact the basic principles ofpreventive medicine. Old age should be regarded as anormal, inevitable biological phenomenon. The studyof the physical and psychological changes which areincident to old age is called gerontology. The care ofthe aged is called clinical gerontology or geriatrics.Another aspect of gerontology is social gerontology which was born on the one hand out of the instincts of humanitarian and social attitudes and on the other out of the problems set by the increasing number of old people[2]. Experimental gerontology is concerned withresearch into the basic biological problems of ageing, into its physiology, biochemistry, pathology and psychology.

N.A. Ansari

2008-12-01

100

Surgical pathology of urologic diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Pathological gambling in women: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980). Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews o...

2002-01-01

102

Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

1996-10-01

103

Avaliações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais da intoxicação experimental por monofluoroacetato de sódio em ovinos Clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by sodium monofluoroacetate in sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a administração de doses únicas e de frações diárias da dose letal de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MF a ovinos induzem a clássica degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar (DHV dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais observada no rim de bovinos intoxicados por plantas brasileiras que causam "morte súbita" (PBCMS. MF foi administrado, por via oral, em doses únicas de 0,5 e 1,0mg/kg, cada dose para dois ovinos, e em doses subletais repetidas diariamente de 0,1mg/kg/dia, por quatro dias, e 0,2mg/kg/dia por seis dias, cada dose para um ovino. Todos os ovinos que receberam MF morreram, exceto um que recebeu 0,5mg/kg e não mostrou sintomas. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 3min a 33h5min. Clinicamente os animais apresentaram taquicardia, respiração abdominal, tremores musculares, ligeira perda de equilíbrio, por vezes cambaleavam, deitavam e apoiavam a cabeça no flanco. Na fase final, os ovinos caíam em decúbito lateral, esticavam os membros, faziam movimentos de pedalagem, apresentavam opistótono e morriam. O exame ecocardiográfico evidenciou dilatação cardíaca e redução da fração de encurtamento sistólico. A análise dos níveis séricos de uréia e creatinina revelou moderada a acentuada azotemia. MF provocou "morte súbita" em todos os ovinos que mostraram sintomas. À necropsia verificaram-se aurículas e veias jugulares, cavas, ázigos e pulmonares moderadamente ingurgitadas e, em alguns animais, edema pulmonar. O exame histopatológico revelou, em todos os ovinos, leve a acentuada DHV das células epiteliais dos túbulos contornados distais, associada à picnose nuclear. Adicionalmente, verificaram-se discreta vacuolização e, por vezes, necrose de coagulação de hepatócitos. Não encontramos referências a esse tipo peculiar de lesão, exceto das descrições sobre lesões renais associadas à ingestão de PBCMS e de recentes estudos em bovinos intoxicados com MF. Este trabalho demonstra, em ovinos, que tanto doses letais únicas quanto subdoses diárias de MF induzem a DHV dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais associada à picnose nuclear.The objective of this study was to verify if the ingestion of single doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MF and daily fractions of 1/2.5 and 1/5 of the lethal dose causes the same lesion as the one observed in the kidney of cattle poisoned by Brazilian sudden death causing plants (BSDCP. MF was administered orally in single doses of 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg to four sheep, and repeated daily doses of 0.1 and 0.2mg/kg to two others. Death occurred in five of six animals. The course of poisoning lasted from 3min to 33h5min. Clinically the animals presented palpitation, abdominal breathing, slight balance loss with sometimes swaying gait, they laid down and placed the head on their flank. In the "dramatic phase", all the sheep fell into lateral decubitus, stretched out the legs, made peddling movements, presented opistotonus, and died. The electrocardiographical examination showed heart dilatation and reduction of the systolic shortening fraction. Laboratory hematological exams revealed increased urea and creatinine. MF caused the clinical and pathological symptoms of "sudden death". At postmortem examination, heart auricles and jugular, cava, azygos and pulmonary veins of all animals were moderately engorged, and in some sheep, pulmonary edema was observed. Histopathology revealed hydropic-vacuolar degeneration (HVD of the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted kidney tubules associated with nuclear picnosis in all the sheep. Vacuolation and less often necrosis of liver cells was seen in some cases. No references to that peculiar type of lesion could be found in the literature, except the description of kidney lesions in animals associated with the ingestion of BSDCP, and recent studies of MF poisoning in cattle. The present study demonstrated in sheep that single lethal doses or repeated doses of fractions of the lethal dose of MF causes HVD of the distal convoluted kidney tubules, associat

Tiago C. Peixoto

2010-12-01

104

Avaliações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais da intoxicação experimental por monofluoroacetato de sódio em ovinos / Clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by sodium monofluoroacetate in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a administração de doses únicas e de frações diárias da dose letal de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MF) a ovinos induzem a clássica degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar (DHV) dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais observada no rim de bovinos intoxicados por pla [...] ntas brasileiras que causam "morte súbita" (PBCMS). MF foi administrado, por via oral, em doses únicas de 0,5 e 1,0mg/kg, cada dose para dois ovinos, e em doses subletais repetidas diariamente de 0,1mg/kg/dia, por quatro dias, e 0,2mg/kg/dia por seis dias, cada dose para um ovino. Todos os ovinos que receberam MF morreram, exceto um que recebeu 0,5mg/kg e não mostrou sintomas. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 3min a 33h5min. Clinicamente os animais apresentaram taquicardia, respiração abdominal, tremores musculares, ligeira perda de equilíbrio, por vezes cambaleavam, deitavam e apoiavam a cabeça no flanco. Na fase final, os ovinos caíam em decúbito lateral, esticavam os membros, faziam movimentos de pedalagem, apresentavam opistótono e morriam. O exame ecocardiográfico evidenciou dilatação cardíaca e redução da fração de encurtamento sistólico. A análise dos níveis séricos de uréia e creatinina revelou moderada a acentuada azotemia. MF provocou "morte súbita" em todos os ovinos que mostraram sintomas. À necropsia verificaram-se aurículas e veias jugulares, cavas, ázigos e pulmonares moderadamente ingurgitadas e, em alguns animais, edema pulmonar. O exame histopatológico revelou, em todos os ovinos, leve a acentuada DHV das células epiteliais dos túbulos contornados distais, associada à picnose nuclear. Adicionalmente, verificaram-se discreta vacuolização e, por vezes, necrose de coagulação de hepatócitos. Não encontramos referências a esse tipo peculiar de lesão, exceto das descrições sobre lesões renais associadas à ingestão de PBCMS e de recentes estudos em bovinos intoxicados com MF. Este trabalho demonstra, em ovinos, que tanto doses letais únicas quanto subdoses diárias de MF induzem a DHV dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais associada à picnose nuclear. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify if the ingestion of single doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MF) and daily fractions of 1/2.5 and 1/5 of the lethal dose causes the same lesion as the one observed in the kidney of cattle poisoned by Brazilian sudden death causing plants (BSDCP). MF was adm [...] inistered orally in single doses of 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg to four sheep, and repeated daily doses of 0.1 and 0.2mg/kg to two others. Death occurred in five of six animals. The course of poisoning lasted from 3min to 33h5min. Clinically the animals presented palpitation, abdominal breathing, slight balance loss with sometimes swaying gait, they laid down and placed the head on their flank. In the "dramatic phase", all the sheep fell into lateral decubitus, stretched out the legs, made peddling movements, presented opistotonus, and died. The electrocardiographical examination showed heart dilatation and reduction of the systolic shortening fraction. Laboratory hematological exams revealed increased urea and creatinine. MF caused the clinical and pathological symptoms of "sudden death". At postmortem examination, heart auricles and jugular, cava, azygos and pulmonary veins of all animals were moderately engorged, and in some sheep, pulmonary edema was observed. Histopathology revealed hydropic-vacuolar degeneration (HVD) of the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted kidney tubules associated with nuclear picnosis in all the sheep. Vacuolation and less often necrosis of liver cells was seen in some cases. No references to that peculiar type of lesion could be found in the literature, except the description of kidney lesions in animals associated with the ingestion of BSDCP, and recent studies of MF poisoning in cattle. The present study demonstrated in sheep that single lethal doses or repeated dos

Peixoto, Tiago C.; Nogueira, Vivian A.; Coelho, Cleide D.; Veiga, Cristiano C.P.; Peixoto, Paulo V.; Brito, Marilene F..

105

Cortical origin of pathological pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pain without accompanying tissue pathology poses a classic puzzle, presented in extreme form by phantom pain in a non-existent amputated limb. A clue to the origin of such pain is given by the recent discovery of a region of cortex active in response to incongruence between motor intention, awareness of movement, and visual feedback. Phantom-limb sensation, and repetitive strain injuries or focal hand dystonias in writers, musicians, or keyboard operators, are accompanied by plastic changes in sensorimotor cortex and by pathological pain. Disorganised or inappropriate cortical representation of proprioception may falsely signal incongruence between motor intention and movement, which results in pathological pain in the same way that incongruence between vestibular and visual sensation results in motion sickness. PMID:10543687

Harris, A J

1999-10-23

106

Rotator Cuff Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Rotator Cuff Pathology Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... locking and a feeling of instability. Rotator cuff pathology ranges from a normal, asymptomatic aging process to ...

107

Does vascular pathology contribute to Alzheimer changes?  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years there has been increased interest in whether vascular disease contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review considers how modifiable risk factors such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and adiposity may impact on vascular structure and function to promote neurodegenerative processes and instigate AD. The presence of vascular pathology involving arterial stiffness, arteriolosclerosis, endothelial degeneration and blood-brain barrier dysfunction leads to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Pathological changes in human brain and animal studies suggest cerebral hypoperfusion which in turn induces several features of AD pathology including selective brain atrophy, white matter changes and accumulation of abnormal proteins such as amyloid ?. Cerebral pathological changes may be further modified by genetic factors such as the apoliopoprotein E ?4 allele. Although tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation still needs robust explanation further support for the notion that vascular pathology influences AD changes is provided by the evidence that interventions which improve vascular function attenuate AD pathology. PMID:22884479

Kalaria, Raj N; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

2012-11-15

108

International review of experimental pathology. Volume 27  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book reviews the experimental pathology advancements made in recent years. Specifically discussed are - Epstein-Barr virus pathogenesis, immune deficient diseases, Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas and other lymphoproliferative disorders.

Richter, G.W.; Epstein, M.A.

1985-01-01

109

Gold nanoparticles: recent aspects for human toxicology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanoparticles (particles sized between 1 and 100 nanometers) are more and more used in all fields of science and medicine for their physicochemical properties. As gold has traditionally been considered as chemically inert and biocompatible, in particular, gold nanoparticles have been established as valuable tools in several areas of biomedical research. But in contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed the clinical use of gold nanoparticles, only little is known about potential toxicological effects such as induction of inflammatory immune responses, possible apoptotic cell death or developmental growth inhibition in embryos. Therefore the present study performed a systematic review of toxicological data, especially experimentally acquired data concerning in-vivo-toxicity, published in the PubMed. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge about size-, charge- and surface-chemistry dependent in-vivo-toxicity is needed to predict the hazard potential of auric nanoparticles (AuNPs) for humans. PMID:24330512

Gerber, Alexander; Bundschuh, Matthias; Klingelhofer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

2013-01-01

110

Gold nanoparticles: recent aspects for human toxicology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanoparticles (particles sized between 1 and 100 nanometers) are more and more used in all fields of science and medicine for their physicochemical properties. As gold has traditionally been considered as chemically inert and biocompatible, in particular, gold nanoparticles have been established as valuable tools in several areas of biomedical research. But in contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed the clinical use of gold nanoparticles, only little is known about potential toxic...

2013-01-01

111

Recent aspects of radiologic diagnostics and therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiodiagnostic information predominantly deals with diagnosis and results of computed tomography, ultrasound examinations and angiography in cases of special affections of the respiratory tract, of the mediastinum, of the brain and of the kidneys. In the field of radiotherapy the value of pre-operative radiation therapy in cases of nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour), carcinoma of the urinary bladder, carcinoma of the oesophagus, carcinoma of the rectum and otorhinolaryngologic (ORL) carcinoma are discussed. The nucleo-medicinal contributions refer to cardiologic isotope diagnostics. The publication gives an orientation over the practical working methods and over the results of scientific investigations made at several Swiss radiologic institutes; the content is completed by the comment and information resulting from practical experience of prominent foreign experts. This volume provides valuable information about nowadays applicable radiodiagnostic and nucleo-medicinal diagnostic procedures and about the feasibilities of modern radiotherapy.

Bessler, W.; Fuchs, W.A.; Locher, J.; Paunier, J.P.

1980-01-01

112

Recent aspects of radiologic diagnostics and therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiodiagnostic information predominantly deals with diagnosis and results of computed tomography, ultrasound examinations and angiography in cases of special affections of the respiratory tract, of the mediastinum, of the brain and of the kidneys. In the field of radiotherapy the value of pre-operative radiation therapy in cases of nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour), carcinoma of the urinary bladder, carcinoma of the oesophagus, carcinoma of the rectum and otorhinolaryngologic (ORL) carcinoma are discussed. The nucleo-medicinal contributions refer to cardiologic isotope diagnostics. The publication gives an orientation over the practical working methods and over the results of scientific investigations made at several Swiss radiologic institutes; the content is completed by the comment and information resulting from practical experience of prominent foreign experts. This volume provides valuable information about nowadays applicable radiodiagnostic and nucleo-medicinal diagnostic procedures and about the feasabilities of modern radiotherapy. (orig.)

1980-06-14

113

Hygrothermal Behavior, Building Pathology and Durability  

CERN Multimedia

The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.

Delgado, JMPQ

2013-01-01

114

Center for Cancer Research - Laboratory of Pathology - Autopsy Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site DLM Website Autopsy Pathology Autopsy Pathology Procedure Manual Autopsy Pathology Staff About

115

Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos / Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la pat [...] ología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una p Abstract in english Introduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabita [...] nts, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical accessibility of the rehabilitation services, residence in a rural or urban milieu, and between the different health areas. Methods. We study all the processes of temporary disability due to pathology of the locomotor system in Health Areas I and III of Navarra in 1997 and 1998, taking different variables into account. We make a descriptive study of the pathologies, counting the working days lost. We calculate the annual incidence of sick leave because of pathologies. We compare average duration with other variables. Results. These represent 221,054 lost working days per year. Low back pain and sprained ankles are the most frequent processes. We find an increase in the incidence of temporary disability due to low back pain and lumbar/sciatica in the basic rural areas of the middle region. There are no statistically significant differences with a p

E., Sáinz de Murieta; J., Fernández Baraibar; I., Pascual; A., Mena; A., Martínez-Zubiri; M.J., Condón.

116

Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la patología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una pIntroduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabitants, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical accessibility of the rehabilitation services, residence in a rural or urban milieu, and between the different health areas. Methods. We study all the processes of temporary disability due to pathology of the locomotor system in Health Areas I and III of Navarra in 1997 and 1998, taking different variables into account. We make a descriptive study of the pathologies, counting the working days lost. We calculate the annual incidence of sick leave because of pathologies. We compare average duration with other variables. Results. These represent 221,054 lost working days per year. Low back pain and sprained ankles are the most frequent processes. We find an increase in the incidence of temporary disability due to low back pain and lumbar/sciatica in the basic rural areas of the middle region. There are no statistically significant differences with a p<0.05 in the duration of temporary disability according to Health Area, rural or urban milieu or geographical accessibility to the Rehabilitation Services. A statistically significant fall can be observed in the first year of operation of a temporary disability management program.

E. Sáinz de Murieta

2005-04-01

117

Diabetic nephropathy : pathology, genetics and carnosine metabolism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

My thesis concerns different aspects of diabetic nephropathy. A pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy is developed, a meta-analyis of genes in diabetic nephropathy is developed and the other chapters are about the CNDP1 gene in relation to kidney disease, mainly diabetic nephropathy.

Mooyaart, Antien Leonora

2011-01-01

118

PATHOLOGY OF HUMAN INFLUENZA REVISITED  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pathology of human influenza has been studied most intensively during the three pandemics of the last century, the last of which occurred in 1968. It is important to revisit this subject because of the recent emergence of avian H5N1 influenza in humans as well as the threat of a new pandemic. Uncomplicated human influenza virus infection causes transient tracheo-bronchitis, corresponding with predominant virus attachment to tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. The main complication is...

Kuiken, Thijs; Taubenberger, Jeffery

2008-01-01

119

Cytoskeletal Pathologies of Alzheimer Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are the extracellular amyloid plaques, composed principally of the amyloid beta peptide, and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, composed of paired helical filaments of the microtubule-associated protein, tau. Other histopathological structures involving actin and the actin-binding protein, cofilin, have more recently been recognized. Here we review new findings about these cytoskeletal pathologies, and, emphasize how plaques, tangle...

2009-01-01

120

Efecto terapéutico de las estatinas en patología degenerativa del SNC: comentario sobre una publicación experimental reciente Therapeutic use of Statins in degenerative pathology of the CNS: a commentary of a recent experimental paper  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins reduce the risk of coronary pathology; they are well tolerated and have few adverse effects. During the last years mounting evidence suggest that statins could be also useful for several autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. Proposed mechanisms include effects on plasma lipoproteins, endothelial function, atheroma reduction, thrombosis and inflammation. The realization that brain ischemia produces inflammation of the brain opens a new field for discovery of novel therapeutic agents for stroke. Here, I comment on a paper from Chen et al. ("Statins induce angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis after stroke", Ann Neurol 2003; 53: 743-751 that proposed that atorvastatin and simvastatin reduced tissue damage and enhanced functional outcome when administered to rats 1 day after experimental stroke. Animals treated with statins showed increases in vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and increase in synaptophysin. Although the authors concluded that atorvastatin induced brain plasticity and had neurorestorative activity, I think that significant additional experiments are required in order to sustain some of the mechanisms proposed by them. However, evidence on the effect of statins on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and other inflammatory disease is also discussed here, because they cast light on alternative mechanisms that could be responsible for the better outcome of stroke animals treated with statins. Inflammation is attractive in therapeutic terms, considering its rapid initiation, its progression for several hours after stroke and its enormous contribution to brain damage

Rommy von Bernhardi

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

What's new in managing health hazards in pathology departments.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Health hazards related to activities performed in pathology departments have represented, in recent years, an increasing concern among pathologists and pathology technicians. The major occupational health problems encountered in pathology departments are reviewed. They include biological hazards (tuberculosis, hepatitis, HIV, other infectious diseases), chemical hazards (formaldehyde, xylene(s), aromatic amines, methacrylates, glutaraldehyde, latex) and physical hazards (cut injuries, acciden...

Pira, Enrico

1994-01-01

122

Basic Sciences - Surgical Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Surgical Pathology Section provides expertise and diagnostic services in the field of Anatomic Pathology for Clinical Center patients and collaborates with the research staff in those investigations, which involve the use and study of human pathological material. Approximately 6,000 surgical specimens and biopsies (more than 60,000 slides which include routine and a variety of special stains) are accessioned each year. These include more than 2,000 fresh human tissues.

123

Forms of pathologization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many studies estimate that around half of the population in Western countries will suffer from a mental disorder sometime in their life. Approximately a quarter of the population will develop an anxiety disorder and a similar number will suffer from depression. A tenth will develop a personality disorder, and similar figures are found for many other mental disorders. These figures are striking, but are hard to interpret. This presentation argues in favour of the pathologization thesis, which claims that it cannot be argued in a straightforward manner that we are simply more ill and disordered than before, perhaps due to the malaises of modernity. Instead, we have learned to think and talk about human problems in new ways, viz. ways that involve pathologization. Pathologization, however, is not a unitary phenomenon, and the presentation gives an overview of four types of pathologization, which are called stigmatizing pathologization, self pathologization, risk pathologization and de-pathologization. It is argued that we need a variety of ways of understanding the complex phenomenon of pathologization and that previous critical frameworks (e.g. as promoted by the anti-psychiatry movement) are often overly simplistic.

Brinkmann, Svend

124

Goals and Objectives for Molecular Pathology Education in Residency Programs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing knowledge of the molecular basis of disease and advances in technology for analyzing nucleic acids and gene products are changing pathology practice. The explosion of information regarding inherited susceptibility to disease is an important aspect of this transformation. Pathology residency programs are incorporating molecular pathology education into their curricula to prepare newly trained pathologists for the future, yet little guidance has been available regarding the important...

1999-01-01

125

Digital pathology: Attitudes and practices in the Canadian pathology community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Digital pathology is a rapidly evolving niche in the world of pathology and is likely to increase in popularity as technology improves. We performed a questionnaire for pathologists and pathology residents across Canada, in order to determine their current experiences and attitudes towards digital pathology; which modalities digital pathology is best suited for; and to assess the need for training in digital pathology amongst pathology residents and staff. An online survey consisting of 24 ye...

Bellis, Magdaleni; Metias, Shereen; Naugler, Christopher; Pollett, Aaron; Jothy, Serge; Yousef, George M.

2013-01-01

126

Radiographic pathology for technologists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.

Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

1988-01-01

127

Pathology annual. Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

1987-01-01

128

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul Clinical and pathological aspects of Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats in Rio Grande do Sul  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos, S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose pelo estudo histoquímico por lectinas. Os vacúolos nas células de Purkinje reagiram fortemente com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris e Triticum vulgaris succinilado. O padrão obtido neste estudo é similar ao encontrado em intoxicação por plantas que apresentam swainsoniana como princípio tóxico.This report includes the clinical and pathological studies of a lysosomal storage disease which spontaneously occurred in three flocs of goats e after consumption of Sida carpinifolia, the predominant plant in the paddocks where the animals were grazing. In the outbreaks a total of 25 out of 51 animals were affected. Post-mortem examination was performed on 11 goats. The disease was experimentally induced by dosing goats with Sida carpinifolia. The plant was administered in natura or dried to 3 animals. No clinical or pathological changes were observed in one goat dosed with Sida rhombifolia ad libidum during 40 days. Clinical signs of the poisoning were ataxia, hypermetria, muscle tremors in the head and neck and disorders of deglutition. The clinical signs were exacerbated by movement. After the surviving animals had been moved to other pastures and stopped eating the plant, clinical signs were still observed during 24 months. At necropsy, no significant gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions included various degrees of vacuolization in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells. Similar lesions were observed in the acinar pancreatic cells, hepatocytes, proximal convoluted tubular cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and macrophages of lymph nodes. In the surviving animals, mild neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed, and few cells were eosinophilic and shrunken. In these cases neurons, especially Purkinje cells, had disappeared. Through the histochemical study of the cerebellar sections, the lysosomal storage disease was characterized as an alpha-mannosidosis. The vacuoles within the Purkinje cells strongly reacted with lectins of Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris and succinylated Triticum vul

Edson M. Colodel

2002-04-01

129

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical and pathological aspects of Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats in Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos [...] , S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose pelo estudo histoquímico por lectinas. Os vacúolos nas células de Purkinje reagiram fortemente com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris e Triticum vulgaris succinilado. O padrão obtido neste estudo é similar ao encontrado em intoxicação por plantas que apresentam swainsoniana como princípio tóxico. Abstract in english This report includes the clinical and pathological studies of a lysosomal storage disease which spontaneously occurred in three flocs of goats e after consumption of Sida carpinifolia, the predominant plant in the paddocks where the animals were grazing. In the outbreaks a total of 25 out of 51 anim [...] als were affected. Post-mortem examination was performed on 11 goats. The disease was experimentally induced by dosing goats with Sida carpinifolia. The plant was administered in natura or dried to 3 animals. No clinical or pathological changes were observed in one goat dosed with Sida rhombifolia ad libidum during 40 days. Clinical signs of the poisoning were ataxia, hypermetria, muscle tremors in the head and neck and disorders of deglutition. The clinical signs were exacerbated by movement. After the surviving animals had been moved to other pastures and stopped eating the plant, clinical signs were still observed during 24 months. At necropsy, no significant gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions included various degrees of vacuolization in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells. Similar lesions were observed in the acinar pancreatic cells, hepatocytes, proximal convoluted tubular cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and macrophages of lymph nodes. In the surviving animals, mild neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed, and few cells were eosinophilic and shrunken. In these cases neurons, especially Purkinje cells, had disappeared. Through the histochemical study of the cerebellar sections, the lysosomal storage disease was characterized as an alpha-mannosidosis. The vacuoles within the Purkinje cells strongly r

Colodel, Edson M.; Driemeier, David; Loretti, Alexandre P.; Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Traverso, Sandra D.; Seitz, Anderson L.; Zlotowski, Priscila.

130

Update on pathological skin picking  

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Pathological skin picking (PSP) is a disabling disorder characterized by repetitive picking of the skin that causes tissue damage. Estimated to affect 2% to 5.4% of the population, PSP is currently listed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified. However, the repetitive and compulsive behaviors seen in PSP are phenomenologically and clinically similar to the behaviors seen in obsessive-compulsive disorder and other body-focused repetitive behaviors, such as trichotillomania and pathological nail biting. Animal neuroimaging research in related disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania provides useful information for understanding PSP. Recent cognitive testing of individuals with PSP demonstrated impaired inhibitory control; these findings may assist in the proper characterization of PSP and aid in the development of effective treatment options. Although the disorder is common, appropriate treatments for PSP are limited. Pharmacotherapeutic and certain cognitive-behavioral interventions have demonstrated promise in treating this disorder and need to be explored further.

Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

2009-01-01

131

Synaptic plasticity in pathological pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic pain represents a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. Excitatory neurotransmission in somatosensory nociceptive pathways is predominantly mediated by glutamatergic synapses. A key feature of these synapses is their ability to adapt synaptic strength in an activity-dependent manner. Such disease-induced synaptic plasticity is paramount to alterations in synaptic function and structure. Recent work has recognized that synaptic plasticity at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses can function as a prime mechanism underlying pathological pain. In this review, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity in nociceptive pathways will be reviewed and discussed. New insights derived from these advances are expected to expedite development of novel interventional approaches for treatment of pathological pain. PMID:24833289

Luo, Ceng; Kuner, Thomas; Kuner, Rohini

2014-06-01

132

NCI-Frederick PHL - Molecular Pathology  

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The Molecular Pathology Group (MPG) is a recent addition to the laboratory Animal Science Program (LASP), at the Frederick, Maryland campus of the National Cancer Institute. This Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. group is actively working to expand high-quality, pathology-based research application support available to NCI investigators and their collaborators. Its primary role is to extend the capabilities of the existing Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.

133

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em bovinos afetados por raiva com especial referência ao mapeamento do antígeno rábico por imuno-histoquímica / Clinical and pathological aspects in cattle affected by rabies with special reference to the rabies antigen mapping by immunohistochemistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu achados clínicos e patológicos de 15 bovinos afetados por raiva. Em treze dos quinze casos, raiva foi confirmada por imunofluorescência direta. Bovinos entre 4 meses e 8 anos foram afetados. O curso clínico variou de três a sete dias. A forma paralítica foi a mais f [...] requente e incluiu incoordenação, paresia e paralisia dos membros pélvicos, decúbito, movimentos de pedalagem e morte. Os principais achados histopatológicos foram meningoencefalite linfoplasmocitária associada com corpúsculos de Negri em 86,6% dos casos. Todos os casos foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para raiva, cujas reações foram mais evidentes no tronco encefálico, incluindo bulbo, ponte e mesencéfalo, além de gânglio trigêmeo. A imuno-histoquímica demonstrou o vírus da raiva em axônios, dendritos e pericário de neurônios, como agregados de grânulos ou em formações arredondadas associadas com números variáveis de corpúsculos de inclusão virais nos neurônios. Houve também marcação nos neurônios de Purkinje e de seus processos na camada molecular, nos núcleos do tronco encefálico e camada profunda do córtex telencefálico. A imuno-histoquímica pode ser importante ferramenta diagnóstica no diagnóstico da raiva, especialmente em situações nas quais não é possível manter refrigeração adequada das amostras e em casos com meningoencefalite não-supurativa e ausência de corpúsculos de inclusão. Abstract in english This retrospective study included clinical and pathological findings from 15 cattle affected by rabies. Thirteen of the 15 cases were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Cattle between 4 months and 8 years of age were affected. Clinical course ranged from 3 to 7 days. Paralytical form was the mo [...] st common clinical picture and included incoordination, paresis, and paralysis of the pelvic members, besides recumbence, paddling, and death. The main histopathological findings were lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis associated with characteristic Negri bodies in 86.6% of the cases. All cases showed anti-rabies immunostaining, which were most prominent in the brainstem including medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, besides trigeminal ganglion. Positive labeling was present within axons, dendrites, and perikarya of neurons as aggregates of granules or round formations associated with varying numbers of inclusion bodies. Immunostaining was also observed in the Purkinje neurons and their processes in the molecular layer, in the neurons of of the brainstem, and deep layer of the telencephalic cortex. Immunohistochemistry may be an important auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of rabies, especially in circumstances in which refrigeration cannot be adequately maintained, and in cases characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with absence of inclusion bodies.

Pedro M.O., Pedroso; Edson M., Colodel; Caroline A., Pescador; Laura P., Arruda; David, Driemeier.

134

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em bovinos afetados por raiva com especial referência ao mapeamento do antígeno rábico por imuno-histoquímica Clinical and pathological aspects in cattle affected by rabies with special reference to the rabies antigen mapping by immunohistochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu achados clínicos e patológicos de 15 bovinos afetados por raiva. Em treze dos quinze casos, raiva foi confirmada por imunofluorescência direta. Bovinos entre 4 meses e 8 anos foram afetados. O curso clínico variou de três a sete dias. A forma paralítica foi a mais frequente e incluiu incoordenação, paresia e paralisia dos membros pélvicos, decúbito, movimentos de pedalagem e morte. Os principais achados histopatológicos foram meningoencefalite linfoplasmocitária associada com corpúsculos de Negri em 86,6% dos casos. Todos os casos foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para raiva, cujas reações foram mais evidentes no tronco encefálico, incluindo bulbo, ponte e mesencéfalo, além de gânglio trigêmeo. A imuno-histoquímica demonstrou o vírus da raiva em axônios, dendritos e pericário de neurônios, como agregados de grânulos ou em formações arredondadas associadas com números variáveis de corpúsculos de inclusão virais nos neurônios. Houve também marcação nos neurônios de Purkinje e de seus processos na camada molecular, nos núcleos do tronco encefálico e camada profunda do córtex telencefálico. A imuno-histoquímica pode ser importante ferramenta diagnóstica no diagnóstico da raiva, especialmente em situações nas quais não é possível manter refrigeração adequada das amostras e em casos com meningoencefalite não-supurativa e ausência de corpúsculos de inclusão.This retrospective study included clinical and pathological findings from 15 cattle affected by rabies. Thirteen of the 15 cases were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Cattle between 4 months and 8 years of age were affected. Clinical course ranged from 3 to 7 days. Paralytical form was the most common clinical picture and included incoordination, paresis, and paralysis of the pelvic members, besides recumbence, paddling, and death. The main histopathological findings were lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis associated with characteristic Negri bodies in 86.6% of the cases. All cases showed anti-rabies immunostaining, which were most prominent in the brainstem including medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, besides trigeminal ganglion. Positive labeling was present within axons, dendrites, and perikarya of neurons as aggregates of granules or round formations associated with varying numbers of inclusion bodies. Immunostaining was also observed in the Purkinje neurons and their processes in the molecular layer, in the neurons of of the brainstem, and deep layer of the telencephalic cortex. Immunohistochemistry may be an important auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of rabies, especially in circumstances in which refrigeration cannot be adequately maintained, and in cases characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with absence of inclusion bodies.

Pedro M.O. Pedroso

2009-11-01

135

Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Holst, Valerie; Yousem, Sam

2007-08-28

136

Pathology Case Study: Headache  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 79 year old male with headaches and sinus problems is evaluated. The patient previously had "an inverted papilloma resected." Using the gross description, microscopic description, and images provided, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical problem. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-11-28

137

Kaposi's Sarcoma: clinical and pathological aspects in patients seen at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil Sarcoma de Kaposi: achados clínico-patológicos nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of endothelial origin that is divided into four distinct types according to the clinical characteristics and the affected population: Classic (in elder men of Jewish or Mediterranean origin; Epidemic (in patients affected by AIDS; Endemic (in black African men and Iatrogenic (in patients under immunosuppressive regimens. Human herpesvirus 8 infection is essential but not sufficient for the sarcoma development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic -Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital - Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória - ES. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study based on clinical charts of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic from 1986 to 2009. RESULTS: The majority of the 15 cases were male patients (93,3% and white (60%. Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma occurred in 80%, and the Classic form in 20%, with no cases in the Endemic or Iatrogenic groups. All the histopatho logical exams of the cutaneous lesions were reviewed and a proliferation of fusiform cells, extravasated erythrocytes and vascular rifts among the largest vessels, assuming the "vessels in vessels" typical aspect, were seen. CONCLUSION: The number of cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma was linear throughout the years of the study, especially of the epidemic form, although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS increased in the state of Espírito Santo. Therefore, if we consider the relation between KS and AIDS, a decreasing line of Kaposi's sarcoma could be seen, especially after the introduction of HAART.FUNDAMENTOS: O Sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia de origem endotelial, dividida em quatro formas clínicas: clássica (homens idosos de origem judaica e mediterrânea, epidêmica (associada ao HIV, endêmica (negros africanos e iatrogênica (relacionada à imunossupressão. A infecção pelo herpes vírus humano tipo 8 (HHV-8 é necessária, mas insuficiente para que todas as formas possam ocorrer. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e características histopatológicas das lesões dos pacientes com Sarcoma de Kaposi consultados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória - ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, realizado pela análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com Sarcoma de Kaposi, durante janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 2009, no Serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: Dos 15 pacientes estudados, houve maioria do sexo masculino (93,3% e predomínio da raça branca (60%. A forma epidêmica foi a mais freqüente (80%, seguida pela clássica (20%. Não foram observadas as formas: endêmica e iatrogênica. A revisão das lâminas das biópsias cutâneas foi feita nos 15 casos, e demonstrou derme com proliferação de células fusiformes, extravasamento de hemácias e fendas vasculares em torno de vasos maiores, com aspecto clássico de "vasos em torno de vasos". CONCLUSÕES: O número de casos de Sarcoma de Kaposi foi linear ao longo do estudo, especialmente da forma epidêmica. Por outro lado, a incidência e a prevalência da AIDS no Espírito Santo foram crescentes. Portanto, considerando-se a relação entre o sarcoma de Kaposi e a AIDS houve decréscimo do primeiro, mais acentuado após a era HAART.

Ricardo Montibeler Tiussi

2012-04-01

138

Kaposi's Sarcoma: clinical and pathological aspects in patients seen at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil / Sarcoma de Kaposi: achados clínico-patológicos nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: O Sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia de origem endotelial, dividida em quatro formas clínicas: clássica (homens idosos de origem judaica e mediterrânea), epidêmica (associada ao HIV), endêmica (negros africanos) e iatrogênica (relacionada à imunossupressão). A infecção pelo herpes vírus huma [...] no tipo 8 (HHV-8) é necessária, mas insuficiente para que todas as formas possam ocorrer. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e características histopatológicas das lesões dos pacientes com Sarcoma de Kaposi consultados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória - ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, realizado pela análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com Sarcoma de Kaposi, durante janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 2009, no Serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: Dos 15 pacientes estudados, houve maioria do sexo masculino (93,3%) e predomínio da raça branca (60%). A forma epidêmica foi a mais freqüente (80%), seguida pela clássica (20%). Não foram observadas as formas: endêmica e iatrogênica. A revisão das lâminas das biópsias cutâneas foi feita nos 15 casos, e demonstrou derme com proliferação de células fusiformes, extravasamento de hemácias e fendas vasculares em torno de vasos maiores, com aspecto clássico de "vasos em torno de vasos". CONCLUSÕES: O número de casos de Sarcoma de Kaposi foi linear ao longo do estudo, especialmente da forma epidêmica. Por outro lado, a incidência e a prevalência da AIDS no Espírito Santo foram crescentes. Portanto, considerando-se a relação entre o sarcoma de Kaposi e a AIDS houve decréscimo do primeiro, mais acentuado após a era HAART. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of endothelial origin that is divided into four distinct types according to the clinical characteristics and the affected population: Classic (in elder men of Jewish or Mediterranean origin); Epidemic (in patients affected by AIDS); Endemic (in black Africa [...] n men) and Iatrogenic (in patients under immunosuppressive regimens). Human herpesvirus 8 infection is essential but not sufficient for the sarcoma development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic -Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital - Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória - ES. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study based on clinical charts of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic from 1986 to 2009. RESULTS: The majority of the 15 cases were male patients (93,3%) and white (60%). Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma occurred in 80%, and the Classic form in 20%, with no cases in the Endemic or Iatrogenic groups. All the histopatho logical exams of the cutaneous lesions were reviewed and a proliferation of fusiform cells, extravasated erythrocytes and vascular rifts among the largest vessels, assuming the "vessels in vessels" typical aspect, were seen. CONCLUSION: The number of cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma was linear throughout the years of the study, especially of the epidemic form, although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS increased in the state of Espírito Santo. Therefore, if we consider the relation between KS and AIDS, a decreasing line of Kaposi's sarcoma could be seen, especially after the introduction of HAART.

Ricardo Montibeler, Tiussi; Antonio Luiz de Oliveira, Caus; Lucia Martins, Diniz; Elton Almeida, Lucas.

139

Intoxicação por sal em suínos: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos e breve revisão de literatura / Salt poisoning in swine: epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects and brief review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Intoxicação por sal ocorre comumente em suínos por ingestão excessiva de cloreto de sódio ou por privação de água por um período de tempo, seguido de um livre acesso a água abundante. O objetivo deste trabalho é agregar dados de casos de intoxicação por sal, diagnosticados, compilar dados já existen [...] tes na literatura e caracterizar as principais alterações clínicas e patológicas observadas. Foram revisados cinco surtos, sendo que um deles foi minuciosamente acompanhado. Em três deles a ingestão de cloreto de sódio foi determinada. Os sinais clínicos eram basicamente convulsões, com intensos tremores musculares e desenvolvimento de opistótono. Os animais permaneciam em decúbito lateral, fazendo movimentos de pedalagem. Alguns andavam em círculos. Dosagens de sódio em fragmentos de músculo e de fígado, no soro, líquor e humor aquoso revelaram concentrações aumentadas do íon. A quantidade de eosinófilos circulantes foi baixa caracterizando grande recrutamento dessas células para o encéfalo. Em todos os surtos foi observada infiltração de eosinófilos nas leptomeninges e no espaço de Virchow-Robin do córtex cerebral. Necrose cortical laminar foi observada mais detalhadamente em um dos surtos onde os suínos estavam doentes há seis dias. A combinação dessas duas lesões caracteriza a doença. Todas as alterações observadas podem ser explicadas pela provável patogenia da doença em que as elevadas concentrações de sódio causam edema cerebral que leva ao aumento da pressão intracraniana e decréscimo da perfusão para o cérebro causando isquemia difusa e necrose neuronal, com consequente malacia. Abstract in english Salt poisoning occurs commonly in pigs by excessive intake of sodium chloride or by a period water deprivation for followed by free access to water. The objective of this work is to aggregate data from cases of salt poisoning, combining existing data in the literature and describe the main clinical [...] and pathological features observed. We reviewed five outbreaks, one of which was carefully monitored. In three of them the intake of sodium chloride had been determined. Clinical signs were basically seizures with the lateral decubitus with paddling movements. Circling was observed in some cases. Sodium determination in muscle of and liver fragments, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor showed increased concentrations of this ion. There was eosinopenia characterizing increased recruitment eosinophils from the circulation into the brain. In all outbreaks eosinophil infiltration was observed in the meninges and the Virchow-Robin space of the cerebral cortex. Cortical laminar necrosis was more pronounced in the brain of pigs from one of the outbreaks in which animals were sick for six days. The combination of these two lesions characterizes the disease. The changes observed result from high concentrations of sodium in the brain causing cause edema that leads to increased intracranial pressure and decreased perfusion to the brain tissue causing diffuse ischemia and neuronal necrosis, with consequent malacia.

Juliana S., Brum; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Ricardo B., Lucena; Claudio S.L., Barros.

140

Pathologic gambling and bankruptcy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although prior studies have examined rates of bankruptcy in pathologic gambling (PG), there are only limited data regarding the clinical correlates of those with PG who declare bankruptcy because of gambling.

Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Clinical pathologic classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: review and perspectives].  

Science.gov (United States)

The international classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia published in 2002 includes seven clinical-pathologic entities distinguished by their clinical features, aspect on high-resolution computed tomography, and histopathologic findings on lung biopsy. These seven entities are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (with features typical of interstitial pneumonia), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organising pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis with interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, and acute idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (with features of diffuse alveolar damage). This classification provides clearer diagnostic criteria for each entity, has fostered clinical research and therapeutic trials, and forms the basis for international guidelines on patient care. The classification is currently being revised in order to better integrate the recently identified syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, acute exacerbations of fibrosis, and new pathophysiologic and genetic findings. PMID:21166122

Cottin, Vincent

2010-02-01

142

Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the...

Shah Rajeev; Vaideeswar Pradeep; Pandit Shobhana

2008-01-01

143

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento experimental por Bothrops alternatus em bovinos / Clinic and pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by Bothrops alternatus venom in cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e os achados laboratoriais em bovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothrops alternatus, no intuito de fornecer subsídios para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial, bem como esclarecer pontos obscuros [...] da literatura pertinente. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrado a cinco bovinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,0625, 0,125 e 0,25 mg/kg e a dois outros, por via intramuscular, nas doses de 0,25 e 0,45 mg/kg. Seis bovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,0625mg/kg, por via subcutânea, recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 25 minutos a 5 horas 30 minutos após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 18 minutos a 66 horas 12 minutos. Um animal recuperou-se após 92 horas. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume (hemorragia/hematoma) no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento aumentado, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. O exame laboratorial revelou progressiva anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito e hemoglobina diminuídos, além de leve aumento dos níveis de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática. Á necropsia, havia, a partir do local da inoculação, extensos hematomas e áreas de hemorragia no tecido celular subcutâneo dos animais que receberam o veneno por via subcutânea; nos animais inoculados por via intramuscular, adicionalmente, havia hemorragia intramuscular. O endocárdio esquerdo apresentava extensas hemorragias e verificaram-se petéquias na serosa do rúmen e do omaso e na mucosa do abomaso e da vesícula biliar. Em cinco animais, o cólon, reto e região perirrenal estavam envoltos por coágulos de sangue. Ao exame histológico observou-se, além do quadro hemorragíparo, necrose muscular coagulativa, acompanhada de hemorragia, no entorno do local da inoculação nos animais que receberam o veneno por via intramuscular; essa lesão era discreta nos músculos próximos ao local de inoculação subcutânea. Nos bovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído por sangue e não edema. Não foram observadas mioglobinúria, nem lesões macro ou microscópicas significativas nos rins. Este estudo indica que exemplares de B. alternatus, caso inoculem todo seu veneno, poderiam levar bovinos adultos à morte. Por outro lado, pelo fato de ofídios serem capazes de regular a quantidade de veneno inoculada e, possivelmente, não considerarem bovinos como presa potencial, é provável que o número de acidentes nessa espécie seja pequeno, o que está de acordo com o observado na maioria dos centros diagnóstico anátomo-patológico no país. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the clinical-pathological alterations and laboratory findings in cattle inoculated with Bothrops alternatus venom, with the intention of providing information for the establishment of diagnosis and differential diagnosis procedures, as well as to elucidate some [...] obscurities observed in the pertinent literature. The lyophilized venom was diluted in 1 ml of physiologic solution. It was administered to 5 bovines by the subcutaneous route at doses of 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25mg/kg body weight, and to 2 bovines by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.25 e 0.45mg/kg. Six bovines died and the only animal that survived, who had subcutaneously received the venom at a dose of 0.0625mg/kg, recovered. The first clinical signs were observed from 25min to 5h30min after the inoculation. The clinical evolution time varied from 7 hours 18 minutes to 92 hours. Regardless of the dose, the clinical picture was characterized by swelling (hemorrhage/hematoma) at the site of inoculation, increase in bleeding time and capillary refill time, paleness of mucous membranes

Caldas, Saulo A.; Tokarnia, Carlos H.; França, Ticiana N.; Brito, Marilene F.; Graça, Flávio A.S.; Coelho, Cleide D.; Peixoto, Paulo V..

144

Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage amore inclusively global treatment approach.

Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

2012-01-01

145

Personality Disorders and Dimensions in Pathological Gambling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage amore inclusively global treatment approach.

Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

2012-01-01

146

Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage a more inclusively global treatment approach. PMID:22686226

Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

2012-06-01

147

Association between pathological and MRI findings in multiple sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of pathological processes that could be targeted by therapeutic interventions is a major goal of research into multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological assessment is the gold standard for such identification, but has intrinsic limitations owing to the limited availability of autopsy and biopsy tissue. MRI has gained a leading role in the assessment of MS because it allows doctors to obtain an ante mortem picture of the degree of CNS involvement. A number of correlative pathological and MRI studies have helped to define in vivo the pathological substrates of MS in focal lesions and normal-appearing white matter, not only in the brain, but also in the spinal cord. These studies have resulted in the identification of aspects of pathophysiology that were previously neglected, including grey matter involvement and vascular pathology. Despite these important achievements, numerous open questions still need to be addressed to resolve controversies about how the pathology of MS results in fixed neurological disability. PMID:22441196

Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Barkhof, Frederik; Brück, Wolfgang; Chen, Jacqueline T; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, Gabriele; De Stefano, Nicola; Erickson, Bradley J; Evangelou, Nikos; Fazekas, Franz; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Lucchinetti, Claudia; Miller, David H; Pelletier, Daniel; Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; Lassmann, Hans

2012-04-01

148

Problems and paradigms in joint pathology.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This short review outlines aspects of joints relevant to current problems in articular, connective tissue disease and describes the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthrosis. The synovial joints display greatly varying degrees of anatomical specialisation. There is also heterogeneity of microscopic structure, to illustrate which the synovial components of the sacroiliac joints are considered. The chondron is regarded as a functional unit of hyaline articular cartilage but the respo...

Gardner, D. L.

1994-01-01

149

Pathologic conditions in pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

1991-01-01

150

Recent advances in bone marrow scanning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interest in bone marrow scanning has been renewed as the result of the development of radiopharmaceuticals for evaluating specific aspects of bone marrow anatomy, physiology and pathology. This article provides a brief review of bone marrow structure, blood flow and function essential to the understanding of basic principles of bone marrow radionuclide imaging. The prospects and limitations of imaging haematopoietic bone marrow in man using indium 111 chloride, technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc)-labelled microcolloid or {sup 99m}Tc-labelled monoclonal antigranulocytic and antimyelocytic antibodies are discussed in more detail. The technical aspects of bone marrow scintigraphy are presented. Results of more recent studies evaluating bone marrow scanning in circulatory, inflammatory and in systemic haematological disorders are summarized. Special attention is paid to the concept of bone marrow micrometastases and its implications for the follow-up of patients with malignant tumours. Recent results suggest that immunoscintigraphy of bone marrow may provide a novel and sensitive approach for establishing the presence and extent of bone marrow infiltration. (orig.).

Reske, S.N. (Klinikum Barmen, Wuppertal (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin)

1991-03-01

151

Pathology of extramedullary mastocytosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastocytosis encompasses a group of clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disorders most commonly involving the skin, which typically takes the form of urticaria pigmentosa. Mastocytosis may also involve other organs, most often bone marrow, followed by gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. The presence of extracutaneous involvement by mastocytosis is a major diagnostic criterion for systemic disease. However, mast cell infiltrates are often subtle in skin and extracutaneous organs, and the histologic features of mastocytosis at different anatomic sites may be variable. This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical correlates of mastocytosis involving skin and other extramedullary sites. PMID:24745677

Doyle, Leona A; Hornick, Jason L

2014-05-01

152

Pathology Case Study: Petechiae  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nester, Theresa; Qu, Lirong

2008-03-26

153

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old man has peritonitis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-12-12

154

Hygrothermal behavior, building pathology and durability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behavior. Presents a new durability approach for historical and old buildings. Reviews the current state of knowledge. The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.

Peixoto de Freitas V.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q. (eds.) [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Building Physics Lab.

2013-03-01

155

Consensus paper: pathological role of the cerebellum in autism.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar genetics, cerebellar immune function, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytocin-related changes in autism, motor control and cognitive deficits, cerebellar coordination of movements and cognition, gene-environment interactions, therapeutics in autism, and relevant animal models of autism. Points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism. Undefined areas or areas requiring further investigation include lack of treatment options for core symptoms of autism, vermal hypoplasia, and other vermal abnormalities as a consistent feature of autism, mechanisms underlying cerebellar contributions to cognition, and unknown mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation. PMID:22370873

Fatemi, S Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L; Blaha, Charles D; Blatt, Gene J; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R; Dickson, Price E; Estes, Annette M; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H; Kemper, Thomas L; King, Bryan H; Martin, Loren A; Millen, Kathleen J; Mittleman, Guy; Mosconi, Matthew W; Persico, Antonio M; Sweeney, John A; Webb, Sara J; Welsh, John P

2012-09-01

156

Recent applications of X-ray microanalysis in muscle pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray microanalysis of single muscle fibres visualized in the scanning- and scanning-transmission mode of electron microscopy has been applied to human muscle biopsies to quantify changes of intracellular elements in different muscle disorders. To detect elements representing diffusible ions, cryofixation and cryosectioning was performed and analyses were conducted on freeze-dried cryosections 6?m thick. Changes in the concentration of elements were found to differentiate certain muscular disorders. A large increase in sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl), and a decrease in potassium (K) was typical of myotubular myopathy, while a moderate increase in Na and Cl was found in central core disease and nemaline myopathy

1984-01-01

157

On the Use of the Correlation between Acoustic Descriptors for the Normal/Pathological Voices Discrimination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an analysis system aiming at discriminating between normal and pathological voices. Compared to literature of voice pathology assessment, it is characterised by two aspects. First the system is based on features inspired from voice pathology assessment and music information retrieval. Second the distinction between normal and pathological voices is simply based on the correlation between acoustic features, while more complex classifiers are common in literature. Based on t...

2009-01-01

158

Applied pathology for radiographers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents a basic text for the student of radiologic sciences. It includes most of the pathology recommended by the ASRT Curriculum Guide. Radiographic technique and positioning are examined when relevant to obtaining quality radiographs of specific disease conditions. Brief overviews of these conditions include background etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Many illustrations are included to enhance understanding.

Laudicina, P.

1987-01-01

159

Applied pathology for radiographers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents a basic text for the student of radiologic sciences. It includes most of the pathology recommended by the ASRT Curriculum Guide. Radiographic technique and positioning are examined when relevant to obtaining quality radiographs of specific disease conditions. Brief overviews of these conditions include background etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Many illustrations are included to enhance understanding

1987-01-01

160

Imaging of Cerebrovascular Pathology in Animal Models of Alzheimer`s Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-? (A? deposition as well as A? transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of A? on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature.

NicolauBeckmann

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Concepts and implications of altruism bias and pathological altruism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The profound benefits of altruism in modern society are self-evident. However, the potential hurtful aspects of altruism have gone largely unrecognized in scientific inquiry. This is despite the fact that virtually all forms of altruism are associated with tradeoffs—some of enormous importance and sensitivity—and notwithstanding that examples of pathologies of altruism abound. Presented here are the mechanistic bases and potential ramifications of pathological altruism, that is, altruism ...

Oakley, Barbara A.

2013-01-01

162

Chagas disease: an overview of clinical and epidemiological aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a serious health problem in Latin America and is an emerging disease in non-endemic countries. In recent decades, the epidemiological profile of the disease has changed due to new patterns of immigration and successful control in its transmission, leading to the urbanization and globalization of the disease. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most important and severe manifestation of human chronic Chagas disease and is characterized by heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, heart blocks, thromboembolic phenomena, and sudden death. This article will present an overview of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. It will focus on several clinical aspects of the disease, such as chronic Chagas disease without detectable cardiac pathology, as well as dysautonomia, some specific features, and the principles of treatment of chronic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23770163

Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira; Dones, Wistremundo; Morillo, Carlos A; Encina, Juan Justiniano; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz

2013-08-27

163

Pathology Case Study: Sepsis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 74 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, inferior wall myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. He was admitted for a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The case study provides both gross and microscopic descriptions along with pertinent laboratory studies in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Callahan, Debra L.

2009-10-08

164

Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patients were in their fourth decade. Episodic hemoptysis was the commonest mode of presentation (85.4%. Forty aspergillomas were complex, occurring in cavitatory lesions (82.9% or in bronchiectasis (14.6%. Simple aspergilloma was seen as an incidental finding in only one. Tuberculosis was the etiological factor in 31 patients, producing cavitatory or bronchiectatic lesions; other causes were chronic lung abscess and bronchiectasis (unrelated to tuberculosis. Surgical resections are endorsed in view of high risk of unpredictable, life-threatening hemoptysis.

Shah Rajeev

2008-07-01

165

Peroneal tendon pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peroneal tendon pathology is a common entity but is infrequently reported in the literature. The lesion may be due to partial tears, complete ruptures, subluxation, tenosynovitis, a fractured os peroneum, or damage to the peroneal retinacula. Chronic lateral ankle instability and excessive subtalar and ankle varus rotation may cause damage to the peroneal tendons and their associated structures. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnostic imaging, and current surgical techniques for the repair of peroneal tendons. PMID:15555845

Zgonis, Thomas; Jolly, Gary Peter; Polyzois, Vasilios; Stamatis, Emmanouil D

2005-01-01

166

Discounting and Pathological Gambling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Impulsivity explores the basis for the seemingly universal tendency to devalue rewards or punishments that are not immediately available. When confronted with any number of modern impulsive behaviors—such as drug use, pathological gambling, marital infidelity, and gluttony—individuals have a choice with two outcomes: an immediate benefit, such as getting high, or a delayed or probabilistic benefit, such as health, money saved, or the satisfaction of a good life.

2010-01-01

167

Reinforcement Pathology and Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence ...

Carr, Katelyn A.; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H.

2011-01-01

168

Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

2007-08-20

169

Basic Sciences - Biochemical Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of normal cell growth and differentiation and play essential roles in pathological conditions such as tumor metastasis and infection by pathogens. We are defining functions of adhesion molecules, their cell surface and matrix receptors, and the signal transduction pathways that regulate their activities in specific diseases. These studies will identify new molecular targets and could provide a basis for designing novel therapeutic agents.

170

Breast pathology in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present the first results of the assessment of MRI (0.35 T) with adapted surface reel in the exploration of mammary pathology in 90 cases. On a morphological level, MRI permits a new analysis of sign of dystrophy. As far as MRI is concerned, no specific sign of mammary neoplasia seems to exist. A classification is suggested, taking into account morphology and parameters of relaxation. (orig.)

1986-01-01

171

Central mechanisms of pathological pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of communication within the neural matrix of physiological pain and has also brought important advances in concepts of injury-induced hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia and how these might contribute to the complex, multidimensional state of chronic pain. This review focuses on the molecular determinants of network plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS) and discusses their relevance to the development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:20948531

Kuner, Rohini

2010-11-01

172

Pathology Case Study: Sore Throat and Leukocytosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. A 68 year old female with a sore throat is the focus of this particular case. The patient's history reveals an increased white blood cell count, anemia and thrombocytopenia. A list of the her current medication, as well as the microscopic description, cell images, and flow cytometry are also included in the case file. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

Holst, Valerie; Penchansky, Lila; Richert, Charles A.

2007-09-05

173

Grief - from morality to pathology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experiences of death, loss and grief are universal conditions, which transcend historical and cultural boundaries. However, the practices, interpretations and meanings associated with these existential conditions are culturally, historically and socially embedded. Hence, the phenomenological experiences of grief cannot be isolated from the cultural context in which grieving takes place. In this paper I present an outline of grief articulations within three historical periods: 1) Grief as a moral phenomenon in pre-modern times (e.g. within Ancient Greek philosophy and biblical scriptures), 2) grief as a psychological phenomenon in the age of modernity (e.g. within the Romantic era and in the emerging discipline of psychology), and 3) grief as a pathologized phenomenon in the contemporary late modernity (grief becoming a subject of psychiatric research and entering the diagnostic manuals). I argue that a prevailing discourse of illness is dominating our current understanding of grief. Further, I argue that the individualized, medical approach represented in this discourse fails to provide meaningful frameworks for interpreting and making sense of the existential, moral, relational and intentional aspects of grieving.

Kofod, Ester Holte

174

Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pathological Gambling in Parkinsonâ??s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinsonâ??s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms is medication that binds to dopamine receptors in the brain, i.e., dopamine agonists [1]. Unfortunately, for some PD patients a very serious side effect to this specific kind of treatment is developing PG. PG is an Impulse Control Disorder characterized by recurrent maladaptive behavior associated with personal, relational, and financial consequenses [2].   Since 2000, numerous reports have described PD patients who develop PG due to treatment with dopamine agonists [3-11]. The objective of the present project is to explain the pathogenesis of this particular complication to the treatment of PD patients. The aims are twofold, both driven by the main hypothesis that PD patients who develop PG secondary to treatment with dopamine agonists have a decreased sensitivity towards dopamine and hence an increased demand for dopamine. The neurophysiological subproject 1 uses PET imaging to determine changes of dopamine occupancy in the striatum in baseline and gambling situations. We will test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism release more dopamine during gambling than PD patients without PG, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls. The behavioral subproject 2 uses a slot machine to test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism have exacerbated gambling behavior compared to PD patients without PD, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls.     References: 1.            Siegel, A. & Sapru, H.N. (2006). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. USA. 2.            DSM-IV-TR. (1994). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. xxvii, 886. 3.            Seedat, S. et Al. (2000). Case Reports in Depression and Anxiety, vol. 11. 4.            Gschwandtner, U., et Al. (2001). Clinical Neuropharmacology, vol. 24 (3). 5.            Driver-Dunckley, E. et Al. (2003). Neurology, vol. 61. 6.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2004). Neurol Sci. 7.            Dodd, M.L. et Al. (2005). Arch Neurol, vol. 62. 8.            Larner, A.J. (2006). Letters to the editors. Movement Disorders, vol. 21 (10). 9.            Grosset, K.A. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 10.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 11.            Wong, S.H. et al. (2007). Letters to the editors, Movement Disorders, vol. 22 (4).    

Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob

175

Plant Pathological Terms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book, in my opinion, is a ‘must have’ for every person working in the field of plant pathology. Everywhere one looks, more information has been added increasing its usefulness. This comprehensive dictionary provides an essenti...

Ips, Editor

2011-01-01

176

Diagnostic Pathology of Diffuse Lung Disease in Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pathologic classification of diffuse lung disease in children and adolescents has undergone revision in recent years in response to rapid developments and new discoveries in the field. A number of important advancements have been made in the last 10 years including the description of new genetic mutations causing severe lung disease in infants and children, as well as the description of new pathologic entities in infants. These recently described entities, including ABCA3 surfactant disor...

Dishop, Megan K.

2010-01-01

177

Nanotechnology: toxicologic pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

Hubbs, Ann F; Sargent, Linda M; Porter, Dale W; Sager, Tina M; Chen, Bean T; Frazer, David G; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Reynolds, Steven H; Battelli, Lori A; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L; Mercer, Robert R

2013-02-01

178

Molecular pathology, taxonomy and epidemiology of Besnoitia species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently, besnoitiosis has been a neglected disease of domestic animals. Now, a geographic expansion of the causing protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti in livestock has been recognized and the disease in cattle is considered emerging in Europe. Bovine besnoitiosis leads to significant economic losses by a decline in milk production, sterility, transient or permanent infertility of bulls, skin lesions and increase of mortality in affected cattle population. Phylogenetically, the Besnoitia genus is closest related to the well studied and medically important protozoans, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. In contrast, discriminative molecular markers to type and subtype large mammalian Besnoitia species (B. besnoiti, B. caprae, B. tarandi, B. bennetti) on a relevant level of species and strains are lacking. Similarly, these cyst-forming parasites may use two hosts to fulfill their life cycle, but this has not been proven for all large mammalian Besnoitia species yet. Most important though, the final hosts and transmission routes of these Besnoitia species remain mysterious. Here, we review aspects of parasite's pathology, speciation, phylogeny, epidemiology and transmission with a special focus on recent molecular studies of all to date known Besnoitia species. Using an integrated approach, we have tried to highlight some promising directions for future research. PMID:21906696

Olias, Philipp; Schade, Benjamin; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2011-10-01

179

Recent developments in biodosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews recent developments in biodosimetry (1989-1993), and presents a comparative study of the existing techniques and their future prospects. The report summarizes the sensitivity, reproducibility, limiting dose, dose-rate, energy, linear energy transfer (LET) responses, sources of variability and uncertainty, and other practical aspects of each bio-indicator. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach are evaluated on the basis of a set of common criteria for particular applications. (author). 155 refs., 15 tabs

1995-01-01

180

Cellular immune response and pathology in schistosomiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present review, some aspects of the cellular response following the murine Schistosoma mansoni infection are described. Due to the peculiar route used by the schistosome to infect its definitive host, the skin appears as a critical site in which the initial events of the host/parasite relationship occur and where the immune response is initiated. Moreover, the induction and the modulation of the granuloma formation, which represent the main aspect of the pathology of this parasitic disease, is under the control of several cellular populations n which CD4 and CD8 T cells play a key role. The cytokines produced in response to the parasite, such as IL7 in the skin and IFN gamma in the liver, seem to influence the further development of immunity against Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:9008733

Auriault, C; Pancré, V; Wolowczuk, I; Asseman, C; Ferru, I; Verwaerde, C

1996-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Pathology and pathobiology of the oesophageal carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carcinoma of the oesophagus including carcinoma of gastro-oesophageal junction are rapidly increasing in incidence. During recent years there have been changes in the knowledge surrounding biology of the disease progression. Identification of dysplasia in mucosal biopsies is the most reliable pathologic indicator of an increased risk of development of squamous cell carcinoma and passes through the sequence of chronic esophagitis, low-grade and high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma. Alth...

Micev M.; ?osi?-Micev M.

2010-01-01

182

The Vulnerable Faces of Pathological Gambling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pathological gambling is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has medical, psychiatric, and social consequences. Recently, research has been focusing on identifying which portions of the population are most vulnerable to developing problems related to ongoing gambling. Specific populations of interest have included adolescents, elderly, minorities, those with comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders, and gender differences. Each group possesses unique biological, psychological, and/or...

2005-01-01

183

Game graph structure and its influence on pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost all game tree search procedures used in artificial intelligence are variants on minimaxing. Until recently, it was almost universally believed that searching deeper on game trees with such procedures would in general yield a better decision. However, recent investigations show that there are many pathological game trees for which searching deeper consistently degrades the decision. This paper investigates one possible cause of pathology. In particular, a class of games that is normally pathological is shown to become nonpathological when the games are modified so that game positions can be reached by more than one path. This result suggests that in general, pathology is less likely when game positions can be reached by more than one path. This may be one reason why games such as chess and checkers are nonpathological. In addition, this result supports the hypothesis that pathology is less likely when sibling nodes have similar minimax values. This paper also investigates a possible cure for pathology-an alternative to minimaxing called probability estimation which has been shown to avoid pathology and thus produce more accurate decisions than minimaxing on at least one pathological game. 22 references.

Nau, D.S.

1983-12-01

184

Coronarography in pathologic morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of many years experience of the authors and data in world literature on post mortal coronarography during the most important general pathological processes in heart have been generalized in the monograph. Problems of radioanatomy of coronary artery were considered and data on use of postmortal coronarography in terms of correlation together with selective in-life coronarography are given. Much place takes the description of main coronarography semiotics of obstructive atherosclerosis injuries of the heart coronal system, compensation and decompensation processes of broken coronary circulation. Results of coronarography investigations in geronitogenesis as well as in sudden death are presented. Electrocardiographic-coronarographic and pathomorphologic parallels, clinical-anatomical diagnostical symptomocomplex - syndrom of menocoronary ''robbing'' are elucidated in detail. Technology of different techniques of postmortal coronarography in order to investigate macro-, microhemocirculation heart bed are described in detail as well as techniques of coronarogramm analysis which permits to use the monograph as a manual

1987-01-01

185

Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of five calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a farm of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pel [...] o BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secreções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação. Abstract in english Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for different syndromes that affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. This study analyzed the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of persistent infection by BVDV in five animals of a farm located in the cou [...] nty of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The clinical signs included growth impairment, nasal and ocular discharge and, in two animals, congenital cataract. The main gross lesions observed at the necropsy were enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and in one case, pododermatitis and crusted lesions on nasal planum and periocular region. Microscopic findings were characterized mostly by mononuclear infiltrate in the lamina propria, primarily in the small intestine and lymphoid depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in follicular centers of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Viral antigens were more frequently demonstrated in epidermal keratinocytes, epithelium of hair follicles and dendritic cells of the dermis of the ears and skin, histiocytes and lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thyroid follicular cells, in the cytoplasm of neurons and to a lesser extent, in glial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Viral isolation from blood samples and organs confirmed the presence of non-cytopathic BVDV. Moreover, viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of the5' non-translated region of the viral genome allowed the classification of the sample as BVDV type 2b. The present study strengthens the need to investigate and to characterize BVD outbreaks and to describe its different clinic-pathological presentations.

Adriana S, Santos; Nadia A.B, Antoniassi; Fabiana M, Boabaid; Ana P.G, Bitencourt; Laura L, Almeida; Cláudio W, Canal; Eduardo Furtado, Flores; David, Driemeier.

186

Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of five calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a farm of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pelo BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secreções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação.Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is responsible for different syndromes that affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. This study analyzed the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of persistent infection by BVDV in five animals of a farm located in the county of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The clinical signs included growth impairment, nasal and ocular discharge and, in two animals, congenital cataract. The main gross lesions observed at the necropsy were enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and in one case, pododermatitis and crusted lesions on nasal planum and periocular region. Microscopic findings were characterized mostly by mononuclear infiltrate in the lamina propria, primarily in the small intestine and lymphoid depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in follicular centers of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Viral antigens were more frequently demonstrated in epidermal keratinocytes, epithelium of hair follicles and dendritic cells of the dermis of the ears and skin, histiocytes and lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thyroid follicular cells, in the cytoplasm of neurons and to a lesser extent, in glial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Viral isolation from blood samples and organs confirmed the presence of non-cytopathic BVDV. Moreover, viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of the5' non-translated region of the viral genome allowed the classification of the sample as BVDV type 2b. The present study strengthens the need to investigate and to characterize BVD outbreaks and to describe its different clinic-pathological presentations.

Adriana S Santos

2011-10-01

187

Recent advances in shoulder research  

Science.gov (United States)

Shoulder pathology is a growing concern for the aging population, athletes, and laborers. Shoulder osteoarthritis and rotator cuff disease represent the two most common disorders of the shoulder leading to pain, disability, and degeneration. While research in cartilage regeneration has not yet been translated clinically, the field of shoulder arthroplasty has advanced to the point that joint replacement is an excellent and viable option for a number of pathologic conditions in the shoulder. Rotator cuff disease has been a significant focus of research activity in recent years, as clinicians face the challenge of poor tendon healing and irreversible changes associated with rotator cuff arthropathy. Future treatment modalities involving biologics and tissue engineering hold further promise to improve outcomes for patients suffering from shoulder pathologies.

2012-01-01

188

Chernobyl: pathology of the thyroid (facts and explanations)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facts concerning the thyroid pathology in persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl accident are presented. Following 15 years after the Chernobyl accident, no criteria have been established with significance for differential diagnostics between the spontaneous thyroid pathology and that attributed to physical and social effects of the accident. The exception is the thyroid cancer in children. Epidemiological investigations provide evidence for the role of ionizing radiation in etiology of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Various interpretations of the thyroid pathology have been considered involving ecological, causal, spatial-temporal and functional aspects. The thyroid pathology is uneven over area, variable over time, multivariable, and systematic. Thus, special research programmes are needed with a complex approach

2001-01-01

189

The feto-placental endothelium in pregnancy pathologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the aspects of endothelial and vascular dysfunction in the feto-placental vasculature occurring in pregnancy pathologies. This endothelium is continuous with the fetal circulation. Its function and potential dysfunction in pathologies will have a profound impact on fetal development. Gestational diabetes mellitus represents one of these pathologies, in which its associated metabolic derangements will alter feto-placental endothelial functions. These, in turn, may result in functional changes of the placenta, which may entail impaired fetal development. By contrast, changes in the feto-placental vasculature observed in cases of fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia may be causative (fetal growth restriction) or secondary (preeclampsia) for the pathology. PMID:22717877

Wadsack, Christian; Desoye, Gernot; Hiden, Ursula

2012-05-01

190

Amyloid-beta oligomers set fire to inflammasomes and induce Alzheimer's pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic and molecular studies have confirmed the central role of amyloid-beta production and fibrillation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the pathological pathways from amyloid-beta peptide oligomerization to the major pathological hallmarks of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation and loss of cholinergic neurons, are largely unknown. The innate immunity defence system utilizes pattern recognition receptors to respond to a variety of danger- and pathogen-associated molecular structures. Amyloid-beta oligomers and fibrils and their cellular effects can activate the innate immunity defence and induce inflammatory and apoptotic responses in human brain. Amyloid-beta oligomers can interfere with many aspects of neuronal membrane functions and can evoke potassium (K+) efflux from neurons. A low K+ concentration is a potent activator for the NALP1 inflammasomes, which then stimulate caspase-1 to cleave the proforms of IL-1beta and IL-18 cytokines. Interestingly, recent observations have demonstrated that amyloid-beta fibrils can activate NALP3 inflammasomes Via the lysosomal damage in mouse microglia. We will review here the activation mechanisms of NALP inflammasomes in neurons and microglia and several downstream effects in brain demonstrating that toxic amyloid-beta oligomers and fibrils can light afire in inflammasomes and induce Alzheimer's pathology. PMID:18793350

Salminen, Antero; Ojala, Johanna; Suuronen, Tiina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

2008-12-01

191

Aging on a different scale--chronological versus pathology-related aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging. PMID:24131799

Melis, Joost P M; Jonker, Martijs J; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Breit, Timo M; van Steeg, Harry

2013-10-01

192

Recent Workshops  

CERN Multimedia

Since the previous edition of ATLAS e-news, the NIKHEF Institute in Amsterdam has hosted not just one but two workshops related to ATLAS TDAQ activities. The first in October was dedicated to the Detector Control System (DCS). Just three institutes, CERN, NIKHEF and St Petersburg, provide the effort for the central DCS services, but each ATLAS sub-detector provides effort for their own controls. Some 30 people attended, including representatives for all of the ATLAS sub-detectors, representatives of the institutes working on the central services and the project leader of JCOP, which brings together common aspects of detector controls across the LHC experiments. During the three-day workshop the common components were discussed, and each sub-detector described their experiences and plans for their future systems. Whilst many of the components to be used are standard commercial components, a key custom item for ATLAS is the ELMB (Embedded Local Monitor Board). Prototypes for this have now been extensively test...

Wickens, F. J.

193

Câncer de mama feminino: aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos cadastrados de 2005 a 2008 num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe Female breast cancer: clinical and pathological aspects of cases registered between 2005 and 2008 at a public oncology service in the Brazilian State of Sergipe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer os aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos de câncer de mama feminino cadastrados num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: procurou-se fazer uma associação do estadiamento com as características presentes nos tumores. A coleta de dados foi realizada em 165 prontuários de mulheres cadastradas no período de 2005 a 2008 no ambulatório de oncologia do Hospital Cirurgia, localizado em Aracaju-Sergipe, por meio de formulário de coleta de dados, em 2009. RESULTADOS: identificou-se o carcinoma ductal invasivo como o tipo de neoplasia mamária mais frequente com 80,8% dos casos; 76 (46,1% neoplasias foram diagnosticadas em estádio avançado (IIB, III e IV e a mastectomia prevaleceu como tipo de cirurgia utilizado no tratamento independente do estadiamento. Quanto aos receptores hormonais todos apresentaram associação com o grau do estádio e, ainda, notou-se que a positividade do estrogênio e progesterona é fator de proteção para um pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: é notável que os casos de câncer de mama estudados apresentam maior agressividade biológica, cursando com pior prognóstico, considerando o estádio clínico. Fazem-se necessárias ações de detecção precoce voltadas ao câncer de mama na atenção básica de Sergipe para redução da morbi-mortalidade, melhora da sobrevida e qualidade de vida entre as mulheres acometidas por essa neoplasia.OBJECTIVES: to discover the clinical and pathologic aspects of cases of female breast cancer registered at a public oncology service in Sergipe. METHODS: an attempt was made to associate the stage with the characteristics of the tumors. Data was gathered from 165 medical records taken between 2005 and 2008 at the oncology outpatients clinic of the Hospital Cirurgia, in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, using a data collection form in 2009. RESULTS: ductal invasive carcinoma was identified as the most frequent kind of neoplasia, accounting for 80.8% of cases. Seventy-six (46.1% of neoplasias were identified at an advanced stage (IIB, III and IV and mastectomy was the main kind of surgery used, irrespective of the stage of the cancer. All the hormone receptors were associated with the stage and it was noted that positive estrogen and progesterone levels were associated with a more positive prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: it is worth noting that the cases of breast cancer studied were those that are more biologically aggressive with a less promising prognosis in terms of clinical stage. Action to ensure early detection of breast cancer needs to be taken in the course of basic care in Sergipe in order to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve the survival rates and quality of life of women afflicted with this kind of neoplasia.

Leila Luíza Conceição Gonçalves

2012-03-01

194

Topical aspects of radiation protection. Regulatory guides for radiological protection - effective radiation burden, dose concepts - radiation accidents, delayed radiation injuries - recent data on the radon problem - incorporation data measured in nuclear medical personnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The twelve papers of this seminar focus on topics such as the new European Directives and regulatory guides on radiological protection in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy (effective in the EU, Germany, Switzerland, Austria), and recent investigations into the radiation exposure induced by X-ray examinations and diagnostic nuclear medicine. as well as by radon radiation levels. (HP)

1994-05-26

195

[Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

Baliasny?, M M

1991-01-01

196

Center for Cancer Research - Laboratory of Pathology - Surgical Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Submitted cases for second opinion Occasionally, biopsy slides will be accepted by the National Institutes of Health's (NIH), Laboratory of Pathology (LP), Surgical Pathology Section for second opinion review. The LP is not a reference laboratory for routine case reviews, and all requests are considered on a case by case basis due to limited resources.

197

Evidence for the criterion validity and clinical utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (Ns = 299, 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability with established indices of normal personality traits, psychopathology and clinical concerns, and pathological personality traits. Overall, the pattern o...

Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

198

Recent recordings  

CERN Multimedia

The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project would like to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures concerning ATLAS and the LHC. Most recently, we produced a series of presentations made at the First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas, held at SLAC in August. The complete set of lectures can be found here.There is a lot of outstanding material there, relevant to all of ATLAS, including detector summaries, trigger and physics talks, software and computing presentations, and an overview of operations. Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.Additional ATLAS material, including plenary lectures, workshops and tutorials, can be found via our portal athttp://www.wlap.org/atlasincluding: First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas (Aug 2007) Glasgow Overview Week Plenary Sessions (Jul 2007) CTEQ Workshop: "Physics at ...

Steve Goldfarb

199

Pathology working groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathology Working Groups (PWG) are a specialized form of review consisting of a panel of expert pathologists who provide an independent, unbiased assessment of specific questions concerning study results. PWGs may concentrate on pivotal studies with controversial end points, address questions that are of concern to a regulatory agency, or compare the results of multiple studies that may have been conducted and evaluated by different laboratories and/or pathologists. The PWG does not review the entire study but always includes a preliminary review by a peer review pathologist. The PWG chairperson needs to thoroughly understand the issue in question, reviews all relevant data and study results, and is responsible for the organization and conduct of the PWG. The members of the PWG examine coded slides without knowledge of treatment group or previous diagnosis and arrive at a consensus diagnosis by majority vote. Once the results are decoded, the PWG evaluates the results and provides discussion and conclusions that are reflected in the final PWG report. Specific examples of PWG issues are provided. PMID:24190914

Mann, Peter C; Hardisty, Jerry H

2014-01-01

200

Rotator cuff pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2*-weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

1989-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814.

Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

2014-01-01

202

NADPH oxidases in vascular pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of "kindling radicals," which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794-2814. PMID:24180474

Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta; Guzik, Tomasz J

2014-06-10

203

On the Use of the Correlation between Acoustic Descriptors for the Normal/Pathological Voices Discrimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis system aiming at discriminating between normal and pathological voices. Compared to literature of voice pathology assessment, it is characterised by two aspects. First the system is based on features inspired from voice pathology assessment and music information retrieval. Second the distinction between normal and pathological voices is simply based on the correlation between acoustic features, while more complex classifiers are common in literature. Based on the normal and pathological samples included the MEEI database, it has been found that using two features (spectral decrease and first spectral tristimulus in the Bark scale and their correlation leads to correct classification rates of 94.7% for pathological voices and 89.5% for normal ones. The system also outputs a normal/pathological factor aiming at giving an indication to the clinician about the location of a subject according to the database.

Thomas Dubuisson

2009-01-01

204

Pathology on game trees revisited, and an alternative to minimaxing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost all game tree search procedures used in artificial intelligence are variants on minimaxing. Until recently, it was almost universally believed that searching deeper on the game tree with such procedures would in general yield a better decision. However, recent investigations have revealed the existence of many game trees and evaluation functions which are pathological in the sense that searching deeper consistently degrades the decision. This paper extends these investigations in two ways. First, it is shown that whenever the evaluation function satisfies certain properties, pathology will occur on any game tree of high enough constant branching factor. This result, together with monte carlo studies on actual games, gives insight into the causes of pathology. Second, an investigation is made of a possible cure for pathology: a probabilistic decision procedure which does not use minimaxing. Under some conditions, this procedure gives results superior to minimaxing. 23 references.

Nau, D.S.

1983-03-01

205

Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling. PMID:23423730

Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

2014-06-01

206

Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Pathological Findings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, autoimmune pancreatitis has been established as a special type of chronic pancreatitis. It is characterized by its histopathological and immunological features. The morphological hallmarks are periductal infiltration by lymphocytes and plasma cells and granulocytic epithelial lesions with consequent destruction of the duct epithelium and venulitis. Autoimmune pancreatitis has therefore also been called lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis, duct-destructive chronic pancre...

2005-01-01

207

Gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology in chronic constipation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some patients with chronic constipation may undergo colectomy yielding tissue appropriate to diagnosis of underlying neuromuscular pathology. The analysis of such tissue has, over the past 40 years, fueled research that has explored the presence of neuropathy, myopathy and more recently changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In this chapter, the data from these studies have been critically reviewed in the context of the significant methodological and interpretative issues that beset the field of gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology. On this basis, reductions in ICC appear to a consistent finding but one whose role as a primary cause of slow-transit constipation requires further evaluation. Findings indicative of significant neuropathy or myopathy are variable and in many studies subject to considerable methodological bias. Methods with practical diagnostic utility in the individual patient have rarely been employed and require further validation in respect of normative data. PMID:21382578

Knowles, Charles H; Farrugia, Gianrico

2011-02-01

208

Modeling Lewy pathology propagation in Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs), comprised of alpha-synuclein (aSyn), are intraneuronal inclusions that characterize Parkinson's disease. Although the association between the extent of Lewy pathology and clinical symptoms is well established, how these proteinaceous deposits originate and target selectively vulnerable cell populations is unknown. Our knowledge of their role in PD pathogenesis is also limited. Here, we summarize recent findings demonstrating this pathology can be experimentally transmitted between animals by misfolded forms of aSyn that are capable of initiating and inducing LB and LN inclusion formation through a self-propagating mechanism reminiscent of prions. "Seeded" LBs and LNs in animal models also spread to multiple connected nuclei in a predictable pattern, recapitulating a phenomenon observed during human PD progression, leading to the dysfunction and degeneration of afflicted neurons. These models provide new perspectives on how this and other misfolded proteins may contribute to neurodegeneration in human disease. PMID:24262196

Luk, Kelvin C; Lee, Virginia M-Y

2014-01-01

209

Revisiting the Pathological Evaluation of the Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. The most recent molecular acquisitions about the pathogenesis of the thoracic aortic aneurysm permit to better understand also the morphological counterpart of this disease, where atherosclerosis is not the only factor involved. The cascade of pathological processes leading to the development of the thoracic aortic aneurysms is multifactorial. Methods. We have investigated five surgical specimens of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta, collected from patients without Marfan's disease or other related genetic syndromes. Histochemistry for elastic fibers and mucosubstances has been performed, following the standard staining protocols. Results. The elastolysis, which can be considered a starting process, involves all the tunica media and it is followed by the mucoid degeneration characterized by the deposition of basophilic mucopolysaccaridic substance. Finally, the overlap of classic atherosclerotic lesions is observed, inside the whole aortic wall. Conclusions. The development of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is a complex event, where different factors and processes are involved, other than the well-known atherosclerosis, which can finally appear the most evident aspect of the overt disease. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 267-269

Antonio Manenti

2013-10-01

210

Recent recordings  

CERN Multimedia

The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project is happy to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures, including the full Plenary Session from the ATLAS Overview Week, held at CERN in October. Archives from that event are located here and directly on the Indico agenda. Click on the pictures below to access more information. Latest NewsAs announced in the Collaborative Tool Workshop, held on Tuesday of the Overview Week, future events in the Michigan Archives will be available for viewing with a Flash Player plug-in (right image above), as well as the usual Real Player plug-in. This additional option, made possible by our usage of the Lecture Object and standard formats for storing all media and metadata, allows the viewer to choose her/his preferred environment. As always, viewing of the lectures is supported on all major platforms and browsers and there is also the option to download lectures for remote viewing with limited or no network bandwidth.ATLAS 2007 ArchivesAdditional...

Steven Goldfarb

211

One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and re...

2012-01-01

212

Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment – A critical update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Despite recent suggestions for staging and grading CVLs in specific brain areas, no validated neuropathological criteria are currently available for VaD and mixed dementia. Further clinico-pathological studies and harmonization of neuropathological procedures are needed to validate the diagostic criteria for VaD and mixed dementia in order to clarify the impact of CVLs and other coexistent pathologies on cognitive impairment as a basis for further successful therapeutic options.

KurtA.Jellinger

2013-04-01

213

Regulatory aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

Stern, Arthur M.

1986-07-01

214

Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

2006-12-15

215

Adolescence and Eating Pathologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007). The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics) reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population) suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002), cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schi...

2010-01-01

216

Center for Cancer Research - Laboratory of Pathology - Surgical Pathology Staff  

Science.gov (United States)

The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredits LP for its residency program in Anatomic Pathology and fellowship programs in Cytopathology and Hematopathology. Additional information and application process may be reviewed at the NIH Office of Graduate Medical Education.

217

[Formulation of the pathological diagnosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors take part in the discussion concerning the formulation (structure) of pathological diagnosis in pediatric practice, particularly in perinatology. A scheme of formulation of pathological diagnosis which must reflect sections of the "Certificate on Perinatal Death" with due consideration for the new IX revision of International Classification of Diseases is proposed. The authors discuss the justification of the diagnosis of asphyxia and formulation of pathological diagnosis in cases of death of newborn babies due to noninfectious pneumopathies. The rules of formulation of the clinico-anatomical epicrisis is also discussed. PMID:6847406

Maksimovich, N A; Chistiakova, M B

1983-01-01

218

Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author)

2006-01-01

219

Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Christakos, Peter; Dickman, Paul S.

2009-08-17

220

Staged pathology in Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a tremendous development since a regional progression of pathology in subjects with Lewy bodies (LB) was initially proposed 30 years ago. The entity of dementia with Lewy bodies has been acknowledged, the main protein constituent of LBs--aggregated ?-synuclein (?S)--has been identified and a stepwise progression of the pathology has been reported. Implementation of the staging strategies published provides a common ground for handling a case with a suspected ?-synucleinopathy. It is always important to state the staging strategy implemented while assessing a case, as the strategy applied might influence both the reported stage of LB pathology and, ultimately, the final diagnosis of the patient. PMID:24262190

Alafuzoff, Irina; Parkkinen, Laura

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Câncer de mama feminino: aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos cadastrados de 2005 a 2008 num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe / Female breast cancer: clinical and pathological aspects of cases registered between 2005 and 2008 at a public oncology service in the Brazilian State of Sergipe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: conhecer os aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos de câncer de mama feminino cadastrados num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: procurou-se fazer uma associação do estadiamento com as características presentes nos tumores. A coleta de dados foi realizada em 165 prontuár [...] ios de mulheres cadastradas no período de 2005 a 2008 no ambulatório de oncologia do Hospital Cirurgia, localizado em Aracaju-Sergipe, por meio de formulário de coleta de dados, em 2009. RESULTADOS: identificou-se o carcinoma ductal invasivo como o tipo de neoplasia mamária mais frequente com 80,8% dos casos; 76 (46,1%) neoplasias foram diagnosticadas em estádio avançado (IIB, III e IV) e a mastectomia prevaleceu como tipo de cirurgia utilizado no tratamento independente do estadiamento. Quanto aos receptores hormonais todos apresentaram associação com o grau do estádio e, ainda, notou-se que a positividade do estrogênio e progesterona é fator de proteção para um pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: é notável que os casos de câncer de mama estudados apresentam maior agressividade biológica, cursando com pior prognóstico, considerando o estádio clínico. Fazem-se necessárias ações de detecção precoce voltadas ao câncer de mama na atenção básica de Sergipe para redução da morbi-mortalidade, melhora da sobrevida e qualidade de vida entre as mulheres acometidas por essa neoplasia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to discover the clinical and pathologic aspects of cases of female breast cancer registered at a public oncology service in Sergipe. METHODS: an attempt was made to associate the stage with the characteristics of the tumors. Data was gathered from 165 medical records taken between 2005 a [...] nd 2008 at the oncology outpatients clinic of the Hospital Cirurgia, in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, using a data collection form in 2009. RESULTS: ductal invasive carcinoma was identified as the most frequent kind of neoplasia, accounting for 80.8% of cases. Seventy-six (46.1%) of neoplasias were identified at an advanced stage (IIB, III and IV) and mastectomy was the main kind of surgery used, irrespective of the stage of the cancer. All the hormone receptors were associated with the stage and it was noted that positive estrogen and progesterone levels were associated with a more positive prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: it is worth noting that the cases of breast cancer studied were those that are more biologically aggressive with a less promising prognosis in terms of clinical stage. Action to ensure early detection of breast cancer needs to be taken in the course of basic care in Sergipe in order to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve the survival rates and quality of life of women afflicted with this kind of neoplasia.

Gonçalves, Leila Luíza Conceição; Santos, Simone Barbosa; Marinho, Emily Carvalho; Almeida, Ana Maria de; Santos, Alessandro Henrique da Silva; Barros, Ângela Maria Melo Sá; Fakhouri, Ricardo.

222

Manifestação clínico-patológica de infecção natural pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em bovinos de criação extensiva no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Clinic-pathological aspects in the natural infection of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRVS) in extensive management of cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São descritas as manifestações clínicas, patológicas, microbiológicos e sorológicos da enfermidade natural causada pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em uma criação extensiva de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul. Clinicamente havia tosse crônica e dispnéia intensa frente a exercício [...] s físicos mínimos em dois animais. Os dois foram sacrificados e necropsiados. As alterações macroscópicas eram pulmonares com enfisema alveolar disseminado, focos de atelectasia e espessamento dos septos interlobulares. A imunofluorescência para BRSV em corte de pulmão congelado foi positiva em ambos os casos, sendo negativa para Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), Diarréia Vírica Bovina (BVDV) e Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (BHV). Foi isolado BRSV em cultivo celular de MDBK a partir de um dos animais necropsiados. Nenhuma associação foi detectada através de elisa para detecção de antígeno LPS gênero específico de Chlamydia psittaci no tecido pulmonar. O exame histopatológico evidenciou células sinciciais, enfisema crônico, hipertrofia da camada muscular peribronquiolar e metaplasia escamosa do epitélio bronquial e bronquiolar. O exame sorológico para BRSV evidenciou 79% de soropositivos em uma primeira amostragem na qual havia animais jovens e alguns com tosse. O segundo exame sorológico 6 meses após, proveniente de animais de diferentes faixas etárias, resultou em 17,3% de soropositivos. Este é o primeiro relato de doença causada por BRSV no Brasil. Abstract in english The clinical aspects as well as the pathology, microbiology and serology of a natural Bovine Respiratory Syncytial (BRSV) infection of bovine in a herd of 600 beef cattle kept under extensive management in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are described. Clinically two animals had chronic coug [...] h and severe dyspnea when forced to mild physical exercise. These two animals were euthanatized and post-morten examination was performed. The macroscopic changes were of pulmonary origin, such as disseminated alveolar emphysema, focal atelectasis and marked interlobular septal thickening. The fluorescent antibody test on lung cryostat sections was positive to BRSV for both animals, and it was negative to PI-3 virus, BVDV and BHV. The BRSV was isolated from the lung of one of the animals on MDBK, and was also identified by fluorescent antibody test. No association with Chlamydia psittaci was found by ELISA performed on lung tissues. The histopathology showed syncytial cells, chronic emphysema, peribronchiolar muscle layer hypertrophy and squamous metaplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. The serology to detect antibodies to BRSV resulted in 79% of positives from the first specimen collection. In this group of young animals some of them had a cough. The second samples collected 6 months later were from animals of different age groups resulting in 17.3% of positives. This is the first report on clinical BRSV infection in Brazil.

Driemeier, David; Gomes, Marcos José Pereira; Moojen, Valéria; Arns, Clarice Weiss; Vogg, Guilherme; Kessler, Luciano; Costa, Ubirajara Maciel da.

223

Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Pathological Findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, autoimmune pancreatitis has been established as a special type of chronic pancreatitis. It is characterized by its histopathological and immunological features. The morphological hallmarks are periductal infiltration by lymphocytes and plasma cells and granulocytic epithelial lesions with consequent destruction of the duct epithelium and venulitis. Autoimmune pancreatitis has therefore also been called lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis, duct-destructive chronic pancreatitis, or sclerosing pancreatitis. Autoimmune pancreatitis most commonly involves the head of the pancreas and the distal bile duct. Occasionally, masses are formed and it has been described as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.

Zamboni G

2005-01-01

224

Toxicological aspects of energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Part I reviews the principles of toxicology, describes the biological fate of chemicals in the body, discusses basic pathobiology, and reviews short-term toxicity tests. Part II describes the toxicology and pathology of pollutants in several important organ systems. The greatest emphasis is placed on the respiratory tract because of its high probability as a route of exposure to pollutants from energy technologies and its high sensitivity to pollutant related tissue damage. Part III describes the toxicological aspects of specific chemical classes associated with fossil fuels; these include polycyclic hydrocarbons, gases and metals. Part IV describes the biomedical effects associated with each energy technology, including coal and oil, fossil fuel and biomass conversions, solar and geothermal and radiological health aspects associated with uranium mining, nuclear fission and fusion, and with nonionising radiations and electromagnetic fields

1986-01-01

225

Residents Manual - Surgical Pathology Rotation  

Science.gov (United States)

The resident will participate in the management of a patient, provide advice regarding ordering of additional diagnostic tests and assisting in the interpretation of test results. The resident will participate in clinico-pathologic conferences.

226

Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson's disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of ...

2012-01-01

227

Mundo do trabalho: alguns aspectos vivenciados pelos profissionais recém- formados em enfermagem / The world of work: some aspects experienced by professional nurses recently graduated / El mundo del trabajo: algunos aspectos experimentados por profesionales de enfermería recién graduados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Conhecer algumas vivencias de recém graduados em enfermagem, na transição do mundo acadêmico para o mundo do trabalho. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa exploratória descritiva realizada com amostra de 31 profissionais graduados em cursos de enfermagem no período de 2000 a 2004. RESULTADOS: Na análise e i [...] nterpretação dos dados, foram identificados três tipos de vivencias: preconceitos no mundo do trabalho, inserção na equipe de trabalho em saúde e fatores que facilitam a transição para o mundo do trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: O início da atividade profissional, para o(a) enfermeiro(a), pode ser marcado por dificuldades, gerando ansiedade. Entretanto, o mundo do trabalho pode ser prazeroso, gratificante e instigante, estimulando o profissional a superar os desafios e os próprios limites decorrentes da formação profissional. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Conocer algunas vivencias de recién graduados en enfermería, en la transición del mundo académico para el mundo del trabajo. MÉTODOS: Investigación exploratoria y descriptiva realizada con una muestra de 31 profesionales graduados en cursos de enfermería en el período de 2000 a 2004. RESUL [...] TADOS: El análisis e interpretación de los datos identificó tres tipos de vivencias (prejuicios en el mundo del trabajo, inserción en el equipo de trabajo en salud y factores que facilitan la transición para el mundo del trabajo). CONCLUSIÓN: El inicio de la actividad profesional, para el enfermero, puede ser marcada por dificultades que generan ansiedad. Entre tanto, el mundo del trabajo puede ser placentero, gratificante e provocativo, estimulando al profesional a superar desafíos y límites, provenientes de la formación profesional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To know some experiences, of nurses recently graduated, in the transition from academia to the world of work. METHODS: It is a descriptive and exploratory study conducted with a sample of 31 professionals graduated in nursing courses in the period 2000-2004. RESULTS: The analysis and data [...] interpretation identified three types of experiences (prejudice in the world of work, integration into the health work-team and factors that facilitate the transition to the world of work). CONCLUSION: The beginning of the professional activity, for nurses, could be marked by difficulties that generate anxiety. Meanwhile, the world of work can be enjoyable, rewarding and challenging, encouraging professionals to overcome challenges and constraints that arise from the profession education.

Mattosinho, Mariza Maria Serafim; Coelho, Maria Seloi; Meirelles, Betina Hörner Schlindwein; Souza, Sabrina da Silva de; Argenta, Cleonete Elena.

228

Isotopes and radiation in plant pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although ionizing radiations were first applied to phytopathological problems 50 years ago, it is only in recent years that this work has come into its own. Plant diseases are often complex since they may involve interactions between the host, the vector and its pathogen. These pathogens range from viral bodies, through unicellular organisms, to well-organized living entities such as nematodes. Each member of these interactions is amenable to investigation by radiobiological techniques. The collection of papers forming this Report is based on papers originally presented at an IAEA panel by experts on the application of radiation and radioisotopes in plant pathology. Refs, figs and tabs

1966-09-01

229

Pathology Case Study: Right Adrenal Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study a 27-year-old white male has an unremarkable medical history until being recently diagnosed with hypertension. He then developed bilateral gynecomastia and began experiencing sever right flank pain while working. A sonogram and computerized tomography were performed and the images are available here along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

Finkelstein, Sidney; Ohori, N. P.

2007-08-17

230

Normality and Pathology in a Biological Age  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is the text of a lecture given at the Faculty of the Humanities, March 2001. It argues that one implication of recent advances in the sciences of life may be that the binary opposition of the normal and the pathological is put into question. Canguilheim’s distinction between vital and social norms is challenged and supers...

Nicolas Rose

2001-01-01

231

General Aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

Epothilone is a microbial product, and thus its history may be traced back to the discovery of the respective microbe, Sorangium cellulosum, a bacterium belonging to the taxonomic group of myxobacteria, which originally has been described by Roland Thaxter in 1892 (1). Today this group of organisms comprises around 40 species, one of which is Sorangium cellulosum. For a long time, myxobacteria were only known for their gliding motility and sophisticated life cycle, although it had been occasionally speculated that they might produce secondary metabolites like actinomycetes or bacilli (2). In 1975 Hans Reichenbach and his group at the German Centre for Biotechnology (GBF; now called the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research) set out to isolate strains of myxobacteria from soil samples collected all over the world, and to examine their secondary metabolism. In 1978, while work was already ongoing, I joined them and took over the chemistry part. In the same year the first structure of a myxobacterial metabolite, ambruticin, was published by a group from Warner-Lambert (3) making us very confident of being on the right track. Ambruticin had been isolated from a Sorangium cellulosum strain, and was identified as a unique cyclopropane polyketide structure exhibiting potentially useful antifungal properties. Ambruticin and its derivatives had been developed for medical application for some time, and recently gained new interest (4).

Höfle, Gerhard

232

Is pathological gambling moderated by age?  

Science.gov (United States)

The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning. PMID:23494243

Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

2014-06-01

233

Extraadrenal retroperitoneal paragangliomas: radiologic pathologic correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a relatively uncommon neurogenic tumor, arising from paraganglial tissue. In our knowledge, there is few report about the radiologic findings of extraadrenal paraganglioma, therefore, here we document the adiologic findings of retroperitoneal paraganglioma with pathologic correlation. In 5 patients with surgicopathologically confirmed extraadrenal paraganglioma and 1 clinjcolaboratorily confirmed case, we analyzed the ultrasonographic, computed tomographic and MRI findings, and correlated them with gross pathologic specimen. The location of the tumors was medial aspect of left kidney(n = 2), superomedial aspect of right kidney hilum(n = 2), and organ of Zuckerkandl area(n = 2). Ultrasonoram showed well-marginated mass(n = 5), occasionally with irregular central necrosis with or without partially echogenic area suggesting hemorrhage(n = 2). CT scan also showed well-marginated mass(n = 6) with hemorrhagic necrosis(n = 3) and contrast enhancement. One showed area shaped calcification along the capsule, and another case showed adhesion with aorta. In MRI, solid portion of the mass showed relatively low signal intensity on T1WI, increased signal on T2WI, and enhancement with gadolinium. Necrotic portion showed increased signal intensity on T1WI, and also showed increased signal intensity on T2WI, without contrast enhancement. Grossly the mass showed internal hemorrhagic necrosis of variable degree(n = 6). If well-marginated mass is noted around the area of paraganglial distribution including organ of Zuckerkandl, especially with evidence of hemorrhagic necrosis and contrast enhancement, we must consider the possibility of paraganglioma despite no characteristic symptoms

1994-04-01

234

Extraadrenal retroperitoneal paragangliomas: radiologic pathologic correlation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a relatively uncommon neurogenic tumor, arising from paraganglial tissue. In our knowledge, there is few report about the radiologic findings of extraadrenal paraganglioma, therefore, here we document the adiologic findings of retroperitoneal paraganglioma with pathologic correlation. In 5 patients with surgicopathologically confirmed extraadrenal paraganglioma and 1 clinjcolaboratorily confirmed case, we analyzed the ultrasonographic, computed tomographic and MRI findings, and correlated them with gross pathologic specimen. The location of the tumors was medial aspect of left kidney(n = 2), superomedial aspect of right kidney hilum(n = 2), and organ of Zuckerkandl area(n = 2). Ultrasonoram showed well-marginated mass(n = 5), occasionally with irregular central necrosis with or without partially echogenic area suggesting hemorrhage(n = 2). CT scan also showed well-marginated mass(n = 6) with hemorrhagic necrosis(n = 3) and contrast enhancement. One showed area shaped calcification along the capsule, and another case showed adhesion with aorta. In MRI, solid portion of the mass showed relatively low signal intensity on T1WI, increased signal on T2WI, and enhancement with gadolinium. Necrotic portion showed increased signal intensity on T1WI, and also showed increased signal intensity on T2WI, without contrast enhancement. Grossly the mass showed internal hemorrhagic necrosis of variable degree(n = 6). If well-marginated mass is noted around the area of paraganglial distribution including organ of Zuckerkandl, especially with evidence of hemorrhagic necrosis and contrast enhancement, we must consider the possibility of paraganglioma despite no characteristic symptoms.

Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Whang; Ji, Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Hee [St. Meryknoll Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Hee [Cha General Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

1994-04-15

235

Cortical Pathology in RRMS: Taking a Cue from Four Sisters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Although grey matter pathology is a relevant aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS) both with physical and cognitive rebounds, its pathogenesis is still under investigation. To what extent the familial and sporadic cases of MS differ in cortical pathology has not been elucidated yet. Here we present a multiple case report of four sisters affected by MS, all of them having a very high burden of cortical pathology. Methods. The clinical and grey matter MRI parameters of the patients were compared with those of twenty-five-aged matched healthy women and 25 women affected by sporadic MS (matched for age, disease duration, EDSS, and white matter lesion load). Results. Despite their short disease duration (multiplex MS families. PMID:23056945

Calabrese, Massimiliano; Seppi, Dario; Cocco, Eleonora; Poretto, Valentina; Rinaldi, Francesca; Perini, Paola; Gallo, Paolo

2012-01-01

236

Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease.

Lohr, E.; Leder, L.D.

1987-01-01

237

Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease

1987-01-01

238

A pathological science syndrome: A concern for energy science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As researchers look for innovative concepts to produce electrical power it is worth considering the pathological science syndrome described by Nobel-Prize-winning chemist Irving Langmuir who identified six symptoms of pathological science caused by a loss of objectivity. Denis L. Rousseau has recently condensed Langmuir's six symptoms into two characteristics and added a third. The first characteristic of pathological science is that the effect being studied is often at the limits of detectability or has a very low statistical significance. The second characteristic is a readiness to disregard prevailing ideas and theories. The third identifying trait of pathological science is that the investigator finds it nearly impossible to carry out experiments designed to give a definitive answer. Rousseau has applied these characteristics to the study of polywater, infinite dilution, and cold fusion

1993-08-08

239

Recent developments in silicon calorimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a survey of some of the recent calorimeter applications of silicon detectors. The numerous attractive features of silicon detectors are summarized, with an emphasis on those aspects important to calorimetry. Several of the uses of this technology are summarized and referenced. We consider applications for electromagnetic calorimetry, hadronic calorimetry, and proposals for the SSC

1990-10-15

240

Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in pathologic skin picking  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Individuals with pathologic skin picking (PSP) often report significant difficulty resisting the urges and drive to engage in picking behavior. Studies have shown significant inhibitory deficiencies (i.e. increased impulsivity) in subjects with other putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, such as trichotillomania, using objective tests. This study sought to assess motor inhibitory control and aspects of cognitive flexibility in a sample of individuals with PSP.

Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Chamberlain, Samuel R

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

[Pathological buying -- a literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

This review summarizes the literature on pathological buying published during the past 15 years. Pathological or compulsive buying is defined as frequent preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy that are experienced as irresistible, intrusive, and/or senseless. The buying behavior causes marked distress, interferes with social functioning, and often results in financial problems. Studies on the phenomenology, diagnosis, classification, comorbidity, epidemiology, and treatment are presented. Pathological buying should be diagnosed as impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-10 F63.9). Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particulary mood, anxiety, substance use, eating, impulse control and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The positive results of pharmacological treatment with antidepressants (usually SSRI) and opioid antagonists could not be confirmed in controlled trials. A disorder specific cognitive-behavioral group treatment manual was published in USA. A controlled study is currently conducted in USA and since 2003 at the Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy at the University Hospital Erlangen. PMID:15633069

Müller, Astrid; Reinecker, Hans; Jacobi, Corinna; Reisch, Lucia; de Zwaan, Martina

2005-01-01

242

Shame regulation in personality pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on extant work on shame and emotion regulation, this article proposes that three broad forms of maladaptive shame regulation strategies are fundamental in much of personality pathology: Prevention (e.g., dependence, fantasy), used preemptively, lessens potential for shame; Escape (e.g., social withdrawal, misdirection) reduces current or imminent shame; Aggression, used after shame begins, refocuses shame into anger directed at the self (e.g., physical self-harm) or others (e.g., verbal aggression). This article focuses on the contributions of shame regulation to the development and maintenance of personality pathology, highlighting how various maladaptive shame regulation strategies may lead to personality pathology symptoms, associated features, and dimensions. Consideration is also given to the possible shame-related constructs necessitating emotion regulation (e.g., shame aversion and proneness) and the points in the emotion process when regulation can occur. PMID:21895346

Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

2012-05-01

243

[Human milk--some recent aspects of breast feeding].  

Science.gov (United States)

New data on the quality and quantity of protein and nor-protein nitrogen in human milk are discussed in the first part of this review. The second part presents a short review of current knowledge on immunologically important components of human milk (secretory IgA, Lactoferrin, ligands for folic acid and vitamine B-12. Lysozyme, cells, induction of breast milk flora in the intestine). There are very good reasons to enhance breast feeding also in developed countries. PMID:368420

Plenert, W

1979-01-01

244

Recent progress and advances in iterative software (including parallel aspects)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the current state of iterative software packages. Of particular interest is software for large scale engineering and scientific applications, especially for distributed parallel systems. However, the authors will also review the state of software development for conventional architectures. This workshop will complement the other proposed workshops on iterative BLAS kernels and applications. The format for the workshop is as follows: To provide some structure, there will be brief presentations, each of less than five minutes duration and dealing with specific facets of the subject. These will be designed to focus the discussion and to stimulate an exchange with the participants. Issues to be covered include: The evolution of iterative packages, current state of the art, the parallel computing challenge, applications viewpoint, standards, and future directions and open problems.

Carey, G.; Young, D.M.; Kincaid, D. [and others

1994-12-31

245

Psychiatric Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis and Recent Treatment Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic demyelinating disorder characterized by multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms related to multifocal lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS. MS disrupt the conductance of action potential by effecting myelin coats of the neurons. Thus, many neurological symptoms and consequently disability may occur. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms accompanies in the course of MS as primary or secondary reasons. Mood disorders; especially depression, psychiatric disorders, chronic fatigue and cognitive impairment decrease the patient’s quality of life. Clinical course become more complicated because of the neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms co-occurrence. Multipl behavioral and affective alterations may arise due to location and extension of the plaques. Illness perception and the coping strategies may also effect life quality and consequently the prognosis. The treatment of MS includes corticosteroids and the immunosuppressive agents which have various psychiatric side effects. So management of MS patients requires a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. The purpose of this rewiev is the evaluation of psychiatric disorders and symptoms due to MS and its treatment and also their possible effects on clinical process, prognosis, patient’s compatibility, life quality depending on the actual literature. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2008; 45 Supplement: 37-43

Aysu K. T?HAN

2008-05-01

246

Some recent aspects of relaxation line shapes in Moessbauer spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical development in the line shape calculation of Mossbauer resonance spectra involving spin relaxation effects is introduced. The ''eigenvalue'' procedure of calculating line shapes saves computational times by two orders of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This was illustrated by calculating the relaxation spectra of hemoglobin cyanide and a GAMMA_8 quartet electronic state. The ''white noise approximation'' involved in all the relaxation theory is discussed, and its limitations are pointed out. The theory without such an approximation is used to analyze the data for Cs_2NaYbCl_6

1976-11-19

247

Recent additions to fundament aspects of quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems like those of Schroedinger's can comprise quantum systems as classical systems, the measurement process and reality. After a reviewing the history of interpretation of quantum mechanics it is shown how a generalized algebraic quantum theory (e.g. G.G. Emch 1986) can tackle these problems and paradoxes. This theory treats systems with infinite degrees of freedom and open systems. It is applicable both to quantum as to classical systems and thus to the measurement process with its irreversibility. The usual linear Schroedinger equation is replaced by a non-linear one where the nonlinear terms reflect the interaction of the system with its environment or with the measuring apparatus. (Quittner) To appear also in 'Naturwissenschaft und Weltbild', 1992

1991-01-01

248

Pathology Case Study: Maculopapular Rash  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Flynn, Kevin J.; Malone, Mark

2007-11-21

249

Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Defrances, Marie C.; Lee, Robert E.

2008-05-14

250

Pathology of pineal parenchymal tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumors of the pineal region can arise from multiple cellular origins and thus represent a very heterogeneous group of pathologies. Such tumors include pineal parenchymal tumors, germ cell tumors, astrocytomas, ependymomas, and papillary pineal tumors. Within the subgroup of pineal parenchymal tumors, there is a histopathologic spectrum ranging from pineocytoma to pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation to pineoblastoma. The current World Health Organization classification and the pathologic features of each of the pineal parenchymal tumor subtypes are reviewed in this article. PMID:21801981

Han, Seunggu J; Clark, Aaron J; Ivan, Michael E; Parsa, Andrew T; Perry, Arie

2011-07-01

251

Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Rostami, Sassan

2009-02-17

252

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Hypertension  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old man has a history of pulmonary hypertension. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Horn, Kevin D.

2007-08-16

253

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-22

254

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Lu, Zhengbin; Schoedel, Karen

2009-04-17

255

Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Ejadi, Samuel

2007-09-12

256

Pathology Case Study: Pancreatic Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Utah Department of Pathology in which a woman developed jaundice while on vacation. Subsequent testing revealed a pancreatic mass. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of autopsy pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

2008-12-31

257

Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-12-25

258

Pathology Case Study: Hepatitis C  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 43-year-old male with Hepatitis C has had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-21

259

Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Halpern, Melissa B.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-08-19

260

Pathology Case Study: Lung Abscess  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 39-year-old man has died from lung abscess after treatment failed, and an autopsy was authorized. Visitors are given the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to identify the cause of death. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Graur, Octavia; Lee, Robert E.

2008-03-04

 
 
 
 
261

Recent developments in XPS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is at a point in its history at which a state of technological maturity has been reached, progress continues to be made on a number of aspects of this important surface analysis technique. Recent advances have included improved control over the depth sensitivity of XPS analyses, enhancements in XPS detection and computer systems, and higher spatial resolution. Current progress and prospects for XPS were reviewed at the 1986 Eastern Analytical Symposium by Cedric J. Powell, chief of the surface science division at the National Bureau of Standards. Powell spoke at a session on Modern Methods of Thin Film and Surface Analysis that was chaired by Richard J. Colton of the Naval Research Laboratory

1987-03-15

262

Osteopontin function in pathology: lessons from osteopontin-deficient mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteopontin (OPN) is a soluble secreted phosphoprotein that binds with high affinity to several different integrins. While numerous activities have been ascribed to OPN in vitro, and several in vivo functions have been suggested for the molecule, including much attention focused recently on OPN in different pathologies, the actual role that the protein plays in mammalian physiology remains conjectural. Analysis of recently developed strains of mice lacking OPN because of a targeted disruption of its gene promises to provide important information on this issue. Here, we review the data implicating OPN as functioning in a variety of pathologic conditions as well as the initial results generated with the OPN knockout mice, with particular focus on the question of whether OPN has a protective or a damaging effect in different pathologies. These data will be important to the definition of how OPN contributes to mammalian physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:10213864

Rittling, S R; Denhardt, D T

1999-01-01

263

[Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Tunisia. Report of 830 cases. Experience of the Anatomic Pathology Laboratory of the Rabta Hospital].  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the experience of pathological laboratory of la Rabta hospital in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. We report an epidemiologic retrospective study of 830 cases occurring in our service over a period of 10 years from 1991 to 2000 and diagnosed by histopathological examination. Various epidemiological, clinical, pathological and diagnostic aspects are discussed. PMID:14608734

Bouraoui, Saâdia; Haouet, Slim; Mekni, Amina; el Ouertani, Latifa; Bellil, Khadija; Bellil, Salma; Daghfous, Abdeljalil; Kchir, Mohamed Nidhameddine

2003-08-01

264

[Functional pathology. Intracapsular temporomandibular dysfunction].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracapsular dysfunction of the TMJ is analyzed, based on the concepts of dysfunctional and functional pathology, including a diagnostic clasification this is analyzed under a etiopathogenic point of view, clinical characteristics, different types of cases named disco-condilar disorders. PMID:2244072

Arellano, E R

1990-01-01

265

CT features of jejunal pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The imaging of duodenal and ileal diseases is well documented in radiological literature but the jejunum has been relatively neglected. The aim of this review is to outline the current methods of investigation of the jejunum, and provide a comprehensive review of common pathologies affecting the jejunum, with particular emphasis on investigation by computed tomography.

Hyland, R. [Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hylander@doctors.net.uk; Chalmers, A. [Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom)

2007-12-15

266

Medication Management of Pathological Gambling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pathological gambling has received little attention from clinicians and researchers despite prevalence rates similar to or greater than those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This article summarizes the phenomenology and associated psychopathology of this public health problem and presents results of studies of 3 types of pharmacological agents used to treat this disorder: serotonin reuptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists, and mood stabilizers.

2006-01-01

267

CT features of jejunal pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The imaging of duodenal and ileal diseases is well documented in radiological literature but the jejunum has been relatively neglected. The aim of this review is to outline the current methods of investigation of the jejunum, and provide a comprehensive review of common pathologies affecting the jejunum, with particular emphasis on investigation by computed tomography

2007-12-01

268

Thoracic findings in gastrointestinal pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large variety of gastrointestinal and abdominal pathologic processes can be diagnosed or suspected by their direct effects on the chest. The chest radiograph, as often the first admission film, can aid the radiologist in recommending the appropriate follow-up examinations. PMID:6382420

Gedgaudas-McClees, R K; Torres, W E; Colvin, R S; McClees, E C; Baron, M G

1984-09-01

269

Functional aspects of spina bifida in childhood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to advanced medical treatment, more children with spina bifida survive into adulthood. Most outcome studies in the field of spina bifida research focus on disease aspects (?pathology?) and its relation to one of the domains in the ?disablement process? such as physical functioning, cognitive abilities, or psychosocial adjustment. From these studies it became clear that spina bifida has significant impact on the health of individuals, but little is known on ?health...

Schoenmakers, Maria Adriana Gerdina Cornelia

2003-01-01

270

Cadmium - a review of the recent literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent electrotechnological aspects of the cadmium electrode have been reviewed. Forty-four references are included and the electrode characteristics in the alkaline battery systems are highlighted. Electrometric methods, the effect of additives, morphological aspects and porosity of the cadmium electrode are the main headings under which the published work has appeared, and these form our major review headings.

Barton, R.T.; Lawson, S.J.; Mitchell, P.J.; Hampson, N.A.

1986-06-01

271

Diving fatality investigations: recent changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modifications to the investigation procedures in diving fatalities have been incorporated into the data acquisition by diving accident investigators. The most germane proposal for investigators assessing diving fatalities is to delay the drawing of conclusions until all relevant diving information is known. This includes: the accumulation and integration of the pathological data; the access to dive computer information; re-enactments of diving incidents; post-mortem CT scans and the interpretation of intravascular and tissue gas detected. These are all discussed, with reference to the established literature and recent publications. PMID:24986727

Edmonds, Carl; Caruso, James

2014-06-01

272

Recent Developments in Magnetic Recording Heads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently developed and future magnetic head technologies are reviewed. Scaling of dimensions brought about significant increases in recording densities in the last decade. On the recording head aspect, as the read head is narrowed, large improvements in s...

A. Tanaka M. Oshiki

2003-01-01

273

Aspectos celulares da cicatrização Cellular aspects of wound healing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O processo cicatricial compreende uma sequência de eventos moleculares e celulares que interagem para que ocorra a restauração do tecido lesado. Desde o extravasamento de plasma, com a coagulação e agregação plaquetária até a reepitelização e remodelagem do tecido lesado o organismo age tentando restaurar a funcionalidade tecidual. Assim, este trabalho abrange os diversos aspectos celulares envolvidos no processo cicatricial, bem como os principais medicamentos utilizados no tratamento de patologias relacionadas às deficiências na cicatrização. São abordados também, os aspectos econômicos referentes, sobretudo, às feridas crônicas de pés diabéticos.Wound healing is a dynamic interactive process that involves a sequence of molecular and cellular events. Recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have greatly expanded our understanding of the biological process involved in wound repair and tissue regeneration. From plasma extravasation, with coagulation and platelet aggregation, to reepithelialization and remodeling of injured tissue, the organism acts by trying to restore functionality tissue. Thus, the present study encompasses several cellular aspects involved in the wound healing process, as well as the main drugs used in treating the pathology related to wound healing complications. Economic aspects are also addressed, mainly related to chronic wounds of diabetic feet.

Ricardo José de Mendonça

2009-07-01

274

Biomedical image processing in pathology: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathologists make a diagnostic decision by viewing a specimen and measuring various diagnostically important attributes of an isolated object such as size, shape, darkness, colour and texture. This is a complex process. In recent years, computer-aided image processing and analysis systems have played a significant role in quantitative pathology. This paper summarises basic image processing and analysis techniques and reviews related work in pathology and cytology based on computational image processing since 1987. Firstly, a general introduction to image enhancement is given, including; segmentation, morphometry and visualisation. Selected examples are provided to demonstrate the effects of various basic image processing algorithms on a MRI scan. It should be emphasised that the reviewed techniques are generally used as preprocessing steps in analysing microscopic images and powerful algorithms are more sophisticated and problem-specific. Secondly, image cytometric and histometric methods are presented along with standards, calibration and applications. Finally, the three dimensional confocal image processing and analysis as well as applications of artificial neural networks, and optical disk database management for recording and retrieving a large number of digitised high resolution images are discussed. The development of integrated optical microscope and computer systems is also briefly described. 34 refs., 8 figs

1995-03-01

275

Aspect and Reference time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis provides a theory of aspect in Russian based on the notion of Reference time. The main claim advocated in this study is that there are two types of aspect, predicational/telicity aspect and perspective or Reference time aspect. It is argued that these two types should be carefully distinguished and analyzed in fundamentally different terms. Thus, if predicational aspect concerns only the properties of a predicate, the differences in perspective are captured in terms of the relatio...

Borik, O.

2002-01-01

276

[Factors predisposing to pathological gambling].  

Science.gov (United States)

An examination of 150 patients suffering from pathological gambling (PG) has shown that a PG predisposition includes 3 components: personal, morphofunctional and gender. The personal component is a combination of lability and hyperthymia, higher extraversion, easy communication, riskiness, low empathic ability, inclination to emotional satiation. The morphofunctional component embraces structural (a pathology of cortical and subcortical areas, localized mainly in the frontal region and limbic structure of brain) and functional (abnormalities of regulatory processes, signs of cerebral immaturity) peculiarities of the central nervous system. The gender component is reflected in the notable predominance of males, weak and medium-weak sexual constitution, psychosexual development peculiarities manifested as a reduced romantic stage. This complex predisposition, though non-fatal, raises the risk of the disorder. PMID:19008847

Bukhanovski?, A O; Soldatkin, V A; Baranova, I V

2008-01-01

277

Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

1987-01-01

278

Placental transport in pregnancy pathologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The placenta is positioned between the maternal and fetal circulation and hence plays a key role in transporting maternal nutrients to the developing fetus. Fetal growth changes in the 2 most frequent pregnancy pathologies, gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal growth restriction, are predominantly characterized by an exaggerated and restricted fat accretion, respectively. Glucose, by its regulating effect on fetal insulin concentrations, and lipids have been strongly implicated in fetal fat deposition. Transplacental glucose flux is highly efficient and limited only by nutrient availability (flow-limited)--ie, driven by the maternal-fetal glucose concentration gradient and blood flow, with little, if any, effect of placental morphology, glucose consumption, and transporter expression. This explains why, despite changes in these determinants in both pathologies, transplacental glucose flux is unaltered. PMID:21543540

Desoye, Gernot; Gauster, Martin; Wadsack, Christian

2011-12-01

279

Pathology Case Study: Cushing's Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case involves a 41 year-old woman experiencing the following symptoms for a period of 18 months: fatigue, weakness, lethargy, and decreased concentration. The patientâÂÂs history, description of CT scans, and images from histological examinations, which contributed to the conclusive diagnosis, are all provided here for your review. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâÂÂs condition in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Dacic, Sanja; Rajan, Prabha B.

2009-08-27

280

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Sepulveda, Antonia; Yu, Hongbo

2009-03-18

 
 
 
 
281

Pathology Case Study: Respiratory Distress  

Science.gov (United States)

This cardiovascular pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 72-year-old female experiencing respiratory distress is the focus of this case. The patientâÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

2009-05-07

282

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

Science.gov (United States)

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Chen, Lei; Kanbour, Anisa; Kessinger, Rovena L.

2008-12-15

283

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Nodules  

Science.gov (United States)

This pediatric pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. The learning objectives located at the top of the page are a great way for students to evaluate their learning progress. This case involves a 12-year-old girl presenting with recurrent lung nodules. Images from chest x-rays and a lung biopsy provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images is also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Arnold, Sonya; Hasegawa, Susan

2009-05-08

284

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 46-year-old gentleman with a persistent right lower lobe pulmonary mass after a successfully treated cavitary pneumonia 5 months ago." Visitors are given patient history along with radiology findings and images. They are also given gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Gregorio, Remigio; Johnson, Douglas R.; Nodit, Laurentia; Yousem, Sam

2009-03-11

285

Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Mccune, Ryan

2008-12-08

286

Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

2008-01-01

287

The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…

Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.

2010-01-01

288

Synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint: a case with typical imaging features and pathological findings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint is a rare benign joint disorder that has been reported in only a few studies. However, we recently encountered a pathologically proven case of this disorder. This case also showed the typical imaging findings on panoramic radiographs and on CT and MR images. Therefore, we report this case and the imaging and pathological findings.

Lim, S. W.; Jeon, S. J.; Choi, S. S.; Choi, K. H.

2011-01-01

289

Synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint: a case with typical imaging features and pathological findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint is a rare benign joint disorder that has been reported in only a few studies. However, we recently encountered a pathologically proven case of this disorder. This case also showed the typical imaging findings on panoramic radiographs and on CT and MR images. Therefore, we report this case and the imaging and pathological findings. PMID:22011825

Lim, S W; Jeon, S J; Choi, S S; Choi, K H

2011-11-01

290

Pathology for the HPB Surgeon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optimal care of a patient implies a good professional understanding between all the medical personnel involved in that patient’s care. Similarly a basic understanding of the areas where surgery and pathology interact would go a long way, in clarifying the disease process in the patient. This review aims to cover a few topics in liver lesions, FNAC Vs core biopsy, IHC, Margin examination, and frozen sections, in order to improve the communication between these two specialities.

Tampi, Chandralekha

2012-01-01

291

Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A? peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

EmmanuelPlanel

2014-02-01

292

Communication Pathology building : Artlantis model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A German immigrant, W H Fleischman, was commissioned by the Department of Public Works in the 1930s to design a building to house the Weather Bureau. In 1963 Government donated the building to the University and in 1965 it became the home of the Department of Communication Pathology. The building also houses the Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication. The design of the building reflects a strong international influence and elements of the German Bauhaus style.

Lubbe, S.

2008-01-01

293

Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an investigation of the toxicity of the anti-tumour enzyme glutaminase Rhesus monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and mice were given various doses of chemically modified glutaminase parenterally. The enzyme induced diarrhoea and dysentery and at all but the lowest doses caused illness which was fatal within 10 days. Pathological lesions produced were hepatic lipidosis and glycogen accumulation, and, in the primates, acute necrotizing colitis.

1980-01-01

294

Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A?) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amelie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

295

Molecular Pathology of Lewy Body Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lewy body diseases are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein(AS-positive inclusions in the brain. Since their main component is conformationally modified AS, aggregation of the latter is thought to be a key pathogenic event in these diseases. The analysis of inclusion body constituents gives additional information about pathways also involved in the pathology of synucleinopathies. Widespread mitochondrial dysfunction is very closely related to disease development. The impairment of protein degradation pathways, including both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosomepathway also play an important role during the development of Lewy body diseases. Finally, differential expression changes of isoforms corresponding to genes primarily involved in Lewy body formation point to alternative splicing as another important mechanism in the development of Parkinson’s disease, as well as dementia with Lewy bodies. The present paper attempts to give an overview of recent molecular findings related to the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases.

2009-02-01

296

Urinary bladder carcinosarcoma: a complete pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carcinosarcoma of the urinary bladder is a rare neoplasm that is composed of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. Fewer than 80 cases have been reported worldwide, usually as case reports or a small series. A series of 221 cases using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER Program database has been reported recently. We present one case of carcinosarcoma that was managed by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and that achieved a complete pathological response. A 57-year-old male patient presented with a 2-month history of hematuria. Ultrasonography revealed a 4 cm mass in the bladder dome. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT revealed a carcinosarcoma. The patient underwent subsequent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The pathology specimen examination revealed no residual tumor. The patient had no evidence of recurrence after 20 months. This patient is the second reported case of carcinosarcoma of the urinary bladder that achieved a complete pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Fadl Mohammed Tazi

2012-06-01

297

Bilateral Renal Infarction in a Lupus Patient: An Unusual Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute renal infarction is still an underdiagnosed pathology. Most cases are secondary to arterial embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation or other cardiac illnesses; however, a less known etiology is the vascular affection of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal infarction in lupus patients normally appears with positive antiphospholipid antibodies or lupus anticoagulant in the context of an antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This is characterized by a state of hypercoagulability potentially affecting all segments of the vascular bed with thrombosis. A differential diagnosis with lupus nephritis, a very common pathology in SLE patients, must be carried out. We have to suspect this pathology in patients with SLE and APS who come to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pains or a renal colic. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman who was diagnosed of bilateral segmental renal infarction in the context of recently diagnosed SLE with no other vascular manifestations.

Padilla-Fernandez, Barbara; Garcia-Casado, Diana; Martin-Izquierdo, Manuela; Manzano-Rodriguez, Carmen; Garcia-Garcia, Javier; Lorenzo-Gomez, Maria F.

2013-01-01

298

Pathological Grief: Causes, Recognition, and Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the incidence of pathological grief does not appear to be high, the morbidity and mortality of sufferers is significant. Because of attitudes about grieving and the reluctance to experience grief, patients may avoid sharing grief with the family physician, who may then fail to recognize pathological grief. This article discusses clinical manifestations and situations which can lead to pathological grief. The types of pathological grief—chronic, inhibited, delayed, and atypical—ar...

Gort, George

1984-01-01

299

Actual problems of physical rehabilitation of students with spinal pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze integrative rehabilitation approaches to solving the problem of physical rehabilitation of students with spinal pathology. Material: analyzed more than 50 references. The analysis of the results of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation 67 students 19-20 years old with neurological manifestations of vertebral osteochondrosis of 1 degree. Results: actual problems of students with physical rehabilitation spinal pathology, analyzes the main aspects and rehabilitation approaches to solving these problems. Application integrative model of physical rehabilitation 20.7% increased its efficiency by general indicators of clinical research, valeology literacy, health and quality of life, stability of the results of rehabilitation. Conclusions: proven effective integrative rehabilitation system based on the integrated use of pedagogical, psychological treatment and physical rehabilitation in higher educational institutions.

Kotelevskiy V.I.

2014-02-01

300

Contribution of MR for the study of splenic pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have reviewed the MR studies of 15 patients with splenic pathology confirmed by other techniques (CT and ultrasound in all cases). Five MR studies of patients with lymphomatous disease and no CT finding other than splenomegaly have also been reviewed. The purpose was to assess the contribution of MR as a tool for the study of splenic pathology. MR was conclusive in the diagnosis of 5 patients with hemangioma of the spleen. The aspect of the metastases of melanoma, microabscesses (caused by Candida), hydatid cyst and splenic infarction were quite characteristics, but the probability of these diagnoses had already been established by CT study. Gandy-Gamma nodules, poorly visible under CT scan and of no clinical importance, were viewed in 2 cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world) and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

George Scarlett, W.

2012-01-01

302

The behavioral economics of substance use disorders: reinforcement pathologies and their repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics. PMID:24679180

Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

2014-01-01

303

Pathologic grooming behavior: facial dermatillomania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermatillomania is a pathologic grooming disorder characterized by repetitive, ritualistic, impulsive skin picking without an underlying dermatologic condition. It can lead to skin damage and distress and can affect patient function. This disorder has not received much attention in the literature, with few studies reporting treatment efficacy. Patients with dermatillomania typically present to primary care physicians and frequently are referred to dermatologists; only rarely do patients receive additional psychiatric consultation that may improve treatment efficacy and decrease morbidity. We provide a case report of long-standing facial dermatillomania and our multimodal treatment approach. PMID:21323095

Harris, Scott S; Kushon, Donald; Benedetto, Ernest

2011-01-01

304

Pathology Case Study: Pancreatic Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man with a history of prostatic adenocarcinoma is presented with left flank pain. Gross and microscopic images and descriptions of a needle biopsy of the pancreas are provided in the âÂÂPreoperative Studiesâ section. A âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section is also found here, which includes a detailed description of the condition from the contributing doctors. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Deal, Karen; Rao, Uma N.

2009-05-01

305

Radiographic correlation in orthopedic pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiographic correlation is an essential adjunct for the accurate diagnosis of orthopedic lesions, yet it is a skill neglected by pathologists. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate why performing this correlation is an essential part of the diagnostic process and not merely an interesting adjunct to the surgical pathology of orthopedic lesions. The relationships between x-rays and tissues are explored with an emphasis on bone and soft tissue composition and structure. In addition, the rudiments of complementary imaging studies and how to incorporate their data into diagnoses are examined. PMID:16096379

Klein, Michael J

2005-07-01

306

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Hypertension  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-23

307

Microprobe analysis in human pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This tutorial paper reviews the literature on the application of microprobe analysis to practical problems in diagnostic human pathology. The goal is to allow the reader ready access to the literature on specific clinical problems. Specimen preparation and commonly encountered artifacts are also considered. It is concluded that energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and back-scattered electron imaging are at present the most generally useful microprobe techniques for clinical work, and are no longer solely research tools. The findings often have diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or legal implications. 332 references

1985-01-01

308

An appraisal of innovation in practical teaching in anatomic pathology - A students’ and teachers’ perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Traditional pathology teaching is teacher-centred with an emphasis on acquiring theoretical knowledge. We, at the Department of Pathology, KIMSU introduced a new practical teaching methodology-“active learning” with emphasis on clinico-pathological correlation-for II year M.B.B.S. students to make pathology learning easy, interactive and clinically relevant. Objective: To evaluate student and tutor perception of the new practical teaching approach introduced in the Department of Pathology, KIMSU for II year M.B.B.S. students by analyzing responses to Likert-scale based standardized questionnaires. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken in the Department of Pathology, KIMSU in January 2013 among a sample population of 120 students of II M.B.B.S. (2011 batch and 08 tutors (Pathology post-graduate residents who anonymously graded their approval/disapproval for 17 parameters on a structured Likert scale. Data collected was analysed and results recorded.Conclusion:The survey indicated that there were both encouraging aspects- namely, use of audio-visual aids and A4-sized photomicrographs of practical slides, pre-practical briefings, formation of smaller groups for practicals-which were appreciated; and others-namely, the materials/equipment used in teaching and time management during practicals - that need more efforts from both teachers and students to achieve the objective of learning pathology.

Jyotsna V. Wader

2014-01-01

309

Magnetic resonance imaging of popliteal artery pathologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper illustrates examples of popliteal artery pathologies imaged with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a single tertiary referral centre. Popliteal artery pathologies were identified in 1710 patients referred over a 6-year period with symptoms suggesting lower limb arterial occlusive disease. Common pathologies such as atherosclerotic occlusive disease, thromboemboli and aneurysm disease are discussed as well as unusual pathologies such as cystic adventitial disease, mycotic aneurysm and arterial entrapment. The combination of CE-MRA and the excellent soft tissue resolution of MRI allow detailed evaluation of arterial and peri-arterial pathologies, and facilitate appropriate management decisions

2008-07-01

310

Review of ovarian pathology by means of endo vaginal ultrasound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of ovarian pathology by means of endo vaginal ultrasound provides greater sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of these changes. The importance of the earliest possible detection of malignant neoplasms of the ovary is stressed. In this report, the ultrasonographic findings that produce cystic processes, complex masses and solid tumors are reviewed and the criteria for correct differential diagnosis involving the different types of lesions are established. The factors associated with a risk of greater degree of malignancy are identified as tumor size of over 5 cm, complex or solid ultrasonographic aspect and persistence over the course of time. (Author)

1995-01-01

311

[Tonsillar pathology. The current state of the problem].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to substantiate the indications for the surgical and medicamental treatment of chronic tonsillitis based on the results of evaluation of the function of palatine tonsils under normal and pathological conditions. Special attention is given to various aspects of pathogenesis of recurring diseases of the upper respiratory tract elucidated from the changes of local immune responses of mucous membranes to persistent viral infection involving lymphocytes of the palatine tonsils. A method for the rehabilitation of the patients presenting with chronic tonsillitis with the use of intravenous administration of immunoglobulin preparations is proposed. PMID:23268237

Aref'eva, N A

2012-01-01

312

100 years of Lewy pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1817, James Parkinson described the symptoms of the shaking palsy, a disease that was subsequently defined in greater detail, and named after Parkinson, by Jean-Martin Charcot. Parkinson expected that the publication of his monograph would lead to a rapid elucidation of the anatomical substrate of the shaking palsy; in the event, this process took almost a century. In 1912, Fritz Heinrich Lewy identified the protein aggregates that define Parkinson disease (PD) in some brain regions outside the substantia nigra. In 1919, Konstantin Nikolaevich Tretiakoff found similar aggregates in the substantia nigra and named them after Lewy. In the 1990s, ?-synuclein was identified as the main constituent of the Lewy pathology, and its aggregation was shown to be central to PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In 2003, a staging scheme for idiopathic PD was introduced, according to which ?-synuclein pathology originates in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve and progresses from there to other brain regions, including the substantia nigra. In this article, we review the relevance of Lewy's discovery 100 years ago for the current understanding of PD and related disorders. PMID:23183883

Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko

2013-01-01

313

Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA). PMID:22112489

Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

2010-01-01

314

Muscle development and regeneration in normal and pathological conditions: learning from Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent demonstration that, throughout evolution, many molecular mechanisms have been highly conserved is fundamental to the advancement of our knowledge on muscle development and regeneration. Research has provided new insights into genetic cascades governing early steps of embryonic myogenesis and the regeneration of adult muscle in normal and pathological conditions, thus revealing significant similarity of both processes. Here we provide a current view on genetic mechanisms underlying muscle regeneration with a special focus on regeneration processes that take place in diseased and aging human muscle. Through examples of Drosophila models of human muscular diseases, we discuss potential impact they might have on uncovering molecular bases and identifying new treatments of muscle disorders. Taking advantage of evolutionarily conserved aspects of muscle development and the relative ease by which molecular pathways can be uncovered and dissected in a simple animal model, the fruit fly, we provide a comprehensive analysis of muscle development in Drosophila. Importantly, identification of muscle stem cell like adult muscle precursors in Drosophila makes fruit fly an attractive model system for studying muscle stem cell biology and muscle regeneration. In support of this assumption, recent studies in our laboratory provide arguments that important insights into the biology of vertebrate muscle stem cells can be gained from genetic analysis in Drosophila. PMID:20041821

Daczewska, Malgorzata; Picchio, Lucie; Jagla, Teresa; Figeac, Nicolas; Jagla, Krzysztof

2010-01-01

315

Signaling pathways in melanosome biogenesis and pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over 100 genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

2010-07-01

316

Molecular pharmacological aspects of histamine receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we review the recent developments in the field of histamine research. Besides the description of pharmacological tools for the H1, H2 and H3 receptor, specific attention is paid to both the molecular aspects of the receptor proteins, including the recent cloning of the receptor genes, and their respective signal transduction mechanisms. PMID:7494855

Leurs, R; Smit, M J; Timmerman, H

1995-06-01

317

Hydrodynamic aspect of caves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

Franci Gabrovsek

2008-01-01

318

Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

319

Revisiting the Pathological Evaluation of the Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. The most recent molecular acquisitions about the pathogenesis of the thoracic aortic aneurysm permit to better understand also the morphological counterpart of this disease, where atherosclerosis is not the only factor involved. The cascade of pathological processes leading to the development of the thoracic aortic aneurysms is multifactorial. Methods. We have investigated five surgical specimens of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta, collected from patients without Marfan's disease o...

2013-01-01

320

Clinical pathology accreditation: standards for the medical laboratory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article describes a new set of revised standards for the medical laboratory, which have been produced by Clinical Pathology Accreditation (UK) Ltd (CPA). The original standards have been in use since 1992 and it was recognised that extensive revision was required. A standards revision group was established by CPA and this group used several international standards as source references, so that the resulting new standards are compatible with the most recent international reference sources...

Burnett, D.; Blair, C.; Haeney, M. R.; Jeffcoate, S. L.; Scott, K. W. M.; Williams, D. L.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The investigation of central nervous system vascular changes in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a time-honored concept. Yet, recent reports on changes in venous cerebrospinal outflow, the advent of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques and the investigation of immunomodulatory properties of several vascular mediators on the molecular level have added new excitement to hypotheses centering around vascular pathology as determining factor in the pathophys...

Waschbisch Anne; Manzel Arndt; Linker Ralf A; Lee De-Hyung

2011-01-01

322

BIOMARKERS TO IDENTIFY THE PATHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent findings assessing the utility of biomarkers are reviewed that help identify the basis for disease in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum pathology. Biofluid studies identify about 15% of patients with FTLD due to a genetic mutation that is associated with the specific histopathologic features of TDP-43 or a tauopathy. Other genetically-based risk factors and targeted proteomic searches of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid have suggested additional markers that...

Grossman, Murray

2011-01-01

323

Pathological classification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma based on a new concept  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from the lining epithelium and peribiliary glands of the intrahepatic biliary tree and shows variable cholangiocytic differentiation. To date, ICC was largely classified into adenocarcinoma and rare variants. Herein, we propose to subclassify the former, based on recent progress in the study of ICC including the gross classification and hepatic progenitor/stem cells and on the pathological similarities between biliary and pancreatic neoplasms. That...

Nakanuma, Yasuni; Sato, Yasunori; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Xu, Jing; Ikeda, Hiroko

2010-01-01

324

Pathology Case Study: Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltrate  

Science.gov (United States)

This hematopathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves a 40-year-old woman presenting with a nodule in the skin on the left jaw line. Images from a biopsy of the nodule provide conclusive information that contributes to the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. A description of these images, and the patientâÂÂs immunohistochemistry and molecular studies are also provided. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Whisnant, Richard

2009-06-12

325

Pathology Case Study: Bilateral Pneumonia  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Davie, James; Graur, Octavia; Sheaffer, John

2008-12-12

326

Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Iscoll, Eileen; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-17

327

Pharmacological Treatments in Pathological Gambling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behavior. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. METHODS: A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. RESULTS: A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonistsand glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first-line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration, and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g., those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG.

Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

2012-01-01

328

Contemporary pharmacotherapy and iatrogenic pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few decades, the pharmaceutical industry has developed into a powerful human activity highly influencing modern medicine. Thousands of synthetic therapeuticals have been developed, and these formulations enabled the successful treatment of many diseases, some of which were considered incurable. An increase in drug consumption followed the development of the pharmaceutical industry and the introduction of synthetic drugs. The widespread use of new medicals enabled the collection of data confirming their effectiveness, but also more and more data concerning side and unwanted effects were reported. Frequent side/unwanted effect reports gave rise to development of iatrogenic pathology, a new branch of clinical pathology. The knowledge of the possible unwanted effects of drugs on macro organisms did not enable the effective withdrawal of such formulations from the market. At the beginning, the reports concerning unwanted effects were not verealed. Consequently some potentially harmful formulations were used for years without methodical analyses of their side/unwanted effects. Some potentially dangerous formulations are still on the market such as drugs containing ulcerogenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic substances as well as those inducing bone marrow aplasia. The administration of these potentially dangerous formulations is understandable in the case of clear therapeutic indications allowing no alternatives. In these cases the risk of harmful side effects is greatly overwhelmed by the risk from the primary disease. Otherwise the administration of the potentially harmful drug is unjustified, especially if the indication is not a disease. Many potentially harmful drugs are formulated for use in healthy animals, recommended as growth, laying and milk stimulators, those allowing higher speed and strength in sport and racing horses, estrus inducers and suppressors. The misuse or maluse medication is highly present in sport horses daily treated with vitamin and mineral supplements, analgesics, corticosteroid and anabolic steroids. Unwanted effects of such treatments are evident sometimes shortly after application and sometimes later, influencing reproduction. The same problem is present in small animals.

Trailovi? D.R.

2005-01-01

329

Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States. PMID:23599904

Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

2013-01-01

330

Some challenges in forensic veterinary pathology: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forensic veterinary pathology is a diverse discipline that is in an early phase of its development. Common challenges include estimation of the age of skin wounds and bruises, the diagnosis of drowning and estimation of the time since death. However, many details of the pathological findings related to these various aspects await validation. The 'multispecies' nature of veterinary pathology, combined with the preponderance of published observations originating from animal experimentation, rather than casework, poses two challenges. Firstly, extrapolation of results between species may jeopardize the reliability (and credibility) of the forensic opinion. Secondly, experimental studies may not truly reflect the spectrum of changes seen in actual cases (e.g. extent of injuries, infection, age and health of victim). With regard to drowning, diagnosis based on post-mortem findings remains problematical. Methods for estimation of the time since death (also known as the post-mortem interval) continue to be a major focus of study, with fresh avenues such as post-mortem diagnostic imaging offering interesting possibilities. PMID:23153727

Munro, R; Munro, H M C

2013-07-01

331

Recent progress in random magnets  

CERN Document Server

Spin glasses exhibit random magnetic ordering as a result of competing interactions such as exchange or anisotropy. While they are easily prepared, and many of their general properties have been described, a detailed understanding of their behaviour is still lacking after more than 30 years of study. This book reviews the progress that has been made over the last five years on several aspects of the spin glass problem. Unlike several recent books, the authors concentrate here on experimental results, limiting the theoretical discussion to efforts most directly related to such work. The field o

Ryan, DH

1992-01-01

332

Pathology of the region of the knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis. (orig.)

1981-01-01

333

Pathology of the region of the knee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis.

Aufdermaur, M.

1981-09-01

334

Coding for Pathology Tests – Strengths and Weaknesses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Laboratory professionals will increasingly find themselves called upon to assist with the coding of pathology test requests and reported results in the era of the e-Health Record (EHR). EHR users from outside pathology, including patients and clinicians, will expect seamless integration of pathology services, and question variations in test nomenclature, units, reference intervals, and interpretive comments. Scientists and pathologists will need to be ready to work with colleagues outside the...

2012-01-01

335

Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players
represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological
gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time) on slot machines compared with
non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological
gambling. However, to...

2013-01-01

336

On-Line Full Text Pathology Database  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A free text database for pathology reports has been developed using the BRS/SEARCH free text management software. All pathology reports are stored in the free text pathology database. Standardized section headings make any word searchable both by itself or within the context of a specific part of the report. The free text management software supplies a rich set of Boolean, positional, and relational operators. These operators make an iterative search strategy an effective method of searching ...

Fink, Daniel; Clark, Anthony; Sideli, Robert

1988-01-01

337

Multiresolution browsing of pathology images using wavelets.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Digitized pathology images typically have very high resolution, making it difficult to display in their entirety on the computer screen and inefficient to transmit over the network for educational purposes. Progressive zooming of pathology images is desirable despite the availability of inexpensive networking bandwidth. An efficient progressive image resolution refining system for on-line distribution of pathology image using wavelets has been developed and is discussed in this paper. The sys...

Wang, J. Z.; Nguyen, J.; Lo, K. K.; Law, C.; Regula, D.

1999-01-01

338

Pathologic mitoses and pathology of mitosis in tumorigenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The gist of my hypothesis (.. is a certain abnormal chromatin constitution. Each process, which brings about this chromatin constitution, would result in the origin of a malignant tumour. Certainly, I consider irregularities with mitosis as the normal mode of the origin of an incorrectly assembled nucleus. This statement by Boveri (1914 has considered earlier observations of asymmetric divisions in human cancers (Hansemann, 1890. The hypothesis is based on the understanding of mitosis as an equational bipartition of the hereditary substance (Flemming, 1879; Roux, 1883. Latest since it was known that genes are located on chromosomes (Sturtevant, 1913, their balanced transport in anaphase appeared as a condition of correct somatic proliferation. True mitoses guarantee the constancy of terminally differentiated tissues. Politzer (1934 has performed X-ray experiments to investigate abnormal karyokinesis with regard to anomalous chromatin condensation, chromosome breakage, spindle malformation, and failure in cytokinesis. On the basis of light microscopy, further significant progress in understanding the pathology of mitosis was not possible. Tumour cases with reduced chromosome numbers seduced to the idea that mitotic activity is rather under cytoplasmic than under nuclear control (Koller, 1947.

RG Steinbeck

2009-12-01

339

[Chronobiological aspect of children autism diagnostics].  

Science.gov (United States)

The author reviews the history and classification of autistic disorders and describes in details (by months and year periods) clinical symptoms of early children autism from the birth to 6-8 years of age in 41 children. Follow up data on the patient's state at the age 8-14 years, with account for the effects of treatment and correction, are presented as well. The results are discussed in the aspect of critical periods and phases of early ontogenesis, their deviations and pathology. PMID:20517205

Bashina, V M

2010-01-01

340

Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine playersrepresent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathologicalgambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time on slot machines compared withnon-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathologicalgambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathologicalgambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that responsefrequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency amongtwenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially availableslot machine, and screened for pathological gambling symptom severity using the South Oaks Gambling Screen(SOGS. The results showed that pathological gambling sufferers had significantly higher response frequencythan non-problem gamblers, and that response frequency was significantly correlated with SOGS symptomseverity among pathological gambling sufferers. Finally, binary logistic regression showed that responsefrequency accurately identified 21 (95.5% pathological gambling sufferers and 18 (85.7% non-problemgamblers. The correlation between response frequency and SOGS may suggest a stronger reinforcement ofgambling behavior in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may haveimportant implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling.

Jakob Linnet

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Current practical applications of diagnostic immunohistochemistry in breast pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, immunohistochemistry has assumed an increasingly prominent role in diagnostic breast pathology. Immunohistochemistry is now frequently used in the evaluation of many epithelial proliferations of the breast. Common applications include the use of myoepithelial markers to evaluate for stromal invasion, E-cadherin to distinguish between ductal and lobular neoplasia, high molecular weight cytokeratins to differentiate usual ductal hyperplasia from ductal carcinoma in situ, immunohistochemical profiles to characterize site of origin of metastatic carcinomas, and cytokeratin stains to detect metastases in sentinel lymph nodes. Recent advances, practical considerations, and potential pitfalls in the use of immunohistochemistry in these five diagnostic categories are discussed herein. PMID:15252316

Lerwill, Melinda F

2004-08-01

342

A patologização do sedentarismo The pathologization of sedentariness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A identificação do sedentarismo como fator de risco para doenças crônico-degenerativas influenciou significativamente nas recomendações de saúde pública em defesa de estilos de vida fisicamente ativos. O artigo estuda o processo de patologização do sedentarismo e seus desdobramentos para o campo da saúde pública. Num primeiro momento, discutimos de que maneira o modelo biomédico serve de base para a transposição de aspectos da conduta humana como "fator de risco" e, a seguir, como patologia, tal qual no caso específico da "Síndrome da Morte Sedentária", assim classificada por alguns autores. Em seguida, analisamos como essa visão vem sendo difundida no campo da saúde, tomando por base um programa institucional que, ao mesmo tempo em que transforma o sedentarismo em doença, apresenta a atividade física como um remédio cujos resultados podem se estender a todas as esferas da vida. Nessa linha de raciocínio, em que os mal-estares de nossa civilização são medicalizados e tornados mercadoria ao serem transformados em riscos e patologias, a atividade física torna-se vacina para o corpo social.The identification of physical inactivity as a risk factor for chronic degenerative diseases has significantly influenced public health recommendations in support of physically active lifestyles. This study analyzes the pathologization of sedentariness and its implications in the public health field. First we discuss how the biomedical model serves as a basis to transform aspects of human behavior into 'risk factors' and subsequently into pathologies such as the 'Sedentary Death Syndrome', as some authors classify it. Second, we analyze how this view is being spread in the health field; our analysis is based on an institutional program which transforms sedentariness into illness while presents physical activity as a medicine whose results can reach all aspects of life. According to this rationale, in which the discomforts of our civilization are medicalized and made into commodities as they are transformed into risks and pathologies, physical activity becomes a vaccine to be applied to the social body.

Marcos Santos Ferreira

2012-12-01

343

Region Classification with Markov Field Aspect Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years considerable advances have been made in learning to recognize and localize visual object classes from images annotated with global image-level labels, bounding boxes, or pixel-level segmentations. A second line of research uses unsupervised learning methods such as aspect models to automatically discover the latent object classes of unlabeled image collections. Here we learn spatial aspect models from image-level labels and use them to recover labeled regions in new images. Ou...

Verbeek, Jakob; Triggs, William

2007-01-01

344

[Molecular pathology of pulmonary carcinomas].  

Science.gov (United States)

The group of non-small cell lung carcinomas includes tumors that are variable at the clinical, histopathological and molecular levels. Advances in the understanding of molecular pathology of lung adenocarcinomas in particular has led to changes in their histopathological classification and treatment. Patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma harboring specific mutations benefit from the administration of specific targeted therapy. Therefore, pathologists closely involved in the diagnostics of lung tumors significantly contribute to the diagnostic-therapeutical algorithm. Analysis of EGFR gene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas is already routinely performed and the presence of activating mutations in EGFR is the main indication for the administration of tyrosinkinase inhibitors. Besides EGFR mutations, EML4-ALK rearrangement is also being analysed and there is potential in analysing BRAF mutations as well. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of the most relevant molecules that also serve as the therapeutic target for practicing pathologists. Keywords: NSCLC - lung adenocarcinoma - EGFR - ALK - BRAF - KRAS - RET - MET - erlotinib - gefitinib - crizotinib. PMID:24758501

Rohan, Zden?k; Mat?j?ková, Milada; Mat?j, Radoslav

2014-04-01

345

Pathology Case Study: Immunoglobulin Deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with severe back pain. The patientâÂÂs medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the âÂÂPatient Historyâ section. Results from laboratory tests are also provided in a table. After looking at the âÂÂPatient Historyâ and âÂÂLaboratory Investigationsâ sections, students should proceed on to the âÂÂQuestionsâ section, where they can test their knowledge of diagnostics. Then test your answers with the official findings in the âÂÂDiagnosisâ section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Nambiar, Ashok

2009-02-06

346

Placental malaria. I. Pathological classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women are more likely to contract malaria than their non-pregnant counterparts. The aim of this study was to develop a simple classification system for the histopathological diagnosis of placental malaria infection applicable to placentas collected in field conditions. The placentas were classified into four groups depending on the presence and distribution of parasites and malaria pigment: active infection, active-chronic infection, past-chronic infection, not infected. The frequency of parasitized placentas (26.4%) was in keeping with the prevalence of placental parasitaemia documented in epidemiological studies. An additional 29.8% placentas showed pigment in fibrin only, indicating past-chronic infection. Chronic placental malaria infection was most common in primigravidae, possibly reflecting ineffective clearance of parasites from the placenta. Seasonal fluctuations between infection categories support progression of placental infection with delayed clearance of pigment from fibrin. The proposed classification system has allowed diagnosis of different categories of placental malaria infection by two independent observers. A standardized method of diagnosis may enhance understanding of placental pathology and reduced birth weight in malaria infection during pregnancy. PMID:8495954

Bulmer, J N; Rasheed, F N; Francis, N; Morrison, L; Greenwood, B M

1993-03-01

347

Practical pathology of aging mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

Piper M. M. Treuting

2011-06-01

348

Designing Aspects with AODL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a big gap in the level of maturity of implementation technologies and design strategies for aspect-oriented systems. Implementation-wise aspectoriented software development (AOSD has made remarkable progress and a number of efficient technologies have been developed but there is no de-facto design solution for AOSD available yet. Existing design strategies either provide strategies for designing aspects neglecting non-aspectual constructs or they provide complicated and hard-to-adopt strategies which are not easy towork with for traditional UML designers. This paper proposes a new design language for aspects which works with Unified Modelling Language in a single design environment. Some new design notations have been introduced for representing aspects and their key elements, and new models have been proposed to design structural and behavioural characteristics of aspects.

Saqib Iqbal

2011-07-01

349

Retinoid signals and Th17-mediated pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

For many years, CD4+ effector T cells were categorized into two subsets: T helper type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2) cells. More recent research has refined this model, delineating further subsets; in particular, Th17 cells, activated CD4+ T cells characterised by the production of the cytokine IL-17. Autoantigen-specific Th17 cells are associated with pathology in a number of animal models of organ-specific autoimmune disease and evidence is mounting that Th17 cells are also critical in human autoimmunity. Retinoids, a family of compounds that bind to and activate retinoic acid receptors (RARs and RXRs), are able to alter CD4+ T cell differentiation in vitro though agonism and antagonism of a range of retinoid receptors. For example, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits Th17 differentiation and instead promotes the upregulation of Foxp3, a key transcription factor in regulatory T cells. Importantly, treatment with retinoids can modulate Th17-mediated autoimmunity: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is ameliorated by ATRA administration due to suppression of both the differentiation and the function of Th17 cells. In this review, we discuss the unveiled molecular mechanism and the possible clinical application of retinoids for the treatment of human Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:19252374

Klemann, Christian; Raveney, Benjamin Je; Oki, Shinji; Yamamura, Takashi

2009-02-01

350

Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Filippo Spiezia2, Vincenzo Denaro21Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones.Keywords: tendinopathy, rupture, percutanous repair, less invasive

Nicola Maffulli

2010-07-01

351

Frontotemporal dementias: Recent advances and current controversies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Frontotemporal dementia (FTD syndromes comprise a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative conditions characterized by atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes. Three main clinical variants are recognized: Behavioral variant (bv-FTD, Semantic dementia (SD, and Progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA. However, logopenic/phonological (LPA variant has been recently described, showing a distinctive pattern of brain atrophy and often associated to Alzheimer?s disease pathology. The diagnosis of FTD is challenging, since there is clinical, pathological, and genetic overlap between the variants and other neurodegenerative diseases, such as motoneuron disease (MND and corticobasal degeneration (CBD. In addition, patients with gene mutations (tau and progranulin display an inconsistent clinical phenotype and the correspondence between the clinical variant and its pathology is unpredictable. New cognitive tests based on social cognition and emotional recognition together with advances in molecular pathology and genetics have contributed to an improved understanding. There is now a real possibility of accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis. The present review concentrates on new insights and debates in FTD.

Leyton Cristian

2010-10-01

352

The destruction of time in pathological narcissism.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the characteristics of subjective time (in contrast to objective time), with particular reference to a specific form of pathological experience and relation to the passage of time in patients with narcissistic personality undergoing psychoanalytic treatment. The clinical manifestations and technical approach to this pathology of time experience are outlined in the context of illustrative clinical vignettes. PMID:18405285

Kernberg, Otto F

2008-04-01

353

Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

Shriver, B.D.

1988-01-01

354

Pathology of digestive organs at adiposity (review)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The review is devoted demonstration of communication of adiposity with occurrence of diseases of digestive organs. The problem urgency is caused by steady increase in number of patients with adiposity, involving in pathological process of vitals. Clinical changes from digestive organs at patients with adiposity can be the diversified, presence « two-dimensional syndromes», caused multiorgans a pathology is characteristic

Anisimova E.V.; Kozlova I.V.; Volkov S.V.; Meshcherjakov V.L.

2011-01-01

355

Orbital imaging: Part 2. Intraorbital pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several primary and secondary processes may affect the orbit. We present a review of intraorbital pathology utilising a compartmental approach guiding the differential diagnosis. Knowledge of the contents of each compartment facilitates the differential diagnosis. Globe pathology is not dealt with in this review.

Aviv, R.I. [Department of Neuroradiology, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Hospital, Toronto (Canada)]. E-mail: richardaviv@lineone.net; Miszkiel, K. [National Institute for Neurology and Neurosurgery and Moorfields Eye Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

2005-03-01

356

[Pathology and pathobiology of the oesophageal carcinoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcinoma of the oesophagus including carcinoma of gastro-oesophageal junction are rapidly increasing in incidence. During recent years there have been changes in the knowledge surrounding biology of the disease progression. Identification of dysplasia in mucosal biopsies is the most reliable pathologic indicator of an increased risk of development of squamous cell carcinoma and passes through the sequence of chronic esophagitis, low-grade and high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma. Although Barrett's esophagus is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma and have a well described sequence of carcinogenesis: the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence, not all patients with this disorder require intensive surveillance. The natural history of dysplasia is poorly understood, particularly in low-risk regions, and prospective follow-up studies are needed. Adjunctive methods to improve reproducibility, such as immunostaining for alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR), show promise, but require confirmation in larger studies. In addition, several controversial methods such as detection of p16, p53, and DNA content abnormalities may help identify patients at particularly high risk for progression to cancer, but these techniques are not yet widely available for routine clinical application. More studies are needed to define other early nonmorphologic biomarkers for risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Recent evidence regarding the importance of several histopathologically derived prognostic factors, such as circumferential resection margin status and lymph node metastases are evaluated, including lymph node micrometastases and the sentinel node concept. With the rising use of multimodal treatments for oesophageal cancer it is important that the response of the tumour to this therapy can be carefully documented by histopathology. PMID:20954310

Micev, M; Cosi?-Micev, M

2010-01-01

357

Pathology and pathobiology of the oesophageal carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carcinoma of the oesophagus including carcinoma of gastro-oesophageal junction are rapidly increasing in incidence. During recent years there have been changes in the knowledge surrounding biology of the disease progression. Identification of dysplasia in mucosal biopsies is the most reliable pathologic indicator of an increased risk of development of squamous cell carcinoma and passes through the sequence of chronic esophagitis, low-grade and high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma. Although Barrett's esophagus is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma and have a well described sequence of carcinogenesis: the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence, not all patients with this disorder require intensive surveillance. The natural history of dysplasia is poorly understood, particularly in low-risk regions, and prospective follow-up studies are needed. Adjunctive methods to improve reproducibility, such as immunostaining for alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR, show promise, but require confirmation in larger studies. In addition, several controversial methods such as detection of p16, p53, and DNA content abnormalities may help identify patients at particularly high risk for progression to cancer, but these techniques are not yet widely available for routine clinical application. More studies are needed to define other early nonmorphologic biomarkers for risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Recent evidence regarding the importance of several histopathologically derived prognostic factors, such as circumferential resection margin status and lymph node metastases are evaluated, including lymph node micrometastases and the sentinel node concept. With the rising use of multimodal treatments for oesophageal cancer it is important that the response of the tumour to this therapy can be carefully documented by histopathology.

?osi?-Micev M.

2010-01-01

358

Aspects of the coal industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the Coal Industry Act in 1994 British Coal was privatised and sold, piecemeal, to the private sector. This, coupled with privatisations in other energy industries, has left the Government with limited powers to intervene and control the industry. There are, however, some aspects that are still under Government auspices. This paper sets out the position on three of these that have recently been of interest to MPs: competition from subsidised European producers particularly Germany, Spain and Poland; the government review of clean coal technology, the technological answer to the environmental challenges posed by coal; and the Government review of planning policy guidance on opencast mining. 39 refs.

NONE

1997-12-02

359

Historical aspects of the study of malformations in The Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection of malformed ("teratological") specimens of man and other mammals of Gerardus Vrolik (1775-1859) and his son Willem Vrolik (1801-1863), dating from the beginning of the 19th century, continues to function as a central part of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology in the Academic Medical Center at the University of Amsterdam. Recently, many specimens in the collection were reexamined, using radiographic, CT scan, and MRI methods. In order to provide background information concerning Dutch teratological research and anatomical cabinets, some aspects of the history of Dutch morphology during the 17th-19th centuries are briefly described in this paper. Special attention is paid to the scientific work and cabinet of Frederik Ruijsch (1638-1731), who sold this cabinet to Czar Peter the Great; Bernard Siegfried Albinus (1697-1770); Wouter van Doeveren (1733-1783), Andreas Bonn (1738-1818), and Sebald Justinus Brugmans (1763-1819), who sold or donated parts of their collections of malformed specimens to Leiden University; Petrus Camper (1722-1789) and Jan Bleuland (1756-1838), whose collections are still in the Department of Anatomy at Groningen University and the Departments of Anatomy and Pathology of Utrecht University; and Gerard and Willem Vrolik. PMID:9605283

Baljet, B; Oostra, R J

1998-05-01

360

Common bile duct pathologies at nawabshah  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the causes, presentation, management and outcome of Common Bile Duct (CBD) pathologies. All patients who presented with CBD pathologies. Data of all the patients with CBD pathologies was collected and entered on a proforma, including their complaints, positive examination findings, investigations, diagnosis, procedure performed and its outcome. During the study period 45 patients presented with CBD pathology. Amongst them 14 were males and the rest females (31), with a mean age of 36.7 years. Around 67% patients had choledocholithiasis as the commonest cause. Exploration of the CBD with T-tube insertion was the commonest procedure, performed in 69% patients. About 4% patients had retained stones and 20% developed wound infection. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. Most common pathology involving the CBD was secondary stones; 95% patients had associated gall stones also. (author)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsies: Applications in pathology and clinic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsy sections has been recently applied to investigate different muscle disorders. This technique, employed as a complementary examination in the frame of pathological studies, permitted to confirm the diagnosis for a first pathology and to elucidate the cause of a second. In skeletal muscles of a young patient suffering from a slow progressive myopathy, calcium accumulations have been demonstrated in histologically abnormal fibers. These findings have been compared to histopathological characteristics previously described. On the other hand, we have evaluated muscle sections from two patients who presented symptoms of an inflammatory myopathy, a rare pathology that recently emerged in France. The chemical analyses permitted us to highlight local aluminium infiltration in muscles. The hypothesis of an unusual reaction to intramuscular aluminium accumulation has been advanced. These studies demonstrate the capability for ion beam microanalytical techniques to address acute problems in pathology.

Moretto, Ph. E-mail: moretto@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Coquet, M.; Gherardi, R.K.; Stoedzel, P

2000-03-01

362

Nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsies: Applications in pathology and clinic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsy sections has been recently applied to investigate different muscle disorders. This technique, employed as a complementary examination in the frame of pathological studies, permitted to confirm the diagnosis for a first pathology and to elucidate the cause of a second. In skeletal muscles of a young patient suffering from a slow progressive myopathy, calcium accumulations have been demonstrated in histologically abnormal fibers. These findings have been compared to histopathological characteristics previously described. On the other hand, we have evaluated muscle sections from two patients who presented symptoms of an inflammatory myopathy, a rare pathology that recently emerged in France. The chemical analyses permitted us to highlight local aluminium infiltration in muscles. The hypothesis of an unusual reaction to intramuscular aluminium accumulation has been advanced. These studies demonstrate the capability for ion beam microanalytical techniques to address acute problems in pathology

2000-03-01

363

Pathological gambling in women: a review / Jogo patológico em mulheres: uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Ainda que jogos de azar e os problemas a eles relacionados sejam antigos para a humanidade, o Jogo Patológico, como alteração do comportamento humano, somente passou a ser reconhecido oficialmente como transtorno psiquiátrico a partir de sua inclusão na 3ª Edição do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico [...] de Transtornos Mentais (APA,1980). A maioria dos estudos sobre jogadores patológicos tem como base uma população eminentemente masculina. Entretanto, estima-se que pelo menos um terço dos indivíduos que recebem este diagnóstico sejam mulheres. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar características clínicas e epidemiológicas de jogadoras comparadas a jogadores. As bases de dados MEDLINE e PsycINFO foram consultadas a respeito de estudos sobre Jogo Patológico publicados nos últimos dez anos, com especial enfoque para características clínicas (dados sócio-demográficos, curso e evolução, comorbidade psiquiátrica, genética e personalidade) e epidemiologia. Artigos relevantes publicados anteriormente ao período escolhido de revisão foram selecionados a partir da lista original de referências. Os autores concluem que a literatura atual indica que jogadoras e jogadores apresentam semelhanças, mas carreiam possíveis diferenças etiopatogênicas cujo esclarecimento deverá aprimorar as estratégias de tratamento e prevenção. Abstract in english Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980). Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this arti [...] cle is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews of the past 10 years on clinical (sociodemographic, course and progression, psychiatric comorbidities, genetics, and personality) and epidemiological aspects of female gamblers. Other relevant articles were also selected from reference lists. It is concluded that the current literature indicates some common characteristics in female and male gamblers, but it also indicates the possibility that each gender may carry etiopathogenic differences that when better understood should lead to improved treatment and prevention strategies.

Silvia Saboia, Martins; Daniela S. S., Lobo; Hermano, Tavares; Valentim, Gentil.

364

Experimental radiation pathology and oncology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The program goal is to provide basic data for evaluating the hazard to man from radioactive materials deposited within the body. The original objective, to obtain dose-response information and to provide data from several species for extrapolating animal data to man, is receiving less attention at present as effort is being put into determining how radiation causes bone cancer and whether viruses play a role. The program began with the very early radiotoxicologic investigations of materials important in the development of the atomic bomb and the necessity to establish maximum permissible levels of exposure to these materials. With the demonstration that bone cancer is the most sensitive indicator of damage from transuranic elements and some of the fission products, bone pathology became the focus of attention. When it became evident that questions of human hazard cannot be answered unequivocally on the basis of dose-response relationships, different approaches were considered, and one based on knowledge of mechanisms of cancer induction seemed most likely to be successful. The detection of viruses in both radiation-induced and spontaneous bone cancer of mice, and the present evidence for a similar virus in bone cancer of man, support the hypothesis that radiation causes cancer by activating endogenous neoplastic information, which can also be expressed as oncornavirus. Present emphases therefore concern understanding the biological, biochemical, and physical attributes of the five murine oncornaviruses that have now been isolated in the course of the program; demonstrating the existence of a comparable human oncornavirus; and discovering how radiation and virus interact in the induction of bone cancer

1975-01-01

365

Prevalência e achados epidemiológicos, anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos dos tumores hepáticos malignos primários de cães da Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul (1965-2012) / Prevalence and epidemiological, pathological and immunohistochemical aspects of primary canine malignant hepatic tumors in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (1965-2012)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A prevalência e os aspectos epidemiológicos, anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos dos tumores hepáticos malignos primários (THMP) em cães foram estudados. De 7.373 cães necropsiados em 48 anos (1965-2012), 64 morreram de THMP, o que corresponde a 0,9% do total de cães que morreram por qualquer c [...] ausa, 7,8% do total de cães que morreram por tumores em geral e 33,5% do total de cães que morreram por tumores hepáticos. Desses 64 casos de THMP, 51 foram revistos histologicamente, avaliados imuno-histoquimicamente e reclassificados como carcinomas (colangiocarcinomas [n=36], carcinomas hepatocelulares [n=9] e hepatocolangiocarcinoma [n=1]) e sarcomas (hemangiossarcomas [n=5]). Dos cães com colangiocarcinomas e carcinomas hepatocelulares em que a idade estava disponível nos protocolos, 64,7% e 77,8% eram idosos, respectivamente. Na necropsia, colangiocarcinomas caracterizaram-se principalmente por ocorrerem em um padrão multinodular (83,3%), enquanto carcinomas hepatocelulares ocorreram tanto de forma massiva (44,4%) quanto nodular (44,4%). Metástases extra-hepáticas foram vistas em 77,8% e 33,3% dos casos de colangiocarcinomas e carcinomas hepatocelulares, respectivamente, e em relação aos colangiocarcinomas afetaram principalmente pulmões (52,8%), linfonodos (50%) e peritônio (19,4%). Ascite (22,2%) e icterícia (22,2%) foram achados associados ocasionalmente com ambos os tumores. Na histologia, a maior parte dos colangiocarcinomas (86,1%) e dos carcinomas hepatocelulares (55,6%) tinha padrão tubular e trabecular, respectivamente. Na imuno-histoquímica, a maioria (63,9%) dos colangiocarcinomas demonstrou imunomarcação para CK7 e nenhum imunomarcou para Hep Par 1. A maioria (55,6%) dos carcinomas hepatocelulares demonstrou imunomarcação para Hep Par 1 e nenhum imunomarcou para CK7. Os resultados aqui apresentados demonstram uma altíssima prevalência de THMP, principalmente colangiocarcinomas, e servem para auxiliar, através dos achados de necropsia, histologia e imuno-histoquímica, patologistas veterinários no diagnóstico dessa tão comum forma de câncer em cães da Região Central do RS, Brasil. Abstract in english The prevalence and epidemiological and immunohistochemical aspects of primary hepatic malignant tumors (PHMT) were reviewed in dogs necropsied in a 48-year period (1965-2012). Out of those7,373 dogs, 64 died due to PHMT, which corresponds to 0.9% of the dogs dying from any cause in the period; 7.8% [...] of dogs which deaths were caused by tumors in general; and 33.5% of all dogs dying from hepatic tumors (primary and metastatic). Out of the 64 cases of PHMT, 51 were reviewed histologically and evaluated by immunohistochemistry; they were diagnosed as carcinomas (36 cholangiocarcinomas, 9 hepatocellular carcinomas and one hepatocholangiocarcinoma) and sarcomas (5 hemangiosarcomas). In those dogs in which the age was possible determined, 64.7% (cholangiocarcinomas) and 77.8% (hepatocellular carcinomas) were old. At necropsy examination cholangiocarcinomas were characterized mainly by a multinodular pattern (83.3%) while hepatocellular carcinomas occurred both as massive (44.4%) or nodular (44.4%) distribution. Extra-hepatic metastasis occurred respectively in 77.8% and 33.3% of the cases of cholangiocarcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas; metastatic cholangiocarcinomas affected mainly the lungs (52.8%), lymph nodes (50%) and peritoneum (19.4%). Ascites (22.2%) and icterus (22.2%) were observed frequently associated to both tumors. Histologically, most part of the cholangiocarcinomas (86.1%) and of the hepatocellular carcinomas (55.6%) presented respectively a tubular or trabecular type. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the majority (63.9%) of cholangiocarcinomas was positive for CK7 and none was marked for Hep Par 1. The majority (55.6%) of the hepatocellular carcinomas revealed positive reaction for Hep Par 1 and none was marked for CK7. The results presented here demonstrated a very high

Mariana M., Flores; Ronaldo M., Bianchi; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

366

Pathology Case Study:A 52-Year-Old Male with "Cholelithiasis"  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a gastrointestinal pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 52-year-old female has âÂÂcholelithiasis,â intermittant jaundice, recent pancreatitis and gallbladder polyps. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

Schubert, Eric

2007-12-26

367

Polysaccharide Nanosystems for Future Progress in Cardiovascular Pathologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural polysaccharides have received a lot of attention in the biomedical field. Indeed, sources of polysaccharides, extracted or produced from plants, bacteria, fungi or algae, are diverse and renewable. Moreover, recent progresses in polysaccharide chemistry and nanotechnologies allow elaborating new dedicated nanosystems. Polysaccharide-based nanosystems may be designed for interacting in several biological processes. In particular, the atherothrombotic pathology is highly concerned by polysaccharide-mediated recognition. Atherothrombotic diseases, regardless of the anatomical localization, remain the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. This review intends to provide an overview on polysaccharide-based nanosystems as drug delivery systems and targeted contrast agents for molecular imaging with an emphasis on the treatment and imaging of cardiovascular pathologies.

Silva, Amanda Karine Andriola; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric

2014-01-01

368

Negotiating a pathological identity in the clinical dialogue: discourse analysis of a family therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the framework of social constructionism, psychotherapy has been re-conceptualized as a semiotic process, which consists of the creative generation of new meanings in the context of collaborative discourse. In recent years, research approaches that draw from social constructionism, such as discourse analysis, have been fruitfully employed in the study of psychotherapy processes, whilst being in line with the contemporary emphasis on language, narrative, and meaning making. This paper aims to further the exploration of the usefulness of discourse analysis in the study of psychotherapy processes, and in particular, in situations where the medical discourse is powerfully implicated in the construction of a person's identity. It is based on the analysis of a family therapy with a family whose child has a diagnosis of autism. The analysis focuses on two features of the family's talk, namely shifts in the flexibility of employment of a diverse range of discourses and subject positions, and shifts in the ways agency is constructed and discursively negotiated in the clinical conversations. It is suggested that these shifts can be used as indications of change in the family's network of meanings. The analysis suggests that an important aspect in clinical work with families with a member with a psychiatric diagnosis lies in decentring, or deconstructing, the dominant, pathology-maintaining accounts, and allowing for a wider range of less problematic narratives and subject positions to emerge. PMID:16354441

Avdi, Evrinomy

2005-12-01

369

General Risk Factors for Gambling Problems and the Prevalence of Pathological Gambling in Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pathological Gambling (PG) has not until recently been scientifically studied. In a series of epidemiological studies prevalences of Pathological gambling were assessed for both men and women, adults and adolescents, and also for games without monetary rewards, and for internet. In Norway the condition affects below one percent of the adult population (higher in men than in women), close to 2% percent among adolescents, and close to 3% for games without monetary reward. For “internet addict...

Johansson, Agneta

2006-01-01

370

Delayed Bronchostenosis After Blunt Chest Trauma in Children: CT and Pathologic Findings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tracheobronchial disruption is an uncommon injury associated with blunt chest trauma. We report CT features and pathologic findings of two pediatric cases in which a bronchial injury was unnoticed initially but was diagnosed later by appearance of delayed bronchostenosis with distal atelectasis after blunt chest trauma in recent motor vehicle accidents. Pathologically, obliteration of the bronchial lumen was caused by dense fibrous overgrowth and granulation tissue.

Yoon, Hye-kyung; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Joungho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Shim, Young Mog

2006-01-01

371

A Major Genetic Locus in Trypanosoma brucei Is a Determinant of Host Pathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The progression and variation of pathology during infections can be due to components from both host or pathogen, and/or the interaction between them. The influence of host genetic variation on disease pathology during infections with trypanosomes has been well studied in recent years, but the role of parasite genetic variation has not been extensively studied. We have shown that there is parasite strain-specific variation in the level of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly in infected mice and use...

Morrison, Liam J.; Tait, Andy; Mclellan, Sarah; Sweeney, Lindsay; Turner, C. Michael R.; Macleod, Annette

2009-01-01

372

Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image acquisition systems (resolution, colour temperature, focus, brightness, and quality evaluation procedures, display resolution data, implemented image formats, storage, cycle frequency, backup procedures, operation system, and external system accessibility. The lowest third level describes the permitted limits and threshold in detail. At present, an applicable standard including all mentioned features does not exist to our knowledge; some aspects can be taken from radiological standards (PACS, DICOM 3; others require specific solutions or are not covered yet. Conclusion The progress in virtual microscopy and application of artificial intelligence (AI in tissue-based diagnosis demands fast preparation and implementation of an internationally acceptable standard. The described hierarchic order as well as analytic investigation in all potentially necessary aspects and details offers an appropriate tool to specifically determine standardized requirements.

Vollmer Ekkehard

2008-04-01

373

Organisational aspects, research required, educational aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to the clinical testing of NMR imaging, there were activities for studying the basic principles of NMR spectroscopy, also for routine applications in university clinics and larger hospitals. Equipment is available now at different places; research projects should be coordinated in order to ensure direct access to the equipment for a sufficient, task-specific period of time. There is demand for research in this field in the Federal Republic of Germany. Education and further training should be organised taking into account physical and medical aspects. (TRV)

1987-01-01

374

General safety aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

1998-09-01

375

Quality control of pathology laboratories in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the standards of quality control and assurance programs adopted in pathology laboratories in Turkey by the aid of a questionnaire-based survey.Materials and Methods: We have submitted a survey that consisted of 68 questions to 250 various public and private pathology laboratories located in university hospitals, Ministry of Health research hospitals, and private hospitals throughout Turkey. We received 84 responses, and the responses were analyzed with the aid of a statistics program (SPSS.Results: None of the pathology laboratories that responded to the survey used a quality control program that was unique to pathology, and many of the responders were using general hospital quality control programs. There were no standards in the use and calibration of histopathology equipment. Half of the laboratories had written guidelines of their quality control procedures. The written protocols were most common for macroscopic examination and reporting of specimens. Adult autopsies were very low to null, but there were large number of pediatric and perinatal autopsies performed in most of the laboratories. We identified many problems concerning the safety procedures.Conclusion: Our results showed that pathology quality control programs adopted elsewhere may not be entirely suitable to pathology laboratories in our country. We propose development of quality assurance programs that consider the specific circumstances of the pathology laboratories in our country, and such programs should be better implemented.

Kutsal YÖRÜKO?LU

2009-01-01

376

Egocentric Social Network Analysis of Pathological Gambling  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims To apply social network analysis (SNA) to investigate whether frequency and severity of gambling problems were associated with different network characteristics among friends, family, and co-workers. is an innovative way to look at relationships among individuals; the current study was the first to our knowledge to apply SNA to gambling behaviors. Design Egocentric social network analysis was used to formally characterize the relationships between social network characteristics and gambling pathology. Setting Laboratory-based questionnaire and interview administration. Participants Forty frequent gamblers (22 non-pathological gamblers, 18 pathological gamblers) were recruited from the community. Findings The SNA revealed significant social network compositional differences between the two groups: pathological gamblers (PGs) had more gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks than did nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). PGs had more individuals in their network with whom they personally gambled, smoked, and drank with than those with who were NPG. Network ties were closer to individuals in their networks who gambled, smoked, and drank more frequently. Associations between gambling severity and structural network characteristics were not significant. Conclusions Pathological gambling is associated with compositional but not structural differences in social networks. Pathological gamblers differ from non-pathological gamblers in the number of gamblers, smokers, and drinkers in their social networks. Homophily within the networks also indicates that gamblers tend to be closer with other gamblers. This homophily may serve to reinforce addictive behaviors, and may suggest avenues for future study or intervention.

Meisel, Matthew K.; Clifton, Allan D.; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

2012-01-01

377

Resident training in pathology: General overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chaos in the law related to “regulations of medical specialty” has negative effect on the training of pathology residency programs in our country. There are enormous effort to close the gap by the medical specialists via their societies or federations. Training in pathology commission of Federation of Turkish Pathology Societies has finished their work related to “The schedule of training of pathology residency” and “logbook”. The panel deals with training in pathology residency are part of these efforts. Requirements of rotations to the other institutions were treated too. It is considered more appropriate that the federation regulates rotations for sub specializations. Systematic approach is requiring for education. Each pathology department should have an education team. It is recommended that a senior pathologist become the head of the team. This organization could solve the most of the problems. Satisfaction of residents and trainers will be increased by the schedule of training of pathology residency; logbook, written feedbacks and competency based resident training and assessment that organized by these education teams/units.

Beyhan DEM?RHAN

2008-01-01

378

Shift work and pathological conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shift work exerts major influences on the physiological functions of the human body. These are primarily mediated by the disruption of circadian rhythms since most body functions are circadian rhythmic. Next to the disturbances caused by changes in the circadian system, shift work has also been suggested to be related to a number of other health disorders. The present study summarizes recently published data on the potential relationship between disorders and shift working.

Mark, Anke; Spallek, Michael; Kessel, Richard; Brinkmann, Elke

2006-01-01

379

Shift work and pathological conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Shift work exerts major influences on the physiological functions of the human body. These are primarily mediated by the disruption of circadian rhythms since most body functions are circadian rhythmic. Next to the disturbances caused by changes in the circadian system, shift work has also been suggested to be related to a number of other health disorders. The present study summarizes recently published data on the potential relationship between disorders and shift working....

van Mark Anke; Spallek Michael; Kessel Richard; Brinkmann Elke

2006-01-01

380

Shift work and pathological conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Shift work exerts major influences on the physiological functions of the human body. These are primarily mediated by the disruption of circadian rhythms since most body functions are circadian rhythmic. Next to the disturbances caused by changes in the circadian system, shift work has also been suggested to be related to a number of other health disorders. The present study summarizes recently published data on the potential relationship between disorders and shift working.

Kessel Richard

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Optimising AspectJ  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension of Java, is becoming increasingly popular. However, not much work has been directed at optimising compilers for AspectJ. Optimising AOP languages provides many new and interesting challenges for compiler writers, and this paper identifies and addresses three such challenges. First, compiling around advice efficiently is particularly challenging. We provide a new code generation strategy for around advice, which (unlike previous implementations) both avoids the use of excessive inlining and the use of closures. We show it leads to more compact code, and can also improve run-time performance. Second, woven code sometimes includes run-time tests to determine whether advice should execute. One important case is the cflow pointcut which uses information about the dynamic calling context. Previous techniques for cflow were very costly in terms of both time and space. We present new techniques to minimise or eliminate the overhead of cflow using both intra- and inter-procedural analyses. Third, we have addressed the general problem of how to structure an optimising compiler so that traditional analyses can be easily adapted to the AOP setting. We have implemented all of the techniques in this paper in abc, our AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ, and we demonstrate significant speedups with empirical results. Some of our techniques have already been integrated into the production AspectJ compiler, ajc 1.2.1.

Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon

2005-01-01

382

Pathology of pineal region tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various histological types of tumors arise in the pineal region. The most common tumors are pineal parenchymal tumors and germ cell tumors. Pineal parenchymal tumors are divided into pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differentiation and pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas are well-differentiated tumors and retain the morphological and immunohistochemical features of pineal parenchymal cells. Lobular architectures and pineocytomatous rosettes are also typical features. In contrast, pineoblastomas are embryonal tumors resembling primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET). However, pineoblastomas are distinct from PNET in other sites due to their exhibiting photosensory differentiation including Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and fleurettes. Although pineal cysts are tumor-like lesions, and not true neoplasms, they are occasionally difficult to distinguish from pineocytoma and astrocytoma. From the therapeutic aspect, a precise differential diagnosis is critical. The pineal region is the most common site of the brain in which germ cell tumors occur. Germinoma, teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma are encountered, and the latter three types of tumors usually constitute elements of mixed germ cell tumors. The morphological and immunohistochemical features of intracranial germ cell tumors are very similar to those of gonadal germ cell tumors, although there are some differences in germinoma. Pineal germinoma may exhibit carcinomatous differentiation. Other types of tumors are occasionally observed, including fibrillary and pilocytic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, ependymoma, melanoma, meningioma and so on. Metastatic pineal tumors are also rare. The most common site of origin for pineal metastasis is the lung. PMID:11767290

Hirato, J; Nakazato, Y

2001-09-01

383

Implementing genomic medicine in pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The finished sequence of the Human Genome Project, published 50 years after Watson and Crick's seminal paper on the structure of DNA, pushed human genetics into the public eye and ushered in the genomic era. A significant, if overlooked, aspect of the race to complete the genome was the technology that propelled scientists to the finish line. DNA sequencing technologies have become more standardized, automated, and capable of higher throughput. This technology has continued to grow at an astounding rate in the decade since the Human Genome Project was completed. Today, massively parallel sequencing, or next-generation sequencing (NGS), allows the detection of genetic variants across the entire genome. This ability has led to the identification of new causes of disease and is changing the way we categorize, treat, and manage disease. NGS approaches such as whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing are rapidly becoming an affordable genetic testing strategy for the clinical laboratory. One test can now provide vast amounts of health information pertaining not only to the disease of interest, but information that may also predict adult-onset disease, reveal carrier status for a rare disease and predict drug responsiveness. The issue of what to do with these incidental findings, along with questions pertaining to NGS testing strategies, data interpretation and storage, and applying genetic testing results into patient care, remains without a clear answer. This review will explore these issues and others relevant to the implementation of NGS in the clinical laboratory. PMID:23752086

Williams, Eli S; Hegde, Madhuri

2013-07-01

384

Treatment of pathologic fractures after radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five patients with malignant musculoskeletal tumors who had pathologic fractures after radiation therapy were studied clinically. All patients had osteoporotic changes at the irradiation site before being fractured. The pathologic fractures occurred from 2 to 8 years after irradiation. One patient was treated with gyps fixation, one with plating, three had intramedullary nailing. Three patients who were treated by plating or intramedullary nailing developed bone union, but this took more than one year. Non-union occurred in two patients who received more than 80 Gy irradiation. Intramedullary nailing is a useful method for treatment of pathologic fractures after irradiation. (author)

1993-03-01

385

Pathology Case Study: Cutaneous Nodules and Ulcers  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Abernethy, John; Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

2008-04-29

386

Pathological gamblers: inpatients' versus outpatients' characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several researchers and clinicians have questioned the advantages and disadvantages of inpatient and outpatient treatment for people suffering from pathological gambling. This study compares the characteristics of pathological gamblers seeking inpatient and outpatient treatment. A total of 233 pathological gamblers (inpatients = 134, outpatients = 99) participated in the study. Results show that inpatients have more severe gambling problems than those receiving outpatient services. Similar results were obtained on most other related variables such as anxiety, depression, alcohol consumption, and comorbidity. These results are discussed in terms of the costs and benefits of these two treatment modalities. PMID:17096204

Ladouceur, Robert; Sylvain, Caroline; Sévigny, Serge; Poirier, Lynda; Brisson, Laurent; Dias, Carlos; Dufour, Claudie; Pilote, Pierrette

2006-12-01

387

Pathological narcissism and the obstruction of love.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathological narcissism is a form of maladaptive self-regulation that impedes the capacity to love. Although narcissism is often construed as excessive self-love, individuals with pathological narcissism are impaired in being able to love themselves as well as others. With the subject of impaired love in mind, we review selected conceptualizations from an enormous and diverse psychodynamic literature on narcissism. Major theoretical approaches illustrate a number of psychodynamics associated with narcissistic self-regulatory problems. This paper provides a concise overview of major conceptual themes regarding pathological narcissism and impaired capacity to love. PMID:24555464

Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S

2014-03-01

388

Pathology Case Study: Right Thigh Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a painless mass in his right medial thigh, without an incidence of trauma. Visitors can view pathological findings, including images, to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Zheng, Su

2009-02-12

389

Pathology Case Study: Hemangioma and Severe Thrombocytopenia  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a transfusion pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 3-week-old female has hemangioma and severe thrombocytopenia. Visitors are given laboratory values and images, and are granted the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology medicine.

Bontempo, Franklin; Dorvault, Christine

2007-10-09

390

The Notion "Pathology" in Set Theory  

CERN Document Server

When we study the paradoxes of set theory we find out that there are mainly 2 types: the pathologies and the antinomies. These 2 notions are made precise and compared with the somehow inductively definable concept "abnormal". (See my paper "Naive Axiomatic Mengenlehre for Experiments" in arXiv.) In the following 5 Patho Theses are discussed in order to formalize this notion of pathology. This allows us to define formally the property "Hereditary-non-Pathological" for well-formed formulas. With this property the system NACT* of Naive Axiomatic Class Theory is constructed, which has a "unique maximal" universe (in a special sense).

DePauli-Schimanovich, Werner

2008-01-01

391

Pathology Case Study: Anterior Cervical Neck Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-31

392

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Myalgias After Exercise  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a skeletal muscle pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 48 year old women has chronic myalgias. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal muscle pathology medicine.

Giuliani, Michael J.; Lacomis, David

2009-09-10

393

Pathology Case Study: Bladder Outlet Obstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Chung, Wen-Wei

2009-08-21

394

Gastrointestinal pathology in neonates: new imaging strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mainstay of imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) pathology in infants has always been and still is the plain radiograph of the abdomen and conventional contrast studies. In this review emphasis is placed on the situations where there are new imaging strategies and alternative modalities of imaging, including US, CT, MRI and radionuclide studies. This review will deal with GI pathology in the newborn and in the older neonate. It will also refer to any new approaches to imaging GI pathology in the premature infant. Finally the review will address how antenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities has changed the imaging strategy and management of the neonate. (orig.)

Ryan, Stephanie; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

2010-06-15

395

Recent experimental data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent experimental data were reviewed for the neutron reaction cross sections of fission products. Some of our recent results on keV-neutron capture cross sections were compared with other experiments and the quality of recent experimental data was discussed. (author)

2003-06-01

396

Thermal methodology: recent developments; Methodologie thermique: developpements recents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference day organized by the French society of thermal engineering (SFT) was devoted to the recent advances in thermal instrumentation. Eight papers were presented and were dealing with: the measurement of the microscopic thermal properties of C/C and C/C-SiC composite materials; the metrology of the local probe thermal microscopy (analysis of the probe-sample thermal interaction); the emission factor of semi-transparent materials at high temperature (2000 deg.C); the study of the tungsten-rhenium couples between 1000 and 2000 deg.C; the theoretical aspects of thermocouple instrumentation in the estimation of surface or interface thermal conditions; the microscale thermo-physical characterisation of metal coatings; the thermal microscopy measurement of the contact resistance of a metal inclusion in a thermoplastic matrix; and the application of laser-induced fluorescence in thermal metrology (from turbulence to combustion). (J.S.)

Jumel, J.; Lepoutre, F.; Balageas, D. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)]|[CEA Le Ripault, 37 - Tours (France)] [and others

2001-07-01