WorldWideScience

Sample records for pathology aspects recents

  1. Endometrioid carcinoma of the uterine corpus: a review of its pathology with emphasis on recent advances and problematic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Philip B; Young, Robert H

    2002-05-01

    This review considers the pathologic features of endometrioid carcinoma of the uterine corpus, which accounts for approximately 80% of endometrial adenocarcinomas, with an emphasis on its histologic features, recent advances, and problematic aspects. In addition to typical endometrioid carcinoma, the variants of endometrioid carcinoma covered include secretory carcinoma, villoglandular endometrioid carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma with small nonvillous papillae, endometrioid carcinomas with microglandular and sertoliform patterns, and endometrioid carcinomas with metaplastic changes. These changes include a variety of different appearances of squamous epithelia (ranging from mature and keratinizing to immature with only subtle evidence of a squamous nature), clear cells, surface changes resembling syncytial metaplasia or microglandular hyperplasia, ciliated cells, oxyphilic cells, and spindled epithelial cells (sarcomatoid carcinoma). The last is one of several variants that may cause a biphasic appearance, all of which should be distinguished from the malignant müllerian mixed tumor. Rare findings in endometrioid carcinomas include hyalinization, psammoma bodies, and foci of stromal metaplasia such as osteoid. Unusual growth patterns of endometrioid carcinomas include involvement of adenomyosis, the "diffusely" infiltrating pattern of myoinvasion, and a previously unemphasized pattern of myoinvasion with "pinched off" glands that may be cystic or have a pseudovascular appearance, often with a myxoid stromal reaction. Other aspects of endometrioid carcinoma discussed are its immunoprofile, grading, cervical involvement (including a hitherto undescribed "burrowing" pattern of extension within the cervix that can result in underdiagnosis of stage IIB disease), carcinoma arising in the lower uterine segment, carcinoma arising in polyps and adenomyomas, carcinoma in young women, tamoxifen-related carcinoma, associated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, and peritoneal keratin granulomas. Finally, the differential diagnosis of endometrioid carcinoma is briefly considered with a section on benign mimics, including curettage-related changes, menstrual changes, adenomyosis-related problems, metaplastic changes, atypical polypoid adenomyoma, radiation atypia, and papillary proliferations, and a section on metastatic colonic carcinoma. PMID:11981113

  2. Recent developments in vulvovaginal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluggage, W G

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses recent developments in vulvovaginal pathology. A variety of morphologically bland mesenchymal lesions occur at this site with considerable histological and immunohistochemical overlap. Aggressive angiomyxoma exhibits HMGA2 immunoreactivity in approximately 50% of cases, and this nuclear transcription factor is emerging as a useful and relatively specific marker for aggressive angiomyxoma, although occasional vulvovaginal smooth muscle neoplasms are positive. HMGA2 is useful in the diagnosis of aggressive angiomyxoma and its distinction from mimics, in the evaluation of resection margins and in the assessment of the presence or absence of residual disease in re-excisions. Aggressive angiomyxoma is almost invariably positive with oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and there have been several reports of a dramatic reduction in size following gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy. Recent series of the relatively newly described entities cellular angiofibroma and superficial myofibroblastoma of the lower female genital tract have expanded upon the morphological spectrum of these neoplasms. Recently described mesenchymal lesions at this site include massive oedema and prepubertal vulval fibroma. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours have been described as primary neoplasms in the vagina, and rectovaginal septum and extragastrointestinal stromal tumour should be added to the differential diagnosis of a vulvovaginal mesenchymal lesion. Many mesenchymal lesions in the vulvovaginal region exhibit immunoreactivity with both CD34 and desmin, a somewhat unusual immunophenotype in mesenchymal lesions at other sites. It is now established that there are two distinct types of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), most commonly termed classic and differentiated VIN, the former associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There are two corresponding types of vulval squamous carcinoma with HPV-associated and non-HPV-associated variants, the latter often arising in a vulval dystrophy and associated with p53 mutation. However, in some cases there is clinicopathological overlap between HPV-associated and non-HPV-associated squamous carcinomas, and immunohistochemistry with p16 is more reliable than morphology in predicting the presence of HPV. There have been new developments regarding Paget's disease of the vulva with the identification of markers that are useful in diagnosis and evidence that the neoplastic cells represent a proliferation of adnexal stem cells residing in sebaceous units. The newly described entity vaginal tubulo-squamous polyp typically exhibits immunopositivity with prostatic markers, possibly indicating derivation from displaced periurethral Skene's glands. PMID:18637148

  3. Pathology Case Study: Recent Onset Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Wojciech

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 12-year-old boy presents with a history of headaches, â??and a recent onset of right-sided seizures followed by the loss of consciousnessâ?. Visitors are shown CT scan images of the patientâ??s brain, along with microscopic images. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  4. Neonatal seizures--recent aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, M; Matisse, N; Vert, P; Debruille, C

    1988-11-01

    This study reports the neonatal aspects and prognosis of seizures observed in 71 neonates from 1.3. 1980 to 30.6 1981. Forty-five were full-term, 26 preterm babies. Twenty-one children had status epilepticus (SE), 50 isolated crises (IC). An etiology was found in 68 cases. Acute fetal distress (AFD) was observed in half of the cases. AFD and intracranial hemorrhages represented 62% of the etiologies in term babies, 42% in preterm. Fifteen children died in the neonatal period. The outcome of the 56 survivors was followed until at least two years of age. Forty-one children were neurologically normal; 15 were not: 9 had a cerebral palsy, 12 a mental retardation, 1 was deaf, 4 were epileptic. Sequelae occurred in 24.3% of term, 31.6% of preterm survivors (p less than or equal to 0.01). The outcome was normal in 8 out of 15 living children with SE (53%), in 32 out of 41 (78%) with IC (p less than or equal to 0.01). The prognosis of hypoxic-ischemic seizures was good if crises lasted less than two days. Treatment was discontinued as soon as possible, during the days following the end of the crises and the recovery from the initial disease, without adverse effects. Convulsions following obstetrical abnormalities were less frequent, and the prognosis was better in premature babies than in previous studies. PMID:3205378

  5. [Recent advances in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Hironobu; Kasajima, Atsuko

    2013-07-01

    There have been marked advances in clinical and histological aspects GEPNET: gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. In particular, histopathological classification of GEPNET based on WHO 2010 devided the tumor into three histological grades, neuroendocrine tumor(NET)G1, G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma(NEC), exclusively based upon the status of tumor cell proliferation determined by mitotic counts and/or the Ki67 labeling index. The clinical management of patients with GEPNET must be determined by TNM and the WHO 2010 classifications. The classifications were proposed based upon the evidences of several clinical studies, and it is therefore crucial for clinicians to understand the new classifications, for the clinical management of NET patients. PMID:23863722

  6. Recent aspects of thyroglobulin in physiology and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroglobulin (tg), strongly concentrated in the colloid, through a recycling to the colloid or by transcytosis to the blood stream, (function attributed to an unidentified N -Acetylglucosamine ) is linked to megalin to avoid lysosomal pathway and is delivered by a transepithelial transport (transcytosis). The promoter of this human thyroglobulin is tightly dependent on TTF-1 factor (thyroid-specific transcription factor) and Pax 8. Human recombinant TSH can increase serum baseline levels of thyroglobulin in a study from 25 to 30,000 ng/ml reflecting in part the heterogeneity of the population studied. The 131 Iodide Scan diagnosis and the measurement of serum thyroglobulin are the follow-up cornerstone that offer the opportunity in the detection of recurrence or ongoing cancer in early stage. Until now the thyroglobulin has been used in the same time than nuclear imaging. The Fluorine-18-fluoro deoxyglucose tomography positron emission plays a supplementary role in the localization of thyroid cancer recurrence sites. A control after increased post therapeutic thyroglobulin triggers a 131 Iodide scan and nuclear magnetic resonance study. In the follow-up of thyroidectomized patients with ablative radio-iodide, it is reasonable to treat patients that have an progressive increase of thyroglobulin levels but also to continue tight surveillance in those that have thyroglobulin concentrations that decrease or are stable. Fluorine-18 fluoro deoxyglucose positron emissione-18 fluoro deoxyglucose positron emission tomography is useful in the cases with negative 131 Iodide scan and increase thyroglobulin levels. But this method has limits to find minimal disease. It is noteworthy that increased level of thyroglobulin is observed in iodine deficiency with 28.9% of world population concerned with goiter and 2% (11.2 million) with cretinism or 43 millions with mental retardation. Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies affect all the continuum of the clinical phenotype of autoimmune thyroid diseases suggesting a common pathophysiological mechanism. In the detection of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis in elderly positive findings concerning anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyro-peroxidase show a higher sensitivity in radioimmunology (76%) comparatively to hemagglutination tests (44%) (p < 0,05). Some epitopes in C terminal region of thyroglobulin are associated with Graves' disease. A group of autoantibodies directed to this thyroglobulin region is associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy and can be involved in the development of the disease. A main gene products antithyroid antibodies. This gene is localized on chromosome 2q33 and could be likely 4 CTLA gene. Immunohistochemistry by thyroglobulin allows to authenticate thyroid tissue features. It is necessary to avoid delay of appropriate diagnosis of thyroid occult papillary cancer. (author)

  7. [MRSA--current aspects of resistance, pathology, epidemiology and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicks, J Ph; Götting, M; Jensen, A M; Quarcoo, D; Wicker, S; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

    2010-12-01

    The Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) resistant against all kinds of beta-lactam antibiotics. Moreover, resistances against other antibiotics have gradually started to develop. In the last decades, MRSA started as a serious problem only in hospitals, but in recent years it also rose as an alarming community pathogen. In addition to the resistances against Penicillin which emerged in the 1940s. with the use of beta-lactamase proof antibiotics in the 1960s, the resistance of S. aureus against Methicillin started to develop. According to the kind of resistance, the genotype, the time of infection and the origin of the infection, MRSA infections are classified as hospital-associated (HA-MRSA) and community-associated (cMRSA). On the one hand, this differentiation results in distinct strategies of calculated therapy against each class of MRSA. On the other hand, it is important in order to identify relevant judicious aspects of transmission. PMID:21192484

  8. Fabry disease: recent advances in pathology, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Björn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Fabry disease (?-galactosidase A deficiency accumulation of Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 leads to progressive organ failure and premature death. The introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT was the beginning of a new era in this disorder, and has prompted a broad range of research activities. This review aims to summarize recent developments and progress with high impact for Fabry disease. Methods A Pubmed analysis was performed using the search terms "Fabry disease", "Anderson-Fabry disease", "alpha-galactosidase A" and "Gb3". Of the given publications by 31st January 2009 only original articles recently published in peer reviewed journals were included for this review. Case reports were included only when they comprised a new aspect. In addition we included relevant conference abstracts when the results had not already been published as original articles. Results Apart from Gb3-accumulation cellular and organ specific damages may be related also to inflammatory and immunological consequences. It will be interesting whether this may lead to new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of Fabry disease. Since newborn screening is still difficult in Fabry disease, detection of patients in populations at risk is of great importance. Undiagnosed patients with Fabry disease may still be found in cohorts of subjects with renal diseases, cardiomyopathy and TIA or stroke. Efforts should be undertaken to identify these individuals and initialise ERT in order to hault disease progression. It has also been demonstrated that Gb3-accumulation leads to pre-clinical damages and it is believed that early treatment may be the only possibility so far to prevent irreversible organ damage.

  9. Meckel's diverticulum in children, clinical and pathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St?nescu, Georgeta Ligia; Ple?ea, Iancu Emil; Diaconu, Radu; Gheonea, Cristian; Sabetay, Corneliu; ?î?tea, Dalia; Niculescu, Elena Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) represents one of the most common malformations of the digestive tract, being a vestige of the proximal end of omphalo-mesenteric duct, which normally obliterates and atrophiates between the sixth and ninth week of intrauterine life. It is estimated that 2-4% of people are carriers of this malformation. The interest in this organ study lies in the fact that it presents its own non-specific pathology, mimicking a cecal, colon or small intestine pathology. It seems that most MD cases are asymptomatic (AS MD), being arbitrary discovered during surgeries, whereas only a small part are being symptomatic (S MD). MD may be clinically expressed at any age but it is more common in children. In our study, we evaluated a group of 44 children, aged between 0 and 16 years, diagnosed with AS MD (15 cases) or S MD (29 cases). Of the 29 S MD cases, 14 had intestinal obstruction, seven cases showed lower gastrointestinal bleeding, five cases presented acute inflammation (diverticulitis) and three cases were complicated with peritonitis; 15 cases of AS MD were discovered during surgical interventions for acute appendicitis (14 cases) or inguinal hernia (one case). Most cases of MD were recorded between 1-4-year-old and 7-16-year-old. PMID:25607401

  10. Recent advances in osteoclast biology and pathological bone resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Hc; Athanasou, Na

    2004-01-01

    The osteoclast is a bone-degrading polykaryon. Recent studies have clarified the differentiation of this cell and the biochemical mechanisms it uses to resorb bone. The osteoclast derives from a monocyte/macrophage precursor. Osteoclast formation requires permissive concentrations of M-CSF and is driven by contact with mesenchymal cells in bone that bear the TNF-family ligand RANKL. Osteoclast precursors express RANK, and the interaction between RANKL and R...

  11. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: recent advances in pathology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of KIT gene mutation in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has provided a paradigm shift in the classification, diagnosis and molecular-targeted therapy of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. There is growing evidence of phenotype-genotype (KIT, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha, succinate dehydrogenase or other driver gene mutation) and genotype-therapeutic (sensitivity to imatinib) correlations in GIST. Risk stratification based on mitotic counts, tumor size and rupture is useful for the prognostication and management of patients with GIST. Blood vessel invasion is a strong indicator of liver metastasis in GIST. In addition, novel biomarkers such as cell-cycle regulators, microRNAs and their targets have been discovered by using high throughput molecular analyses. In contrast, leiomyosarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract has become a very rare entity in the 'KIT' era, and its molecular pathogenetic mechanism is unclear. Recent studies have revealed a wide spectrum of cytological atypia, mitotic counts and biological behavior of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tumors, suggesting the necessity of establishing the criteria for malignancy. Collectively, both classical histopathological procedures and modern molecular investigations are indispensable for the evolution of diagnosis and treatment of GIST and mimics. PMID:25414046

  12. Recent advances in some aspects of food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Sharma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Food technology is the application of science and engineering to the production, processing, packaging, distribution, preparation and utilization of foods. The scope of this definition is very wide and with the rapid strides that technology has made during the present century it is difficult to deal with all the aspects in a single attempt. This article will be concerned primarily with some of the recent techniques standardized for dehydration and sterilization of foodstuffs including vegetables, meat, fish and dairy products. It will also record briefly the packaging improvements achieved during the last few years.

  13. Recent advances in the developmental aspects of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kim, Sohye

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current paper was to review the most recent advances in the developmental aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD) over the last 3 years to highlight the most significant trends in the field. In so doing, we identify and discuss two exciting new trends: (a) an emphasis on the biological basis of adolescent BPD and (b) empirical evidence in support of long-held theories of the development of BPD. Together, these trends suggest that for the first time, empirical findings are beginning to emerge in support of complex and reciprocal biology?×?environment interactions over time in the development of BPD. We discuss the emerging literature and highlight the translational impact of this work for the assessment and intervention of adolescent BPD. PMID:25749744

  14. Some problems of human adaptation and ecology under the aspect of general pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznacheyev, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    The main problems of human adaptation at the level of the body and the population in connection with the features of current morbidity of the population and certain demographic processes are analyzed. The concepts of health and adaptation of the individual and human populations are determined. The importance of the anthropo-ecological approach to the investigation of the adaptation process of human populations is demonstrated. Certain features of the etiopathogenesis of diseases are considered in connection with the population-ecological regularities of human adaptation. The importance of research on general pathology aspects of adaptation and the ecology of man for planning, and organization of public health protection is discussed.

  15. Physics aspects of recent and future concepts in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The development of 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), in which the high dose volume matches as closely as possible the target volume and avoids therefore normal tissue irradiation as far as possible, has been a major theme in radiotherapy for improving the therapeutic window. Conformal radiotherapy is not a new concept but only the technological improvements of the last decade allow its clinical implementation. More recent and advanced forms of 3D-CRT are intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). IMRT uses an additional degree of freedom to achieve a new class of conformation: the variation of the primary beam intensity. SRT is based on a three dimensional stereotactic coordinate system which is correlated with the patient and the treatment facility through modern imaging technology. IMRT and SRT are related by common features, e.g. high dose gradients and small fields which require a high geometric precision. A high dosimetric and geometric precision can only be based on a detailed knowledge of the patient specific anatomy. Therefore, IMRT and SRT need to underlie multi-modality imaging studies. Both IMRT and SRT utilize photon beams and multiple field arrangements which increase the volumes of healthy tissue receiving low doses. Photons have a low selectivity along the beam direction implying that the sharp dose gradients are to be compromised. The increased low dose volume as well as the low selectivity of photon beams can be over-come by using proton or ions. Brachytherapy, a form of radiotherapy where encapsuled radioactive sources are placed directly in or in the vicinity of the tumor, is by definition conformal. Endovascular brachytherapy has become a promising new field in radiotherapy for the prevention of (re)stenosis after angioplasty. Although many clinical trials have been performed during the last years specific aspects related to endovascular brachytherapy have not been addressed clearly, such as the optimal dose level for treating coronary arteries. Another field of investigation is the comparison of beta radiation and gamma radiation for of this treatment modality. Because conventional conformal radiotherapy has been a major research subject during the last decade its place in radiation therapy practice is assured. In a similar way, recent and future concepts in radiotherapy such as SRT, IMRT, hadron therapy or endovascular brachytherapy need to be further investigated until their full potential can be demonstrated. (author)

  16. Feline panleukopenia virus revisited : molecular characteristics and pathological lesions associated with three recent isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Vuuren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The low incidence of clinical signs or pathological lesions compatible with feline panleukopenia in cats has created the perception among practitioners that the disease has disappeared since the emergence of canine parvovirus type 2 in the late 1970s.Three parvoviruses that were recently isolated from a domestic cat and 2 cheetahs in cell culture or detected by means of the polymerase chain reaction were shown to be typical feline parvoviruses. Phylogenetic comparison with other FPV isolates did not reveal a particular African cluster.

  17. Loss of Wdfy3 in mice alters cerebral cortical neurogenesis reflecting aspects of the autism pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Lori A; Ross, Adam P; Cates, Staci L; Scott, Sean E; Wu, Dennis; Sohn, Jiho; Pleasure, David; Pleasure, Samuel J; Adamopoulos, Iannis E; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex and heterogeneous developmental disabilities affecting an ever-increasing number of children worldwide. The diverse manifestations and complex, largely genetic aetiology of ASDs pose a major challenge to the identification of unifying neuropathological features. Here we describe the neurodevelopmental defects in mice that carry deleterious alleles of the Wdfy3 gene, recently recognized as causative in ASDs. Loss of Wdfy3 leads to a regionally enlarged cerebral cortex resembling early brain overgrowth described in many children on the autism spectrum. In addition, affected mouse mutants display migration defects of cortical projection neurons, a recognized cause of epilepsy, which is significantly comorbid with autism. Our analysis of affected mouse mutants defines an important role for Wdfy3 in regulating neural progenitor divisions and neural migration in the developing brain. Furthermore, Wdfy3 is essential for cerebral expansion and functional organization while its loss-of-function results in pathological changes characteristic of ASDs. PMID:25198012

  18. Pathologic mucosal blood vessels in active female genital schistosomiasis: new aspects of a neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Peter Mark; Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Feldmeier, Hermann; Chitsulo, Lester; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2013-01-01

    Female genital schistosomiasis is a frequent, but neglected cause of mucosal pathology in the female genital tract. Moreover, recent studies indicate that genital mucosal lesions may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In rural Africa, detailed clinical images are rarely available alongside histologic sections, and further understanding of the pathogenesis of the genital mucosal lesions is needed. These cases represent previously unreported histopathologic photomicrographs and corresponding clinical images in 2 women with genital schistosomiasis. Dilated and tortuous mucosal venules seen in the cervicovaginal mucosa were found to contain viable Schistosoma haematobium eggs surrounded by a thrombus. The presence of abnormal mucosal blood vessels may be an indication of a persistent tissue reaction to S. haematobium ova in the lower female genital tract. PMID:23202777

  19. Sputtering - a review of some recent experimental and theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief outline of the present sputtering theory for a random solid, recent results of the sputtering yield S for polycrystalline targets are discussed, in particular in view of the influence of the projectile mass and the bombarding angle. The angle dependence of S at low bombarding energies, and results on the angular distribution of sputtered particles for oblique ion incidence point out necessary modifications of present sputtering theories with respect to the anisotropy of the collision cascades in the solid and the influence of the target surface. The energy distribution of the neutral particles ejected along the target normally is related to the theoretically predicted E-2-distribution of low energy recoils in the solid. Recent mass spectrometric studies of postionized sputtered neutrals are discussed in view of the formation of sputtered molecules and the application of sputtered neutral mass spectroscopy for surface analysis. Finally, the paper deals with ion-induced surface effects on non-elementary sputtering targets, and the protracted removal of foreign atoms from a matrix. (orig.)

  20. Ocular toxoplasmosis: recent aspects of pathophysiology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, Uwe; Schlüter, Dirk; Mänz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely successful opportunistic parasite which infects approximately one third of the human population worldwide. The impact of this parasite on human health becomes particularly manifest in congenital damage with infection and subsequent inflammation of neuronal tissues including the retina. Although advances in our understanding could be achieved in ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist on factors influencing the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding disease. We are only at the beginning of understanding the complex biology of this parasite and its mechanisms of invasion, virulence and interaction with the host's immune response. Since it is a preventable cause of blindness, it is necessary to assess factors that have the potential to control this disease in the future. This mini review will focus on recent advances in postnatal acquired ocular infection and the factors that may influence its prevalence and functional outcome. PMID:25248050

  1. Seasonal aspects of the recent pause in surface warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Branstator, Grant; Phillips, Adam S.

    2014-10-01

    Factors involved in the recent pause in the rise of global mean temperatures are examined seasonally. For 1999 to 2012, the hiatus in surface warming is mainly evident in the central and eastern Pacific. It is manifested as strong anomalous easterly trade winds, distinctive sea-level pressure patterns, and large rainfall anomalies in the Pacific, which resemble the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These features are accompanied by upper tropospheric teleconnection wave patterns that extend throughout the Pacific, to polar regions, and into the Atlantic. The extratropical features are particularly strong during winter. By using an idealized heating to force a comprehensive atmospheric model, the large negative anomalous latent heating associated with the observed deficit in central tropical Pacific rainfall is shown to be mainly responsible for the global quasi-stationary waves in the upper troposphere. The wave patterns in turn created persistent regional climate anomalies, increasing the odds of cold winters in Europe. Hence, tropical Pacific forcing of the atmosphere such as that associated with a negative phase of the PDO produces many of the pronounced atmospheric circulation anomalies observed globally during the hiatus.

  2. Physiological and pathological aspects of A? in iron homeostasis via 5'UTR in the APP mRNA and the therapeutic use of iron-chelators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinreb Orly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many studies have highlighted the pathological involvement of iron accumulation and iron-related oxidative stress (OS in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Iron was further demonstrated to modulate expression of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor holo-protein (APP by a mechanism similar to that of regulation of ferritin-L and -H mRNA translation through an iron-responsive element (IRE in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs. Here, we discuss two aspects of the link between iron and AD, in relation to the recently discovered IRE in the 5'UTR of APP mRNA. The first is the physiological aspect: a compensatory neuroprotective response of amyloid-? protein (A? in reducing iron-induced neurotoxicity. Thus, given that A? possesses iron chelation sites, it is hypothesized that OS-induced intracellular iron may stimulate APP holo-protein translation (via the APP 5'UTR and subsequently the generation of its cleavage product, A?, as a compensatory response that eventually reduces OS. The second is the pathological aspect: iron chelating compounds target the APP 5'UTR and possess the capacity to reduce APP translation, and subsequently A? levels, and thus represent molecules with high potential in the development of drugs for the treatment of AD.

  3. Recent aspects of nitration: New preparative methods and mechanistic studies (A Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.; Lammertsma, Koop

    1982-01-01

    New preparative methods of electrophilic nitration and transfer nitration are reviewed, including reactions relating to the ambident reactivity of the nitronium ion. Recent aspects of the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution are discussed.

  4. Posttranslational modifications of lysine and evolving role in heart pathologies - Recent developments.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Š?astná, Miroslava; Van Eyk, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 15, 5-6 (2015), s. 1164-1180. ISSN 1615-9853 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : heart pathologies * neddylation * sumoylation * proteomics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.973, year: 2013

  5. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis as a rare pathologic aspect of chronic active pelvic inflammatory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yener Nese; Ilter Erdin; Midi Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) is a rare form of chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes. A 41-year old woman with a history of secondary infertility for 2 years is presented. The patient underwent bilateral salpingooopherectomy with presumptive diagnosis of adnexal mass with cystic component. Intraoperative pathology consultation was done. The diagnosis of bilateral XGS associated with chronic active follicular salpingitis was made. XGS is reported to be caused by an unsuccesfully...

  6. Melanocyte colonization and pigmentation of breast carcinoma : pathological and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mele, Marco; Laurberg, Tinne

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Melanocyte colonization of breast carcinoma by nonneoplastic melanocytes of epidermal origin is a rare and serious condition first described in 1977. We report on the exceptional clinical and pathological features of this migration phenomenon in a 74-year-old patient. Discussion. The pathogenesis by which melanocyte migration takes place is not known, but a breached basement membrane is considered essential. Conclusion. Histological examination and additional staining of skin are essential to differentiate breast cancer melanosis from malignant melanoma.

  7. [Psychiatric pathology and cultural aspects in Moroccan society: a link to debate or combat?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajri, A; el Idrissi, M A; Belaizi, M

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe two case reports involving Moroccan patients that illustrate the essence of Existence in both health and illness. The principle is universal but there are cultural aspects. However such differences do not prevent management by caretakers from different cultures: other people are not like me but they are not so different except in societies based on deep racial segregation. As shown by our two patients, symptoms are but a mask. The manifestation is somatic in name only and depends on psychic experience. Manifestations cover neurotic conflicts. Cultural aspects can be misleading but the origin is guilt, the common factor for everyone. PMID:9379872

  8. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis as a rare pathologic aspect of chronic active pelvic inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Nese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS is a rare form of chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes. A 41-year old woman with a history of secondary infertility for 2 years is presented. The patient underwent bilateral salpingooopherectomy with presumptive diagnosis of adnexal mass with cystic component. Intraoperative pathology consultation was done. The diagnosis of bilateral XGS associated with chronic active follicular salpingitis was made. XGS is reported to be caused by an unsuccesfully treated pelvic inflammatory disease. Its association with chronic active follicular salpingitis has not been previously reported. Chronic active follicular salpingitis with xanthogranulomatous inflammation might give the impression of a cystic adnexal mass with septations on preoperative pelvic computed tomography. Frozen sections are necessary to rule out malignancy as done in our case.

  9. Microbiological and immuno-pathological aspects of peri-implant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2014-01-01

    Peri-implant diseases are a cluster of "contemporary" oral infections in humans that have emerged as a result of the routine application of osseointegrated dental implants in clinical practice. They are characterized by the inflammatory destruction of the implant-supporting tissues, as a result of biofilm formation on the implant surface. Peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis are analogous to gingivitis and periodontitis that affect natural teeth. The aim of this comprehensive review was to provide insights into the infectious aetiology and immuno-pathology of peri-implant diseases, and to identify similarities and differences with periodontal diseases. The microbial composition of peri-implantitis-associated biofilms is mixed, non-specific and very similar to that of periodontitis. A considerable exception is the frequent presence of high numbers of staphylococci and enteric bacteria in peri-implantitis. The sequence of immuno-pathological events and the qualitative composition of the immune cells in peri-implant infections are similar to that of periodontal infections. The lesions are characterized predominantly by neutrophils, macrophages, T- and B-cells. Nevertheless, compared to periodontitis, peri-implantitis is marked by a more extensive inflammatory infiltrate and innate immune response, a greater severity of tissue destruction and a faster progression rate. This could well account for the structural differences between the two tissue types, predominantly the lack of periodontal ligament and Sharpey's fibres around implants. In order to support the early diagnosis and prevention of peri-implantitis, it is crucial to explain its fast progression rate by elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms. This could be achieved, for instance, by utilizing the non-invasive collection and analysis of peri-implant crevicular fluid. PMID:24209597

  10. Morpho-structural aspects concerning the healthy liver comparative to the pathological one

    OpenAIRE

    Gianina Comanescu; Anca Pasparan

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the microscopic modifications of the liver, on a batch of dead patients,suffering from hepato-cellular affections, all from the Districtual Hospital of Botosani, between September-November 2008. The patological aspects of the liver, in its every form, are observed especially in men which are big alcohol consumers. The normal structure of the liver is obviously transforming in hepatic diseases like alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, liver cancer and hydatid cyst.

  11. Diseases in the cranio-cervical junction: Anatomical and pathological aspects and detailed clinical accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclide imaging of the cranio-cervical region; Magnetic resonance imaging in the cranio-cervical region: Experiences in 194 cases; NMR-finding in a case of Morquio's syndrome with syncope; The dynamic evaluation of the cervical spinal canal and spinal cord by magnetic resonance imaging during movement; and A review of clinical and radiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis of head joints

  12. Diseases in the cranio-cervical junction: Anatomical and pathological aspects and detailed clinical accounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voth, D.; Glees, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclide imaging of the cranio-cervical region; Magnetic resonance imaging in the cranio-cervical region: Experiences in 194 cases; NMR-finding in a case of Morquio's syndrome with syncope; The dynamic evaluation of the cervical spinal canal and spinal cord by magnetic resonance imaging during movement; and A review of clinical and radiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis of head joints.

  13. Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developed in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolution, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies. (author)

  14. Cisto mesentérico: aspectos clínicos e anátomopatológicos Mesenteric cyst: clinical and pathological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Barreto de Santana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo-patológicos e terapêuticos de cistos mesentéricos atendidos em hospitais do Estado de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal, consistindo de um levantamento de uma série de casos de cistos mesentéricos, nos arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe no período de 1995 a 2007. Revisaram-se os prontuários dos pacientes para coleta de dados: gênero, idade, quadro clínico, exames complementares e abordagem terapêutica. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 18 casos de cistos mesentéricos. O gênero predominante foi o feminino (72,2%. A média de idade dos pacientes ao diagnóstico foi de 30,48 anos. Os sintomas mais freqüentes foram dor e massa abdominal. A ultra-sonografia de abdome, realizada em todos os pacientes, não foi conclusiva em metade dos casos. Tomografia computadorizada de abdome com contraste foi realizada em seis casos, sendo a tumoração cística bem evidenciada em todos estes. Quanto ao tipo histopatológico foram encontrados oito linfangiomas, oito cistos mesoteliais, um cisto hemorrágico em organização e um cisto mucinoso. O tratamento cirúrgico foi empregado em todos os casos. Hemorragia intracística foi a principal complicação apresentada, ocorrendo em três casos. CONCLUSÃO: Os cistos mesentéricos apresentaram-se clinicamente com sintomas inespecíficos e pouco sintomáticos. Quanto ao diagnóstico, a tomografia computadorizada mostrou ser mais efetiva que a ultrassonografia. Linfangiomas e mesoteliomas foram encontrados em proporções iguais. A ressecção completa do cisto foi o tratamento de eleição e não houve óbitos no pós-operatório.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic and therapeutic characteristics of the mesenteric cysts in hospitals of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: Mesenteric cysts were assessed by a non-interventional cross-sectional study from the archives of the Pathology Laboratory of Federal University of Sergipe between 1995 and 2007. The charts of the patients were reviewed in order to find out: gender, age, clinical findings, complementary exams and therapeutic approach. RESULTS: Eighteen cases of mesenteric cysts were found. Females were more affected (72.2%. Mean of age of the patients was 30.46. More frequent symptoms were pain and abdominal mass. Ultrasonography of abdomen, performed in all patients, was not conclusive in half of the cases. CTscan of abdomen with contrast was performed in six cases, being cystic tumor well identified in all of them. Regarding histopathology, 6 lymphangiomas, 8 mesotheliomas, 1 hemorrhagic cyst in organization and 1 mucinous cyst were found. Surgical treatment was performed in all cases. Intracystic bleeding was the main complication in 3 cases. CONCLUSION: The mesenteric cysts presented clinically with unspecific symptoms. CTscan was more effective than ultrasonography for the diagnosis. Lymphangiomas and mesothelioma had been found in equal ratios. The complete ressection of the cyst was the treatment of election. There were no deaths in postoperative period.

  15. Genetic and pathologic aspects of retinoic acid-induced limb malformations in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace S; Liao, Xiaoyan; Shimizu, Hirohito; Collins, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Because all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is teratogenic in all species tested and many of the specific defects induced are common across the phylogenetic spectrum, it would be logical to predict that murine strain differences in teratology to this agent are minimal. However, for specific defects, strain susceptibilities are vastly different. Studies with atRA have shown stark differences between C57BL/6 and SWV mouse strains in susceptibility to postaxial forelimb ectrodactyly and ectopic hindlimb formation, with the C57 strain being more susceptible for both defects. Various approaches were used to determine why these strains differ in susceptibility, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Hindlimb duplications were hypothesized to be caused by the formation of ectopic posterior body axes. For forelimb ectrodactyly, a locus on chromosome 11, Rafar, has linkage to the strain difference, and mRNA localization has shown that specific genes (Fgf8, Dlx3, Bmp4, and Sp8) in the postaxial preAER (prior to formation of the apical ectodermal ridge) of the developing limb bud (the site of the defect) were downregulated hours after atRA administration more in the susceptible C57 than in the SWV strain. Because both atRA and divalent cadmium induce postaxial forelimb ectrodactyly (right-sided predominance) at a high rate in C57BL/6 and low in the SWV strain, there is debate as to whether they share a common mechanism. These teratogens cause a greater-than-additive level of forelimb ectrodactyly when coadministered at low doses, but cadmium does not induce ectopic hindlimb formation. The hypothesis is that these agents have separate molecular pathologic pathways that converge to perturb a common anatomic structure. PMID:20706998

  16. Lead poisoning: clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Pagliuca, A.; Mufti, G. J.; Baldwin, D.; Lestas, A. N.; Wallis, R. M.; Bellingham, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak of lead poisoning, in which exposure was related to the oxyacetylene cutting of red lead painted ironwork, were investigated. Initial suspicion was raised when a blood film showed punctate basophilia which remains a simple and useful method of picking up lead toxicity. Estimations of blood lead concentration and conventional laboratory data confirmed the diagnosis. Although there was prominent punctate basophilia, spec...

  17. Aspects of gametogenesis and radiation pathology in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen); gametogenesis, pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads. Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and autoradiographical methods, including investigation of living male germinal cells, are used. The gross anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems is simple as compared to other insect species. In newly hatched larvae the gonads contain on an average 13 germinal cells. Gonads in larvae which are less than 7 days old cannot be distinguished as being male or female. This distinction becomes possible after the apical cell and the apical somatic tissue respectively is formed in the young gonad. Spermatogenesis is treated in a number of paragraphs dealing with the description and identification of germinal and somatic cell types, the ontogenetic development of the testis, the dynamics of spermatogenesis and aspects comparative spermatogenesis. A proper identification of the testicular cell types is considered to be imperative to any correct experimental approach of spermatogenesis. Morphological descriptions of the various germinal and somatic cell types are given accordingly. Comparison of mainly morphological features of male germinal cell types in a number of insect species, including H. antiqua, indicates possibilities for comparative research of spermatogenesis in various insect species. This could provide a basis for comparative radiobiological or other experimental investigations on insect spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis share a number of features, which suggests a certain similarity of the processes involved

  18. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in internationaemporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to communicate. The second work is a radioanatomic study of one of the structures of the inner ear - the bony canal for the cochlear nerve. It involves measurements of the dimensions of the canal on 117 silicone rubber casts of the temporal bone (from a unique collection of casts at Uppsala temporal bone laboratory) and on 50 clinical CT-studies (100 ears). The purpose was to show the normal variation, which is of use in the appraisal of congenital temporal bone malformations on CT. Based on our results we propose that if the canal is less than 1.4 mm, as measured on CT, the possibility of cochlear nerve abnormality should be considered. This is of interest since aplasia of the cochlear nerve is a contraindication to cochlear implantation. If the canal is wider than 3.0 mm, then other anomalies may coexist, with the risk of CSF gusher when a cochleostomy or stape-dectomy is performed

  19. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stjernholm, Christina [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Soedersjukhuset

    2003-07-01

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to communicate. The second work is a radioanatomic study of one of the structures of the inner ear - the bony canal for the cochlear nerve. It involves measurements of the dimensions of the canal on 117 silicone rubber casts of the temporal bone (from a unique collection of casts at Uppsala temporal bone laboratory) and on 50 clinical CT-studies (100 ears). The purpose was to show the normal variation, which is of use in the appraisal of congenital temporal bone malformations on CT. Based on our results we propose that if the canal is less than 1.4 mm, as measured on CT, the possibility of cochlear nerve abnormality should be considered. This is of interest since aplasia of the cochlear nerve is a contraindication to cochlear implantation. If the canal is wider than 3.0 mm, then other anomalies may coexist, with the risk of CSF gusher when a cochleostomy or stape-dectomy is performed.

  20. Abordaje subcraneal: Consideraciones técnicas y aplicaciones en patología traumática craneofacial / Subcranial approach: Technical aspects and application in craneofacial traumatic pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I., Zubillaga-Rodríguez; M.I., Falguera-Uceda; G., Sánchez-Aniceto; J.J., Montalvo-Moreno; R., Díez-Lobato.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La elección del abordaje más adecuado a la base craneal en cada caso es esencial para la obtención de resultados quirúrgicos globales satisfactorios. Inicialmente dependerá de la localización anatómica exacta de la lesión dentro de la base craneal y de su extensión tridimensional, así [...] como de la naturaleza de la misma. Las opciones posibles deben ser depuradas finalmente en función del status global del paciente, planificación reconstructiva y experiencia del equipo quirúrgico. El abordaje subcraneal es una opción terapéutica segura en el tratamiento de la patología traumática frontal. Permite el manejo adecuado del seno frontal y su obliteración si es precisa, favoreciendo el seguimiento radiológico del mismo. Objetivos. Validar el abordaje subcraneal como vía adecuada de acceso en patología traumática de la base craneal anterior. Revisión de nuestra serie clínica. Valoración de aspectos técnicos quirúrgicos. Análisis de complicaciones. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 50 pacientes intervenidos desde Enero de 2004 hasta Diciembre 2009 por el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial y Servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid) mediante abordaje subcraneal. 34 pacientes presentaban traumatismos craneofaciales o secuelas postraumáticas y 16 pacientes presentaban patología oncológica. Se enumeran los casos oncológicos como base de experiencia para la descripción de los aspectos técnicos. La casuística descrita se refiere a la patología traumática y sus secuelas. Los principales parámetros analizados fueron la técnica quirúrgica incluyendo el material de relleno para la obliteración del seno frontal, patología traumática asociada, estancia hospitalaria y tasa de complicaciones. Resultados. No existió mortalidad intra-postoperatoria inmediata. La edad varía entre los 15-76 años siendo 22 varones y 12 mujeres. Se describe el tipo de fracturas frontales asociadas. El material de relleno empleado en la obliteración frontal fue hueso de calota. El 29% de los pacientes con patología traumática o secuelas presentaron morbilidad precoz-tardía. La estancia media hospitalaria fue de 13 días. Conclusiones. El abordaje subcraneal a la base craneal anterior es una técnica versátil y razonable en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la patología de dicha región anatómica. Aporta una exposición excelente de la cavidad nasal, órbitas y celdillas etmoidales-seno esfenoidal, permitiendo un amplio acceso a la fosa anterior con mínima retracción de los lóbulos frontales. Abstract in english Introduction. Suitable approach to anterior cranial base is mandatory to get global satisfactory surgical out-comes. In the beginning it depends on the exactly anatomical position into the cranial fossa and tridimensional spread. Surgical approach implies the evaluation of the patient status, recons [...] tructive options and surgical team experience. Subcranial approach is a safe surgical option in the treatment of frontal traumatic pathology. It allows adequate management of frontal sinus and its obliteration with easy radiologic follow-up. Objectives. To analyse subcranial approach as a treatment option in traumatic pathology of the anterior cranial base and to present our review of subcranial approach. Valuation of surgical technical aspects. and related complications. Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 50 patients operated (subcranial approach) from January 2004 to December 2009 by Maxillofacial and Neurosurgery Department, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid. 34 patients presented craniofacial trauma or postraumatic sequela and 16 patients presented craniofacial tumours. Oncological cases offers experience to discuss surgical aspects. Results are related to traumatic pathology and sequela. Main items review were surgical technique including materials used for frontal sinus obliteration, associated traumatic pathology, hospital stay and complication r

  1. Identifying aspects of Ambient Intelligence through a review of recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charalampidou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It has already been realized by the scientific and technical community that a new form of technology is going to lead the future technological developments. This technology will be more human-centric and will be more and more “hidden” within everyday-life objects. It will be smarter, personalized, pervasive and ubiquitous. This technology includes what is called Ambient Intelligence (AmI. In this paper, we identify the main aspects of AmI through a review of the recent developments that have been achieved in these aspects of AmI and Ambient Intelligence Environments (AmIEs, as well as point out the problems yet to be solved and the visions of the future.

  2. [Supraventricular tachyarrhythmia of recent onset in the absence of documented cardiac pathology: different therapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoni, M; Scalzini, A; Bechi, S; Franchini, C; Mazza, F; Micheli, G

    1989-04-01

    The number of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias recently arisen among patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unit in Piombino, and the results of therapeutical interventions, have been estimated by analysing, retrospectively, the cases pertinent to the period February '84- October '87. Out of 1451 hospitalized patients, the supraventricular tachyarrhythmias were 145; 85 of them (46 F and 39 M, average age 63 +/- 14) with an assured cardiopathy and 60 of them (34 F and 26 M, average age 58 +/- 13) with no assured cardiopathy. The employed drugs, as a first choice, were verapamil, amiodarone or flecainide on the ground of study protocols in order to value their compared effectiveness. When amiodarone was not employed, as a first choice, in conformity with a specific protocol, it was utilized as a second choice after verapamil or flecainide. A DC shock was carried out in the case of pharmacological failure. Among the patients with an assured cardiopathy, the pharmacologically cardioversed ones turn out 55.3%; the spontaneously ones 9.4%; the ones treated by DC shock 14.1%; the non cardioversed ones 21.2%. Among the patients with no assured cardiopathy, the pharmacologically cardioversed ones turn out 78.3%; the spontaneously ones 5%; the treated by DC shock ones 11.7%; the non-cardioversed ones 5%. Therefore, the supraventricular tachyarrhythmias of recent onset make up nearly 10% of the hospitalizations into a Coronary Care Unit; the percentage of cardioversions in a sinusal rhythm with a pharmacological treatment reaches 95% in those patients with no assured cardiopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2503248

  3. Clinical significance of dipyridamole Tl-201 emission computed tomography perfusion abnormality for evaluating pathophysiological and pathological aspects in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dipyridamole-induced Tl-201 perfusion abnormality was evaluated from its clinical features, echocardiography and myocardial histopathology in 39 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). From the findings of Tl-201 emission computed tomography (ECT), subjects were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 16) which did not show a perfusion abnormality in the hypertrophic region; group 2 (n = 2) which showed a perfusion defect on the initial image with complete redistribution on the delayed image; and group 3 (n = 11) which showed a persistent perfusion defect - this group included most patients who revealed partial and/or incomplete redistribution. Echocardiography revealed that group 2 showed a marked asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and an incidental obstructive pattern, and that group 3 had a significantly dilated left ventricular diastolic dimension and a decreased percentage of fractional shortening. Group 3 also showed frequent ventricular tachycardia and a familial history of cardiomyopathy. As for the myocardial biopsy findings, group 3 had significantly advanced myocardial fibrosis, the percentage being 6.0 ± 3.1 % in group 1; 5.5 ± 2.5 % in group 2; and 11.9 ± 3.4 % in group 3. Thus, it was concluded that the persistent perfusion defect on dipyridamole stress Tl-201 ECT testing is an important finding corresponding to the advanced clinical and pathological aspects of HCM. (author)

  4. Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia under the recent crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaššo Matej

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion has been one of the most prominent topics of discourse among spatial planners, urban sociologists, economists and experts from various other fields. Territorial systems with high degree of cohesion are better equipped to withstand the external pressures and situational imbalancies. Recent global crisis exposed these imbalancies and challenged the smooth and balanced spatial development of European countries. Major economic setbacks influenced entire society in Slovakia. Global financial crisis evaporated the ultimate growth of Slovak economics and exposed hidden imbalancies of development policies solely related to GDP growth instead of creating the fundaments for sustainability in the transition economy. Spatial polarization on different levels of society weakened down the overall (mainly social cohesion and highlighted the problems of marginalized regions and social groups. Social aspects of territorial and spatial processes are more visible than ever before and regional disparities are becoming more prominent issue in political and scientific discourse. Despite the deep profilation of regional identity and place attachment, there are still considerable distinctions and disparities between metropolitan/urban and rural communities in terms of values, consumption patterns, life style, sense of solidarity or wealth distribution. Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia, mainly in the field of social cohesion are in the spotlight in this paper. Focus on integrative spatial development balancing the contradictions by effective mixture of general approach and reasonable and sensible differentiation is considered highly essential.

  5. Rinderpest and other animal morbillivirus infections: comparative aspects and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, L; Barrett, T

    1996-09-01

    The genus morbillivirus presently comprises measles virus of man, rinderpest virus (RPV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). 'Emerging' morbilliviruses, such as phocid distemper virus (PDV) of seals, dolphin (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) have probably been present for a long period of time and outbreaks are possibly related to introduction into a highly susceptible population and/or be the result of interspecies transmission. In this review some comparative aspects of morbillivirus infections, particularly with respect to rinderpest and canine distemper viruses, are presented. Topics include pathogenesis, epidemiology, molecular phylogeny, diagnosis and prophylaxis. Recent developments in molecular biology have created tools which have enabled us to achieve a better understanding of morbillivirus infections at the nucleic acid level ('molecular epidemiology') while recombinant DNA technology has allowed new bivalent recombinant vaccines with improved heat stability to be produced. PMID:8885706

  6. Lasercom for interplanetary missions: recent European activities, future possibilities, and synergy aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischer, T.; Arnold, F.; Kudielka, K.; Tissot, Y.; Weigel, T.

    2010-02-01

    Science return and high bandwidth communications are key issues to support the foreseen endeavors on spaceflights to the Moon and beyond. For a given mass, power consumption and volume, laser communications can offer an increase in telemetry bandwidth over classical RF technology allowing for a variety of new options, like more raw scientific data being sent back to Earth where data processing can be performed on ground. Recent European activities in the field of laser communications investigated mission scenarios for deep space and within the Earth's sphere of influence. Various link topologies have been investigated, involving Lissajous orbits at Libration points of the Earth-Sun and the Moon- Earth system, and also Martian orbiters. Different types of lasercom terminal concepts have been investigated, either operating fully autonomously or being attached to dedicated telecom orbiter spacecraft. Enhanced pulse position modulation formats were tested together with tailored FEC and interleaver technology in inter-island test campaigns using ESA's optical ground station on Tenerife. The paper summarizes the findings from all activities, highlights the potential and describes synergy aspects of involved technologies, all in view using lasercom as part of an integrated RF-optical TT&C subsystem to support enhanced science return.

  7. Recent developments in environmental aspects of D-3He fuelled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress on fusion safety has stimulated worldwide research in the late 1980s for fuel cycles other than D-T. With advanced cycles, such as D-D, D-3He, p-11B, and 3He-3He, it is not necessary to breed and fuel large amounts of tritium. The D-3He fuel cycle in particular is not completely aneutronic due to the side D-D reactions. Neutron wall loadings, however, can be kept low (by orders of magnitude) compared to D-T fuelled plants with the same output power, eliminating the need for replacing the first wall and shielding components during the entire plant lifetime. Other attractive safety characteristics include low activity and decay heat levels, low-level waste, and low releasable radioactive inventory from credible accidents. There is a growing international effort to alleviate the environmental impact of fusion and to support the most recent trend in radwaste management that suggests replacing the geological disposal option with more environmentally attractive scenarios, such as recycling and clearance. We took the initiative to apply these approaches to existing D-3He conceptual designs: the ARIES-III power plant and the Candor experiment. Furthermore, a comparison between the radiological aspect of the D-3He and D-T fuel cycles was assessed and showed notable differences. This report documents the comparative assessment and supports the safety argument in favour of the D-3H argument in favour of the D-3He fuel cycle

  8. Aspects récents de la thermodynamique des solutions de polymères Recent Aspects of the Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayantis J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On examine dans cet article différentes approches de la thermodynamique des solutions de polymères placées dans leur contexte historique. On rappelle d'abord le modèle du réseau de Flory-Huggins et on en souligne les déficiences. On traite ensuite brièvement de la mécanique statistique des solutions de polymères introduite par Prigogine en 1957 et on montre qu'elle constitue un progrès qualitatif par rapport à la théorie du réseau, mais qu'elle ne prévoit cependant pas de manière quantitative les propriétés de ces solutions. On montre ensuite que le concept de volume libre, qui permet un traitement simplifié de certaines quantités, permet également d'expliquer tout naturellement l'existence d'une deuxième température de séparation en phase lorsque l'on élève la température, propriété qui différencie les solutions de polymères des mélanges de liquidés simples. Enfin, dans une dernière partie, on mentionne brièvement les travaux récents de l'École de Paris, qui traite les solutions de polymères par analogie avec les transitions magnétiques. This article examines différent approaches ta the thermodynamics of polymer solutions set in their historical context. First of all, the Flory-Huggins network model is described and ifs deficiencies are pointed out. Then attention is briefly drawn to the statistical mechanics of polymer solutions as introduced by Prigogine in 1957, and this mechanics is shown to be a qualitative advance compared with the network theory, but it nonetheless does not quantitatively predict the properties of such solutions. It is then shown that the concept of free volume, enabling some quantifies to be treated in a simplified way, also serves to provide a quite natural explanation for the existence of a second phase separation temperature when the temperature is raised, i. e. a property that differentiates polymer solutions from simple liquid mixtures. In the final part, brief mention is made of recent research by the Paris School which has been treating polymer solutions by similarity ta magnetic transitions.

  9. Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent Earthquakes, and Consequential Mudflows and Landslides, held in Moscow, October 1989. The annexes to the document provide information on the participants, the work programme and the resolution adopted at each of the seminars. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Aspects of Protein Chemistry. Part I: Some Recent Insights Into Enzyme Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Describes some recent advances in enzyme structure and action, including a description of enzyme-substrate interaction. Discusses the methods for determination of amino acid sequences in proteins; the actions of chymotrypsin, trypsin, and elastase; and details of the enzyme-substrate complex derived from kinetic studies and x-ray diffraction…

  11. Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia under the recent crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaššo Matej; Finka Maroš

    2010-01-01

    Territorial cohesion has been one of the most prominent topics of discourse among spatial planners, urban sociologists, economists and experts from various other fields. Territorial systems with high degree of cohesion are better equipped to withstand the external pressures and situational imbalancies. Recent global crisis exposed these imbalancies and challenged the smooth and balanced spatial development of European countries. Major economic setbacks influenced entire society in Slova...

  12. Aspectos patológicos, imunológicos e propriedades moleculares do TT vírus Pathological and immunological aspects and molecular properties of TT virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O TT vírus (TTV foi primeiramente descrito no Japão, em 1997, por T. Nishizawa, no soro de pacientes com hepatite, pós-transfusão, não-A-G. Tem sido intensivamente investigado, desde então, como uma possível adição à lista dos vírus indutores de hepatite. O TTV é um vírus DNA não-envelopado, de fita simples. Uma considerável variabilidade genética tem sido demonstrada por parte do TTV, o que tem levado pesquisadores a agrupar isolados do vírus em inúmeros genótipos e subtipos. No entanto a significância clínica da infecção por TTV permanece desconhecida. Ele é freqüentemente detectado em fluidos corporais e seu componente mais bem elucidado atualmente é o genoma. Conhecimentos relacionados ao TTV têm aumentado constantemente, porém vários aspectos fundamentais permanecem obscuros. Esta revisão apresenta algumas das propriedades moleculares do TT vírus.TT virus (TTV was first reported in Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in sera from non-A to non-G post-transfusion hepatitis patients. It has been intensively investigated, ever since, as a possible addition to the list of hepatitis-inducing viruses. The TTV is an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus. Considerable genetic variability of TTV has been demonstrated and has led investigators to group its isolates into numerous genotypes and subtypes. However, the clinical significance of TTV infection remains unknown. It is frequently detected in the serum and in other body fluids of humans. The component of TTV currently best understood is its genome. Knowledge related to TTV has increased rapidly, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This review shows some of the molecular properties of TT virus.

  13. ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposit: Global aspects and recent developments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is concluded that most of known ISL-amenable uranium deposits are attributed to roll sub-type, a minority to basal-channel sub-type, and a few to tabular in case that redistribution of U occurred. Such a classification and related explanation are beneficial to exploration in China. However, there exist significant differences between deposits in Central Asia and those in Wyoming in aspects of tectonic background, scale and shape of host sandbodies, and attitude of ore bodies though all are attributed to the same roll sub-type. Similar situation is presented for deposits of basal channel sub-type. So, it is proposed to establish deposit model and model series, providing guidelines for exploration. Four model series and eleven models have been tentatively formulated, including: 1) Central Asia-South Texas series (Chu Sarysu-Syr Darya, Central Kyzylkum, Yili and South Texas models) where hosts are large-scale tabular sandbodies, usually developed on the slope parallel to the long axis of the basin and ore bodies have a 'C' shape with convex surfaces perpendicular to the long axis of the basin; 2) Wyoming series (Shirley-Wind River-Powder River and Great Divide models) where hosts are moderate/small sandbodies forming a wide ribbon, deposited in compressive for e-land basins while ore bodies occur on both margins of ribbon-shaped sandbodies with the convex surfaces directed outwards; 3) Grants series (Grants-primary and Grants re-distributed models) where host sandstonre-distributed models) where host sandstones were deposited as channel fill within a large-scale humid alluvial fan, containing plenty of organic matter, and ore bodies are mostly tabular in shape, transformed locally into roll form; and 4) Siberia-Bohemia series (West Siberia, Trans-baikal-West Yunnan and North Bohemia models) where U concentrations occur in, on, and/or adjacent to detrital plant debris within the channel sandstone, filling incised valley. Besides, recognition criteria are briefly explained. On the other hand, the sandstone-type uranium metallogenetic prospect of China is discussed with special attention to the Northwest Territory of China that could be considered as the east extension of a giant uranium super-province, stretching from Central Asia eastwards. The territory includes four domains and thirteen sub-domains different in uranium endowment. Meanwhile, the features of six selected deposits/mineralized areas are described in brief, including the Kujie'ertai, roll sub-type, hosted in tabular sand-bodies (J1-2sh); the Shihongtan, roll sub-type, hosted in ribbon-shaped sand-bodies (J2x); the Dongsheng, tabular sub-type with local U redistribution, hosted in ribbon-shaped sand-bodies (J2z); the Nuheting, tabular sub-type, hosted in ribbon-shaped sand-bodies (K2e); the Bayantala, basal channel sub-type of Mesozoic (K1bs) age; and the Chenzishan, basal channel sub-type of Cenozoic (N2m age). Finally, it is emphasized that China, especially the Northwest Territory of China, remains highly perspective, having only minor exploration in the past. (author)

  14. Mentalization and theory of mind in borderline personality organization: exploring the differences between affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in emotional pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górska, Dominika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This article addresses the problem of explaining emotional pathology (levels of personality organization using the concepts of theory of mind (ToM and mentalization. Although these terms are used interchangeably to describe the “ability to interpret the behavior of others in terms of mental states,” they do not have identical status in emotional disorders. ToM refers to a “cold” knowledge, whereas mentalization requires the activation of relational and emotional representations, as well as processing of emotional experience (whether reflection or defense. The aim of the study was to compare the cognitive (ToM and affective (mentalization aspects of “understanding the behavior of others in terms of mental states” in the clinical group – consisting of patients with borderline personality organization (N = 30; and the control group (N = 30. Method: The Borderline Personality Inventory was used as a diagnostic questionnaire for the organization of personality, the Strange Stories Test was employed to measure ToM, and the Mental States Task instrument measured mentalization. Results: With respect to mentalization, different patterns of results were obtained: the activation of overwhelming mental states and primitive defenses in the clinical group; as well as the inhibition of the recognition of mental content by defenses, such as denial and suppression of emotions, in the control group. No differences were observed in ToM between groups. Conclusions: In explaining the personality organization levels, only the affective, and not the cognitive, aspects of “understanding the behavior of others in terms of mental states” are significant. People with borderline personality organization, as well as healthy individuals, use “cold” knowledge about internal states. However, the activation of relational and emotional representations triggers different mental states in both groups.

  15. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da intoxicação por aceturato de diminazeno em cães / Epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of diminazene aceturate toxicosis in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana M., Flores; Paula R., Pereira; Alexandre, Mazzanti; Glaucia D., Kommers; Rafael A., Fighera.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da intoxicação espontânea por aceturato de diminazeno foram estudados em 10 cães. Em todos os casos, os cães afetados demonstraram sinais de síndrome tálamo-cortical, principalmente alteração do nível de consciência, tetraparesia, rigidez ex [...] tensora e crise convulsiva. Em alguns casos, os cães acometidos apresentaram sinais de síndrome cerebelar, como tremores musculares generalizados de alta frequência e baixa amplitude, e/ou de síndrome vestibular, como ataxia, inclinação de cabeça e quedas. Esses sinais ocorreram entre 24 e 48 horas após o uso do fármaco injetável por via intramuscular e se mantiveram até a morte ou eutanásia dos cães (entre 1 e 7 dias). Tais sinais clínicos refletiam encefalomalacia hemorrágica focal simétrica, que afetava a medula oblonga, a ponte, a medular do cerebelo, o tálamo, o mesencéfalo, os pedúnculos cerebelares e os núcleos da base. Esse artigo: 1) descreve e discute essa forma de intoxicação medicamentosa tão pouco citada na literatura internacional e desconhecida da maior parte dos clínicos e patologistas veterinários brasileiros, 2) estabelece critérios clínicos e anatomopatológicos para o seu diagnóstico e, principalmente, 3) atenta para os riscos da utilização desse princípio ativo na terapêutica canina. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of diminazene aceturate (DA) spontaneous toxicosis were evaluated in 10 dogs. All affected dogs developed signs of thalamic-cortical syndrome, characterized mainly by neurological changes in the conscience levels, tetraparesis, extensor stiffne [...] ss, and seizures. In some cases there was also evidence of cerebellar syndrome, characterized by generalized muscle tremors (high-frequency and low-amplitude) and/or vestibular syndrome, characterized by or ataxia, head tilt, and falling. These clinical signs occurred between 24 and 48 hours following intramuscular administration of DA and persisted until spontaneous death or euthanasia occurred between 1 and 7 days after the onset of clinical signs. The mentioned clinical signs reflected lesions that consisted of focal symmetrical hemorrhagic encephalomalacia affecting medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellar medulla, thalamus, midbrain, cerebellar peduncles, and basal nuclei. This article (1) describes and discusses DA toxicosis in dogs, a poorly-described clinical entity that is unknown by most clinicians and pathologists in Brazil; (2) establishes the clinical and pathological criteria for the diagnosis of DA toxicosis in dogs; and (3) calls up the attention for the risks of using DA in dogs in clinical settings.

  16. Spinal cord grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Christopher Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has been considered to be a predominantly white matter (WM) disease. More recent studies have revealed considerable grey matter (GM) involvement in the brain. However there is a paucity of literature examining GM pathology in the spinal cord. Objectives and methods: We use human post-mortem material to explore various aspects of spinal cord GM pathology in MS including (i) the extent and pattern of spinal cord demyelination, (ii)...

  17. Pathology of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Markus; van der Valk, Paul; Amor, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Pathological examination of the affected human tissue is key to understanding the possible mechanisms operating in the disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), studies of central nervous system (CNS) tissues reveal the inflammatory nature of the disease associated with demyelination and axonal damage. Based on the concept of a pathogenic adaptive immune response, immunosuppressive therapies have been developed in an attempt to block or inhibit the potentially pathogenic T and B cells. More recently, re-examination of the neuropathology has led to a resurgence of interest in the neurodegenerative aspects of the disease, the involvement of cortical damage as well as the role of innate immunity in MS. These ideas have led to paradigm shifts from MS being the result of autoimmunity to myelin due to initial adaptive immune responses, to that of a neurodegenerative disease in which, besides T and B cells, innate immunity may play a major role in the disease process. The neuropathological studies have undoubtedly influenced pharmaceutical interest in development of neuroprotective approaches. Here we review the latest findings from pathological studies of MS tissues and discuss the relevance of these findings for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:22583433

  18. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro / Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elise M, Yamasaki; Carlos H, Tokarnia; Alexandre, Galvão; Marcos J.P, Gomes; José A.B, Chies; Tiago Degani, Veit; Ana Paula, Aragão; Marilene F, Brito.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Ri [...] o de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano. Abstract in english Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eigh [...] t cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were proeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with mico

  19. Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011) / Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila, Tochetto; Mariana M., Flores; Glaucia D., Kommers; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2%) e hemorragia (75,5%), principalmente no pulmão (56,6%). Alterações [...] macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6%) e renais (50,9%) foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente), acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4%) e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%). Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%). Hepatomegalia (11,3%), nefromegalia (9,4%) e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8%) foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53), as lesões encontradas (98,1%) foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2%) e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8%) e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%), com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42), as lesões encontradas (97,6%) eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%), colestase intra-canalicular (33,3%) e necrose hepática (31%). Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%). Na histologia do pulmão (n=28), hemorragia (85,7%) e edema (57,1%) alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7%) e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9%) também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil) não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia. Abstract in english The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2%) and hemorrhage (75.5%), mainly in the lungs (56.6%). Gross hepatic (56.6%) and ren [...] al (50.9%) changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%), accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4%) and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%). Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%). Enlarged livers (11.3%), and kidneys (9.4%), and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8%) were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53), the encountered lesions (98.1%) were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2%) and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8%) and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%), with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42), the encountered lesions (97.6%) consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%), intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3%) and hepatocellular necrosis (31%). Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were observed in several cases (42.8%). In the histopathology of

  20. Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012 Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Flores

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40, cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente, visto que na população total de cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063 essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respectivamente. Na necropsia (n=40, os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5% e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%, e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%, pulmão (60%, fígado (52,5%, peritônio (42,5%, rim (37,5%, encéfalo (30%, pleura (25% e coração (22,5%. Hemoperitônio (42,5% e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5% foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25, os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%, de baixo grau (64% e com estroma escasso (84%, mas frequentemente (68% havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28% e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12% foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24, utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma.Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Out of the studied cases (n=40, aged dogs (72.2% of the cases and dogs of German shepherd breed (20% of the cases were clearly more frequently affected since in the total population of necropsied dogs in the same period (n=7,063 this age group and breed were comparatively less represented (respectively 14.6% e 10.1% of the cases. At necropsy (n=40 most tumors (92.5% occurred as nodules and less frequently as masses (37.5%, affecting mainly the spleen (62.5%, lung (60%, liver (52.5%, peritoneum (42.5%, kidney (37.5%, brain (30%, pleura (25%, and heart (22.5%. Hemoperitoneum (42.5% of the cases and resultant anemia (22.5% of the cases were also observed. On histological examination (n=25, most hemangiosarcomas (84%, were, in general, well differentiated, of low grade (64% and possessed a scant stroma (84%, although frequently (68% focal areas with cells displaying some degree of atypia were seen. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and thrombosis were observed in all cases, however extramedullary hematopoiesis (28% and benign angiomatous proliferation (12% were less common findings. In all cases submitted to immunohistochemistry staining (n=24 the tumor cells displayed a finely granular positive staining when using anti-factor von Willebrand. Regarding anatomical classification, 55% of the hemangiosarcomas were considered as multicentric, 30% as primary tumors with one or more metastasis and 15% were solitary tumors. This paper discusses these results an suggests, based on the combination of affected organs, a scheme for setting apart primary hemangiosarcoma with metastasis from multicentric hemangiosarcoma, aiming to uniformize communication between pathologists regarding this tumor.

  1. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Driemeier; Claudio Estevão Farias, Cruz; Marcos José Pereira, Gomes; Luís Gustavo, Corbellini; Alexandre Paulino, Loretti; Edson Moleta, Colodel.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em uma criação intensiva de bovinos de leite no município de Capela de Santana, RS. Sinais clínicos foram observados em oito de um total de 345 bovinos e consistiam em diarréia crônica refratária ao tratamento, emagrecimento progressi [...] vo e queda da produção de leite. As principais lesões macroscópicas, observadas nos oito animais eutanasiados e necropsiados, incluíam intestino delgado com acentuado espessamento da parede e superfície mucosa de aspecto reticulado, semelhante às circunvoluções cerebrais, lesão essa perceptível através da serosa. A luz intestinal estava preenchida por conteúdo fluido e de aspecto leitoso. Os vasos linfáticos do mesentério mostravam-se mais evidentes, sendo que alguns tinham aspecto varicoso. Os linfonodos mesentéricos estavam aumentados de volume e, ao corte, fluía grande quantidade de líquido leitoso. Focos de mineralização foram observados na íntima das artérias, nas válvulas cardíacas e na serosa do rúmen. Havia também edema das dobras do abomaso e do mesentério e atrofia do lobo caudado do fígado. As principais lesões microscópicas incluíam enterite, linfadenite e linfangite granulomatosas que se caracterizavam por infiltrado inflamatório composto por macrófagos, células epitelióides e células gigantes de Langhans que continham grande quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes. As lesões vasculares consistiam em degeneração e mineralização das túnicas íntima e média das artérias de grande calibre associadas à proliferação de colágeno. Havia calcificação da serosa do rúmen, atrofia hepatocelular difusa e hepatite granulomatosa multifocal. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis foi cultivado em meio de Herrold enriquecido com micobactina a partir de raspados do intestino em todas as oito amostras enviadas para exame bacteriológico. Abstract in english The clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in a dairy herd in the county of Capela de Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, are described. Clinical signs in eight cows out of 345 cattle included chronic diarrhea refractory to treatment, progressive emaciation and decreas [...] ed milk production. Necropsy findings included severe and diffuse thickening of the mucosa of the small intestine with exaggerated reticular pattern, reflected in the serosal surface, similar to cerebral gyri. Intestinal loops were filled with whitish watery contents. The lymphatic vessels of the intestinal serosa and of the mesentery were thickened and tortuous. The mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and, on cut surface, there were oozing of milky fluid. Plaques of mineralization were evident in the intima of larger arteries, in the endocardium of the heart valves and in the ruminal serosa. There was also edema of the abomasal folds and atrophy of the caudate lobe of the liver. The main histopathological findings were granulomatous enteritis, lymphadenitis and lymphangitis. The inflammatory infiltrate was composed of macrophages, epithelioid cells and Langhans' giant cells containing large numbers of acid-fast bacilli. Vascular lesions included degeneration, calcification and collagen proliferation of the intima and media of larger arteries. Other microscopic lesions included calcification of the ruminal serosa, diffuse hepatocellular atrophy and multifocal granulomatous hepatitis. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was cultured in Herrold's medium enriched with mycobactin from all the eight samples of intestinal scrapings submitted to bacteriological examination.

  2. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Driemeier

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em uma criação intensiva de bovinos de leite no município de Capela de Santana, RS. Sinais clínicos foram observados em oito de um total de 345 bovinos e consistiam em diarréia crônica refratária ao tratamento, emagrecimento progressivo e queda da produção de leite. As principais lesões macroscópicas, observadas nos oito animais eutanasiados e necropsiados, incluíam intestino delgado com acentuado espessamento da parede e superfície mucosa de aspecto reticulado, semelhante às circunvoluções cerebrais, lesão essa perceptível através da serosa. A luz intestinal estava preenchida por conteúdo fluido e de aspecto leitoso. Os vasos linfáticos do mesentério mostravam-se mais evidentes, sendo que alguns tinham aspecto varicoso. Os linfonodos mesentéricos estavam aumentados de volume e, ao corte, fluía grande quantidade de líquido leitoso. Focos de mineralização foram observados na íntima das artérias, nas válvulas cardíacas e na serosa do rúmen. Havia também edema das dobras do abomaso e do mesentério e atrofia do lobo caudado do fígado. As principais lesões microscópicas incluíam enterite, linfadenite e linfangite granulomatosas que se caracterizavam por infiltrado inflamatório composto por macrófagos, células epitelióides e células gigantes de Langhans que continham grande quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes. As lesões vasculares consistiam em degeneração e mineralização das túnicas íntima e média das artérias de grande calibre associadas à proliferação de colágeno. Havia calcificação da serosa do rúmen, atrofia hepatocelular difusa e hepatite granulomatosa multifocal. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis foi cultivado em meio de Herrold enriquecido com micobactina a partir de raspados do intestino em todas as oito amostras enviadas para exame bacteriológico.The clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in a dairy herd in the county of Capela de Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, are described. Clinical signs in eight cows out of 345 cattle included chronic diarrhea refractory to treatment, progressive emaciation and decreased milk production. Necropsy findings included severe and diffuse thickening of the mucosa of the small intestine with exaggerated reticular pattern, reflected in the serosal surface, similar to cerebral gyri. Intestinal loops were filled with whitish watery contents. The lymphatic vessels of the intestinal serosa and of the mesentery were thickened and tortuous. The mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and, on cut surface, there were oozing of milky fluid. Plaques of mineralization were evident in the intima of larger arteries, in the endocardium of the heart valves and in the ruminal serosa. There was also edema of the abomasal folds and atrophy of the caudate lobe of the liver. The main histopathological findings were granulomatous enteritis, lymphadenitis and lymphangitis. The inflammatory infiltrate was composed of macrophages, epithelioid cells and Langhans' giant cells containing large numbers of acid-fast bacilli. Vascular lesions included degeneration, calcification and collagen proliferation of the intima and media of larger arteries. Other microscopic lesions included calcification of the ruminal serosa, diffuse hepatocellular atrophy and multifocal granulomatous hepatitis. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was cultured in Herrold's medium enriched with mycobactin from all the eight samples of intestinal scrapings submitted to bacteriological examination.

  3. Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012) / Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana M., Flores; Welden, Panziera; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

    1319-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40), cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente), visto que na população total de [...] cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063) essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respectivamente). Na necropsia (n=40), os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5%) e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%), e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%), pulmão (60%), fígado (52,5%), peritônio (42,5%), rim (37,5%), encéfalo (30%), pleura (25%) e coração (22,5%). Hemoperitônio (42,5%) e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5%) foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25), os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%), de baixo grau (64%) e com estroma escasso (84%), mas frequentemente (68%) havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28%) e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12%) foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24), utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s) e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s) e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma. Abstract in english Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Out of the studied cases (n=40), aged dogs (72.2% of the cases) and dogs of German shepherd breed (20% of the cases) were clearly more frequently affected since in t [...] he total population of necropsied dogs in the same period (n=7,063) this age group and breed were comparatively less represented (respectively 14.6% e 10.1% of the cases). At necropsy (n=40) most tumors (92.5%) occurred as nodules and less frequently as masses (37.5%), affecting mainly the spleen (62.5%), lung (60%), liver (52.5%), peritoneum (42.5%), kidney (37.5%), brain (30%), pleura (25%), and heart (22.5%). Hemoperitoneum (42.5% of the cases) and resultant anemia (22.5% of the cases) were also observed. On histological examination (n=25), most hemangiosarcomas (84%), were, in general, well differentiated, of low grade (64%) and possessed a scant stroma (84%), although frequently (68%) focal areas with cells displaying some degree of atypia were seen. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and thrombosis were observed in all cases, however extramedullary hematopoiesis (28%) and benign angiomatous proliferation (12%) were less common findings. In all cases submitted to immunohistochemistry staining (n=24) the tumor cells displayed a finely granular positive staining when using anti-factor von Willebrand. Regarding anatomical classification, 55% of the hemangiosarcomas were considered as multicentric, 30% as primary tumors with one or more metastasis and 15% were solitary tumors. This paper discusses these results an suggests, based on the combination of affected organs, a scheme for setting apart primary hemangiosarcoma with metastasis from multicentric hemangiosarcoma, aiming to uniformize communication between pathologists regarding this tumor.

  4. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

  5. Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011 Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tochetto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2% e hemorragia (75,5%, principalmente no pulmão (56,6%. Alterações macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6% e renais (50,9% foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente, acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4% e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%. Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%. Hepatomegalia (11,3%, nefromegalia (9,4% e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8% foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53, as lesões encontradas (98,1% foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2% e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8% e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%, com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42, as lesões encontradas (97,6% eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%, colestase intra-canalicular (33,3% e necrose hepática (31%. Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%. Na histologia do pulmão (n=28, hemorragia (85,7% e edema (57,1% alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7% e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9% também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia.The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2% and hemorrhage (75.5%, mainly in the lungs (56.6%. Gross hepatic (56.6% and renal (50.9% changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%, accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4% and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%. Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%. Enlarged livers (11.3%, and kidneys (9.4%, and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8% were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53, the encountered lesions (98.1% were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2% and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8% and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%, with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42, the encountered lesions (97.6% consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%, intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3% and hepatocellular necrosis (31%. Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were observed in several cases (42.8%. In the histopathology of the lung (n=28, alveolar hemorrhage (85.7% and edema (57.1% were rather frequent lesi

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos do linfoma em bovinos: 128 casos (1965-2013) / Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of lymphoma in cattle: 128 cases (1965-2013)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Welden, Panziera; Ronaldo M., Bianchi; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Paula R., Pereira; Renata D., Mazaro; Claudio S.L., Barros; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz F., Irigoyen; Rafael A., Fighera.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de um estudo retrospectivo, os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de 128 casos de linfoma bovino são descritos. Dos protocolos que informavam o sexo (n=111), 84,7% correspondiam a fêmeas e 15,3% a machos. Dos protocolos em que constava a raça (n=108), a mais prevalente [...] foi a holandesa (63%). Em relação à idade (n=107), houve uma variação entre um e 14 anos. A maioria dos bovinos era adulta (89,7%) e a maior concentração dos casos ocorreu ao redor de 5-8 anos (57,9%). Em relação aos sinais clínicos (n=89), linfadenomegalia foi o achado mais frequentemente observado (74,1%). Outros sinais clínicos, principalmente aqueles relacionados com os sistemas respiratório (dispneia, estertoração pulmonar e taquipneia), cardiovascular (taquicardia, edema subcutâneo e pulso venoso positivo), digestório (atonia ruminal, timpanismo e diarreia) e nervoso (paresia dos membros pélvicos e andar cambaleante), foram pouco prevalentes. Na necropsia (n=125), 71,2% dos bovinos apresentavam aumento de volume dos linfonodos; essa linfadenomegalia foi classificada como localizada em 89,6% dos casos e generalizada em 10,3% dos casos. Dos protocolos que informavam os linfonodos acometidos (n=58), a distribuição foi a seguinte: mesentéricos (51,7%), mediastínicos (37,9%), pré-escapulares (29,3%), ilíacos internos (27,6%), inguinais superficiais (25,8%) e traqueobrônquicos (18,9%). Além dos linfonodos, outros órgãos comumente afetados pelo linfoma neste estudo incluíram: coração (40%), fígado (15,2%), rim (14,4%), abomaso (12,8%), útero (11,2%), intestino (10,4%) e pulmão (7,2%). A presença de massas tumorais no canal vertebral foi observada em poucos casos (3,2%). Com base na epidemiologia e na localização das lesões, a maioria dos casos (96%) foi classificada como linfoma enzoótico e o restante (4%) como linfoma esporádico. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo irão auxiliar clínicos de grandes animais e patologistas veterinários na suspeita e no diagnóstico definitivo do linfoma na espécie bovina. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of 128 cases of bovine lymphoma are described in this study. Out of the cases were the gender was informed (n=111), 84.7% of affected animals were females and 15.3% were males. Out of the cases were breed was informed (n=108), 63% of affected an [...] imals were Holstein cows. The age of affected cows (n=107) varied from 1 to 14 years (57.9%), with most animals being adults (89.7%) with 5 to 8 years of age (57.9%). The most common clinical sign (n=89) was lymphadenomegaly (74.1%). Other clinical signs associated with the respiratory system (dyspnea, pulmonary stridor, and tachypnea), cardiovascular system (tachycardia, subcutaneous edema, and positive venous pulse), digestive system (ruminal atony, bloat, and diarrhea), and nervous system (pelvic limb paresis and staggering pace) were less prevalent. Gross findings (n=125) included enlargement of lymph nodes in 71.2% of the cases; this finding was classified as localized in 89.6% of the cases and generalized in 10.3% of the cases. Out of the cases where the affected lymph nodes were identified (n=58) the distribution of the lymphadenomegaly was the following: mesenteric (51.7%), mediastinal (37.9%), prescapular (29.3%), internal iliac (27.6%), superficial inguinal (25.8%), and tracheobronchial (18.9%). Other commonly affected organs included heart (40%), liver (15.2%), kidney (14.4%), abomasum (12.8%), uterus (11.2%), intestine (10.4%), and lung (7.2%). Tumor masses within the vertebral canal were observed in a few cases (3.2%). Based on the epidemiology and localization of the lesions, the majority of the cases (96%) in this study were classified as enzootic lymphoma (96%) and the remainder of the cases (4%) as sporadic lymphoma. The results herein presented will serve as a guide to large animal practitioners and veterinary pathologists and will help in the confirmation of their suspicion when dealing with cases of bovine lymp

  7. Pathology Education: SY17-1 INNOVATIVE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE TEACHING OF PATHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Ui Soon

    2014-10-01

    Recent trainee pathologists showed a tendency to do better at identifying entities rather than the handling of cases that required a more global pathological interpretation. The examination of gross specimens and microscopy is fundamental to viewing, exploring and understanding pathological processes. Our department harnessed technological advances to improve the teaching and learning of pathology by incorporating the use of Aperio ScanScope web-based digital pathology, to provide greater access by undergraduate students to gross examination and microscopy. This digital imaging system was used for the demonstration of histology slides and images of gross specimens and to provide on-line access to students, combining it with the use of interactive multimedia, made accessible through Moodle, for the development of on-line quizzes. These case-based exercises presented students with short clinical vignettes, with visual demonstration of pertinent pathologic features linked to the Aperio system, followed by a series of questions designed to cover the important teaching points for each disease entity. At the post-graduate level, a participation forum on the Moodle platform was used to encourage on-line interactive discussion. These teaching approaches have enabled us to expand interactive learning experience beyond the classroom setting and to integrate multidisciplinary aspects in the learning of pathology. PMID:25188132

  8. Chiral Lewis acid catalysts in diels-Alder cycloadditions: mechanistic aspects and synthetic applications of recent systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz C, Dias.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo resume os avanços mais recentes na utilização de ácidos de Lewis quirais como catalisadores na reação de cicloadição de Diels-Alder. Catalisadores quirais de alumínio, boro, titânio, cobre, lantanídeos, magnésio e metais de transição são criticamente revisados. Estudos estruturais dos co [...] mplexos formados entre ácidos de Lewis e compostos carbonílicos assim como aplicações sintéticas dos sistemas mais recentes são especificamente discutidos. Abstract in english This review summarizes the recent progress which has been made in the use of chiral Lewis Acid catalysts in Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions. Chiral catalysts containing aluminum, boron, titanium, copper, lanthanides, magnesium and transition-metals are critically reviewed. Structural studies on [...] Lewis acid carbonyl complexes and synthetic applications of recent systems are specifically discussed.

  9. Safety and Environmental Aspects of Inertial Fusion Energy: An Overview of Recent Activities and Developments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 2 yr, significant progress has been made in several areas related to the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of inertial fusion energy (IFE). An updated methodology has been developed, and accident analyses have been performed for two IFE conceptual power plants and a target fabrication facility. Parallel to the consequence analyses of different accident scenarios, ongoing studies of accident initiating events are being used to support safety assessment and create a basic framework of types of events to consider in future risk characterization of new plant designs. Target designers/fabrication specialists have been provided with ranking information related to the S and E characteristics of candidate target materials. We have revisited waste management options for IFE, introducing the concept of clearance versus the traditional shallow land burial. A brief summary of results in each of these activities is given, and plans for future work are outlined

  10. Recent experiments at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to study the laser driven compression of CH shell targets and the effects of increasing aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments to study the laser driven compression of CH shell targets and the effects of increasing aspect ratio using x-ray shadowgraphy techniques are described. This work has been carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory's Central Laser Facility with 12 beam, 0.53 ?m, 1.0 ns irradiation. X-ray shadowgraphy techniques have been used with a frame time of approx. 100 ps and spatial resolution of 5 to 10 ?m to obtain density profiles for the compressed targets. A systematic study of 150-200 ?m targets with aspect ratios from approx. 7 to approx. 20 has been performed. The x-ray shadowgraphy techniques used are described, results in the form of x-radiographs presented and a discussion of preliminary results given. (author)

  11. Diagnosis, Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-26

    Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

  12. Ligamento suspensório da articulação metacarpo/metatarso falangianas nos eqüinos: aspectos evolutivos, anatômicos, histofisiológicos e das afecções / Suspensory ligament of equine metacarpus/metatarsus falangeal joint: evolutive anatomical, histophysiological aspects and pathologies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silke Verena, Schwarzbach; Geane Maciel, Pagliosa; Marcela Peixoto, Roscoe; Geraldo Eleno Silveira, Alves.

    1193-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta revisão reúne e discute aspectos anatômicos, histofisiológicos e afecções do ligamento suspensório (LS) da articulação metacarpo/metatarso falangiana dos eqüinos. Considerou-se a importância desses aspectos para subsidiar o diagnóstico e o tratamento de afecções no LS, visto que freqüentemente [...] animais portadores dessas doenças permanecem em atividades sob efeito de tratamentos paliativos que, apesar de proporcionarem alívio álgico, quase sempre não garantem a cura definitiva e, por conseguinte, não garantem o bem-estar absoluto do animal. Abstract in english This review discusses anatomical, histophysiological and pathological aspects of the suspensory ligament (SL) of metacarpal/metatarsal joint in the horse. This knowledge is important to aid in diagnosing and treating the SL diseases in the athlete horses, considering that affected animals remain on [...] training activities under palliative treatments that insure pain relieve, but do not guarantee fully and definitively welfare of the horses.

  13. Aspectos más recientes en relación con la diabetes mellitus tipo MODY Most recent aspects about type MODY diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ibis Conesa González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la mejor comprensión fisiopatológica de la diabetes mellitus permite identificar diferentes tipos, entre ellos una variante monogénica denominada por sus siglas en inglés MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young. Objetivos: describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos de los diferentes subtipos MODY. Desarrollo: los pacientes con diabetes tipo MODY presentan un comportamiento similar a la diabetes mellitus del adulto. Se caracteriza por una alteración genética autosómica dominante inherente y primaria a un defecto en la secreción de insulina. Hasta el momento actual se aceptan 9 subtipos de MODY. Los subtipos 1, 3, 4, 5 y 6 afectan a genes que codifican a factores nucleares de trascripción, y el subtipo 2 al gen que codifica a la enzima glucoquinasa. Se caracterizan clínicamente por cuadros que oscilan entre hiperglucemias permanentes, leves o moderadas, con buen pronóstico clínico, y pocas complicaciones, hasta cuadros de hiperglucemias mantenidas acompañadas de complicaciones crónicas precoces y graves. Conclusiones: las personas que padecen diabetes tipo MODY no son tan infrecuentes como se piensa. La correcta y temprana identificación de la enfermedad permitirá una acción terapéutica más racional y adecuada para brindar la posibilidad de mejor calidad de vida de estas personas.Background: a better physiopathological understanding of diabetes mellitus allows identifying its different types such as a monogenic variant called MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Objectives: to describe the physiopathological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the different subtypes in MODY diabetes. Development: the patients with MODY diabetes behave similarly to those suffering diabetes mellitus in adults. It is characterized by inherited dominant autosomal genetic alteration which is primary to a defect in insulin secretion. Up to the present, 9 subtypes are accepted. The subtypes 1,3,4,5 and 6 affect gens coding for nuclear transcriptional factors whereas subtype 2 affects the gen coding for glycokinase enzyme. From the clinical viewpoint, they are characterized by conditions ranging from permanent, slight or moderate hyperglycemias, with good clinical prognosis and low complications, to sustained hyperglycemias accompanied by early chronic and serious complications. Conclusions: the people suffering MODY diabetes are not as uncommon as one might think. The correct and early detection will allow taking quick, adequate and more rational therapeutic actions to provide the patients with a better quality of life.

  14. Aspectos más recientes en relación con la diabetes mellitus tipo MODY / Most recent aspects about type MODY diabetes mellitus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Ibis, Conesa González; Teresa Margarita, González Calero.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la mejor comprensión fisiopatológica de la diabetes mellitus permite identificar diferentes tipos, entre ellos una variante monogénica denominada por sus siglas en inglés MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young). Objetivos: describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos, diagnóst [...] icos y terapéuticos de los diferentes subtipos MODY. Desarrollo: los pacientes con diabetes tipo MODY presentan un comportamiento similar a la diabetes mellitus del adulto. Se caracteriza por una alteración genética autosómica dominante inherente y primaria a un defecto en la secreción de insulina. Hasta el momento actual se aceptan 9 subtipos de MODY. Los subtipos 1, 3, 4, 5 y 6 afectan a genes que codifican a factores nucleares de trascripción, y el subtipo 2 al gen que codifica a la enzima glucoquinasa. Se caracterizan clínicamente por cuadros que oscilan entre hiperglucemias permanentes, leves o moderadas, con buen pronóstico clínico, y pocas complicaciones, hasta cuadros de hiperglucemias mantenidas acompañadas de complicaciones crónicas precoces y graves. Conclusiones: las personas que padecen diabetes tipo MODY no son tan infrecuentes como se piensa. La correcta y temprana identificación de la enfermedad permitirá una acción terapéutica más racional y adecuada para brindar la posibilidad de mejor calidad de vida de estas personas. Abstract in english Background: a better physiopathological understanding of diabetes mellitus allows identifying its different types such as a monogenic variant called MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young). Objectives: to describe the physiopathological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the differ [...] ent subtypes in MODY diabetes. Development: the patients with MODY diabetes behave similarly to those suffering diabetes mellitus in adults. It is characterized by inherited dominant autosomal genetic alteration which is primary to a defect in insulin secretion. Up to the present, 9 subtypes are accepted. The subtypes 1,3,4,5 and 6 affect gens coding for nuclear transcriptional factors whereas subtype 2 affects the gen coding for glycokinase enzyme. From the clinical viewpoint, they are characterized by conditions ranging from permanent, slight or moderate hyperglycemias, with good clinical prognosis and low complications, to sustained hyperglycemias accompanied by early chronic and serious complications. Conclusions: the people suffering MODY diabetes are not as uncommon as one might think. The correct and early detection will allow taking quick, adequate and more rational therapeutic actions to provide the patients with a better quality of life.

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Recent aspect, a change from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron beam and a new protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Dept. of Neurosurgery National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentsuji, Kagawa (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Since 1968, One-hundred seventy three patients with glioblastoma (n=81), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumor (n=32) were treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a combination of thermal neutron and BSH in 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MuITR n=98, KUR n=28, JRR-2 n=33). Out of 101 patients with glioma treated by BNCT under the recent protocol, 33 (10 glioblastoma, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, 9 low grade astrocytoma) patients lived or have lived longer than 3 years. Nine of these 33 lived or have lived longer than 10 years. According to the retrospective analysis, the important factors related to the clinical results were tumor dose radiation dose and maximum radiation dose in thermal brain cortex. The result was not satisfied as it was expected. Then, we decided to introduce mixed beams which contain thermal neutron and epithermal neutron beams. KUR was reconstructed in 1996 and developed to be available to use mixed beams. Following the shutdown of the JRR-2, JRR-4 was renewed for medical use in 1998. Both reactors have capacity to yield thermal neutron beam, epithermal neutron beam and mixed beams. The development of the neutron source lead us to make a new protocol. (author)

  16. Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog / Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.D.C., Martins; B.B.J., Torres; A.A.M., Rodriguez; C.O., Gamba; G.D., Cassali; G.E., Lavalle; G.D.C., Martins; E.G., Melo.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de ne [...] urônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma. Abstract in english A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with uppe [...] r motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

  17. Morphological and pathological aspects of the rete ovarii in sheep (Ovis aries) / Aspectos morfológicos e patológicos da rete ovarii em ovinos - Ovis aries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.D., Cassali; J.C., Nogueira; E.F., Nascimento; J.S., Cardoso; D.L., Ferreira.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados histologicamente 64 ovários de ovelhas lanadas adultas, procedentes do Centro de Pesquisa dos Campos Sul Brasileiros-Embrapa, Bagé-RS. Constatou-se, em 55 dos 64 ovários (85,9%), a presença da rete ovarii, localizada no tecido periovariano, no hilo, na medular ou na cortical. À seme [...] lhança do observado em outros mamíferos, a rete ovarii na ovelha é morfologicamente dividida em três porções: rete intra-ovárica, rete conectante e rete extra-ovárica. Em cinco ovários (7,8%) foi possível verificar uma continuidade entre a rete extra-ovárica e a tuba uterina, sugerindo uma conexão tubo-retial, de maneira similar à descrita para bovinos e para a corça. Quanto à patologia da rete, observaram-se a formação de cistos envolvendo a rete conectante e/ou extra-ovárica em sete casos (10,9%) e um caso de hiperplasia da rete extra-ovárica (1,6%). Abstract in english Sixty-four ovaries of adult woolly sheep from the Centro de Pesquisa dos Campos Sul Brasileiros - Embrapa, Bagé-RS, Brazil, were analyzed histologically. The presence of the rete ovarii was detected in 55 of the 64 ovaries (85.9%), located in the periovarian tissue, in the hilus and in the medullary [...] or cortical regions. As also observed in other mammals, the rete ovarii of sheep is morphologically divided into three portions: intraovarian rete, connecting rete and extraovarian rete. Continuity between the extraovarian rete and the uterine tube was observed in five ovaries (7.8%), suggesting a tuboretial connection, as reported for cows and does. Pathological examination of the rete showed the formation of cysts surrounding the connecting and/or extraovarian rete in seven cases (10.9%) and one case of hyperplasia of the extraovarian rete (1.6%).

  18. Aspectos emocionales en la infertilidad: una revisión de la literatura reciente / Emotional Aspects in Infertility: a Review of Recent Literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Estela, Palacios; Enrique, Jadresic.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se entiende por infertilidad la imposibilidad de una pareja de lograr un embarazo, después de un año de vida sexual activa, sin uso de anticonceptivos. En Chile afecta al 15% de las parejas en edad fértil. La etiología es variada, a veces desconocida (20%). Se ha evaluado el impacto que tiene en la [...] pareja el diagnóstico de infertilidad. Es descrito como una crisis vital, a la cual contribuyen muchos factores, y se traduce en un gran desgaste emocional, por su carácter cíclico. Se repite una y otra vez la vivencia de esperanza (al inicio del ciclo) y fracaso (cuando llega la menstruación). Impacta el elevado costo económico del tratamiento, el sometimiento a procesos quirúrgicos y la invasión a la privacidad sexual. En parejas infértiles se han encontrado sentimientos de inadecuación, desesperación, pena, envidia y celos hacia la mujer embarazada, miedo, pérdida de la libido, disfunción eréctil, inestabilidad emocional, pérdida de la autoestima, culpa, depresión e ideación suicida. Se han descrito trastornos psicosomáticos, represión de las reacciones emocionales, deseo frenético de adoptar un hijo rápidamente o incorporarse a algún programa de fertilización asistida. Luego del fracaso terapéutico, desenlace habitual (70%), el 50% de las parejas presenta alguna alteración psicológica importante. Los autores revisan la literatura reciente sobre el tema y subrayan la necesidad de la participación activa de los profesionales de la salud mental junto a los equipos de medicina reproductiva Abstract in english Infertility is defined as a couple's inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. This problem affects 15% of couples of fertile age in Chile. The impact of infertility on the couple is assessed, and it is described as an emotionally debilitating life crisis due to multi [...] ple factors. It is characterized by a cyclical pattern in which the experience of hope (at the beginning of the cycle) is recurrently followed by the experience of failure (when menses begin). The high financial burden of treatment, the need to undergo surgical procedures, and the invasion of sexual intimacy are additional sources of stress. Infertile couples may suffer feelings of inadequacy, despair, sorrow, envy and jealousy towards pregnant women, fear, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, emotional instability, loss of self-esteem, guilt, depression, and suicidal ideation. Psychosomatic disorders, the repression of emotional reactions, and frantic desires to quickly adopt a child or to join a program of assisted reproduction are described. Following therapeutic failure, which is the most common outcome (70%), fifty percent of couples show some significant psychological distress. The authors review recent literature on the subject and underscore the need for mental health professionals to collaborate with infertility specialists in these cases

  19. Aspectos emocionales en la infertilidad: una revisión de la literatura reciente Emotional Aspects in Infertility: a Review of Recent Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Palacios

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se entiende por infertilidad la imposibilidad de una pareja de lograr un embarazo, después de un año de vida sexual activa, sin uso de anticonceptivos. En Chile afecta al 15% de las parejas en edad fértil. La etiología es variada, a veces desconocida (20%. Se ha evaluado el impacto que tiene en la pareja el diagnóstico de infertilidad. Es descrito como una crisis vital, a la cual contribuyen muchos factores, y se traduce en un gran desgaste emocional, por su carácter cíclico. Se repite una y otra vez la vivencia de esperanza (al inicio del ciclo y fracaso (cuando llega la menstruación. Impacta el elevado costo económico del tratamiento, el sometimiento a procesos quirúrgicos y la invasión a la privacidad sexual. En parejas infértiles se han encontrado sentimientos de inadecuación, desesperación, pena, envidia y celos hacia la mujer embarazada, miedo, pérdida de la libido, disfunción eréctil, inestabilidad emocional, pérdida de la autoestima, culpa, depresión e ideación suicida. Se han descrito trastornos psicosomáticos, represión de las reacciones emocionales, deseo frenético de adoptar un hijo rápidamente o incorporarse a algún programa de fertilización asistida. Luego del fracaso terapéutico, desenlace habitual (70%, el 50% de las parejas presenta alguna alteración psicológica importante. Los autores revisan la literatura reciente sobre el tema y subrayan la necesidad de la participación activa de los profesionales de la salud mental junto a los equipos de medicina reproductivaInfertility is defined as a couple's inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. This problem affects 15% of couples of fertile age in Chile. The impact of infertility on the couple is assessed, and it is described as an emotionally debilitating life crisis due to multiple factors. It is characterized by a cyclical pattern in which the experience of hope (at the beginning of the cycle is recurrently followed by the experience of failure (when menses begin. The high financial burden of treatment, the need to undergo surgical procedures, and the invasion of sexual intimacy are additional sources of stress. Infertile couples may suffer feelings of inadequacy, despair, sorrow, envy and jealousy towards pregnant women, fear, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, emotional instability, loss of self-esteem, guilt, depression, and suicidal ideation. Psychosomatic disorders, the repression of emotional reactions, and frantic desires to quickly adopt a child or to join a program of assisted reproduction are described. Following therapeutic failure, which is the most common outcome (70%, fifty percent of couples show some significant psychological distress. The authors review recent literature on the subject and underscore the need for mental health professionals to collaborate with infertility specialists in these cases

  20. Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Lawrie; A, Good.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are dr [...] iven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor.

  1. 'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Bauer

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available 'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry (N-rays, polywater as well as the recent case of cold fusion in electrochemistry involved research practices not clearly distinguishable from those in (revolutionary science. The concept of 'pathological science' was put forth nearly half a century ago in a seminar and lacks justification in contemporary understanding of science studies (history, philosophy, and sociology of science. It is time to abandon the phrase.

  2. Aspectos clínico-patológicos do envenenamento botrópico experimental em equinos / Clinical and pathological aspects of the experimental poisoning by Bothrops snakes in horses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melina Garcia de, Sousa; Carlos Hubinger, Tokarnia; Marilene de Farias, Brito; Alessandra Belo, Reis; Carlos Magno, Oliveira; Nayra Fernanda, Freitas; Cairo Henrique, Oliveira; José Diomedes, Barbosa.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em equinos, inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni e Bothropoides neuwiedi, com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para o diagnóstico do envenenamento pela picada dessas. [...] Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a seis equinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,5 e 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0,8 e 1,6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0,205mg/kg (B. moojeni) e 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). Todos os equinos, menos os que receberam o veneno de B. jararacussu, morreram Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se entre 8min e 2h10min após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou, nos quatro casos de êxito letal, de 24h41min a 70h41min, e nos dois equinos que se recuperaram foi de 16 dias. O quadro clínico, independente do tipo de veneno e das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, arrastar da pinça do membro inoculado no solo, inquietação, apatia, diminuição da resposta aos estímulos externos, mucosas pálidas e hemorragias. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram anemia normocítica normocrômica com progressiva diminuição no número de hemácias, da hemoglobina e do hematócrito, e leucocitose por neutrofilia. Houve aumento de alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, dehidrogenase láctica, ureia e glicose, bem como aumento do tempo de ativação da protrombina e do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada. Os achados de necropsia foram extensas hemorragias no tecido subcutâneo, com presença de sangue não coagulado e em boa parte associadas a edema (edema hemorrágico), que se estendia desde o local da inoculação até as regiões cervical, torácica, escapular e membro. Na periferia das áreas hemorrágicas havia predominantemente edema gelatinoso. Havia ainda presença de grande quantidade de líquido sanguinolento nas cavidades torácica, pericárdica e abdominal. Não foram encontradas alterações histológicas significativas. Abstract in english The clinical and pathological alterations in horses, experimentally inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni and Bothropoides neuwiedi poisons, were studied with the purpose to supply subsidies for the diagnosis of the poisoning. The liofilized poisons were dilut [...] ed in 1ml of physiologic solution and subcutaneously administered to six horses, at doses of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0.8 and 1.6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0.205mg/kg (B. moojeni) and 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). All horses, less those that received the poison of B. jararacussu, died The clinical signs began between 8min and 2h10min after the inoculation. The clinical course varied, in the four cases of lethal exit, from 24h41min to 70h41min, and was 16 days in the two horses that recovered,. The clinical picture, independent of the poison type and doses, was characterized by tumefaction at the site of inoculation, dragging on the ground with the hooves of the inoculated leg, inquietude, apathy, decrease of reaction to external stimuli, pale mucous membranes and hemorrhages. Laboratory exams revealed normocytic normochrômic anemia with progressive decrease in the number of erythrocytes, of hemoglobin and of the hematocrit, and leucocytosis due to neutrophilia. There was increase of alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, lactic dehydrogenase, ureia and glucose, as well increase of the time of activation of protrombin and partial tromboplastina. At postmortem examination, the main findings were extensive hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissue, with the presence of non-coagulated blood, to a large degree associataed with edema (hemorragic edema), which extended from the inoculation site of the venom to the cervical, thoraxic and scapular region, and to the leg. In the periphery of the hemorragic areas existed gelatinous edema. There were great amounts of sanguinary liquid in the thoracic, p

  3. Aspects of Cognitive Functioning in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Elizabeth A.; Small, Brent J.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, more attention is being given to identifying aging-related and dementia-related pathological changes in performance and cognition among persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). This literature review examines age-related differences in specific aspects of cognitive functioning and cognitive performance of people with ID and…

  4. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em equinos / Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental crotalic envenoming in horses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cinthia Távora A., Lopes; Carlos Hubinger, Tokarnia; Marilene de Farias, Brito; Melina Garcia S. de, Sousa; Carlos Magno Chaves, Oliveira; Natália da Silva e, Silva; Danillo Henrique S., Lima; José Diomedes, Barbosa.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os quadros clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de equinos inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus na antiga nomenclatura), com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios que favoreçam a compreensão desse tipo de acidente ofídico e [...] m equinos. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1ml de solução salina a 0,9% e inoculado por via subcutânea em cinco equinos, nas doses de 0,12mg/kg (um animal), 0,066mg/kg (dois animais) e 0,03mg/kg (dois animais). O veneno causou a morte do equino que recebeu a dose de 0,12mg/kg e de um dos dois que receberam a dose de 0,066mg/kg, com evolução de 27h27min e 52h29min, respectivamente. O segundo animal que recebeu a dose de 0,066mg/kg também adoeceu, mas recuperou-se após 12 dias da inoculação. A dose de 0,03mg/kg determinou quadros não fatais do envenenamento, com período de evolução que variou entre 6 e 10 dias. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por considerável aumento de volume no local de inoculação (escápula) que se estendeu por todo o membro, apatia e cabeça baixa, alterações locomotoras evidenciadas pelo arrastar das pinças no solo, decúbito e dificuldade para levantar, redução dos reflexos auricular, palatal, do lábio superior e de ameaça, e aumento das frequências cardíaca e respiratória. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram leucocitose por neutrofilia e linfocitose em apenas dois animais. Houve aumento das enzimas creatina quinase (CK), dehidrogenase láctica (DHL) e da ureia, e também redução nos níveis séricos de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) aumentou nos equinos que morreram. Os achados de necropsia foram edema do tecido subcutâneo em todo o membro em que foi aplicado o veneno, sufusões no epicárdio dos ventrículos cardíacos esquerdo e direito, e bexiga com áreas hemorrágicas em grande parte da mucosa. Ao exame histopatológico observaram-se fígado com moderada vacuolização difusa, afetando mais a zona intermediária do lóbulo hepático, leve dilatação dos sinusoides hepáticos em algumas áreas e rim com leve dilatação dos túbulos uriníferos, principalmente no córtex. Abstract in english The clinic-pathological picture and laboratory findings in horses experimentally inoculated with the venom of Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus, according to the former nomenclature) are described. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of this type [...] of snake accident in horses. The lyophilized venom was diluted into 1ml of a 0.9% saline solution and was inoculated subcutaneously into five horses, at the doses of 0.12mg/kg (one horse), 0.066mg/kg (two horses) and 0.03mg/kg (two horses). The venom caused death of the horse that had received 0.12mg/kg, and of one horse of the two that had received the dose of 0.066mg/kg. The clinical course varied from 27h27min to 52h29min. The second horse inoculated with 0.066mg/kg recovered within 12 days after inoculation. The dose of 0.03mg/kg had a course of 6 to 10 days, but did not cause fatal envenomation. The clinical picture in the horses was characterized by swelling of the inoculation site (shoulder) that spread to the whole leg, by apathy and lowered head, locomotory alterations shown by dragging of the hoves on the ground, decubitus and difficulty to get up, reduction of auricular, palatal, upperlip and threat reflexes, and increase of heart and breathing frequency. The laboratory examination revealed leukocytosis and lymphocytosis in two horses. There was increase of the creatine-kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (DHL) and urea, and reduction in the seric levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The activated partial tromboplastina time (TTPA) increased in the horses that died. Postmortem findings were edema of the subcutaneous tissue of the whole leg into which the venom was inoculated, suffusions in the epicard of left and right heart ventricles, and bladder with hemorrhagic areas in its mu

  5. [Vulvar pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhair, K; El Ouazzani, T; El Omari, K; El Fajri, S; Lakhdar, H

    2002-11-01

    We evaluated the main causes of vulvar dermatoses; in 785 patients with a vulvar diseases who visited Ibn Rochd Hospital Centre, Casablanca between January 1991 and December 2002. The average age was 31 years (range 2 months to 81 years); 362 patients (41.52%) had vulvar pruritus, 273 patients (34.77%) had warts and 157 (20%) had one or more vulva ulcers. The most common infectious pathology was papillomavirus infection, found in 273 cases (34.77%), followed by vulvovaginal candidiases in 102 cases (12.99 %), syphilitic chancre in 18 cases (2.29%) and herpes genitalis in 17 cases (2.16%). The most common non-infectious pathology was vulvar dermatosis: 259 cases (32.99%); idiopathic pruritus vulvae: 61 cases (7.7%); and tumour-related conditions: 45 cases (5.6%). The frequency of infectious conditions was over 50% and these were generally sexually transmitted infections. PMID:15568459

  6. Labyrinthine pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in detecting intralabyrinthine pathology. Enhancement of the membranous labyrinth was shown in 4 patients with labyrinthine schwannoma, 2 with suppurative labyrinthitis, 3 with autoimmune hearing loss (rheumatoid arthritis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome), and 2 with carcinoma of the ear invading the labyrinth. Slight partial labyrinthine enhancement was noticed in 2 of 5 patients with syphilitic hearing loss, one of 3 with viral labyrinthitis, one of 3 with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, and none of 2 with active otosclerosis. Except for a questionable enhancement within the cochlea in one case, MR failed to demonstrate any labyrinthine enhancement in 3 patients with classic features of Meniere disease. Labyrinthine involvement detectable at MR is noteworthy, and we recommend enhanced MR imaging when there is clinical evidence of intralabyrinthine pathology

  7. RECOGNITION, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL PATHOLOGIES IN AXEL HONNETH'S RECENT WRITINGS Reconocimiento, justicia y patologías sociales en los trabajos recientes de Axel Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STÉPHANE HABER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Axel Honneth's recent book on Reification and its relation to Honneth's theory of recognition. It critically examines Honneth's hypothesis concerning the existential roots of recognition, and compares two classical concepts of social critique, Reification and alienation, in order to argue for the superiority of the latter over the formerEste ensayo discute el último libro de Axel Honneth sobre la cosificación (Verdinglichung, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005 y su relación con la teoría del reconocimiento avanzada por el mismo autor. El ensayo examina críticamente la nueva hipótesis de Honneth sobre las raíces existenciales del reconocimiento, y hace una comparación entre dos conceptos clave de la teorí crítica, la cosificación y la alienación, para argumentar la superioridad teórica de esteúltimo concepto

  8. Microglial pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Streit, Wolfgang J.; Xue, Qing-shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglia...

  9. Patología forense y neurología asociada de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos: Estudio práctico Forensic pathology and associated neurology of head injury: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Palomo Rando

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reúnen en este trabajo de forma sucinta los conocimientos más útiles en la resolución forense de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE letales. El estudio está orientado hacia la identificación macroscópica, la causalidad y los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones, con apoyo iconográfico. Se hace especial hincapié en la valoración de las fracturas craneales, las hemorragias subaracnoideas por lesión de la arteria vertebral, el edema y la hiperemia cerebral postraumáticos, así como algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la autopsia de los fallecidos por trauma cefálico, incluida la retención y fijación del encéfalo. Algunos de estos conocimientos son antiguos y aunque olvidados o desconocidos por muchos han resistido el paso del tiempo, manteniendo plena vigencia. Igualmente se incluyen las características clínicas esenciales de cada trastorno, los nuevos avances en el diagnóstico neuropatológico de los TCE, en su fisiopatología y sus sospechadas relaciones con la posterior aparición de enfermedad degenerativa tipo Alzheimer y las alteraciones genómicas que predisponen a una evolución fatal de TCE ligeros o moderados.This review summarizes in a brief format the most useful tips in the forensic evaluation of fatal head trauma. This study is aimed at the macroscopic evaluation, causality and production mechanisms of the lesions, with image-based support. Skull fractures, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to lesion of the vertebral artery, posttraumatic cerebral edema and hyperaemia as well as basic recommendations to carry out the autopsy procedure (including the retention and fixation of the brain in bodies with a lethal traumatic brain injury (TBI will be analyzed. Some of this knowledge has been developed a long time ago, and although sometimes forgotten, their meaning is still fully patent. This study also points out the essential clinical characteristics of each condition and recent advances in the neuropathological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI and its physiopathology. Finally, the suspected relationship of head injuries with the late development of degenerative disorders (Alzheimer-like; as well as new insights relating genomics and fatal evolution of mild to moderate TBIs are included.

  10. Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

  11. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M Castellano-Megías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CC arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB. IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8% were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%, four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed.

  12. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"

    OpenAIRE

    Castellano-meg Xed As, V. Xed Ctor M.; Carolina Ibarrola-de Andrés; Francisco Colina-Ruizdelgado

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately...

  13. Intraocular pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study was undertaken to evaluate the role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in evaluating patients with intraocular pathology. In 21 patients with uveal melanomas (n = 10), melanocytoma (n = 1), choroidal hemangiomas (n = 4), bilateral uveal lymphoma (n = 1), choroidal detachment (n = 1), or retinoblastomas (n = 3), we attempted MR imaging of the eye by using a 1.5-T GE signa unit. T2-weighted images and pre- and postgadolinium T1-weighted MR images were obtained. Uveal melanomas demonstrated moderate homogeneous or inhomogeneous intensity with gadolinium enhancement. In some patients, associated hemorrhage in the subretinal space behaved identical to melanoma on T1- and T2-weighted images. In these cases, gadolinium clearly demonstrated enhancement only with the tumor. Choroidal hemangiomas, unlike melanomas, were hyperintense on T2-weighted images and demonstrated intense homogeneous enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced MR images. Retinoblastomas appeared like uveal melanomas on MR images

  14. Pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  15. Glenoid labrum pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavert, P

    2015-02-01

    The glenoid labrum is the fibrocartilage of the shoulder joint, anchoring the joint capsule and shoulder ligaments. Morphology varies regionally, especially in the superior and anterior region; these variants can sometimes be confused with pathological aspects. The labrum is often involved in shoulder pathology, by single trauma or, more often, repeated microtrauma. It seems logical to classify and to describe tears according to two criteria: the sector involved, and associated pain or instability. In the superior labrum, SLAP lesions are the most frequent. These combine labral lesion and lesion of the proximal insertion of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon. The most frequent form is SLAP II. They may be associated with instability or not. In the antero-inferior and postero-inferior labrum, lesions are mainly due to instability, particularly Bankart lesions (capsulolabral avulsion) anteriorly and Kim's lesion posteriorly. Circumferential labral lesions may be found in unstable shoulder. Finally, postero-superior lesions involve Walch's internal impingement: repeated contact between the deep surface of the cuff and the labrum, which takes on a degenerative aspect, with a kissing lesion of the cuff. There is no general rule for management: some labral lesions are resected and others fixed. The cause (which is usually shoulder instability), however, needs to be assessed and treated. PMID:25596985

  16. The analysis of the recent economic and social aspects important for the management of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The management system of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic is using already more that ten years as a one tool a monetary value of man Sv. The appropriate values are published in the Decree on radiation protection and they are distinguished for different types and levels of exposure. The derivation of these values has been done about 15 years ago based on studies performed at the 90's. Recently the State Office for Nuclear Safety initiated a new pilot study with the following scope: 1-) To analyze the current economic approaches and techniques used for the determination of the monetary statistical value of the human life under new economical, political and social conditions; 2-) To design the mathematical model for the determination of the lost production and to gain economic and demographic data necessary for the calculation; 3-) To organize a pilot survey of the public opinion in the Czech Republic with the accent on the detriment caused by ionizing radiation and on the willingness to pay for the averted risk or to accept the compensation of the elevated risk. The first evaluation of the results shows that a new evaluated values are not significantly different for the currently used values in the legislation. Although the approaches of the life value estimation are different the valuation is relatively consistent and the average value of the statistical life fall into the range between 300 - 350 thousands CZK (app.10-13 ths EUR) per one year of life. The study confirmed a fact that the optimization of the processes covering the threat of the human health and life is very complicated, complex and demanding a multidisciplinary approach. The study and research will continue in the future focusing to the particular aspects of the problem. The poster will describe in details the methods used and will present the results achieved. (author)

  17. [Urachal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D; Zoupanos, G; Destuynder, O

    1989-01-01

    Reviewing 5 recent cases, different anatomical and clinical forms of partial or complete urachal persistency are described: patent urachus, urachal cyst, urachal sinus and urachal diverticulum. The risk of late malignant evolution of this embryonic vestige justifies radical surgical removal at time of diagnosis. PMID:2812972

  18. Patogênese e achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Rangelia vitalii em 35 cães (1985-2009) / Pathogenesis, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of Rangelia vitalii infection in 35 dogs (1985-2009)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael A, Fighera; Tatiana M, Souza; Glaucia G, Kommers; Luis Francisco, Irigoyen; Claudio S.L, Barros.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A patogênese e os achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção natural pelo protozoário Rangelia vitalii (rangeliose canina) foram estudados em 35 cães que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos permitem o seguinte conjunto de conclusões: (1) causa doença [...] hemolítica exclusivamente extravascular e de origem imunomediada; (2) cursa invariavelmente com algum grau de hemorragia à necropsia, mas nem sempre clinicamente perceptível; (3) os principais sinais que devem chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica são anemia, icterícia e esplenomegalia; (4) o principal achado hematológico e que deve chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica é a ocorrência de anemia com sinais de intensa regeneração eritroide; (5) os três principais diagnósticos diferenciais são leptospirose, babesiose e erliquiose monocitotrópica aguda; (6) a principal lesão observada é uma associação de hiperplasia linfoide com inflamação mononuclear, predominantemente plasmocitária, mas por vezes granulomatosa; (7) outras lesões frequentes são secundárias à marcada anemia regenerativa; (8) o agente etiológico pode ser facilmente encontrado, pois ocorre em grande quantidade na maioria dos tecidos, principalmente nos linfonodos, no baço, na medula óssea, no coração e nas tonsilas. Abstract in english The pathogenesis, clinical, hematological and pathological features of the natural infection by the protozoan organism Rangelia vitalii (canine rangeliosis) was studied in 35 dogs that died due this condition. The results allow for the following set of conclusions on canine rangeliosis: (1) causes a [...] n exclusively extravascular immune mediated hemolysis; (2) is invariably associated with some degree of hemorrhage observed at necropsy, but no always clinically apparent; (3) the clinical signs that are the hallmark of the disease are anemia, icterus and splenomegaly; (4) the main hematological aspect that establishes a clinical suspect is the development of anemia with signs of intense erythroid regeneration; (5) the three main differential diagnosis are leptospirosis, babesiosis and e acute monocytotropic ehrlichiosis; (6) the main observed histopathological lesion is an association of lymphoid hyperplasia with mononuclear inflammatory reaction, predominantly plasmacytic, but occasionally granulomatous; (7) other frequently found lesions are secondary to a marked regenerative anemia; (8) large numbers of the etiologic agent can be easily demonstrate in most tissues, mainly in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, heart, and tonsils.

  19. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics

  20. Miocardite crônica em um cão naturalmente infectado com Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: aspectos clínicos e patológicos / Chronic myocarditis in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: clinical and pathological aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.S., Mendes; T.A., Gurjão; L.M., Oliveira; V.L., Santana; W.L., Tafuri; J.R.S., Santos; A.F.M., Dantas; A.P., Souza.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença infecciosa crônica frequentemente fatal causada pela Leishmania infantum chagasi nas Américas. A enfermidade pode acometer vários órgãos, determinando diferentes manifestações clínicas. Contudo o envolvimento do coração raramente tem sido reportado em cães i [...] nfectados por Leishmania sp. Dessa forma, descreve-se um caso de miocardite crônica com repercussões clínicas e patológicas em um cão naturalmente infectado por Leishmania infantum chagasi. A positividade para Leishmaniose Visceral foi determinada pela presença de anticorpos antiLeishmania sp. nos testes sorológicos (RIFI, ELISA e DPP) e confirmada por visualização de formas amastigotas de Leishmania sp. em punção aspirativa do linfonodo poplíteo. O exame cardiovascular revelou alterações radiográficas, eletrocardiográficas, na pressão arterial e nos biomarcardores cardíacos. Após eutanásia, amostras de tecido cardíaco foram avaliadas histologicamente e submetidas à imunomarcação, onde foi observado infiltrado mononuclear (plasmo-histiolinfocitário), com presença de estruturas arredondadas de coloracão marrom-amareladas (imunomarcadas), indicando formas amastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi no miocárdio. Os aspectos etiopatogênicos da leishmaniose visceral sobre o miocárdio neste caso podem estar relacionados tanto à presença do parasita quanto à resposta "reacional inespecífica" do tecido à agressão do parasita no organismo. Todavia ainda não se sabem se as cepas de Leishmania infantum chagasi da região semiárida paraibana apresentam algum tropismo por tecido cardíaco ou se induzem a reação imunológica cruzada, com implicações clínicas. Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic, often fatal infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. The disease can affect many organs and may express different clinical forms. However, the involvement of the heart has rarely been reported in dogs infected by Leishmania s [...] p. Thus, we describe a case of chronic myocarditis with clinical and pathological effects in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Positivity for Visceral Leishmaniasis was determined by the presence of anti-Leishmania sp. in serological tests (IFAT, ELISA and DPP) and confirmed by visualization of amastigote forms of the parasite in the popliteal lymph node aspiration samples. The cardiovascular clinical examination showed changes in the radiographic, ECG, blood pressure and heart biomarkers. After euthanasia, heart tissue samples were histologically examined and underwent our immunohistochemistry assessment, where mononuclear infiltrate was observed (plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages) with the presence of rounded brownish-yellow (immunomarked) cells, indicating amastigotes of Leishmania infantum chagasi within the myocardium. The etiopathogenic aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in the myocardium in this case may be related either to the presence of the parasite or the "nonspecific reactive" response of the tissue attributable to the aggression of the parasite in the body. However, it is not known if the strains of Leishmania infantum chagasi found in the semi-arid of Paraíba have some tropism for cardiac tissue or if they induce immunological cross-reaction with clinical implications.

  1. Undergraduate Pathology Education: Meeting the Challenge Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Raghumani Mohanty; Sasmita Panda; Pallavi Bhuyan; Kanaklata Dash; Niranjan Rout; Tushar Kar; Asaranti Kar

    2012-01-01

    Background: In India, undergraduate medical education has remained more or less static and for last so many decades no effective development has been done. Therefore this study is done for restructuring it and to meet the challenges faced thereby. Material and methods: Depending on the problems faced during undergraduate pathology teaching, questions were prepared and sent to pathology teachers of Odisha. In few aspects, suggestions were also asked for modification of the present system of me...

  2. Building a pathology laboratory in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Satish; Krysiak, Robert; Liomba, George

    2013-04-01

    Until recently, the Malawian capital of Lilongwe was without diagnostic pathology services, which left many patients with cancer facing serious diagnostic delays. Through collaboration with the University of North Carolina and other partners, a pathology laboratory was successfully established at Kamuzu Central Hospital in July, 2011, providing an essential foundation for cancer diagnosis and research in the country's largest city. PMID:23561742

  3. Pathology Case Study: Lung Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in learning. A 59-year-old patient with a history of smoking was admitted for a biopsy of his recently transplanted liver. Laboratory results, X-ray images, microscopic descriptions and images are provided to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The doctor's official conclusions and references are included in the "Final Diagnosis" section. Students entering health sciences fields will find this resource very helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  4. Pathology Residency Training in Turkey from the Residents' Point of View: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal KÖSEMEHMETO?LU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent insights that have emerged in local meetings with participation of pathology residents are promising as regards achieving progress in pathology residency training. Accordingly, in this study, overall pathology residency training in Turkey is discussed in detail from the pathology residents' point of view; current data and suggestions for the solutions of problems are presented.Material and Method: Two questionnaires were applied to resident representatives and overall residents, respectively, from 23 institutions including 12 Universities and 11 Ministry of Health education and Research Hospitals.Results: The total number of participating residents was 138; 74 from University hospitals and 64 from Education and Research Hospitals. An adequate number of cases per resident, widespread use of multiocular microscopes, increasing number of macroscopy technicians, ongoing educational meetings and renewal projects of the physical environment were the positive findings. However, the lack of autopsy practice, insufficient number of lectures, communication problems between resident and senior staff due to inadequate feedback mechanism, insufficient numbers of academic staff in education and research hospitals and lack of educational material in some basic branches of surgical pathology were negative findings. During pathology training, the major stress factor was the pathology workload inhibiting optimal learning. Feedback provision and scheduled working habits were the two qualities, which were needed to be improved by senior staff. Two fields, suggested by the senior residents to be incompetent were intraoperative consultation and cytopathology. When overall satisfaction for pathology residency training was considered, it was near 80% in Universities, while it remained around 40% in Education and Research Hospitals (p=0.000.Conclusion: Positive and negative aspects addressed in this survey will provide data for the new regulations in pathology residency training in Turkey.

  5. Understanding Your Pathology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pathology report is a document that contains the breast cancer diagnosis determined by looking at cells and tissues under ... report. Pathology reports play an important role in breast cancer diagnosis and staging (describing the extent of cancer within ...

  6. Molecular pathology and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, J J; Gusterson, B A

    1999-12-01

    There has already been a 'molecular' revolution in pathology. Demonstrating transcription of specific single genes or small gene sets and their protein products by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry is routine in diagnostic and experimental pathology. A perhaps-greater revolution is imminent with the application of more recently established and emergent technologies in pathology. These include new approaches to polymerase chain reaction (PCR); simultaneous studies of multiple genes and their expression using oligonucleotide and cDNA arrays; serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE); expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing, subtractive cloning and differential display; high-throughput sequencing; comparative genomic hybridization, multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) (spectral karyotyping); reverse chromosome painting; knockout and transgenic organisms; laser microdissection and micro-machining; and new methods in bio-informatics, 'data mining' and data visualisation. Molecular methods will profoundly change diagnosis, prognosis and treatment targeting in oncology and elucidate fundamental mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. Individual susceptibility to specific diseases will become assessable and screening will be refined. The new molecular biology will be most fruitful in partnership with classical approaches to pathology: the expectation that molecular methods alone will answer all pathological questions is unrealistic. A further challenge for the biomedical community in the 'genome era' will be to ensure that the benefits of these sophisticated technologies are enjoyed globally. PMID:10711232

  7. Hygrothermal Behavior, Building Pathology and Durability

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.

  8. Diabetic nephropathy : pathology, genetics and carnosine metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mooyaart, Antien Leonora

    2011-01-01

    My thesis concerns different aspects of diabetic nephropathy. A pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy is developed, a meta-analyis of genes in diabetic nephropathy is developed and the other chapters are about the CNDP1 gene in relation to kidney disease, mainly diabetic nephropathy.

  9. Ln3+-doped nanoparticles for upconversion and magnetic resonance imaging: some critical notes on recent progress and some aspects to be considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.; Dong, Cunhai; Johnson, Noah J. J.; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham

    2012-11-01

    In this feature article we will critically discuss the synthesis and characterisation aspects of Ln3+-doped nanoparticles (NPs) that show upconversion, upon 980 nm excitation. Upconversion is a non-linear process that converts two or more low-energy photons, often near-infrared photons, into one of higher energy, e.g. blue and 800 nm from Tm3+ and green and red from Er3+ or Ho3+. Nearly all researchers use the absorption of 980 nm light by Yb3+ as the sensitiser for the co-doped emissive Ln3+ ions. The focus will be on LnF3 and MLnF4 (M = alkali metal) as the host matrix, because most progress has been made with these. In particular we will argue that a detailed understanding of how the dopant ions and the host Ln3+ ions are distributed (in the core) and how (doped) shell growth occurs is not well understood. Moreover, their use as optical and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents will be discussed. We will argue that deep-tissue imaging beyond 600 ?m with retention of optical resolution, i.e. to see fine structure such as blood capillaries in brain tissues, has not yet been achieved. Three key parameters have been identified as impediments: (i) the low absorption efficiency of the Yb3+ sensitiser, (ii) the low quantum yield of upconversion, and (iii) the long-lived excited states. On the other hand, there are very encouraging results that suggest that these nanoparticles could be developed into very potent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents.

  10. PATHOLOGY OF HUMAN INFLUENZA REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiken, Thijs; Taubenberger, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    The pathology of human influenza has been studied most intensively during the three pandemics of the last century, the last of which occurred in 1968. It is important to revisit this subject because of the recent emergence of avian H5N1 influenza in humans as well as the threat of a new pandemic. Uncomplicated human influenza virus infection causes transient tracheo-bronchitis, corresponding with predominant virus attachment to tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. The main complication is...

  11. Forms of pathologization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    Many studies estimate that around half of the population in Western countries will suffer from a mental disorder sometime in their life. Approximately a quarter of the population will develop an anxiety disorder and a similar number will suffer from depression. A tenth will develop a personality disorder, and similar figures are found for many other mental disorders. These figures are striking, but are hard to interpret. This presentation argues in favour of the pathologization thesis, which claims that it cannot be argued in a straightforward manner that we are simply more ill and disordered than before, perhaps due to the malaises of modernity. Instead, we have learned to think and talk about human problems in new ways, viz. ways that involve pathologization. Pathologization, however, is not a unitary phenomenon, and the presentation gives an overview of four types of pathologization, which are called stigmatizing pathologization, self pathologization, risk pathologization and de-pathologization. It is argued that we need a variety of ways of understanding the complex phenomenon of pathologization and that previous critical frameworks (e.g. as promoted by the anti-psychiatry movement) are often overly simplistic.

  12. CT in vascular pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Neri, E.; Caramella, D. [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department of Oncology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56100 Pisa (Italy)

    1998-06-02

    Since the introduction of helical scanners, CT angiography (CTA) has achieved an essential role in many vascular applications that were previously managed with conventional angiography. The performance of CTA is based on the accurate selection of collimation width, pitch, reconstruction spacing and scan delay, which must be modulated on the basis of the clinical issue. However, the major improvement of CT has been provided by the recent implementation of many post-processing techniques, such as multiplanar reformatting, shaded surface display, maximum intensity projections, 3D perspectives of surface and volume rendering, which simulate virtual intravascular endoscopy. The integration of the potentialities of the scanner and of the image processing techniques permitted improvement of: (a) the evaluation of aneurysms, dissection and vascular anomalies involving the thoracic aorta; (b) carotid artery stenosis; (c) aneurysms of abdominal aorta; (d) renal artery stenosis; (e) follow-up of renal artery stenting; and (f) acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Our experience has shown that the assessment of arterial pathologies with CTA requires the integration of 3D post-processing techniques in most applications. (orig.) With 4 figs., 34 refs.

  13. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus domesticus infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 Clinical and pathological aspects in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus infected experimentally with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 sporulated oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagner Luiz da C. Freitas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, sinais clínicos e alterações patológicas foram avaliados por 30 dias em frangos de corte, linhagem Cobb, machos, com dez dias de idade, infectados com Eimeria acervulina. Foram utilizados 192 animais distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo A inoculado com 1x10(6 oocistos esporulados; grupo B inoculado com 1x10(5 oocistos esporulados; grupo C inoculado com água destilada. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, diarréia e apatia. As alterações patológicas macroscópicas observadas foram: enterite, hiperemia seguido de congestão intestinal, excesso de exsudato mucoso no lúmen do intestino delgado, palidez e desidratação muscular, alto acúmulo de bile na vesícula biliar e deposição de gordura hepática. A atrofia de vilosidades e alta presença de células inflamatórias foram as alterações microscópicas observadas no epitélio intestinal. Na análise histopatológica do fígado observaram-se infiltrados inflamatórios e deposição de gordura. Os resultados demonstraram que frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com E. acervulina apresentam progressivas lesões intestinais de intensidade variável e que essas anormalidades são as principais causas de redução no desenvolvimento da ave.In the present study, clinical signs and pathological changes were evaluated during 30 days in broilers, lineage Cobb, males, with ten days old, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Were used 192 animals distributed in 3 groups: group A inoculated with 1x10(6 sporulated oocysts; group B inoculated with 1x10(5 sporulated oocysts; group C inoculated with distilled water. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, diarrhea and apathy. The pathological macroscopic changes observed were: enteritis, hyperemia with subsequent intestinal congestion, high concentration of mucus exudates in the lumen of the small intestine, pale and dehydration muscle, gall bladder full of liquid and deposition of hepatic fat. The villous atrophy and high presence of inflammatory cells were the microscopic changes observed in the gut epithelium. In histopathologic analysis of liver observed inflammatory cells infiltrated and fat deposition. The results demonstrate that broilers experimentally infected with E. acervulina presented progressive intestinal lesions of variable intensity and that these abnormalities are the main cause of reduction of bird performance.

  14. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus domesticus) infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 / Clinical and pathological aspects in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected experimentally with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 sporulated oocysts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fagner Luiz da C., Freitas; Katyane de S., Almeida; Adjair A. do, Nascimento; José H., Tebaldi; Rosangela Z., Machado; Celio R., Machado.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo, sinais clínicos e alterações patológicas foram avaliados por 30 dias em frangos de corte, linhagem Cobb, machos, com dez dias de idade, infectados com Eimeria acervulina. Foram utilizados 192 animais distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo A inoculado com 1x10(6) oocistos esporulados; gr [...] upo B inoculado com 1x10(5) oocistos esporulados; grupo C inoculado com água destilada. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, diarréia e apatia. As alterações patológicas macroscópicas observadas foram: enterite, hiperemia seguido de congestão intestinal, excesso de exsudato mucoso no lúmen do intestino delgado, palidez e desidratação muscular, alto acúmulo de bile na vesícula biliar e deposição de gordura hepática. A atrofia de vilosidades e alta presença de células inflamatórias foram as alterações microscópicas observadas no epitélio intestinal. Na análise histopatológica do fígado observaram-se infiltrados inflamatórios e deposição de gordura. Os resultados demonstraram que frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com E. acervulina apresentam progressivas lesões intestinais de intensidade variável e que essas anormalidades são as principais causas de redução no desenvolvimento da ave. Abstract in english In the present study, clinical signs and pathological changes were evaluated during 30 days in broilers, lineage Cobb, males, with ten days old, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Were used 192 animals distributed in 3 groups: group A inoculated with 1x10(6) sporulated oocysts; group B inoculated wit [...] h 1x10(5) sporulated oocysts; group C inoculated with distilled water. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, diarrhea and apathy. The pathological macroscopic changes observed were: enteritis, hyperemia with subsequent intestinal congestion, high concentration of mucus exudates in the lumen of the small intestine, pale and dehydration muscle, gall bladder full of liquid and deposition of hepatic fat. The villous atrophy and high presence of inflammatory cells were the microscopic changes observed in the gut epithelium. In histopathologic analysis of liver observed inflammatory cells infiltrated and fat deposition. The results demonstrate that broilers experimentally infected with E. acervulina presented progressive intestinal lesions of variable intensity and that these abnormalities are the main cause of reduction of bird performance.

  15. Infestação simultânea por Cytodites nudus e Laminosioptes cysticola e seus aspectos patológicos em galinhas de subsistência Simultaneous infestation by Cytodites nudus and Laminosioptes cysticola and their pathological aspects in free-range chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Inês Herpich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytodites nudus e Laminosioptes cysticola são ácaros cuja ocorrência é pouco relatada e cuja infestação simultânea nunca foi descrita na literatura científica brasileira. C. nudus é conhecido como ácaro dos sacos aéreos e pode provocar sinais respiratórios, pneumonia e emagrecimento, quando presente em grande número no hospedeiro. L. cysticola parasita o tecido conjuntivo de galiformes e provoca a formação de pequenos nódulos subcutâneos calcificados, que podem ser confundidos com nódulos de tuberculose aviária. No presente trabalho, são discutidos os aspectos patológicos das lesões causadas pelos ácaros C. nudus e L. cysticola e a caracterização morfológica desses parasitas.The occurrence of Cytodites nudus and Laminosioptes cysticola mites is rare and there is no report of this simultaneous infestation in Brazilian scientific literature. C. nudus is known as the air sacs mite and may cause respiratory signs as well as pneumonia and weight loss when present in large numbers in the host. L. cysticola is found in connective tissue of galliforms and causes formation of small calcified subcutaneous nodules that can be confused with the characteristic nodules found in avian tuberculosis. In this paper are discussed the pathological findings of lesions caused by C. nudus and L. cysticola and their morphological characterization.

  16. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical and pathological aspects of Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats in Rio Grande do Sul

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson M., Colodel; David, Driemeier; Alexandre P., Loretti; Eduardo J., Gimeno; Sandra D., Traverso; Anderson L., Seitz; Priscila, Zlotowski.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos [...] , S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose pelo estudo histoquímico por lectinas. Os vacúolos nas células de Purkinje reagiram fortemente com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris e Triticum vulgaris succinilado. O padrão obtido neste estudo é similar ao encontrado em intoxicação por plantas que apresentam swainsoniana como princípio tóxico. Abstract in english This report includes the clinical and pathological studies of a lysosomal storage disease which spontaneously occurred in three flocs of goats e after consumption of Sida carpinifolia, the predominant plant in the paddocks where the animals were grazing. In the outbreaks a total of 25 out of 51 anim [...] als were affected. Post-mortem examination was performed on 11 goats. The disease was experimentally induced by dosing goats with Sida carpinifolia. The plant was administered in natura or dried to 3 animals. No clinical or pathological changes were observed in one goat dosed with Sida rhombifolia ad libidum during 40 days. Clinical signs of the poisoning were ataxia, hypermetria, muscle tremors in the head and neck and disorders of deglutition. The clinical signs were exacerbated by movement. After the surviving animals had been moved to other pastures and stopped eating the plant, clinical signs were still observed during 24 months. At necropsy, no significant gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions included various degrees of vacuolization in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells. Similar lesions were observed in the acinar pancreatic cells, hepatocytes, proximal convoluted tubular cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and macrophages of lymph nodes. In the surviving animals, mild neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed, and few cells were eosinophilic and shrunken. In these cases neurons, especially Purkinje cells, had disappeared. Through the histochemical study of the cerebellar sections, the lysosomal storage disease was characterized as an alpha-mannosidosis. The vacuoles within the Purkinje cells strongly reacted with lectins of Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vul

  17. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos comparados da intoxicação por Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae em búfalos e bovinos Comparative epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of poisoning by Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae in buffalo and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Através de estudo experimental, verificou-se que, embora o quadro clínico-patológico seja essencialmente o mesmo, o búfalo é pelo menos duas vezes mais resistente que o bovino à ação tóxica de Arrabidaea bilabiata (Sprague Sandw. Os experimentos demonstraram também, que as folhas novas desta planta são duas vezes (em outubro, fim da época de seca ou uma vez e meio (em maio, fim da época de chuva mais tóxicas do que as folhas maduras, e que a planta é mais tóxica em outubro. Esses dados indicam que a menor incidência de intoxicação por plantas do grupo das que causam morte súbita, em búfalos na Amazônia, deva-se, em parte, à maior resistência dessa espécie animal. Também parece importante a coincidência do habitat preferencial dos búfalos (várzea com o habitat de A. bilabiata, planta menos tóxica que Palicourea marcgravii St.Hil., encontrada em terra firme que é o habitat preferido pelos bovinos.Experiments showed that the clinical and pathological pictures were essentially the same, but the buffalo was at least twice more resistant than the bovine to the toxic effect of Arrabidaea bilabiata (Sprague Sandw. It was also shown that the young leaves are twice (October, end of the dry season or one and a half (May, end of the rainy season more toxic than the mature leaves, and that the plant is more toxic in October. These data indicate that the smaller incidence of poisoning by plants of the group that causes sudden death in buffaloes in the Amazon Region is, in part, due to the greater resistance of this animal species to the toxic action of the plant. Also important seems to be the coincidence of the preferential habitat of the buffalo (flooded areas with the habitat of A. bilabiata, less toxic than Palicourea marcgravii St.Hil. which is a plant of the non-flooded areas, the preferential habitat of cattle.

  18. Recent technical aspect of environment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of radioactive effluent released due to the operation of nuclear facilities is intensively promoted at the stage of design, and followed through at the stage of routine operation, from the viewpoint of environmental radiation safety according to the regulation and the ALARA concept of ICRP. Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission set the environmental guide line for the gaseous and liquid wastes released from LWRs. It is also applied to research reactors. To monitor or to estimate the environmental doses from these radioactive nuclides released routinely or abnormally, release monitoring and environmental monitoring are enforced. In this report, the environmental monitoring techniques developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for the gaseous wastes released from nuclear facilities are described. Release monitoring, meteorological observation and dispersion model verification, environmental monitoring and so on are reported. The release control and environmental monitoring for the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan have been successfully implemented. (K.I.)

  19. Rotator Cuff Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and symptoms include pain, weakness, restricted motion, catching, locking and a feeling of instability. Rotator cuff pathology ... loaded, such as picking up a stack of plates out of a cupboard. Overhead activities like pitching, ...

  20. Efecto terapéutico de las estatinas en patología degenerativa del SNC: comentario sobre una publicación experimental reciente / Therapeutic use of Statins in degenerative pathology of the CNS: a commentary of a recent experimental paper

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rommy, von Bernhardi.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins reduce the risk of coronary pathology; they are well tolerated and have few adverse effects. During the last years mounting evidence suggest that statins could be also useful for several autoimm [...] une and neurodegenerative diseases. Proposed mechanisms include effects on plasma lipoproteins, endothelial function, atheroma reduction, thrombosis and inflammation. The realization that brain ischemia produces inflammation of the brain opens a new field for discovery of novel therapeutic agents for stroke. Here, I comment on a paper from Chen et al. ("Statins induce angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis after stroke", Ann Neurol 2003; 53: 743-751) that proposed that atorvastatin and simvastatin reduced tissue damage and enhanced functional outcome when administered to rats 1 day after experimental stroke. Animals treated with statins showed increases in vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and increase in synaptophysin. Although the authors concluded that atorvastatin induced brain plasticity and had neurorestorative activity, I think that significant additional experiments are required in order to sustain some of the mechanisms proposed by them. However, evidence on the effect of statins on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and other inflammatory disease is also discussed here, because they cast light on alternative mechanisms that could be responsible for the better outcome of stroke animals treated with statins. Inflammation is attractive in therapeutic terms, considering its rapid initiation, its progression for several hours after stroke and its enormous contribution to brain damage

  1. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlessiaFornoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  2. Association between pathological and MRI findings in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Barkhof, Frederik; Brück, Wolfgang; Chen, Jacqueline T; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, Gabriele; De Stefano, Nicola; Erickson, Bradley J; Evangelou, Nikos; Fazekas, Franz; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Lucchinetti, Claudia; Miller, David H; Pelletier, Daniel; Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; Lassmann, Hans

    2012-04-01

    The identification of pathological processes that could be targeted by therapeutic interventions is a major goal of research into multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological assessment is the gold standard for such identification, but has intrinsic limitations owing to the limited availability of autopsy and biopsy tissue. MRI has gained a leading role in the assessment of MS because it allows doctors to obtain an ante mortem picture of the degree of CNS involvement. A number of correlative pathological and MRI studies have helped to define in vivo the pathological substrates of MS in focal lesions and normal-appearing white matter, not only in the brain, but also in the spinal cord. These studies have resulted in the identification of aspects of pathophysiology that were previously neglected, including grey matter involvement and vascular pathology. Despite these important achievements, numerous open questions still need to be addressed to resolve controversies about how the pathology of MS results in fixed neurological disability. PMID:22441196

  3. Envenenamento experimental por Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu em ovinos: aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais / Experimental poisoning by Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in sheep: clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula, Aragão; Carlos H., Tokarnia; Flávio A.S., Graça; Ticiana N., França; Cleide D., Coelho; Saulo A., Caldas; Paulo V., Peixoto.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em ovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu, no intuito de fornecer subsídios que possam facilitar o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial dessa co [...] ndição. Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a quatro ovinos por via subcutânea. Três ovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,5mg/kg (B. jararaca), recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 7 minutos e 1 hora. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 9 minutos a 21 horas 59 minutos. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento e de preenchimento capilar aumentados, taquicardia, dispnéia, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram acentuada anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, acentuada redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito diminuído em dois animais, além de acentuado aumento de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática em todos os animais. À necropsia, os principais achados no local da inoculação e tecidos adjacentes eram extensas hemorragias no animal que recebeu o veneno de B. jararaca e edema e acentuado edema pulmonar agudo para os dois animais envenenados por B. jararacussu. Além de hemorragia e edema a principal alteração histopatológica verificada foi necrose das fibras musculares e de vasos, no local de inoculação e adjacências. A necrose tubular renal foi atribuída ao quadro de choque. Nos ovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído predominantemente por sangue (B. jararaca) e por edema (B. jararacussu). Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to establish the clinic-pathological and laboratory changes in sheep inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu venom to provide subsidies for the differential diagnosis of snake bites. The liofilized venoms were diluted in 1 ml saline and administra [...] ted subcutaneously to four sheep. Three of the animals died, and the one that received 0.5mg/kg (B. jararaca venom) recovered. First symptoms were observed from 7 minutes to 1 hour after inoculation, and the clinical course varied from 7 hours and 9 minutes to 21 hours and 59 minutes. The symptoms, independent of the dosage, were swelling of the inoculation site, increased bleeding time and capillary filling, tachycardia, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes and diminished reaction to external stimuli. Laboratory tests revealed pronounced normocytic and normochromic anemia, trombocytopenia, slight reduction of fibrogen and total plasmatic protein, in two animals diminished hematocrit, besides pronounced increase of creatinaquinase and lactic dehydrogenase. At necropsy, the main findings at the inoculation site and adjacent tissues were extensive hemorrhages in the sheep inoculated with jararaca venom, and predominantly edema in the two animals inoculated with jararacussu venom. In two sheep which received jararacussu venom, acute pulmonary edema was observed. Hemorrhage and edema as the main histopathological changes, besides necrosis of muscle fibers and vessels at the inoculation site and adjacent tissue was observed. The renal tubular necrosis was attributed to shock. The volume increase at the inoculation site and surroundings was mainly due to hemorrhage (B. jararaca) or edema (B. jararacussu).

  4. Intoxicação por sal em suínos: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos e breve revisão de literatura / Salt poisoning in swine: epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects and brief review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana S., Brum; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Ricardo B., Lucena; Claudio S.L., Barros.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Intoxicação por sal ocorre comumente em suínos por ingestão excessiva de cloreto de sódio ou por privação de água por um período de tempo, seguido de um livre acesso a água abundante. O objetivo deste trabalho é agregar dados de casos de intoxicação por sal, diagnosticados, compilar dados já existen [...] tes na literatura e caracterizar as principais alterações clínicas e patológicas observadas. Foram revisados cinco surtos, sendo que um deles foi minuciosamente acompanhado. Em três deles a ingestão de cloreto de sódio foi determinada. Os sinais clínicos eram basicamente convulsões, com intensos tremores musculares e desenvolvimento de opistótono. Os animais permaneciam em decúbito lateral, fazendo movimentos de pedalagem. Alguns andavam em círculos. Dosagens de sódio em fragmentos de músculo e de fígado, no soro, líquor e humor aquoso revelaram concentrações aumentadas do íon. A quantidade de eosinófilos circulantes foi baixa caracterizando grande recrutamento dessas células para o encéfalo. Em todos os surtos foi observada infiltração de eosinófilos nas leptomeninges e no espaço de Virchow-Robin do córtex cerebral. Necrose cortical laminar foi observada mais detalhadamente em um dos surtos onde os suínos estavam doentes há seis dias. A combinação dessas duas lesões caracteriza a doença. Todas as alterações observadas podem ser explicadas pela provável patogenia da doença em que as elevadas concentrações de sódio causam edema cerebral que leva ao aumento da pressão intracraniana e decréscimo da perfusão para o cérebro causando isquemia difusa e necrose neuronal, com consequente malacia. Abstract in english Salt poisoning occurs commonly in pigs by excessive intake of sodium chloride or by a period water deprivation for followed by free access to water. The objective of this work is to aggregate data from cases of salt poisoning, combining existing data in the literature and describe the main clinical [...] and pathological features observed. We reviewed five outbreaks, one of which was carefully monitored. In three of them the intake of sodium chloride had been determined. Clinical signs were basically seizures with the lateral decubitus with paddling movements. Circling was observed in some cases. Sodium determination in muscle of and liver fragments, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor showed increased concentrations of this ion. There was eosinopenia characterizing increased recruitment eosinophils from the circulation into the brain. In all outbreaks eosinophil infiltration was observed in the meninges and the Virchow-Robin space of the cerebral cortex. Cortical laminar necrosis was more pronounced in the brain of pigs from one of the outbreaks in which animals were sick for six days. The combination of these two lesions characterizes the disease. The changes observed result from high concentrations of sodium in the brain causing cause edema that leads to increased intracranial pressure and decreased perfusion to the brain tissue causing diffuse ischemia and neuronal necrosis, with consequent malacia.

  5. Kaposi's Sarcoma: clinical and pathological aspects in patients seen at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil / Sarcoma de Kaposi: achados clínico-patológicos nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Montibeler, Tiussi; Antonio Luiz de Oliveira, Caus; Lucia Martins, Diniz; Elton Almeida, Lucas.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O Sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia de origem endotelial, dividida em quatro formas clínicas: clássica (homens idosos de origem judaica e mediterrânea), epidêmica (associada ao HIV), endêmica (negros africanos) e iatrogênica (relacionada à imunossupressão). A infecção pelo herpes vírus huma [...] no tipo 8 (HHV-8) é necessária, mas insuficiente para que todas as formas possam ocorrer. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e características histopatológicas das lesões dos pacientes com Sarcoma de Kaposi consultados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória - ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, realizado pela análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com Sarcoma de Kaposi, durante janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 2009, no Serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: Dos 15 pacientes estudados, houve maioria do sexo masculino (93,3%) e predomínio da raça branca (60%). A forma epidêmica foi a mais freqüente (80%), seguida pela clássica (20%). Não foram observadas as formas: endêmica e iatrogênica. A revisão das lâminas das biópsias cutâneas foi feita nos 15 casos, e demonstrou derme com proliferação de células fusiformes, extravasamento de hemácias e fendas vasculares em torno de vasos maiores, com aspecto clássico de "vasos em torno de vasos". CONCLUSÕES: O número de casos de Sarcoma de Kaposi foi linear ao longo do estudo, especialmente da forma epidêmica. Por outro lado, a incidência e a prevalência da AIDS no Espírito Santo foram crescentes. Portanto, considerando-se a relação entre o sarcoma de Kaposi e a AIDS houve decréscimo do primeiro, mais acentuado após a era HAART. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of endothelial origin that is divided into four distinct types according to the clinical characteristics and the affected population: Classic (in elder men of Jewish or Mediterranean origin); Epidemic (in patients affected by AIDS); Endemic (in black Africa [...] n men) and Iatrogenic (in patients under immunosuppressive regimens). Human herpesvirus 8 infection is essential but not sufficient for the sarcoma development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic -Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital - Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória - ES. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study based on clinical charts of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic from 1986 to 2009. RESULTS: The majority of the 15 cases were male patients (93,3%) and white (60%). Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma occurred in 80%, and the Classic form in 20%, with no cases in the Endemic or Iatrogenic groups. All the histopatho logical exams of the cutaneous lesions were reviewed and a proliferation of fusiform cells, extravasated erythrocytes and vascular rifts among the largest vessels, assuming the "vessels in vessels" typical aspect, were seen. CONCLUSION: The number of cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma was linear throughout the years of the study, especially of the epidemic form, although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS increased in the state of Espírito Santo. Therefore, if we consider the relation between KS and AIDS, a decreasing line of Kaposi's sarcoma could be seen, especially after the introduction of HAART.

  6. Pathology Education: SY17-1 PRESERVING PATHOLOGY IN AN INTEGRATED CURRICULUM IN THE UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Raymond

    2014-10-01

    The delivery of pathology teaching has changed considerably recently with more curricular integration and the use of modern educational approaches including problem-based learning methods. In the UK, this has led to a low profile for pathology in many medical schools, allied with a reduction in the numbers of academic pathologists. Pathology is at the very core of clinical practice and bridges the interface between basic science and clinical management. In this changing environment pathology must be preserved as a vital component in undergraduate education. Pathologists must engage fully with the design and implementation of curricula. In integrated curricula basic science is frontloaded in earlier years, so that the principles of inflammation and repair, vascular pathology and neoplasia must be incorporated then. Assessment drives learning so pathologists should contribute assessment items. In clinical years, the pivotal role of pathology in patient management should be highlighted and involvement in Objective Standardised Clinical Examinations keeps pathology in students' minds. Most programmes offer student selected components; the opportunity for students to spend time in both clinical and basic science laboratories should not be missed. In non-graduate entry medical schools, an intercalated degree including a research project is a useful way to promote academic pathology. PMID:25188134

  7. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms is medication that binds to dopamine receptors in the brain, i.e., dopamine agonists [1]. Unfortunately, for some PD patients a very serious side effect to this specific kind of treatment is developing PG. PG is an Impulse Control Disorder characterized by recurrent maladaptive behavior associated with personal, relational, and financial consequenses [2].   Since 2000, numerous reports have described PD patients who develop PG due to treatment with dopamine agonists [3-11]. The objective of the present project is to explain the pathogenesis of this particular complication to the treatment of PD patients. The aims are twofold, both driven by the main hypothesis that PD patients who develop PG secondary to treatment with dopamine agonists have a decreased sensitivity towards dopamine and hence an increased demand for dopamine. The neurophysiological subproject 1 uses PET imaging to determine changes of dopamine occupancy in the striatum in baseline and gambling situations. We will test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism release more dopamine during gambling than PD patients without PG, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls. The behavioral subproject 2 uses a slot machine to test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism have exacerbated gambling behavior compared to PD patients without PD, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls.     References: 1.            Siegel, A. & Sapru, H.N. (2006). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. USA. 2.            DSM-IV-TR. (1994). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. xxvii, 886. 3.            Seedat, S. et Al. (2000). Case Reports in Depression and Anxiety, vol. 11. 4.            Gschwandtner, U., et Al. (2001). Clinical Neuropharmacology, vol. 24 (3). 5.            Driver-Dunckley, E. et Al. (2003). Neurology, vol. 61. 6.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2004). Neurol Sci. 7.            Dodd, M.L. et Al. (2005). Arch Neurol, vol. 62. 8.            Larner, A.J. (2006). Letters to the editors. Movement Disorders, vol. 21 (10). 9.            Grosset, K.A. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 10.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 11.            Wong, S.H. et al. (2007). Letters to the editors, Movement Disorders, vol. 22 (4).    

  8. Vasculitides with cutaneous expression in children: clinico-pathological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, G; Grassi, S; Carugno, A

    2015-02-01

    The most recent pediatric vasculitis classifications (EULAR/PRINTO/PRES) have proposed the use of an integration of clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory data, imaging and pathologic data. Pediatric vasculitis represent a peculiar clinical-diagnostic model, compared to the corresponding adult pathology chapter, and in particular, dermatopathologic aspects of these diseases identify more specific issues, made contingent by crucial variables such as duration of vasculitis lesion, site of the biopsy, proper biopsy depth, and possibility to correlate histopathological findings with immunopathological results. Possible additional diagnostic difficulties may arise from the fact that, in children, the same systemic disease, such as lupus erythematosus, may present with different clinical manifestations, with histopathological features of a precise type of vasculitis specific for that type of clinical manifestation. Examples are provided by hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, cryoglobulinemic purpura, lymphocytic vasculitis of livedoid lesions. This paper describes the cutaneous histopathological findings of some vasculitis related pediatric diseases, be they pertaining to a systemic vasculitis with corresponding cutaneous vasculitis, to a systemic vasculitis with sporadic cutaneous vasculitic involvement, and to a systemic vasculitis without cutaneous vasculitic involvement. Type and level of histopathological vasculitic involvement, caliber of the vessel, type of vasculitis associated infiltrate, are likewise reliable integration in the complex diagnostic path of vasculitis in childhood. On the basis of these criteria dermatopathologists should be confident in identifying the type of the vasculitis and relate them to a specific pediatric disease. PMID:25516220

  9. Consensus paper: pathological role of the cerebellum in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L; Blaha, Charles D; Blatt, Gene J; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R; Dickson, Price E; Estes, Annette M; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H; Kemper, Thomas L; King, Bryan H; Martin, Loren A; Millen, Kathleen J; Mittleman, Guy; Mosconi, Matthew W; Persico, Antonio M; Sweeney, John A; Webb, Sara J; Welsh, John P

    2012-09-01

    There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar genetics, cerebellar immune function, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytocin-related changes in autism, motor control and cognitive deficits, cerebellar coordination of movements and cognition, gene-environment interactions, therapeutics in autism, and relevant animal models of autism. Points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism. Undefined areas or areas requiring further investigation include lack of treatment options for core symptoms of autism, vermal hypoplasia, and other vermal abnormalities as a consistent feature of autism, mechanisms underlying cerebellar contributions to cognition, and unknown mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation. PMID:22370873

  10. Imaging of endometrial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Barton F; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J

    2010-07-01

    The normal endometrium changes regularly with the menstrual cycle and atrophies after menopause. It is important to be aware of the normal spectrum of endometrial appearances at imaging to accurately detect and diagnose pathologic conditions. This article reviews imaging features of the normal and abnormal endometrium, and conditions which may mimic endometrial pathology. Emphasis will be on ultrasound with sonohysterography and magnetic resonance imaging as these are the imaging modalities of choice for evaluation of the endometrium. The complementary role of hysterosalpingography, computed tomography, and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography will also be discussed. PMID:22082772

  11. Pathology Case Study: Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Paul S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  12. Pathology in metopic synostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabagli, Pinar

    2013-12-01

    Premature closure and subsequent ossification of the metopic suture results in triangular head shape called trigonocephaly and is characterized by a midline metopic ridge, frontotemporal narrowing, and an increased biparietal diameter. Trigonocephaly is the second most frequent type of craniosynostosis. It can be isolated and associated with other congenital anomalies without any known syndrome, or occurs as part of a multiple malformation syndrome. Improvement in treatment is directed by a thorough understanding of the basic pathology of this condition. This review aims to provide an overview of metopic synostosis by correlating what is known about pathogenesis and pathology of this entity. PMID:24092422

  13. Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt, John P.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

  14. Imaging of Cerebrovascular Pathology in Animal Models of Alzheimer`s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau Beckmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-? (A? deposition as well as A? transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of A? on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature.

  15. Concepts and implications of altruism bias and pathological altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The profound benefits of altruism in modern society are self-evident. However, the potential hurtful aspects of altruism have gone largely unrecognized in scientific inquiry. This is despite the fact that virtually all forms of altruism are associated with tradeoffs—some of enormous importance and sensitivity—and notwithstanding that examples of pathologies of altruism abound. Presented here are the mechanistic bases and potential ramifications of pathological altruism, that is, altruism ...

  16. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  17. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yiuring the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

  18. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  19. Pathology Case Study: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Sidney

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 64-year-old woman with a long history of IBS presents with a recent "exacerbation of diarrhea, increased abdominal cramping, and weight loss." Visitors are given both the gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

  20. Tau pathology and future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozes, I

    2010-12-01

    The current review discusses microtubules and tau in the healthy brain and move on to the underling pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with emphasis on tau and neurofibrillary tangles. Tangles have been associated with cognitive dysfunction causing neurodegeneration in the absence of plaques. AD, the most abundant tauopathy is characterized by ?-amyloid plaques and tau tangles. An abundance of tau inclusions, in the absence of ?-amyloid deposits, defines Pick's disease (frontotemporal lobar degeneration), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and other diseases. Our own focused research is on activity-dependent neuroprtective protein (ADNP). Our findings show that ADNP-deficiency leads to tauopathy which is inhibited by the ADNP derived drug candidate, davunetide (originally known as NAP). The current review further describes tau as a potential diagnostic marker followed by drug candidates that are aimed at fighting tau pathology. A recent historical perspective is the final comment of the manuscript. This paper is not a comprehensive review of the literature rather it gives my own point of view in the face of many publications and a great unmet need for future therapeutics. It is hoped that davunetide, a most advanced drug in clinical development will rapidly advance as a first effective treatment for a number of brain disorders broadly categorized as frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and serve as a prototype for future therapeutic development toward modification and remedy of currently intractable neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20678069

  1. Department of Pathology-Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students in the health sciences learn from case studies, patient histories, and a variety of other means. In recent years, a number of medical schools in the United States have contributed to medical education by placing slide collections, pathology reports, and other related materials online. The University of Pittsburgh's School of Medicine is part of this delightful trend, and they have placed a number of case studies culled from their Department of Pathology's files here on this site. Visitors can look over these files by patient history or diagnosis, and all told, there are well over 500 cases offered here. Visitors can read the pathology reports, view selections of related medical images and scans, and also read the final diagnosis report.

  2. Chagas disease: an overview of clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira; Dones, Wistremundo; Morillo, Carlos A; Encina, Juan Justiniano; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz

    2013-08-27

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a serious health problem in Latin America and is an emerging disease in non-endemic countries. In recent decades, the epidemiological profile of the disease has changed due to new patterns of immigration and successful control in its transmission, leading to the urbanization and globalization of the disease. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most important and severe manifestation of human chronic Chagas disease and is characterized by heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, heart blocks, thromboembolic phenomena, and sudden death. This article will present an overview of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. It will focus on several clinical aspects of the disease, such as chronic Chagas disease without detectable cardiac pathology, as well as dysautonomia, some specific features, and the principles of treatment of chronic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23770163

  3. Pathology Case Study: Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Debra L.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 74 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, inferior wall myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. He was admitted for a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The case study provides both gross and microscopic descriptions along with pertinent laboratory studies in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

  4. Breast pathology in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the first results of the assessment of MRI (0.35 T) with adapted surface reel in the exploration of mammary pathology in 90 cases. On a morphological level, MRI permits a new analysis of sign of dystrophy. As far as MRI is concerned, no specific sign of mammary neoplasia seems to exist. A classification is suggested, taking into account morphology and parameters of relaxation. (orig.)

  5. Breast pathology in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarque, J.L.; Rodiere, M.J.; Prat, X.; Pujol, J.; Rouanet, J.P.; Martin, J.M.; Almes, C.; Rossi, M.; Zanca, M.

    1986-02-01

    The authors present the first results of the assessment of MRI (0.35 T) with adapted surface reel in the exploration of mammary pathology in 90 cases. On a morphological level, MRI permits a new analysis of sign of dystrophy. As far as MRI is concerned, no specific sign of mammary neoplasia seems to exist. A classification is suggested, taking into account morphology and parameters of relaxation.

  6. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  7. Pathology Case Study: Sore Throat and Leukocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Valerie

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. A 68 year old female with a sore throat is the focus of this particular case. The patient's history reveals an increased white blood cell count, anemia and thrombocytopenia. A list of the her current medication, as well as the microscopic description, cell images, and flow cytometry are also included in the case file. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics. Students are encouraged to examine each aspect of the case and test their diagnostic skills against the official findings in the "Final Diagnosis" section.

  8. Surgical pathology and the patient: a systematic review evaluating the primary audience of pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossanen, Matthew; True, Lawrence D; Wright, Jonathan L; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Lavallee, Danielle; Gore, John L

    2014-11-01

    The pathology report is a critical document that helps guide the management of patients with cancer. More and more patients read their reports, intending to participate in decisions about their care. However, a substantial subset of patients may lack the ability to comprehend this often technical and complex document. We hypothesized that most literature on pathology reports discusses reports from the perspective of other physicians and not from the perspective of patients. An expert panel of physicians developed a list of search criteria, which we used to identify articles on PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, and Google Scholar databases. Two reviewers independently evaluated all articles to identify for detailed review those that met search criteria. We identified the primary audience of the selected articles and the degree to which these articles addressed clarity of communication of pathology reports with patients. Of 801 articles identified in our search, 25 involved the formatting of pathology reports for clarity of communication. Recurrent themes in proposed improvements in reports included content standardization, variation in terminology, clarity of communication, and quality improvement. No articles discussed patients as their target audience. No study evaluated the health literacy level required of patients to comprehend pathology reports. In summary, there is a scarcity of patient-centered approaches to improve pathology reports. The literature on pathology reports does not include patients as a target audience. Limited resources are available to help patients comprehend their reports. Efforts to improve patient-centered communication are desirable to address this overlooked aspect of patient care. PMID:25149550

  9. Diagnostic Pathology of Diffuse Lung Disease in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dishop, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    The pathologic classification of diffuse lung disease in children and adolescents has undergone revision in recent years in response to rapid developments and new discoveries in the field. A number of important advancements have been made in the last 10 years including the description of new genetic mutations causing severe lung disease in infants and children, as well as the description of new pathologic entities in infants. These recently described entities, including ABCA3 surfactant disor...

  10. Alzheimer’s Disease: Pathological Mechanisms and Recent Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Niedowicz, Dana M.; Nelson, Peter T.; Murphy, M. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Amyloidopathies cause neurodegeneration in a substantial portion of the elderly population. Improvements in long term health care have made elderly individuals a large and growing demographic group, marking these diseases as a major public health concern. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most studied form of neurodegenerative amyloidopathy. Although our understanding of AD is far from complete, several decades of research have advanced our knowledge to the point where it is conceivable that ...

  11. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  12. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Foer, Bert; Kenis, Christoph; Van Melkebeke, Deborah; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Pouillon, Marc; Offeciers, Erwin; Casselman, Jan W

    2010-05-01

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter. PMID:20347243

  13. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  14. Pathology of lymphatic filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Wah Mak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing and adult worms of the humanlymphatic filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti,Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori are located mainly inthe lymphatic system and occasionally in aberrant siteslike subcutaneous and conjunctival cysts. Lymphaticpathology ranging from dilatation of lymphatic channelsand lymphangiectasia are detected on ultrasonography inapparently healthy, amicrofilaraemic, but filarial antigenpositive individuals in endemic areas. Microfilariae aredistributed in various organs and may be associatedwith immune mediated pathology at these sites; tropicalpulmonary eosinophilia is characterized by intenseimmune mediated destruction of microfilariae in thelung parenchyma. In the spleen and other sites, nodulargranulomatous lesions can occur where microfilariaeare trapped and destroyed. The finding of Wolbachiaendosymbionts in all stages of lymphatic filarial parasiteshas provided new insight on the adverse reactionsassociated with anti-filarial chemotherapy. Inflammatorymolecules mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS-likemolecules released from endosymbionts on death of theparasites are largely responsible for the adverse reactionsencountered during anti-filarial chemotherapy. Prenataltolerance or sensitization to parasite derived moleculescan immune-modulate and contribute to both pathologyand susceptibility/resistance to infection. Pathologicalresponses thus depend not only on exposure tofilarial antigens/infection, but also on host-parasiteendosymbiontfactors and to intervention with antifilarialtreatment. Treatment induced or host mediateddeath of parasites are associated with various grades ofinflammatory response, in which eosinophils and LPSfrom endosymbionts play prominent roles, leadingto death of the parasite, granulomatous formation,organization and fibrosis.The non-human primate (Presbytis spp. model ofBrugia malayi developed for the tertiary screeningof anti-filarial compounds has provided uniqueopportunities for the longitudinal study of the pathologyassociated with lymphatic filariasis. The pathology in thisnon-human primate model closely follows that seen in human lymphatic filarial infections and correlates withclinical evidence of lymphatic pathology as detectedwith ultrasonography. These studies also show thatsuccessful treatment as detected by loss of motility andcalcification of worms on ultrasonography is associatedwith reversal of early dilatations of lymphatic channels.

  15. [Congenital hydrocephalus: clinico-pathological picture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Giustina, E; Pace, P; Lugli, N; Botticelli, A R

    1982-01-01

    The authors review the main pathologic causes of congenital hydrocephalus from ischemic-vascular injuries, embryofoetal infections and dysraphisms to genetic ones. Abundant illustrations of each condition are furnished and particular attention is paid to each situation, discussing the available pathogenetic mechanisms and hypothesis. Genetic "sine causa" hydrocephalus and X-linked hydrocephalus are mainly stressed, presenting some personal data. The clinic aspects of the varying forms of hydrocephalus are continuously kept in mind and a terminal paragraph details the clinical and neuroradiological means determinant in differential diagnosis versus similar conditions such as hydranencephaly, porencephaly, aracnoid cysts, holoprosencephaly and agenesis of corpus callosum. PMID:6100512

  16. Pathology of bone injury

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasou, Na

    2009-01-01

    Although the response to injury in bone has some characteristics in common with that in soft tissues, bone repair differs in that it occurs in a mineralized tissue that has a high degree of cellular and molecular organization. Bone is a unique tissue in the body as it is capable of reconstituting itself following injury. Almost any pathological insult to bone can be said to cause a bone injury. This review deals with the response to bone injury that occurs secondary to physical agents, notabl...

  17. Patología puerperal / Puerperal pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Bezares; O., Sanz; I., Jiménez.

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El puerperio es el periodo desde el final del parto hasta la aparición de la primera menstruación. Las posibles patologías acontecidas en este tiempo son la causa más frecuente de mortalidad materna incluso en nuestro medio. La patología de la lactancia incluye el fallo de lactancia, grietas en el p [...] ezón, ingurgitación mamaria y mastitis puerperal. La infección puerperal es una complicación obstétrica frecuente aunque las pautas de profilaxis han disminuido mucho la incidencia de esta patología. La patología vascular del puerperio incluye cuadros de gravedad importante, representando una de las principales causas de mortalidad materna. Se incluye la trombosis venosa profunda y el tromboembolismo pulmonar como la complicación más grave de la primera. No parece que la patología psiquiátrica sea más frecuente en el puerperio que en otra época de la vida, pero sí que se describen los cuadros relacionados con este periodo, como son el «blues», la depresión puerperal y la psicosis puerperal. Por último, otros cuadros poco frecuentes, pero que pueden constituir una emergencia médica en el puerperio son el síndrome de Sheehan, la miocardiopatía periparto y la tiroiditis postparto. Abstract in english The puerperium is the period from the end of labour to the appearance of the first menstruation. The possible pathologies that can occur in this period of time are the most frequent cause of maternal mortality even in our setting. The pathology of lactation includes failure of breastfeeding, cracks [...] in the nipple, mammary ingurgitation and puerperal mastitis. Puerperal infection is a frequent obstetric complication although clinical guidelines for prophylaxis have considerably reduced its incidence. The vascular pathology of the puerperium includes clinical features of great seriousness, representing one of the main causes of maternal mortality. These include deep vein thrombosis, of which pulmonary thromboembolism is the most serious complication. It does not appear that a psychiatric pathology is more frequent in the puerperium than in other periods of life, but the clinical features related to this period are described, such as «blues», puerperal depression and puerperal psychosis. Finally, other clinical features which although infrequent can constitute a medical emergency in the puerperium are: Sheehan`s syndrome, peripartum cardiomyopathy and postpartum thyroids.

  18. "Pathological" Cantor manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Vladimir

    2012-11-01

    The n-dimensional compact topological space is called to be a Cantor Manifold (CM), if it is not a sum of two proper closed subsets with (n-2)-dimensional intersection. It is by definition a Strongly Cantor Manifold (SCM), if it is not a countable sum of proper closed subsets with no more than (n-2)-dimensional pairwise intersection. We shall call our space a Pathological Cantor Manifold (PCM) if it is CM, but not SCM. In this note we give some examples to investigate "how bad" can be the structure of PCM's.

  19. Intracranial meningeal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the role of Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in the detection of meningeal pathology, the authors reviewed 100 consecutive patients with suspected intracranial disease. Fifteen patients demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement that represented sarcoid (n = 6), lymphoma (n = 4), carcinomatosis (n = 2), glioblastoma (n = 1), aseptic meningitis (n = 1), and subdural empyema (n = 1). Seven patients had accompanying parenchymal abnormalities, but the majority did not show any abnormalities before contrast enhancement. A diffuse pattern of enhancement was seen in 12 patients, with the remaining three showing a nodular/segmental pattern. In these patients, the demonstration of abnormal enhancement provided the initial evidence of meningeal involvement leading to critical therapeutic decisions

  20. Pathology of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, A; Laitinen, L A

    1994-01-01

    Appreciation of the early damage that occurs to the respiratory epithelium has been limited by the use of autopsy specimens from fatally stricken asthmatics as a source of representative specimens. The use of bronchoscopy to obtain specimens from patients early in the course of their asthma has allowed a new understanding of the evolution of pathological changes that occur in asthma. Newly diagnosed, mild asthmatics have been shown to have bronchial goblet cell hyperplasia in addition to increased numbers of mast cells and eosinophils in the respiratory epithelium, and increased eosinophil granule protein deposition within the lamina propria. Endothelial gaps in postcapillary venules are greater in asthmatic airways, suggesting that increased plasma transudation may contribute to the known epithelial cell shedding characteristic of asthma attacks. Asthmatic inflammation, even early in the course of the disease, includes vascular permeability changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial cell shedding, and goblet cell hyperplasia, replacing the normal ciliated epithelium. Current investigation evaluating the effects of asthmatic inflammation on epithelial cell attachment to each other and to the extracellular matrix molecules regulated by adhesion glycoproteins will likely enhance further the understanding of the pathological changes that occur within the asthmatic airway. PMID:7721082

  1. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  2. The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc

    OpenAIRE

    Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent fi...

  3. [The value of ultrasonography in salivary pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasound has been increasingly used in recent years and thanks to high performance, easy to use apparatus, it can now be used for exploration of the salivary glands. This non invasive, painless and relatively inexpensive examination provides rapid visualisation of the salivary glands and is a useful adjunct to radio-xero-sialographic examination, particularly in tumour pathology. Following a review of normal appearances, the author briefly describes the various salivary gland lesions. PMID:2130478

  4. Cue Reactivity in Active Pathological, Abstinent Pathological, and Regular Gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to ga...

  5. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovi?, Ivica; Lažeti?, Goran; Le?i?-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijevi?, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of the effectiveness of our model, at this time it exceeds 90%. Given the relatively short period of application, it is necessary to continue to monitor and evaluate the model after 5 years. PMID:25751445

  6. Pathology Case Study: Lymphocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes "a 72-year-old white male who presented to an outside facility with chest pain of 24 hours duration." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, including images. They are also given flow cytometry and cytogenic data as well as molecular genetics, with images, and are also given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  7. Pathology review in cancer research.

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, L. S.; Machin, D.

    1993-01-01

    Pathology observer agreement studies are clearly important in the development of new pathology assessments and in the quality control of those assessments in common use. Setting up such studies, and reporting and interpreting their results requires careful thought and statistical expertise. Investigators are advised to seek collaboration with a statistician before embarking on these studies. Pathology reference panel reviews in multicentre studies are useful for checking eligibility when ther...

  8. Clinical Pathology - A Diagnostic Aid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof Stuart Fleming

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pathology is now an essential component of high quality clinical care. Pathology tests are important to reaching a diagnosis in 85% of hospital patients. Indeed in some areas including oncology, infection and transplantation medicine diagnosis and optimum treatment cannot be delivered without histopathological investigation. Pathology testing is a core component of early cancer detection through screening for breast, bowel, cervix and prostate cancers. In the last twenty years pathology has moved from a useful diagnostic aid to a clinical essential.

  9. Pathological and non-pathological irregularities of nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star?evi?, Radan; Velepi?, Marko; Bonifa?i?, David

    2014-09-01

    Irregularities of nystagmus can be found almost in every electronystagmographic record, but only a few are pathological. In this investigation, the authors try to define the border line between pathological and nonpathological irregularities of nystagmus and according to this measure the diagnostic use of findings of irregularities of nystagmus. PMID:25420381

  10. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliasny?, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  11. Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of five calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a farm of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pelo BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secreções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação.Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is responsible for different syndromes that affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. This study analyzed the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of persistent infection by BVDV in five animals of a farm located in the county of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The clinical signs included growth impairment, nasal and ocular discharge and, in two animals, congenital cataract. The main gross lesions observed at the necropsy were enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and in one case, pododermatitis and crusted lesions on nasal planum and periocular region. Microscopic findings were characterized mostly by mononuclear infiltrate in the lamina propria, primarily in the small intestine and lymphoid depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in follicular centers of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Viral antigens were more frequently demonstrated in epidermal keratinocytes, epithelium of hair follicles and dendritic cells of the dermis of the ears and skin, histiocytes and lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thyroid follicular cells, in the cytoplasm of neurons and to a lesser extent, in glial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Viral isolation from blood samples and organs confirmed the presence of non-cytopathic BVDV. Moreover, viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of the5' non-translated region of the viral genome allowed the classification of the sample as BVDV type 2b. The present study strengthens the need to investigate and to characterize BVD outbreaks and to describe its different clinic-pathological presentations.

  12. Recent Progress in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Langanke, K.

    1999-01-01

    The manuscript reviews progress achieved in recent years in various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear aspects of supernova collapse and explosion, neutrino-induced reactions and their possible role in the supernova mechanism and nucleosynthesis, explosive hydrogen burning in binary systems, and finally the observation of $\\gamma$-rays from supernova remnants.

  13. Manifestação clínico-patológica de infecção natural pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV em bovinos de criação extensiva no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Clinic-pathological aspects in the natural infection of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRVS in extensive management of cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Driemeier

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available São descritas as manifestações clínicas, patológicas, microbiológicos e sorológicos da enfermidade natural causada pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV em uma criação extensiva de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul. Clinicamente havia tosse crônica e dispnéia intensa frente a exercícios físicos mínimos em dois animais. Os dois foram sacrificados e necropsiados. As alterações macroscópicas eram pulmonares com enfisema alveolar disseminado, focos de atelectasia e espessamento dos septos interlobulares. A imunofluorescência para BRSV em corte de pulmão congelado foi positiva em ambos os casos, sendo negativa para Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3, Diarréia Vírica Bovina (BVDV e Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (BHV. Foi isolado BRSV em cultivo celular de MDBK a partir de um dos animais necropsiados. Nenhuma associação foi detectada através de elisa para detecção de antígeno LPS gênero específico de Chlamydia psittaci no tecido pulmonar. O exame histopatológico evidenciou células sinciciais, enfisema crônico, hipertrofia da camada muscular peribronquiolar e metaplasia escamosa do epitélio bronquial e bronquiolar. O exame sorológico para BRSV evidenciou 79% de soropositivos em uma primeira amostragem na qual havia animais jovens e alguns com tosse. O segundo exame sorológico 6 meses após, proveniente de animais de diferentes faixas etárias, resultou em 17,3% de soropositivos. Este é o primeiro relato de doença causada por BRSV no Brasil.The clinical aspects as well as the pathology, microbiology and serology of a natural Bovine Respiratory Syncytial (BRSV infection of bovine in a herd of 600 beef cattle kept under extensive management in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are described. Clinically two animals had chronic cough and severe dyspnea when forced to mild physical exercise. These two animals were euthanatized and post-morten examination was performed. The macroscopic changes were of pulmonary origin, such as disseminated alveolar emphysema, focal atelectasis and marked interlobular septal thickening. The fluorescent antibody test on lung cryostat sections was positive to BRSV for both animals, and it was negative to PI-3 virus, BVDV and BHV. The BRSV was isolated from the lung of one of the animals on MDBK, and was also identified by fluorescent antibody test. No association with Chlamydia psittaci was found by ELISA performed on lung tissues. The histopathology showed syncytial cells, chronic emphysema, peribronchiolar muscle layer hypertrophy and squamous metaplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. The serology to detect antibodies to BRSV resulted in 79% of positives from the first specimen collection. In this group of young animals some of them had a cough. The second samples collected 6 months later were from animals of different age groups resulting in 17.3% of positives. This is the first report on clinical BRSV infection in Brazil.

  14. Câncer de mama feminino: aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos cadastrados de 2005 a 2008 num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe Female breast cancer: clinical and pathological aspects of cases registered between 2005 and 2008 at a public oncology service in the Brazilian State of Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luíza Conceição Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer os aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos de câncer de mama feminino cadastrados num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: procurou-se fazer uma associação do estadiamento com as características presentes nos tumores. A coleta de dados foi realizada em 165 prontuários de mulheres cadastradas no período de 2005 a 2008 no ambulatório de oncologia do Hospital Cirurgia, localizado em Aracaju-Sergipe, por meio de formulário de coleta de dados, em 2009. RESULTADOS: identificou-se o carcinoma ductal invasivo como o tipo de neoplasia mamária mais frequente com 80,8% dos casos; 76 (46,1% neoplasias foram diagnosticadas em estádio avançado (IIB, III e IV e a mastectomia prevaleceu como tipo de cirurgia utilizado no tratamento independente do estadiamento. Quanto aos receptores hormonais todos apresentaram associação com o grau do estádio e, ainda, notou-se que a positividade do estrogênio e progesterona é fator de proteção para um pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: é notável que os casos de câncer de mama estudados apresentam maior agressividade biológica, cursando com pior prognóstico, considerando o estádio clínico. Fazem-se necessárias ações de detecção precoce voltadas ao câncer de mama na atenção básica de Sergipe para redução da morbi-mortalidade, melhora da sobrevida e qualidade de vida entre as mulheres acometidas por essa neoplasia.OBJECTIVES: to discover the clinical and pathologic aspects of cases of female breast cancer registered at a public oncology service in Sergipe. METHODS: an attempt was made to associate the stage with the characteristics of the tumors. Data was gathered from 165 medical records taken between 2005 and 2008 at the oncology outpatients clinic of the Hospital Cirurgia, in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, using a data collection form in 2009. RESULTS: ductal invasive carcinoma was identified as the most frequent kind of neoplasia, accounting for 80.8% of cases. Seventy-six (46.1% of neoplasias were identified at an advanced stage (IIB, III and IV and mastectomy was the main kind of surgery used, irrespective of the stage of the cancer. All the hormone receptors were associated with the stage and it was noted that positive estrogen and progesterone levels were associated with a more positive prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: it is worth noting that the cases of breast cancer studied were those that are more biologically aggressive with a less promising prognosis in terms of clinical stage. Action to ensure early detection of breast cancer needs to be taken in the course of basic care in Sergipe in order to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve the survival rates and quality of life of women afflicted with this kind of neoplasia.

  15. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Wingfield, M. J.; Beer, Z. W.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, B. D.; Groenewald, J. Z.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and re...

  16. Reversing pathologically increased EEG power by acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Adamchic, Ilya; Toth, Timea; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic Coordinated Reset (CR) neuromodulation is a patterned stimulation with tones adjusted to the patient's dominant tinnitus frequency, which aims at desynchronizing pathological neuronal synchronization. In a recent proof-of-concept study, CR therapy, delivered 4–6 h/day more than 12 weeks, induced a significant clinical improvement along with a significant long-lasting decrease of pathological oscillatory power in the low frequency as well as ? band and an increase of the ? power i...

  17. Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment – A critical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KurtA.Jellinger

    2013-04-01

    Despite recent suggestions for staging and grading CVLs in specific brain areas, no validated neuropathological criteria are currently available for VaD and mixed dementia. Further clinico-pathological studies and harmonization of neuropathological procedures are needed to validate the diagostic criteria for VaD and mixed dementia in order to clarify the impact of CVLs and other coexistent pathologies on cognitive impairment as a basis for further successful therapeutic options.

  18. Rotator cuff pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2*-weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

  19. Recruitment of a pathology course director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, F E

    1993-09-01

    The process of choosing a course director rarely involves a rigorous examination of the duties to be assumed, primarily because the selection is from among existing faculty rather than as a result of formal recruitment. The selectee tends to be surprised (and often disheartened) by the amount of time the job requires. This report was developed from workshops conducted at recent meetings of both the Group for Research in Pathology Education and the Association of Pathology Chairmen. It describes the overall scope of a course director's activities, including the percentage of time devoted to various functions, and identifies issues to be addressed at the time of the course director's selection. Although the appointment may still be from within the department, the recruitment process does allow for a more full and open discussion of the job to be accomplished. PMID:8368912

  20. Pathology Case Study: Post Transfusion Hemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Raj

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old female with a 20 year history of systemic lupus erythematosis with a history of deep venous thrombosis and a recent myocardial infarct. Visitors are given patient history and admission data along with data results from the resulting transfusion reaction investigation. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

  1. Revisiting the Pathological Evaluation of the Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The most recent molecular acquisitions about the pathogenesis of the thoracic aortic aneurysm permit to better understand also the morphological counterpart of this disease, where atherosclerosis is not the only factor involved. The cascade of pathological processes leading to the development of the thoracic aortic aneurysms is multifactorial. Methods. We have investigated five surgical specimens of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta, collected from patients without Marfan's disease or other related genetic syndromes. Histochemistry for elastic fibers and mucosubstances has been performed, following the standard staining protocols. Results. The elastolysis, which can be considered a starting process, involves all the tunica media and it is followed by the mucoid degeneration characterized by the deposition of basophilic mucopolysaccaridic substance. Finally, the overlap of classic atherosclerotic lesions is observed, inside the whole aortic wall. Conclusions. The development of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is a complex event, where different factors and processes are involved, other than the well-known atherosclerosis, which can finally appear the most evident aspect of the overt disease. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 267-269

  2. Neurocognitive aspects of translation

    OpenAIRE

    Annoni, Jean-marie; Lee-jahnke, Hannelore; Sturm, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    Translation is at the centre of many cognitive domains such as pedagogy, linguistic, pragmatic, neurosciences, and social cognition. This multi-domain aspect is reflected in the current models of translation. Recently, cognitive neurosciences have unraveled some brain mechanisms in the bilingualism domain, and it is quite logical to transfer such knowledge to the field of translation as well as the learning of translation. One interesting question is which non-linguistic cognitive and communi...

  3. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author)

  4. Pathological processes affecting exercise capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Metin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise capacity and physical activity status are well-known predictors of general mortality and especially cardiovascular mortality. Pathological processes which may affect exercise capacity may be of cardiovascular, pulmonary, hematologic, myogenic and neuropsychogenic origin. Whatever the reason, reduced exercise capacity impairs quality of life and increases tendency of individual to secondary diseases. These pathologies, alone or together, limit exercise capacity resulting in dyspneoea, pain and fatigue by causing defects in processes involved in oxygen and carbondioxide gases. In this review, pathological processes that impact exercise capacity will be discussed in a systematic manner and uncommon application areas of exercise tests will be mentioned.

  5. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. PMID:24140174

  6. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  7. Radiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic evaluation of the low back and the conditions producing monoradiculopathy has improved to a point almost beyond belief, largely due to the development of CT scanning with high resolution multiplanar reconstruction. Still, as elegant as CT images are, we cannot image the psyche, and complex psychological problems plus the need for secondary gain will often overshadow all anatomic abnormalities. Scanning does give the clinician confidence in excluding pathologic alterations in previously silent areas. It is rare today for the clinician (that is, one who is comfortable interpreting these newer scans) to miss free fragments in the lateral recess, to miss far lateral disks, or to fail to take into account foraminal stenosis. Combinations of diseases that can lead to the failed chymopapain syndrome are now easily seen with scanning. The authors particularly caution the interested physician to evaluate carefully the areas of the lateral recesses for bony, ligamentous, and other soft tissue changes, and to be cognizant of the condition of the facet joints and the degree of end-plate osteophyte formation. Though the moment of truth is still realized in a private examining room with physician and patient face to face, the physician now has an incredibly powerful tool at his or her disposal. That tool, the CT scanner and the multiplanar images it produces, plus the help of interested spine radiologists, will allow the physician to create an accurate three-dimensionaian to create an accurate three-dimensional image of the entire nerve pathway. Better patient selection, and thus ore successful treatments, is the inevitable result

  8. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Chiu; Kelley, Brendan J.; Duker, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson's disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of ...

  9. Training Pathologists in Mouse Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, John P.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Hogenesch, Harm; Nikitin, Alexander Yu; Treuting, Piper M.; Macauley, John B.; Schofield, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    Expertise in the pathology of mice has expanded from traditional regulatory and drug safety screening (toxicologic pathology), primarily performed by veterinary pathologists to the highly specialized area of mouse research pathobiology performed by veterinary and medical pathologists encompassing phenotyping of mutant mice and analysis of research experiments exploiting inbred mouse strains and genetically engineered lines. With increasing use of genetically modified mice in research, mouse p...

  10. Isotopes and radiation in plant pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ionizing radiations were first applied to phytopathological problems 50 years ago, it is only in recent years that this work has come into its own. Plant diseases are often complex since they may involve interactions between the host, the vector and its pathogen. These pathogens range from viral bodies, through unicellular organisms, to well-organized living entities such as nematodes. Each member of these interactions is amenable to investigation by radiobiological techniques. The collection of papers forming this Report is based on papers originally presented at an IAEA panel by experts on the application of radiation and radioisotopes in plant pathology. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Tau mediated neurodegeneration: an insight into Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulesu, M; Venu, R; Somashekhar, R

    2011-08-01

    Extracellular accumulations of A?, hyperphosphorylation of tau and intracellular neurofibrillary tangle formation have been the hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Although tau and its phosphorylation play a pivotal role in the normal physiology yet its hyperphosphorylation has been a pathological manifestation in neurodegenerative disorders like AD. In this review physiology of tau, its phosphorylation, hyperphosphorylation with the intervention of various kinases, aggregation and formation of paired helical filaments has been discussed. A brief account of various animal models employed to study the pathological manifestation of tau in AD and therapeutic strategies streamlined to counter the tau induced pathology has been given. The reasons for the failure to have suitable animal model to study AD pathology and recent success in achieving this has been included. The role of caspase cascade in tau cleavage has been emphasized. The summary of current studies on tau and the need for future studies has been accentuated. PMID:21509508

  12. Is pathological gambling moderated by age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2014-06-01

    The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning. PMID:23494243

  13. Manifestação clínico-patológica de infecção natural pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em bovinos de criação extensiva no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Clinic-pathological aspects in the natural infection of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRVS) in extensive management of cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Driemeier; Marcos José Pereira, Gomes; Valéria, Moojen; Clarice Weiss, Arns; Guilherme, Vogg; Luciano, Kessler; Ubirajara Maciel da, Costa.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São descritas as manifestações clínicas, patológicas, microbiológicos e sorológicos da enfermidade natural causada pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em uma criação extensiva de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul. Clinicamente havia tosse crônica e dispnéia intensa frente a exercício [...] s físicos mínimos em dois animais. Os dois foram sacrificados e necropsiados. As alterações macroscópicas eram pulmonares com enfisema alveolar disseminado, focos de atelectasia e espessamento dos septos interlobulares. A imunofluorescência para BRSV em corte de pulmão congelado foi positiva em ambos os casos, sendo negativa para Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), Diarréia Vírica Bovina (BVDV) e Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (BHV). Foi isolado BRSV em cultivo celular de MDBK a partir de um dos animais necropsiados. Nenhuma associação foi detectada através de elisa para detecção de antígeno LPS gênero específico de Chlamydia psittaci no tecido pulmonar. O exame histopatológico evidenciou células sinciciais, enfisema crônico, hipertrofia da camada muscular peribronquiolar e metaplasia escamosa do epitélio bronquial e bronquiolar. O exame sorológico para BRSV evidenciou 79% de soropositivos em uma primeira amostragem na qual havia animais jovens e alguns com tosse. O segundo exame sorológico 6 meses após, proveniente de animais de diferentes faixas etárias, resultou em 17,3% de soropositivos. Este é o primeiro relato de doença causada por BRSV no Brasil. Abstract in english The clinical aspects as well as the pathology, microbiology and serology of a natural Bovine Respiratory Syncytial (BRSV) infection of bovine in a herd of 600 beef cattle kept under extensive management in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are described. Clinically two animals had chronic coug [...] h and severe dyspnea when forced to mild physical exercise. These two animals were euthanatized and post-morten examination was performed. The macroscopic changes were of pulmonary origin, such as disseminated alveolar emphysema, focal atelectasis and marked interlobular septal thickening. The fluorescent antibody test on lung cryostat sections was positive to BRSV for both animals, and it was negative to PI-3 virus, BVDV and BHV. The BRSV was isolated from the lung of one of the animals on MDBK, and was also identified by fluorescent antibody test. No association with Chlamydia psittaci was found by ELISA performed on lung tissues. The histopathology showed syncytial cells, chronic emphysema, peribronchiolar muscle layer hypertrophy and squamous metaplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. The serology to detect antibodies to BRSV resulted in 79% of positives from the first specimen collection. In this group of young animals some of them had a cough. The second samples collected 6 months later were from animals of different age groups resulting in 17.3% of positives. This is the first report on clinical BRSV infection in Brazil.

  14. Extraadrenal retroperitoneal paragangliomas: radiologic pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Whang; Ji, Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Hee [St. Meryknoll Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Hee [Cha General Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    Retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a relatively uncommon neurogenic tumor, arising from paraganglial tissue. In our knowledge, there is few report about the radiologic findings of extraadrenal paraganglioma, therefore, here we document the adiologic findings of retroperitoneal paraganglioma with pathologic correlation. In 5 patients with surgicopathologically confirmed extraadrenal paraganglioma and 1 clinjcolaboratorily confirmed case, we analyzed the ultrasonographic, computed tomographic and MRI findings, and correlated them with gross pathologic specimen. The location of the tumors was medial aspect of left kidney(n = 2), superomedial aspect of right kidney hilum(n = 2), and organ of Zuckerkandl area(n = 2). Ultrasonoram showed well-marginated mass(n = 5), occasionally with irregular central necrosis with or without partially echogenic area suggesting hemorrhage(n = 2). CT scan also showed well-marginated mass(n = 6) with hemorrhagic necrosis(n = 3) and contrast enhancement. One showed area shaped calcification along the capsule, and another case showed adhesion with aorta. In MRI, solid portion of the mass showed relatively low signal intensity on T1WI, increased signal on T2WI, and enhancement with gadolinium. Necrotic portion showed increased signal intensity on T1WI, and also showed increased signal intensity on T2WI, without contrast enhancement. Grossly the mass showed internal hemorrhagic necrosis of variable degree(n = 6). If well-marginated mass is noted around the area of paraganglial distribution including organ of Zuckerkandl, especially with evidence of hemorrhagic necrosis and contrast enhancement, we must consider the possibility of paraganglioma despite no characteristic symptoms.

  15. The goals of resident training in laboratory medicine in combined anatomic pathology/clinical pathology programs: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alan; Smith, Brian R

    2007-06-01

    Training of residents in the discipline of laboratory medicine is confounded by the diversity of the subdisciplines of clinical pathology each with specific knowledge sets, and the career goals of the residents who are focused on different aspects of clinical pathology. What guides this training is not the detailed knowledge sets or the specific technologies per se, but a focus on the principles that undergird all of laboratory medicine. Thus, the goal of clinical pathology training is to develop a clinical consultant who can apply laboratory-derived, population-based clinical data and laboratory-based therapeutics, along with a firm knowledge of the underlying biotechnology from which these are derived, to the benefit of individual patients. Furthermore, this pathologist must be steeped in the skills required for lifelong learning and adaptation. PMID:17556082

  16. Chain gangs: new aspects of hyaluronan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Michael; Stern, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a matrix polymer prominent in tissues undergoing rapid growth, development, and repair, in embryology and during malignant progression. It reaches 10(7) Daltons in size but also exists in fragmented forms with size-specific actions. It has intracellular forms whose functions are less well known. Hyaluronan occurs in all vertebrate tissues with 50% present in skin. Hyaluronan provides a scaffold on which sulfated proteoglycans and matrix proteins are organized. These supramolecular structures are able to entrap water and ions to provide tissues with hydration and turgor. Hyaluronan is recognized by membrane receptors that trigger intracellular signaling pathways regulating proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Cell responses are often dependent on polymer size. Catabolic turnover occurs by hyaluronidases and by free radicals, though proportions between these have not been determined. New aspects of hyaluronan biology have recently become realized: involvement in autophagy, in the pathology of diabetes., the ability to modulate immune responses through effects on T regulatory cells and, in its fragmented forms, by being able to engage several toll-like receptors. It is also apparent that hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases are regulated at many more levels than previously realized, and that the several hyaluronidases have functions in addition to their enzymatic activities. PMID:22216413

  17. New insights into ovarian cancer pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, J

    2012-09-01

    Malignant epithelial tumors (carcinomas) are the most common ovarian cancers and also the most lethal gynecological malignancies. Based on histopathology and molecular genetic alterations, ovarian carcinomas are divided into five main types [high-grade serous (70%), endometrioid (10%), clear-cell (10%), mucinous (3%), and low-grade serous carcinomas (treatment, reproducible histopathological diagnosis of the tumor cell type is critical. The five tumor types are morphologically diverse and resemble carcinomas of the uterus. Actually, recent investigations have demonstrated that a substantial number of cancers, traditionally thought to be primary ovarian tumors (particularly serous, endometrioid, and clear-cell carcinomas), originate in the fallopian tube and the endometrium and involve the ovary secondarily. This presentation summarizes recent advances in the molecular pathology which have greatly improved our understanding of the biology of ovarian carcinoma and are also relevant to patient management. PMID:22987944

  18. Adolescence and Eating Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Caggiano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007. The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002, cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schilder, 2002, nutrition and weight (Halmi, 2003.These factors can be divided into four main categories: ‘the cultural pressure to acquire a thin body; the change in the woman’s social role; the mythical character granted to eating disorders; the prejudice against obesity’ (Dalle Grave, 2007. So far, the literature on this subject, however wide, has provided no conclusive data with reference to related issues, such as psychiatric comorbidities(Blinder et al, 2007. In particular, this study focused on the aspectof control, a significant feature of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder too, (Couturier, 2004 and on body-image disperception, peculiar to eating disorders (Neumark-Sztainer, 2000. To investigate co-morbidity between eating disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a questionnaire including items of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Dalle Grave, Ghisi, Calugi, 2006 was administered to a sample of adolescent students. The results provide significant correlations between Calculation Compulsions and the BSQ Behaviours variable, between Current MiscellaneousCompulsions and Body Image, between Current Miscellaneous Compulsionsand Body Shape/Self Esteem. Therefore the study provides further evidence in support of co-morbidity.

  19. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over-diagnosed, hindering more precise diagnosis and delaying appropriate treatment. PMID:17650749

  20. Shame regulation in personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-05-01

    Drawing on extant work on shame and emotion regulation, this article proposes that three broad forms of maladaptive shame regulation strategies are fundamental in much of personality pathology: Prevention (e.g., dependence, fantasy), used preemptively, lessens potential for shame; Escape (e.g., social withdrawal, misdirection) reduces current or imminent shame; Aggression, used after shame begins, refocuses shame into anger directed at the self (e.g., physical self-harm) or others (e.g., verbal aggression). This article focuses on the contributions of shame regulation to the development and maintenance of personality pathology, highlighting how various maladaptive shame regulation strategies may lead to personality pathology symptoms, associated features, and dimensions. Consideration is also given to the possible shame-related constructs necessitating emotion regulation (e.g., shame aversion and proneness) and the points in the emotion process when regulation can occur. PMID:21895346

  1. Recent Workshops

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F. J.

    Since the previous edition of ATLAS e-news, the NIKHEF Institute in Amsterdam has hosted not just one but two workshops related to ATLAS TDAQ activities. The first in October was dedicated to the Detector Control System (DCS). Just three institutes, CERN, NIKHEF and St Petersburg, provide the effort for the central DCS services, but each ATLAS sub-detector provides effort for their own controls. Some 30 people attended, including representatives for all of the ATLAS sub-detectors, representatives of the institutes working on the central services and the project leader of JCOP, which brings together common aspects of detector controls across the LHC experiments. During the three-day workshop the common components were discussed, and each sub-detector described their experiences and plans for their future systems. Whilst many of the components to be used are standard commercial components, a key custom item for ATLAS is the ELMB (Embedded Local Monitor Board). Prototypes for this have now been extensively test...

  2. What would my avatar do? Gaming, pathology, and risky decision making

    OpenAIRE

    KiraBailey; RobertWest; JudsonKuffel

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has revealed a relationship between pathological video game use and increased impulsivity among children and adolescents. A few studies have also demonstrated increased risk-taking outside of the video game environment following game play, but this work has largely focused on one genre of video games (i.e., racing). Motivated by these findings, the aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between pathological and non-pathological video game use, impulsivity, and ri...

  3. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becich, Michael J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

  4. Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  5. Recent recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steve Goldfarb

    The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project would like to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures concerning ATLAS and the LHC. Most recently, we produced a series of presentations made at the First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas, held at SLAC in August. The complete set of lectures can be found here.There is a lot of outstanding material there, relevant to all of ATLAS, including detector summaries, trigger and physics talks, software and computing presentations, and an overview of operations. Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.Additional ATLAS material, including plenary lectures, workshops and tutorials, can be found via our portal athttp://www.wlap.org/atlasincluding: First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas (Aug 2007) Glasgow Overview Week Plenary Sessions (Jul 2007) CTEQ Workshop: "Physics at ...

  6. [Psychological and psychotherapeutic aspects of grief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, O

    1992-05-01

    Psychological theories on the significance and the process of mourning are discussed, and an approach to the psychotherapy of pathological grief is described. Bereavement behaviour refers to the total response pattern, psychological and physiological, displayed by an individual following the loss of a significant object, usually a loved person. Various theories on the nature and course of bereavement are reviewed. The following psychological aspects associated with bereavement are discussed in more detail: Shock, denial, searching, depression, guilt, aggression, anxiety, jealousy and reintegration. Specific conditions that might lead to pathological mourning are pointed out. At last, an implosive therapy approach to pathological mourning is described, which is based on the prolonged exposure to the painful stimuli until extinction of the severe emotional response occurs ("flooding"). The procedure is illustrated by examples from actual therapies. PMID:1488506

  7. Synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint: a case with typical imaging features and pathological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, S. W.; Jeon, S. J.; Choi, S. S.; Choi, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint is a rare benign joint disorder that has been reported in only a few studies. However, we recently encountered a pathologically proven case of this disorder. This case also showed the typical imaging findings on panoramic radiographs and on CT and MR images. Therefore, we report this case and the imaging and pathological findings.

  8. Aspects of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The research into thyroid function has a long history. The recognition of goiter as pathology of the thyroid gland dates back to the ancient world of Rome and Greece and possibly even to the early history of chinese medicine. In an excellent review of the historical aspects of the discovery of thyroid hormones and their biological action (1) Pitt-Rivers describes the growing awareness of the significance of iodine for thyroid function early in the 19th century. The actual pr...

  9. Thalamus pathology in multiple sclerosis: from biology to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Markus; Wagenknecht, Nina; Beyer, Cordian; Samer, Sebastian; Wuerfel, Jens; Nikoubashman, Omid

    2015-03-01

    There is a broad consensus that MS represents more than an inflammatory disease: it harbors several characteristic aspects of a classical neurodegenerative disorder, i.e. damage to axons, synapses and nerve cell bodies. While the clinician is equipped with appropriate tools to dampen peripheral cell recruitment and, thus, is able to prevent immune-cell driven relapses, effective therapeutic options to prevent the simultaneously progressing neurodegeneration are still missing. Furthermore, while several sophisticated paraclinical methods exist to monitor the inflammatory-driven aspects of the disease, techniques to monitor progression of early neurodegeneration are still in their infancy and have not been convincingly validated. In this review article, we aim to elaborate why the thalamus with its multiple reciprocal connections is sensitive to pathological processes occurring in different brain regions, thus acting as a "barometer" for diffuse brain parenchymal damage in MS. The thalamus might be, thus, an ideal region of interest to test the effectiveness of new neuroprotective MS drugs. Especially, we will address underlying pathological mechanisms operant during thalamus degeneration in MS, such as trans-neuronal or Wallerian degeneration. Furthermore, we aim at giving an overview about different paraclinical methods used to estimate the extent of thalamic pathology in MS patients, and we discuss their limitations. Finally, thalamus involvement in different MS animal models will be described, and their relevance for the design of preclinical trials elaborated. PMID:25417212

  10. Pin1 inhibition activates cyclin D and produces neurodegenerative pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabay, Kutay Deniz; Karabay, Arzu

    2012-02-01

    Abnormal cell cycle events are increasingly becoming important attributes of neurodegenerative pathology. Pin1 is a crucial target of neurodegeneration in relation to its functions regarding these abnormal cell cycle events in neurons. Pin1 is majorly involved in many aspects of cell cycle regulation and it has also been suggested to have a neuroprotective function against neurodegenerative pathologies. Oxidative dysregulation of Pin1 affects not only normal tau regulation, eventually causing tangle formation, but also cell cycle regulation in neurons. Presence of cell cycle proteins has been shown in many neurodegenerative diseases. Importantly, many of these proteins have physical interactions with Pin1. Hence, understanding Pin1's role in abnormal cell cycle re-entry is critical in terms of finding new approaches for the future therapeutic options treating neurodegenerative pathologies. Here, we show that inhibition of Pin1 by its selective inhibitor juglone leads to up-regulation of cyclinD1, phospho-tau, and caspase 3, producing apoptosis in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We also observed axonal retraction with a change in sub-cellular localizations of cyclins. Therefore, Pin1 dysregulation, in relation to its role in cell cycle regulation in neurons, may have profound effects in the progression of neurodegenerative pathology, making it a possible crucial target behind many neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21443524

  11. The behavioral economics of substance use disorders: reinforcement pathologies and their repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

    2014-01-01

    The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics. PMID:24679180

  12. Pathology Case Study: Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacic, Sanja

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case involves a 41 year-old woman experiencing the following symptoms for a period of 18 months: fatigue, weakness, lethargy, and decreased concentration. The patientâ??s history, description of CT scans, and images from histological examinations, which contributed to the conclusive diagnosis, are all provided here for your review. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâ??s condition in the â??Final Diagnosisâ? section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  13. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

  14. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  15. Communication Pathology building : Artlantis model

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbe, S.

    2008-01-01

    A German immigrant, W H Fleischman, was commissioned by the Department of Public Works in the 1930s to design a building to house the Weather Bureau. In 1963 Government donated the building to the University and in 1965 it became the home of the Department of Communication Pathology. The building also houses the Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication. The design of the building reflects a strong international influence and elements of the German Bauhaus style.

  16. Molecular Pathology of Lewy Body Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lewy body diseases are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein(AS-positive inclusions in the brain. Since their main component is conformationally modified AS, aggregation of the latter is thought to be a key pathogenic event in these diseases. The analysis of inclusion body constituents gives additional information about pathways also involved in the pathology of synucleinopathies. Widespread mitochondrial dysfunction is very closely related to disease development. The impairment of protein degradation pathways, including both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosomepathway also play an important role during the development of Lewy body diseases. Finally, differential expression changes of isoforms corresponding to genes primarily involved in Lewy body formation point to alternative splicing as another important mechanism in the development of Parkinson’s disease, as well as dementia with Lewy bodies. The present paper attempts to give an overview of recent molecular findings related to the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases.

  17. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  18. Recent advances in oxasteroids chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim-Ouali, Malika

    2007-06-01

    The continuous interest in the field of oxasteroids mainly arises from the fascinating aspects associated with their peculiar stereochemical features and their promising and sometimes unexpected biological activities. The recent development in the partial and total syntheses of oxasteroids are herein described. PMID:17499322

  19. Recent developments in silicon calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, J.E.

    1990-11-01

    We present a survey of some of the recent calorimeter applications of silicon detectors. The numerous attractive features of silicon detectors are summarized, with an emphasis on those aspects important to calorimetry. Several of the uses of this technology are summarized and referenced. We consider applications for electromagnetic calorimetry, hadronic calorimetry, and proposals for the SSC.

  20. Pathological Grief: Causes, Recognition, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gort, George

    1984-01-01

    Although the incidence of pathological grief does not appear to be high, the morbidity and mortality of sufferers is significant. Because of attitudes about grieving and the reluctance to experience grief, patients may avoid sharing grief with the family physician, who may then fail to recognize pathological grief. This article discusses clinical manifestations and situations which can lead to pathological grief. The types of pathological grief—chronic, inhibited, delayed, and atypical—ar...

  1. [Sesamoid pathology of the 1st metatarsal bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustre, J; Simon, L

    1978-01-01

    The sesamoid region constitutes an "anatomo-clinical entity" because the small sesamoid bones and the tendino-sero-cutaneous formations which surround them are in close association. Subjected to various microtraumatisms, (professional, sports or static), it expresses its pathology through a painful sesamoid point, a localized tumefaction that is more or less ifnlammatory (sometimes with a pseudo-gout aspect) or a painful corn that disturbs walking. The observation of radiologic alterations of the sesamoid bones results in the discussion of osteonecrosis (Renander's disease) or a fracture. This region may also be the site of a specific micro-cristalline inflammation (with deposit of various crystals) or a rheumatic (mainly rheumatoid, sometimes psioriatic or spondylarthritic) responsible for sesamoid alterations of variable intensity. I can also be involved in an infectious process that is either acute or chronic (fistulization). The sesamoid region has a rich pathology, that is often poorly understood since it is inadequately investigated. PMID:725464

  2. Actual problems of physical rehabilitation of students with spinal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotelevskiy V.I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze integrative rehabilitation approaches to solving the problem of physical rehabilitation of students with spinal pathology. Material: analyzed more than 50 references. The analysis of the results of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation 67 students 19-20 years old with neurological manifestations of vertebral osteochondrosis of 1 degree. Results: actual problems of students with physical rehabilitation spinal pathology, analyzes the main aspects and rehabilitation approaches to solving these problems. Application integrative model of physical rehabilitation 20.7% increased its efficiency by general indicators of clinical research, valeology literacy, health and quality of life, stability of the results of rehabilitation. Conclusions: proven effective integrative rehabilitation system based on the integrated use of pedagogical, psychological treatment and physical rehabilitation in higher educational institutions.

  3. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; RØmer Thomsen, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological gambling symptom severity using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The results showed that pathological gambling sufferers had significantly higher response frequency than non-problem gamblers, and that response frequency was significantly correlated with SOGS symptom severity among pathological gambling sufferers. Finally, binary logistic regression showed that response frequency accurately identified 21 (95.5%) pathological gambling sufferers and 18 (85.7%) non-problem gamblers. The correlation between response frequency and SOGS may suggest a stronger reinforcement of gambling behavior in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may have important implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling.

  4. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    OpenAIRE

    George Scarlett, W.

    2012-01-01

    Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world) and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  5. Hypertension in pregnancy: the most recent findings in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezza, L; Ralli, E; Conti, E; Passerini, J; Autore, C; Caserta, D

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is a major cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, both in developing and developed countries. That is because it is the most common pathological condition during pregnancy and its development is associated with high risk of severe complications: mother could be affected by placental abruption, cerebrovascular events, organ dysfunction and could develop disseminated intravascular coagulation, instead the foetus could be affected by intrauterine growth retardation, premature birth and intrauterine death. Aware that preeclampsia still remains an enigma for different aspects, this review aims to provide a comprehensive update of all the current literature regarding this disease. In particular, the main purpose of this review is to emphasize the most recent findings about the pathophysiology, diagnosis and submit a revision of the most recent guidelines in relation to drug therapy, with particular attention to the evaluation of risks and benefits associated with the use of various classes of the currently available drugs. PMID:24569409

  6. [The most recent aspects of diagnosis and therapy of hyponatraemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šturdík, Igor; Adamcová, Monika; Payer, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disbalance in clinical practice, which is associated with increased patients morbidity and mortality. At present the pathophysiology of hyponatraemia is explored in more details, antidiuretic hormone and osmoregulation play the major roles. This article informs about relatively new classification of hyponatraemia for clinical practice based on the severity of clinical symptoms and based on the effective serum osmolality. It also offers diagnostic and treatment guidelines of hyponatraemia, which are based on current recommendations of the world experts and on the evidence based medicine.Key words: diagnosis - hyponatraemia - pathophysiology - treatment. PMID:25873117

  7. Some recent aspects of relaxation line shapes in Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical development in the line shape calculation of Mossbauer resonance spectra involving spin relaxation effects is introduced. The ''eigenvalue'' procedure of calculating line shapes saves computational times by two orders of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This was illustrated by calculating the relaxation spectra of hemoglobin cyanide and a GAMMA8 quartet electronic state. The ''white noise approximation'' involved in all the relaxation theory is discussed, and its limitations are pointed out. The theory without such an approximation is used to analyze the data for Cs2NaYbCl6

  8. Recent additions to fundament aspects of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems like those of Schroedinger's can comprise quantum systems as classical systems, the measurement process and reality. After a reviewing the history of interpretation of quantum mechanics it is shown how a generalized algebraic quantum theory (e.g. G.G. Emch 1986) can tackle these problems and paradoxes. This theory treats systems with infinite degrees of freedom and open systems. It is applicable both to quantum as to classical systems and thus to the measurement process with its irreversibility. The usual linear Schroedinger equation is replaced by a non-linear one where the nonlinear terms reflect the interaction of the system with its environment or with the measuring apparatus. (Quittner) To appear also in 'Naturwissenschaft und Weltbild', 1992

  9. RHIC SPIN PROGRAM: MACHINE ASPECTS AND RECENT PROGRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. However, the acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian Snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian Snakes and polarimeters are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible

  10. RHIC SPIN PROGRAM: MACHINE ASPECTS AND RECENT PROGRESS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROSER,T.

    1999-07-20

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. However, the acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian Snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian Snakes and polarimeters are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible.

  11. Digital pathology in Europe: coordinating patient care and research efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Rojo, Marcial; Punys, Vytenis; Slodkowska, Janina; Schrader, Thomas; Daniel, Christel; Blobel, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH) is an initiative of the COST (European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) framework, supported by the Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7), of the European Union will be running from 2007 to 2011 and is aimed to coordinate research efforts to develop the most adequate technological framework for the management of multimedia electronic healthcare records (data and images) applied to Anatomic Pathology. Sixteen countries are participating in EURO-TELEPATH. Activities are organized in four Working Groups (WGs): WG1 - Pathology Business Modeling, WG2 - Informatics Standards in Pathology, WG3 - Images: Analysis, Processing, Retrieval and Management, and WG4 - Technology and Automation in Pathology. During the first year of work, the collaboration between software engineers, computer scientists, pathologists and other clinicians has been essential to detect three main areas of interest in digital pathology research: virtual microscopy scanning solutions, health informatics standards, and image processing and analysis. Research in these areas is essential to a correct approach to telepathology, including primary diagnosis, and secondary or teleconsultation services. Managing microscopic pathology images (virtual slides) is a challenge to existing information systems, mainly due to its large size, large number, and complex interpretation. Regarding interoperability, the integration of pathology reports and images into eHealth records is an essential objective that research groups should consider. Promoting participation in standards bodies (DICOM, IHE, HL7, IHTSDO) is an essential part of the project work. Understanding the business process of pathology departments in daily practice, including healthcare, education, research, and quality control activities, is the starting point to be sure that standardization efforts converge with user needs. Following a recent IHE proposal, coordination with public health services like national or regional tumor registries must also be supported. Virtual or digital slides are fostering the use of image processing and analysis in pathology not only for research purposes, but also in daily practice. Nowadays, further discussion is needed on the adequacy of current existing technical solutions, including for instance quality of images obtained by scanners, or the efficiency of image analysis applications. PMID:19745463

  12. Selected aspects of soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a review of selected aspects of management of adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma and a consideration of several recent developments. Mention is made of the evidence that there are unique gene clusters for at least several of the pathological types of soft tissue sarcoma. This is judged to be a precursor of coming advances in genetic-based diagnosis and the potential for prediction of biological behavior and response to the diverse treatment strategies. There has been remarkably rapid development of clinically valuable imaging techniques (CT, MRI, dynamic MRI, MRS, and PET) separately or using image fusion techniques which not only provide superior delineation of limits of extension of tumor but also their physiological status. These techniques are likely to be integrated into the treatment delivery system to provide four-dimensional treatment planning and delivery. One new method for determination of the involvement of lymph nodes by metastatic tumor is presented which has high accuracy for nodes ?6 mm in size. The rationale for employing radiation prior to or following resection is considered and then the results at three years of the Canadian Phase III Trial of pre- vs. post-operative radiation therapy for patients with soft tissue sarcoma are presented. Similar local control but higher overall survival rates were found for the pre-operative arm; however, there was a significantly higher rate of wound healing problems. Then the potential for major gaioblems. Then the potential for major gains in the effectiveness of radiation based on improving technologies against these tumors is considered. An anti-angiogenic agent (the antibody to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 2, DC 101) has been shown to reduce significantly the radiation dose to inactivate two human tumor xenografts. Further, studies on C3H mice bearing spontaneous autochthonous fibrosarcoma have shown significant growth delay by that same antibody. (author)

  13. Mental foramen mimicking as periapical pathology - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The radiographic recognition of any disease requires a thorough knowledge of the radiographic appearance of normal structure. Intelligent diagnosis mandates an appreciation of the wide range of variation in the appearance of normal anatomical structures. The mental foramen is usually the anterior limit of the inferior dental canal that is apparent on radiographs. It opens on the facial aspect of the mandible in the region of the premolars. It can pose diagnostic dilemma radiographically because of its anatomical variation which can mimic as a periapical pathosis. Hereby we are reporting a rare case of superimposed mental foramen over the apex of right mandibular second premolar mimicking as periapical pathology.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Macrocytic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahler, David

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older man suffering from chronic bronchitis and macrocytic anemia also developed persistent flu symptoms. Visitors view the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  15. Paediatric acquired pathological vertebral collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirji, Hassan; Saifuddin, Asif

    2014-04-01

    Vertebral collapse is a significant event in the paediatric patient with a real potential for associated deformity and morbidity. While in adults the causes tend towards the malignant, particularly metastatic and metabolic disease, the paediatric population demonstrates a different range of diagnoses. This article reviews the typical imaging findings of the more common underlying acquired pathological causes of vertebral collapse in children, including Langerhans cell histiocytosis, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, osteogenesis imperfecta. Other causes include pyogenic osteomyelitis and tuberculosis and neoplastic lesions, either primary, metastatic or of haematological origin. PMID:24402444

  16. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saslow, Debbie; Solomon, Diane; Lawson, Herschel W.; Killackey, Maureen; Kulasingam, Shalini; Cain, Joanna; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Moriarty, Ann; Waxman, Alan; Wilbur, David; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Downs, Levi; Spitzer, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-barbara; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2012-01-01

    An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium co-sponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations add...

  17. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    There are two important points of view on inclusion or subtype polymorphism in object-oriented programs, namely polymorphic access and dynamic dispatch. These features are essential for object-oriented programming, and it is worthwhile to consider whether they are supported in aspect-oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using AspectJ as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety.

  18. Survival analysis in plant pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiano, Nunes Nesi; Silvia, Emiko Shimakura; Paulo Justiniano, Ribeiro Junior; Louise Larissa, May De Mio.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de supervivencia se aplica cuando el tiempo hasta la ocurrencia de un evento es el objeto de interés. En enfermedades vegetales, tales datos se recogen habitualmente, aunque aplicación no es común. El objetivo de este trabajo fue introducir conceptos básicos de análisis de supervivencia [...] para su uso en patología vegetal. Fueron utilizados métodos de Kaplan-Meier, prueba log-rank y riesgos proporcionales de Cox para estimar el efecto de cultivares en la expresión de los síntomas de la pudrición parda y sobre el riesgo instantáneo de expresar en un estudio hipotético. Abstract in english Survival analysis is applied when the time until the occurrence of an event is the object of interest. Such data are routinely collected in plant pathology whereas application of methods of survival analysis is uncommon. Basic concepts in survival analysis for use in plant pathology such as Kaplan-M [...] eier methods, log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards models are introduced and applied estimating the effects of cultivars on the survival times of brown rot symptoms and on the instantaneous risk of expressing symptoms in a hypothetical study.

  19. Pathological features of hereditary prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastacky, S I; Wojno, K J; Walsh, P C; Carmichael, M J; Epstein, J I

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pathological features of hereditary prostate cancer, a recently recognized variant of prostate cancer with an autosomal dominant inheritance of a rare highly penetrant gene associated with early onset of disease. We compared the histology at radical prostatectomy of clinical stage T2 prostate cancer, including its relationship to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, in men with a family history of prostate cancer to those without a family history of prostate cancer. Three cohorts (hereditary, familial and sporadic) were identified based on pedigree analysis. A hereditary subgroup (28 patients) met 1 of the following 3 criteria: 1) cluster of greater than 3 affected relatives within the nuclear family, 2) occurrence of prostate cancer in each of 3 generations in either the proband paternal or maternal lineage, or 3) a cluster of 2 relatives affected at an early age of less than 55 years. This subgroup was compared to an age-matched subgroup with family history of prostate cancer (26 patients) yet the aforementioned conditions for inclusion within the hereditary subgroup were not met and to a sporadic subgroup without a family history of prostate cancer (27 patients). All parameters were statistically similar among the groups except that hereditary and familial group multifocal tumors were of lower grade (p = 0.0001), sporadic cases had a greater proportion of small multifocal cancers associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (p = 0.02) and the familial group had a weaker correlation between total tumor volume and grade. In conclusion, our analysis failed to demonstrate substantial pathological differences among hereditary, familial and sporadic forms of prostate cancer. Rather, our data are remarkable for the wide range of all parameters studied in each group. Even the sporadic cases had features, such as increased numbers of precursor lesions and tumor multifocality, which in other organs are commonly associated with either hereditary cancer or cancer arising in a field effect due to diffuse exposure to a carcinogen. PMID:7853589

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in double gallbladder with dual pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Double gallbladder is a rare embryological anomaly of clinical significance. Despite availability of modern imaging, only 50% of recently reported cases had preoperative diagnosis, which is desirable in every case to avoid serious operative complications. Double pathology in double gallbladder is extremely rare with only 3 reporting's available till date to the best of author's knowledge. With a preoperative diagnosis of double gallbladder, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely and succe...

  1. Abnormal expression of transcription factor AP-2? in pathologic placentas*

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Rachel M.; Stanek, Jerzy; Khoury, Jane; Handwerger, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies from our laboratory have indicated that the transcription factor AP-2? plays a critical role in the differentiation of human villous cytotrophoblast cells (CTB) to syncytiotrophoblast cells (STB). However, little is known about the expression of AP-2? in placentas from pathologic pregnancies. This study compares the expression of AP-2? in placentas from high-risk pregnancies to gestational age-matched controls. Paracentral sections from grossly unremarkable areas of 10 place...

  2. Theory of intermittency applied to classical pathological cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rio Fernandez, Ezequiel Del; Elaskar, Sergio; Makarov, Valeri A.

    2013-01-01

    The classical theory of intermittency developed for return maps assumes uniform density of points reinjected from the chaotic to laminar region. Though it works fine in some model systems, there exist a number of so-called pathological cases characterized by a significant deviation of main characteristics from the values predicted on the basis of the uniform distribution. Recently, we reported on how the reinjection probability density (RPD) can be generalized. Here, we extend this methodolog...

  3. Retroperitoneal malignant fibrous histiocytoma: radiological aspects - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a retroperitoneal malignant fibrous histiocytoma case report that, although considered the most common soft tissue sarcoma in middle-aged adults, still represents a difficult diagnosis, rising a lot of doubt. It is emphasized the importance of computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in correlation with pathological aspects. (author). 6 refs, 7 figs

  4. Enhanced substantia nigra mitochondrial pathology in human alpha-synuclein transgenic mice after treatment with MPTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, David D; Shults, Clifford W; Sisk, Abbyann; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2004-04-01

    Recent studies have implicated alpha-synuclein (alpha-S) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanisms underlying PD are not completely understood; however, mitochondrial complex I inhibition and oxidative injury may be involved. Because the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a potent complex I inhibitor that can cause oxidative injury and mimic many aspects of PD in treated animals, we sought to determine whether the overexpression of alpha-S in transgenic (tg) mice (alpha-S-tg) would enhance the substantia nigra (SN) pathology resulting from treatment with MPTP. For this purpose, alpha-S-tg mice were produced expressing high levels of wild-type (wt) human alpha-S under the control of the neuron-specific Thy-1 promoter. Alpha-S-tg mice and non-tg controls were treated with MPTP (15 mg/kg ip, twice a week for 2 weeks) or saline (Sal) and then examined 2 weeks after completion of treatment by transmission electron microscopy (EM). We found that alpha-S-tg mice treated with MPTP had extensive mitochondrial alterations, increases in mitochondrial size, filamentous neuritic aggregations, axonal degeneration, and formation of electron dense perinuclear cytoplasmic inclusions in the SN that did not occur in the hippocampus or neocortex, nor in MPTP-treated non-tg mice or Sal-treated alpha-S-tg mice. These findings support the potential involvement of alpha-S expression in the vulnerability of SN neurons to toxicity from mitochondrial complex I inhibitors and the subsequent development of neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:15026254

  5. Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H; van Holst, Ruth J; Clark, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in appetitive processing are central to the major psychological theories of addiction, with differential predictions made by the reward deficiency, incentive salience, and impulsivity hypotheses. Functional MRI has become the chief means of testing these predictions, with experiments reliably highlighting disturbances at the level of the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and affiliated regions. However, demonstrations of hypo-reactivity and hyper-reactivity of this circuitry in drug addicted groups are reported in approximately equal measure. Similar findings are echoed in the emergent neuroimaging literature on pathological gambling, which has recently witnessed a coming of age. The first aim of this article is to consider some of the methodological aspects of these experiments that could influence the observed direction of group-level effects, including the baseline condition, trial structure and timing, and the nature of the appetitive cues (drug-related, monetary, or primary rewards). The second aim is to highlight the conceptual traction that is offered by pathological gambling, as a model of a 'toxicity free' addiction and an illness where tasks of monetary reinforcement afford a more direct mapping to the abused commodity. Our conclusion is that relatively subtle decisions in task design appear capable of driving group differences in fronto-striatal circuitry in entirely opposing directions, even with tasks and task variants that look ostensibly similar. Differentiation between the psychological theories of addiction will require a greater breadth of experimental designs, with more research needed on processing of primary appetitive cues, aversive processing, and in vulnerable/at-risk groups. PMID:24179792

  6. Pathology Case Study: Bilateral Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, James

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  7. Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Eileen

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

  8. Pathology of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malowany, Janet I; Butany, Jagdish

    2012-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary chronic hemolytic anemia with numerous clinical consequences. Intravascular sickling of red blood cells leads to multiorgan dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of SCD has been well studied, there remains a lack of effective treatment. Refinements in overall care have improved quality of life; however, premature death is still not uncommon. SCD usually presents in childhood and is common in areas where malaria is (or was) common. The association with malaria is apparently of benefit to the individual because these individuals tend to contract a milder form of the disease. This review highlights the spectrum of pathology seen in people with SCD, with an emphasis on the pathogenesis of sudden death. PMID:22372205

  9. Radiologic Imaging of Diaphragmatic Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Öztürkmen Akay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We researched the images methods in the evaluation of diaphragmaticpathologies. The study was done with 30 patients (21 males, 9 females. Themedian age of the patients was 36.1 years (Range 1-74 years. Firstly,lateraly and posteroanterior chest X-Ray were done in all patients the otherradiological images were the Barium examination, ultrasonography,computerized tomography and magnetic rezonans imaging. We determineddiaphragmatic pseudotumour in 4 patients, congenital diaphragmatichernia in 6 patients, diaphragmatic paralysis in 2 patients, diaphragmaticelevation in 8 patients, hiatal hernia in 5 patients, and diaphragmaticrupture in 5 patients.Although radiological images were developed all, we believe that thediaphragmatic pathologies should be evaluated with both clinically andradiologically in all patients.

  10. Iatrogenic pathology of the intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Aoife J; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Sheahan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs and chemical agents can cause enteritis and colitis, producing clinical gastrointestinal side effects, the most common of which are diarrhoea, constipation, nausea and vomiting. Significant histological overlap exists between some patterns of medication or chemical injury and various disease entities. A particular medication may cause multiple patterns of injury and may mimic common entities such as coeliac disease, Crohn's disease, infectious enteritis and colitis. Thus, given the common absence of specific histopathological features, the diagnosis often relies upon thorough clinicopathological correlation. This review concentrates on selected examples of medication-induced injury of the intestinal tract in which the pathology can be recognized, particularly on biopsies, with a focus on newly described medication-induced gastrointestinal effects. PMID:25639479

  11. Pathology Case Study: Epileptic Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 43 year old man with a "seizure" of dizziness associated with difficulty in walking and performing simple movements. Visitors are provided with patient history along with neuroimaging and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  12. The higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Lukowitsky, Mark R; Pincus, Aaron L; Conroy, David E

    2010-12-01

    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a higher order factor structure that conforms to the theoretical structure of pathological narcissism with one factor representing narcissistic grandiosity and the other capturing narcissistic vulnerability. These results uniquely place the PNI as the only measure to broadly assess the two phenotypic themes of pathological narcissism. In the second study, results from tests of measurement invariance indicate that the PNI performs similarly in large samples of men (n = 488) and women (n = 495). These results further establish the psychometric properties of the PNI and suggest that it is well suited for the assessment of pathological narcissism. PMID:20634422

  13. Contemporary pharmacotherapy and iatrogenic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailovi? D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, the pharmaceutical industry has developed into a powerful human activity highly influencing modern medicine. Thousands of synthetic therapeuticals have been developed, and these formulations enabled the successful treatment of many diseases, some of which were considered incurable. An increase in drug consumption followed the development of the pharmaceutical industry and the introduction of synthetic drugs. The widespread use of new medicals enabled the collection of data confirming their effectiveness, but also more and more data concerning side and unwanted effects were reported. Frequent side/unwanted effect reports gave rise to development of iatrogenic pathology, a new branch of clinical pathology. The knowledge of the possible unwanted effects of drugs on macro organisms did not enable the effective withdrawal of such formulations from the market. At the beginning, the reports concerning unwanted effects were not verealed. Consequently some potentially harmful formulations were used for years without methodical analyses of their side/unwanted effects. Some potentially dangerous formulations are still on the market such as drugs containing ulcerogenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic substances as well as those inducing bone marrow aplasia. The administration of these potentially dangerous formulations is understandable in the case of clear therapeutic indications allowing no alternatives. In these cases the risk of harmful side effects is greatly overwhelmed by the risk from the primary disease. Otherwise the administration of the potentially harmful drug is unjustified, especially if the indication is not a disease. Many potentially harmful drugs are formulated for use in healthy animals, recommended as growth, laying and milk stimulators, those allowing higher speed and strength in sport and racing horses, estrus inducers and suppressors. The misuse or maluse medication is highly present in sport horses daily treated with vitamin and mineral supplements, analgesics, corticosteroid and anabolic steroids. Unwanted effects of such treatments are evident sometimes shortly after application and sometimes later, influencing reproduction. The same problem is present in small animals.

  14. Pathology of the region of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufdermaur, M.

    1981-09-01

    Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis.

  15. Pathology of the region of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis. (orig.)

  16. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. George Scarlett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  17. Foot pathology in insulin dependent diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, S. J.; Shield, J. P.; Potter, M. J.; Baum, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Foot pathology is a major source of morbidity in adults with diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if children with insulin dependent diabetes have an increased incidence of foot pathology compared with non-diabetic children. DESIGN--Questionnaire, clinical examination, and biomechanical assessment. SUBJECTS--67 diabetic children and a comparison group matched for age, sex, and social class. RESULTS--We found significantly more foot pathology in the children with diabet...

  18. Clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity of frontotemporal dementia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelaar, Harro; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Fox, Nick C; van Swieten, John C

    2011-05-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common young-onset dementia and is clinically characterised by progressive behavioural change, executive dysfunction and language difficulties. Three clinical syndromes, behavioural variant FTD, semantic dementia and progressive non-fluent aphasia, form part of a clinicopathological spectrum named frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The classical neuropsychological phenotype of FTD has been enriched by tests exploring Theory of Mind, social cognition and emotional processing. Imaging studies have detailed the patterns of atrophy associated with different clinical and pathological subtypes. These patterns offer some diagnostic utility, while measures of progression of atrophy may be of use in future trials. 30-50% of FTD is familial, and mutations in two genes, microtubule associated protein tau and Progranulin (GRN), account for about half of these cases. Rare defects in VCP, CHMP2B, TARDP and FUS genes have been found in a small number of families. Linkage to chromosome 9p13.2-21.3 has been established in familial FTD with motor neuron disease, although the causative gene is yet to be identified. Recent developments in the immunohistochemistry of FTLD, and also in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have led to a new pathological nomenclature. The two major groups are those with tau-positive inclusions (FTLD-tau) and those with ubiquitin-positive and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). Recently, a new protein involved in familial ALS, fused in sarcoma (FUS), has been found in FTLD patients with ubiquitin-positive and TDP-43-negative inclusions. In this review, the authors discuss recent clinical, neuropsychological, imaging, genetic and pathological developments that have changed our understanding of FTD, its classification and criteria. The potential to establish an early diagnosis, predict underlying pathology during life and quantify disease progression will all be required for disease-specific therapeutic trials in the future. PMID:20971753

  19. A patologização do sedentarismo / The pathologization of sedentariness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Santos, Ferreira; Luis David, Castiel; Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida, Cardoso.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A identificação do sedentarismo como fator de risco para doenças crônico-degenerativas influenciou significativamente nas recomendações de saúde pública em defesa de estilos de vida fisicamente ativos. O artigo estuda o processo de patologização do sedentarismo e seus desdobramentos para o campo da [...] saúde pública. Num primeiro momento, discutimos de que maneira o modelo biomédico serve de base para a transposição de aspectos da conduta humana como "fator de risco" e, a seguir, como patologia, tal qual no caso específico da "Síndrome da Morte Sedentária", assim classificada por alguns autores. Em seguida, analisamos como essa visão vem sendo difundida no campo da saúde, tomando por base um programa institucional que, ao mesmo tempo em que transforma o sedentarismo em doença, apresenta a atividade física como um remédio cujos resultados podem se estender a todas as esferas da vida. Nessa linha de raciocínio, em que os mal-estares de nossa civilização são medicalizados e tornados mercadoria ao serem transformados em riscos e patologias, a atividade física torna-se vacina para o corpo social. Abstract in english The identification of physical inactivity as a risk factor for chronic degenerative diseases has significantly influenced public health recommendations in support of physically active lifestyles. This study analyzes the pathologization of sedentariness and its implications in the public health field [...] . First we discuss how the biomedical model serves as a basis to transform aspects of human behavior into 'risk factors' and subsequently into pathologies such as the 'Sedentary Death Syndrome', as some authors classify it. Second, we analyze how this view is being spread in the health field; our analysis is based on an institutional program which transforms sedentariness into illness while presents physical activity as a medicine whose results can reach all aspects of life. According to this rationale, in which the discomforts of our civilization are medicalized and made into commodities as they are transformed into risks and pathologies, physical activity becomes a vaccine to be applied to the social body.

  20. Recent Progress in Regge Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ruth M.

    1997-01-01

    While there has been some advance in the use of Regge calculus as a tool in numerical relativity, the main progress in Regge calculus recently has been in quantum gravity. After a brief discussion of this progress, attention is focussed on two particular, related aspects. Firstly, the possible definitions of diffeomorphisms or gauge transformations in Regge calculus are examined and examples are given. Secondly, an investigation of the signature of the simplicial supermetric...

  1. Pathologic mitoses and pathology of mitosis in tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Steinbeck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The gist of my hypothesis (.. is a certain abnormal chromatin constitution. Each process, which brings about this chromatin constitution, would result in the origin of a malignant tumour. Certainly, I consider irregularities with mitosis as the normal mode of the origin of an incorrectly assembled nucleus. This statement by Boveri (1914 has considered earlier observations of asymmetric divisions in human cancers (Hansemann, 1890. The hypothesis is based on the understanding of mitosis as an equational bipartition of the hereditary substance (Flemming, 1879; Roux, 1883. Latest since it was known that genes are located on chromosomes (Sturtevant, 1913, their balanced transport in anaphase appeared as a condition of correct somatic proliferation. True mitoses guarantee the constancy of terminally differentiated tissues. Politzer (1934 has performed X-ray experiments to investigate abnormal karyokinesis with regard to anomalous chromatin condensation, chromosome breakage, spindle malformation, and failure in cytokinesis. On the basis of light microscopy, further significant progress in understanding the pathology of mitosis was not possible. Tumour cases with reduced chromosome numbers seduced to the idea that mitotic activity is rather under cytoplasmic than under nuclear control (Koller, 1947.

  2. A survey on the overall characteristics of pathology laboratories in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutsal YÖRÜKO?LU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This reports presents the results of a recent survey on the condition of pathology laboratories in Turkey based on a written questionnaire.Materials and Methods: We have submitted a survey that consisted of 68 questions to 250 various pathology laboratories throughout Turkey. We received 84 responses that were reviewed and analyzed.Results: We have determined the total number of pathologists, pathology technicians, and administrative support for each category of laboratories, and the overall numbers were found to be lower than universally recommended. We have identified significant challenges in the number and the distribution of the pathology material reviewed and processed by residents. The time of retention and archival of pathology material were done in various forms, but there were no adopted limit standards. The available space in most laboratories were insufficient and fell below the accepted international norms. The number and the type of equipments, and conventional histochemical techniques positively correlated with the total number of surgical specimens.Conclusion: Our findings underline serious and significant issues concerning pathology laboratory work area, equipment, and staffing. These deficiencies point to the need for standard national guidelines for each type of laboratory, and the results of our survey can aid in the preparation of such guidelines. These guidelines will be instrumental in establishing a national quality assurance program that can address the needs unique to our country. Such an effort should be the mission of the Federation of Turkish Pathology Societies, and all Turkish Pathology Societies.

  3. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  4. Mucociliary clearance: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-05-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung diseases characterized by defective mucus clearance have resulted in a variety of therapies, which might be able to enhance clearance from the lungs. In addition, ways to study in vivo mucociliary clearance in humans have been developed. This can be used as a means to assess the effect of different pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical aspects of mucociliary clearance and to present a clinically applicable test that can be used for in vivo assessment of mucociliary clearance in patients. In addition, the reader will be presented with a protocol for this test, which has been validated and used as a diagnostic routine tool in the work-up of patients suspected for primary ciliary dyskinesia at Rigshospitalet, Denmark for over a decade. PMID:24119105

  5. Dopaminergic and clinical correlates of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    MetteBuhlCallesen; AlbertGjedde; JakobLinnet

    2013-01-01

    Dopaminergic medication for motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease recently has been linked with impulse control disorders, including pathological gambling, which affects up to 8% of patients. Pathological gambling often is considered a behavioral addiction associated with disinhibition, risky decision-making, and altered striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Using [11C]raclopride with positron emission tomography, we assessed dopaminergic neurotransmission during Iowa Gambling Task perfo...

  6. Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy in benign pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo S., Quintela; Leonardo R., Cotta; Marcelo F., Neves; David L., Abelha Jr; Jose E., Tavora.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report our experience with 43 retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients had a poor function from obstructive uropathology and renal atrophy. None of these patients had a previous lumbotomy. Retroperitoneoscopy was perform [...] ed with 4 trocar port technique in a lateral position. The retroperitoneal space is created by using a Gaur's balloon made of sterile glove. The approach to vascular pedicle was done posteriorly and vessels were clipped by metal and Hem-o-lock (Weck Closure Systems, North Carolina, USA) clips. The sample was intact extracted in an Endo-Bag prolonging one trocar incision. RESULTS: Median operative time was 160 minutes and median blood loss was 200 mL. Four cases (9%) were converted to open surgery: one case due to bleeding and 3 cases due to technical difficulties regarding perirenal adherences. Most patients (39) checked out from the Hospital in day two. Four of them were left over 3 days due to wound complications. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneoscopy offers a safe, effective and reproductive access to nephrectomy for benign pathologies.

  7. Common bile duct pathologies at nawabshah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the causes, presentation, management and outcome of Common Bile Duct (CBD) pathologies. All patients who presented with CBD pathologies. Data of all the patients with CBD pathologies was collected and entered on a proforma, including their complaints, positive examination findings, investigations, diagnosis, procedure performed and its outcome. During the study period 45 patients presented with CBD pathology. Amongst them 14 were males and the rest females (31), with a mean age of 36.7 years. Around 67% patients had choledocholithiasis as the commonest cause. Exploration of the CBD with T-tube insertion was the commonest procedure, performed in 69% patients. About 4% patients had retained stones and 20% developed wound infection. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. Most common pathology involving the CBD was secondary stones; 95% patients had associated gall stones also. (author)

  8. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a “vegetative state” or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these “primary” sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal “global neuronal workspace” in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” brain networks.

  9. Advances in nanoparticle imaging technology for vascular pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapragada, Ananth

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle imaging agents for vascular pathologies are in development, and some agents are already in clinical trials. Untargeted agents, with long circulation, are excellent blood-pool agents, but molecularly targeted agents have significant advantages due to the signal enhancement possible with nanoparticle presentation of the contrast agent molecules. Molecular targets that are accessible directly from the vasculature are optimal for such agents. Targets that are removed from the vasculature, such as those on tumor cell surfaces, have limited accessibility owing to the enhanced permeation and retention effect. Yet, efforts at molecular targeting have tested small molecules, peptides, antibodies, and most recently aptamers as possible targeting ligands. The future is bright for nanoparticle-based imaging of vascular pathologies. PMID:25587649

  10. Genetic evolution of enterovirus 71: epidemiological and pathological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jon M; Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Chan, Paul K S; Tong, C Y William

    2007-01-01

    Since its discovery in the 1970s, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become one of the most pathogenic enterovirus serotypes causing recurrent outbreaks in different parts of the world. Three waves of outbreaks globally have been recorded over the last three decades and more recently active circulation of EV71 is evident amongst countries in South East Asia and beyond. There is evidence of a continuous evolution in its genetic make up which is likely to impact on its epidemiology and pathological potential. This review examines the molecular genetics and evolution of EV71 in relation to its epidemiological and pathological properties. A thorough understanding of the relationship between the genetic changes and the resulting host-virus interaction is essential for successful control. PMID:17487831

  11. Class IIa HDACs - new insights into their functions in physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Maribel

    2014-09-22

    HDAC4, 5, 7 and 9 constitute the class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) within the large family of protein deacetylases. Class IIa HDACs have unique features that distinguish them from other HDACs. They contain an N-terminal domain that is required for their interaction with tissue-specific transcription factors and recruitment to their target genes. The N-terminal domain on class IIa HDACs also bears conserved serine residues that undergo signal-dependent phosphorylation, which brings about nuclear export of the enzymes and de-repression of their targets. One of the most important aspects of class IIa HDACs is their expression in specific tissues and organs within the organism, where they have crucial roles in development and differentiation processes. This review brings up to date our knowledge of the physiological and pathological functions of class IIa HDACs, focusing in particular on the most recent discoveries from in vivo studies of mouse model systems. PMID:25244360

  12. Role of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa: An example from Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Dafaallah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Khalid Dafaallah, Awadelkarim1, Ahmed Abdalla, Mohamedani2, Massimo Barberis31Department of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan; 3Department of Pathology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, ItalyAbstract: In sub-Saharan Africa there is an extreme shortage of pathology services and, when provided, they are of unacceptable standard. Specimen handling and storage are very poor, and render this important aspect of medicinal practice rudimentary. The situation on the ground reflects the full spectrum of the educational, cultural, political, and economical challenges that must be confronted in building basic scientific capabilities in the life sciences, including medicine, in such countries. It is a difficult and often discouraging situation, however, several constructive initiatives have been promoted to address this problem. In this paper we describe the current state of pathology services in sub-Saharan Africa, documenting our experience in Sudan. We also report some of the results obtained by others and our future goals, and propose how pathology-related problems could be addressed in sub-Saharan Africa, by focusing on specific critical points, which may also be considered for other developing countries outside Africa.Keywords: pathology, Africa, networks, standard operative procedures, telepathology

  13. Recent SLC developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is the forerunner of a new generation of high energy accelerators. As such, it incorporates many novel features that must be fully exploited to achieve optimum performance. In this paper we present an overview of the frontiers of collider performance at SLC. Recent developments have centered on polarization, intensity and emittance preservation issues. A polarized source and spin transport system were successfully commissioned in 1992 and operated with high reliability. Practical intensity limits associated with rapid growth (S) bunch length instabilities have been observed in the damping rings. Ring RF voltage manipulations are used to suppress the instabilities. Emittance preservation technique development has focused on controlling system-wide instabilities and improving feedback and tuning procedures. Control of instabilities of all time scales, pulse to pulse, fast and slow, is one of the most challenging aspects of the collider. The challenge is met with (1) very high level of control and automation required for general tuning and optimization, (2) real-time transport line optical correction and monitoring, (3) coupled, high level, trajectory and energy feedback, (4) high order multipole optical correction and monitoring, (5) feedback-based linac beam emittance preservation, and (6) interaction region luminosity optimization. The common thread beneath all of these is the SLC control system which must provide a level of control, diagnosis and feedback not required for simpler machines

  14. Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image acquisition systems (resolution, colour temperature, focus, brightness, and quality evaluation procedures, display resolution data, implemented image formats, storage, cycle frequency, backup procedures, operation system, and external system accessibility. The lowest third level describes the permitted limits and threshold in detail. At present, an applicable standard including all mentioned features does not exist to our knowledge; some aspects can be taken from radiological standards (PACS, DICOM 3; others require specific solutions or are not covered yet. Conclusion The progress in virtual microscopy and application of artificial intelligence (AI in tissue-based diagnosis demands fast preparation and implementation of an internationally acceptable standard. The described hierarchic order as well as analytic investigation in all potentially necessary aspects and details offers an appropriate tool to specifically determine standardized requirements.

  15. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 997-1025, 2015. PMID:25880521

  16. Experimental radiation pathology and oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program goal is to provide basic data for evaluating the hazard to man from radioactive materials deposited within the body. The original objective, to obtain dose-response information and to provide data from several species for extrapolating animal data to man, is receiving less attention at present as effort is being put into determining how radiation causes bone cancer and whether viruses play a role. The program began with the very early radiotoxicologic investigations of materials important in the development of the atomic bomb and the necessity to establish maximum permissible levels of exposure to these materials. With the demonstration that bone cancer is the most sensitive indicator of damage from transuranic elements and some of the fission products, bone pathology became the focus of attention. When it became evident that questions of human hazard cannot be answered unequivocally on the basis of dose-response relationships, different approaches were considered, and one based on knowledge of mechanisms of cancer induction seemed most likely to be successful. The detection of viruses in both radiation-induced and spontaneous bone cancer of mice, and the present evidence for a similar virus in bone cancer of man, support the hypothesis that radiation causes cancer by activating endogenous neoplastic information, which can also be expressed as oncornavirus. Present emphases therefore concern understanding the biological, biochemical, and physical attributes of the five murine oncornaviruses that have now been isolated in the course of the program; demonstrating the existence of a comparable human oncornavirus; and discovering how radiation and virus interact in the induction of bone cancer

  17. Pathology Case Study: Cutaneous Nodules and Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, John

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

  18. Gastrointestinal pathology in neonates: new imaging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Stephanie; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2010-06-15

    The mainstay of imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) pathology in infants has always been and still is the plain radiograph of the abdomen and conventional contrast studies. In this review emphasis is placed on the situations where there are new imaging strategies and alternative modalities of imaging, including US, CT, MRI and radionuclide studies. This review will deal with GI pathology in the newborn and in the older neonate. It will also refer to any new approaches to imaging GI pathology in the premature infant. Finally the review will address how antenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities has changed the imaging strategy and management of the neonate. (orig.)

  19. Iris melanoma: pathology, prognosis and surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Oliver D; Patel, Dipika V; Allen, Jonathan P; McGhee, Charles N J

    2004-06-01

    A case of an iris melanoma in a 58-year-old woman is described. The clinical and pathological findings are discussed, highlighting the correlations between histopathology and prognosis for iris melanoma, which differ markedly from choroidal melanoma. The mixed cellular pathology of this iris melanoma (containing both spindle B cells and epithelioid cells) carries a higher metastatic rate than tumours composed exclusively of either. This contrasts with choroidal melanoma, where the presence of epithelioid cells is the strongest pathological marker for a poor prognosis. The ocular outcome that can be achieved with local surgical excision of a well-delineated iris melanoma that does not involve the angle is discussed. PMID:15180843

  20. Pathology Case Study: Hemangioma and Severe Thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Franklin

    This is a transfusion pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 3-week-old female has hemangioma and severe thrombocytopenia. Visitors are given laboratory values and images, and are granted the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology medicine.

  1. Pathology Case Study: Right Thigh Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a painless mass in his right medial thigh, without an incidence of trauma. Visitors can view pathological findings, including images, to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  2. Prevalência e achados epidemiológicos, anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos dos tumores hepáticos malignos primários de cães da Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul (1965-2012) / Prevalence and epidemiological, pathological and immunohistochemical aspects of primary canine malignant hepatic tumors in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (1965-2012)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana M., Flores; Ronaldo M., Bianchi; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A prevalência e os aspectos epidemiológicos, anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos dos tumores hepáticos malignos primários (THMP) em cães foram estudados. De 7.373 cães necropsiados em 48 anos (1965-2012), 64 morreram de THMP, o que corresponde a 0,9% do total de cães que morreram por qualquer c [...] ausa, 7,8% do total de cães que morreram por tumores em geral e 33,5% do total de cães que morreram por tumores hepáticos. Desses 64 casos de THMP, 51 foram revistos histologicamente, avaliados imuno-histoquimicamente e reclassificados como carcinomas (colangiocarcinomas [n=36], carcinomas hepatocelulares [n=9] e hepatocolangiocarcinoma [n=1]) e sarcomas (hemangiossarcomas [n=5]). Dos cães com colangiocarcinomas e carcinomas hepatocelulares em que a idade estava disponível nos protocolos, 64,7% e 77,8% eram idosos, respectivamente. Na necropsia, colangiocarcinomas caracterizaram-se principalmente por ocorrerem em um padrão multinodular (83,3%), enquanto carcinomas hepatocelulares ocorreram tanto de forma massiva (44,4%) quanto nodular (44,4%). Metástases extra-hepáticas foram vistas em 77,8% e 33,3% dos casos de colangiocarcinomas e carcinomas hepatocelulares, respectivamente, e em relação aos colangiocarcinomas afetaram principalmente pulmões (52,8%), linfonodos (50%) e peritônio (19,4%). Ascite (22,2%) e icterícia (22,2%) foram achados associados ocasionalmente com ambos os tumores. Na histologia, a maior parte dos colangiocarcinomas (86,1%) e dos carcinomas hepatocelulares (55,6%) tinha padrão tubular e trabecular, respectivamente. Na imuno-histoquímica, a maioria (63,9%) dos colangiocarcinomas demonstrou imunomarcação para CK7 e nenhum imunomarcou para Hep Par 1. A maioria (55,6%) dos carcinomas hepatocelulares demonstrou imunomarcação para Hep Par 1 e nenhum imunomarcou para CK7. Os resultados aqui apresentados demonstram uma altíssima prevalência de THMP, principalmente colangiocarcinomas, e servem para auxiliar, através dos achados de necropsia, histologia e imuno-histoquímica, patologistas veterinários no diagnóstico dessa tão comum forma de câncer em cães da Região Central do RS, Brasil. Abstract in english The prevalence and epidemiological and immunohistochemical aspects of primary hepatic malignant tumors (PHMT) were reviewed in dogs necropsied in a 48-year period (1965-2012). Out of those7,373 dogs, 64 died due to PHMT, which corresponds to 0.9% of the dogs dying from any cause in the period; 7.8% [...] of dogs which deaths were caused by tumors in general; and 33.5% of all dogs dying from hepatic tumors (primary and metastatic). Out of the 64 cases of PHMT, 51 were reviewed histologically and evaluated by immunohistochemistry; they were diagnosed as carcinomas (36 cholangiocarcinomas, 9 hepatocellular carcinomas and one hepatocholangiocarcinoma) and sarcomas (5 hemangiosarcomas). In those dogs in which the age was possible determined, 64.7% (cholangiocarcinomas) and 77.8% (hepatocellular carcinomas) were old. At necropsy examination cholangiocarcinomas were characterized mainly by a multinodular pattern (83.3%) while hepatocellular carcinomas occurred both as massive (44.4%) or nodular (44.4%) distribution. Extra-hepatic metastasis occurred respectively in 77.8% and 33.3% of the cases of cholangiocarcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas; metastatic cholangiocarcinomas affected mainly the lungs (52.8%), lymph nodes (50%) and peritoneum (19.4%). Ascites (22.2%) and icterus (22.2%) were observed frequently associated to both tumors. Histologically, most part of the cholangiocarcinomas (86.1%) and of the hepatocellular carcinomas (55.6%) presented respectively a tubular or trabecular type. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the majority (63.9%) of cholangiocarcinomas was positive for CK7 and none was marked for Hep Par 1. The majority (55.6%) of the hepatocellular carcinomas revealed positive reaction for Hep Par 1 and none was marked for CK7. The results presented here demonstrated a very high

  3. Cancer biology and genomics: translating discoveries, transforming pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladanyi, Marc; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of cancer biology and discoveries emerging from cancer genomics are being translated into real clinical benefits for patients with cancer. The 2011 Journal of Pathology Annual Review Issue provides a snapshot of recent rapid progress on multiple fronts in the war on cancer or, more precisely, the wars on cancers. Indeed, perhaps the most notable recent shift is reflected by the sharp increase in understanding the biology of multiple specific cancers and using these new insights to inform rationally targeted therapies, with often striking successes. These recent developments, as reviewed in this issue, show how the long-term investments in basic cancer research are finally beginning to bear fruit. PMID:21082687

  4. Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal KÖSEMEHMETO?LU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In many recent studies in the literature have described and commented on “competency based resident training” in pathology. According to this model, competencies are subclassified in 6 main categories: Patient care, medical knowledge, practice based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems based practice. Assessment of competency forms the main component of this model.Under the framework of Ankara Society of Pathology, a working group, composed of 11 residents, 6 of which representing the Training and Research Hospitals of Ministry of Health and the rest representing the university hospitals in Ankara, was established in order to participate in the think-tank about resident training in pathology. A questionnaire, composed of 12 questions, was prepared. According to this questionnaire, the number of trainers in the university hospitals is much higher than in the commercial hospitals. While the total number of cases and cases per resident do not differ between the university and commercial hospitals, microscopes used for the educational purposes are significantly less in the commercial hospitals, that is due to less number of binocular microscopes. The amount of resident training program, which consists of intra and intersectional meetings, are similar in the university and commercial hospitals, however, theoretic lectures are given only in 3 departments. Residents working in the university hospitals have obviously heavier burden than in the commercial hospitals. Lastly, residents generally exclaimed that the time dedicated to the macroscopy training is less sufficient than time used for the microscopy training.The factors affecting the training of resident in pathology are divided into two main groups: 1 Factors directly affecting training (quality of trainer, time dedicated for education, feed back, eg. and 2 Conditions which waste residents' time. For instant, workload which does need qualified staff and increases the burden on residents may be reassigned to medical secretary or pathology assistants; therefore energy of residents can be saved for educational activities. Optimization of physical working conditions, assortment of training programs, rotation in lacking subjects and consultations will enhance the quality of the education of the resident. Feedback assessment of trainer and trainee is an essential part of a training program.In conclusion, an ideal resident from the resident's point of view is the person who is endowed with medical and pathological knowledge, orderly interrelates with staff, professionally communicates with clinicians, manages a laboratory and is trained hard to achieve all the above mentioned competencies.

  5. Pathological gamblers discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Gregory J; Petry, Nancy M; Johnson, Patrick S

    2009-10-01

    Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographically matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and 2 questionnaires designed to separately quantify probability and delay discounting. Pathological gamblers discounted probabilistic rewards significantly less steeply than matched controls. A significant correlation revealed that more shallow probability discounting was associated with higher SOGS scores. Across groups, there was no significant difference in delay discounting, although this difference approached significance when education and ethnicity were included as covariates. These findings, collected for the 1st time with pathological gamblers, are consistent with previous reports that problem-gambling college students discount probabilistic rewards less steeply than controls. The nature of the relation between probability discounting and severity of problem gambling is deserving of further study. PMID:19803627

  6. Environment Contamination as Factor of Oncologic Pathologies

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Assessment of Technogenic and Radiation Risk Factors Giving Rise to Oncologic Pathologies of the Population Dwelling in a Region of Intensive Technogenic Effect upon the Environment (Taking the Mangistau Area of the RK as an Example)

  7. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  8. The plant pathology of native plant restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...

  9. PLANT PATHOLOGY: a discipline at a crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, A R

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Plant Pathology at the University of California at Berkeley was destroyed as a consequence of a contentious reorganization. The circumstances that led to the reorganization provide some insight into the challenges facing the discipline of plant pathology. The underlying basis for plant pathology as a science is to address problems of plant disease. This requires a balance between disciplinary and problem-solving research and a continuum from achieving fundamental advances in knowledge to the development and implementation of problem-solving approaches. Changes in colleges and universities have placed extreme stress on this essential structure. The dilemma that must be addressed is how to reestablish the problem-solving continuum where it has been broken and strengthen it where it has been weakened. Plants are essential for life, and they will always be affected by disease. The understanding and management of these diseases is the responsibility and the challenge of plant pathology today and in the future. PMID:15012530

  10. [Task differentiation, in pathology as well].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauwgeers, J L G Hans

    2013-01-01

    The field of clinical pathology, like other medical professions, is becoming more and more complex, leading to a need for subspecialisation and task differentiation. Whereas the deployment of Physician Assistants is common in other specialties, it is still rare in pathology. Although legal regulations state that histopathological diagnoses can only be made by pathologists, this does not mean that Physician Assistants cannot play a role in pathology. Within the legal regulations they can assist in screening cytological specimens and 'simple' histological specimens. They can also assist in the preparation of macroscopical specimens. These not only include specimens such as gallbladders and appendices, but also oncological specimens such as colon carcinoma resection, in which it has been demonstrated that on average, Pathology Assistants find more lymph nodes than pathologists. PMID:23657104

  11. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  12. Pathology reporting of pancreatic cancer following neoadjuvant therapy: challenges and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, C; Löhr, M; Karlsson, J Severin; Del Chiaro, M

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies investigate the use of neoadjuvant treatment for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. While a strong rationale supports this approach, study results are difficult to interpret and compare due to marked variance in multiple aspects of study design and performance. Divergence in pathology examination and reporting as a cause for heterogeneity and incomparability of study results has not been brought into this discussion yet, despite the fact that several key outcome measures for neoadjuvant treatment are pathology-based. This article discusses areas of controversy and difficulty regarding the evaluation of the extent of residual tumour tissue, grading of tumour regression and assessment of the margins, and explains the important clinical implications of the present uncertainty and divergence in pathology practice. PMID:25434282

  13. The interpersonal core of personality pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptio...

  14. Pathology of congenital syphilis in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Froberg, M. K.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Hamilton, T. R.; Hamilton, B.; Zarabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a model for congenital syphilis in the rabbit. This report provides additional information on newborn tissue pathology in animals that were infected in utero. A total of 35 pregnancies were evaluated, each containing 6 to 12 newborns. In the infected group, the mortality was approximately 50%; of the live newborns, half appeared normal and half were hyperreflexic, weak, and runty. Gross pathology in the sickly newborns was quite prevalent and involved enlarged spleens with i...

  15. Congenital pseudarthrosis of clavicle, differential diagnosis pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The congenital pseudarthrosis of clavicle is a rare entity, frequently appearing without association to other pathologies and does not cause important limitations in the children. It can confuse with other traumatic pathologies like clavicle fracture. Most of the patients complain about the aesthetics and few times for pain. The treatment is generally surgical there is controversy about of carrying out surgery. We reported two clinical cases with pseudoarthrosis of the right clavicle that they received surgical treatment with satisfactory results.

  16. Self Control Deficits and Pathological Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Tochkov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the concepts of self-control and impulsivity as central features of clinical disorderslike pathological gambling. The main purpose is to show the link between models in biopsychology andexperiments with animals concerning self-control and models in clinical psychology involving patients withimpulse control deficits. A representative model of each of the two research fields is discussed along withempirical studies and their implications for theory and treatment of pathological gambling.

  17. Clowns Benefit Children Hospitalized for Respiratory Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Curcio; Elena Isola; Giuseppe Paolone; Mario Bertini

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children t...

  18. Arabic Speech Pathology Therapy Computer Aided System

    OpenAIRE

    Benselama, Z. A.; Guerti, M.; Bencherif, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    This article concerns a computer aided pathological speech therapy program, based on speech models such as the hidden Markov model and artificial intelligence networks, in order to help persons, suffering from language pathologies, follow a correction learning process, with different interactive feedbacks, aiming to evaluate the degree of evolution of the illness or the therapy. We dealt with the Arabic occlusive sigmatism as a prime approach, which is the inability to pronounce the[s] or [&#...

  19. Pathology of Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, M. G.; Di Palma, S.

    2008-01-01

    As a concept sentinel lymph node biopsy seems attractive in that it attempts to identify the first lymph node, rather than the nearest node, draining a particular anatomic area where a tumour has arisen. Pathological assessment can then indicate whether metastases are present and the procedure is either a strong prognostic indicator or possibly therapeutic in itself. These comments apply to any tumour type, but with melanoma the pathological procedure is more problematic and any bene...

  20. Automatic intelligibility classification of sentence-level pathological speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangwon; Kumar, Naveen; Tsiartas, Andreas; Li, Ming; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2015-10-01

    Pathological speech usually refers to the condition of speech distortion resulting from atypicalities in voice and/or in the articulatory mechanisms owing to disease, illness or other physical or biological insult to the production system. Although automatic evaluation of speech intelligibility and quality could come in handy in these scenarios to assist experts in diagnosis and treatment design, the many sources and types of variability often make it a very challenging computational processing problem. In this work we propose novel sentence-level features to capture abnormal variation in the prosodic, voice quality and pronunciation aspects in pathological speech. In addition, we propose a post-classification posterior smoothing scheme which refines the posterior of a test sample based on the posteriors of other test samples. Finally, we perform feature-level fusions and subsystem decision fusion for arriving at a final intelligibility decision. The performances are tested on two pathological speech datasets, the NKI CCRT Speech Corpus (advanced head and neck cancer) and the TORGO database (cerebral palsy or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), by evaluating classification accuracy without overlapping subjects' data among training and test partitions. Results show that the feature sets of each of the voice quality subsystem, prosodic subsystem, and pronunciation subsystem, offer significant discriminating power for binary intelligibility classification. We observe that the proposed posterior smoothing in the acoustic space can further reduce classification errors. The smoothed posterior score fusion of subsystems shows the best classification performance (73.5% for unweighted, and 72.8% for weighted, average recalls of the binary classes). PMID:25414544

  1. Usefulness of PET-FDG in pathology neuropediatric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the recent incorporation of positron technology (PET) it appears interesting to review the present indications of fluor-deoxyglucose (FDG) in neuropediatric pathology. The main indication is in the evaluation of refractory epilepsy mainly in cases with negative magnetic resonance or discordance with electro encephalography Some uses in tumors are also discussed, such as tumor characterization and differentiation between radio necrosis and recurrence. The experience between years 2003 and 2007 at the Santiago Military Hospital, using FDG in 66 children and adolescents cases with diverse neurological indications was reviewed (au)

  2. Utility of FDG-PET in neuropediatric pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the recent incorporation of positron technology (PET) it appears interesting to review the present indications of fluor-deoxyglucose (FDG) in neuropediatric pathology. The main indication is in the evaluation of refractory epilepsy mainly in cases with negative magnetic resonance or discordance with electroencephalography Some uses in tumors are also discussed, such as tumor characterization and differentiation between radionecrosis and recurrence. The experience between years 2003 and 2007 at the Santiago Military Hospital, using FDG in 66 children and adolescents cases with diverse neurological indications was reviewed

  3. An overview of practical issues in the diagnosis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine pathology.

    OpenAIRE

    Chetty, R.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although somewhat uncommon, neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas have come under scrutiny in recent times. With advances in imaging techniques, more of these tumors are being removed and sent for pathologic evaluation. It is important for the diagnostic pathologist to be aware of recent developments in this field. OBJECTIVE: This overview focuses on nomenclature/terminology, classification, practical issues related to recent developments in immunohistochem...

  4. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: HRCT, MR, and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to describe high-resolution CT (HRCT) and MR findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings. A retrospective review of the medical records of our institution revealed seven patients with a diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia based on clinical data, chest films, bronchoalveolar lavage, and follow-up. Both HRCT and MR imaging were reviewed by two readers. Pathologic examination of the resected specimen or surgical biopsies were also reviewed in the four available cases. The HRCT findings were pulmonary consolidations (n = 6) with fatty (n = 3) or unspecific but low attenuation values (n = 3), areas of ground-glass opacities (n = 5), septal lines, and centrilobular interstitial thickening (n = 5). In five of the seven cases, a crazy-paving pattern of various spread was also present, either isolated (n = 1) or surrounding a pulmonary consolidation. In two cases traction bronchiectasis and cystic changes consistent with fibrosis were seen. At MR imaging (n = 2) a pulmonary consolidation of high signal intensity on T1-weighted image consistent with lipid content was present in one case. Pathologic examination (n = 4) showed the coexistence of lobules with lesions of various ages, sometimes in contiguous lobules, within the same patient. Recent lesions were those with alveolar fill-in by spumous macrophages and almost normal alveolar walls and septae. In more advanced lesions, lobules were filled in with largeresions, lobules were filled in with larger vacuoles often surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates of alveolar walls, bronchiolar walls, and septa. The oldest lesions were characterized by fibrosis and parenchymal distortion around large lipid-containing vacuoles. The HRCT findings reflect pathologic findings in exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Although non-specific, consolidation areas of low attenuation values and crazy-paving pattern are frequently associated in exogenous lipoid pneumonia and are indicative of the diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D?Šniz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  6. Telomeres and genomic damage repair. Their implication in human pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telomeres, functional complexed that protect eukaryotic chromosome ends, participate in the regulation of cell proliferation and could play a role in the stabilization of genomic regions in response to genotoxic stress. Their significance in human pathology becomes evident in several diseases sharing genomic instability as a common trait, in which alterations of the telomere metabolism have been demonstrated. Many of them are also associated with hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and cancer susceptibility. Besides the specific proteins belonging to the telomeric complex, other proteins involved in the DNA repair machinery, such as ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, PARP/tankyrase system, DNA-PK and RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 complexes, are closely related with the telomere. This suggests that the telomere sequesters DNA repair proteins for its own structure maintenance, with could also be released toward damaged sites in the genomic DNA. This communication describes essential aspects of telomere structure and function and their links with homologous recombination, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), V(D)J system and mismatch-repair (MMR). Several pathological conditions exhibiting alterations in some of these mechanisms are also considered. The cell response to ionizing radiation and its relationship with the telomeric metabolism is particularly taken into account as a model for studying genotoxicity. (author)

  7. Promising Role of Melatonin as Neuroprotectant in Neurodegenerative Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neeraj; Biswas, Joyshree; Nath, C; Singh, Sarika

    2014-08-27

    Melatonin treatment showed a potent neuroprotective action in experimental models and in clinical studies. However, the entire disease prevention is not observed with melatonin treatment. Therefore, findings have suggested its future use in combination therapies for neurological diseases. Several studies have showed its free radical scavenging, antioxidant property, antiapoptotic activity, and its action towards enhanced mitochondrial function. It has direct and indirect effects on mitochondrial functions. Neurodegenerative disease pathology includes the impaired mitochondrial functions and apoptotic death of neurons due to energy crisis which could be prevented with antiapoptotic activity of melatonin. However, for the therapeutic use of melatonin, researchers also need to pay attention towards the various intermediary events taking place in apoptotic death of neurons during disease pathology. Age-related neurological diseases include the decreased level of melatonin in neuronal death. Therefore, it is worthwhile to discuss about the different functions of melatonin in aspect of its antioxidative property, its role in the enhancement of mitochondrial function, and its antiapoptotic attributes. This review summarizes the reports to date showing the potent role of melatonin in experimental models and clinical trials and discussing the employment of melatonin as future potent neuroprotective agent. PMID:25159482

  8. Digital pathology with Fourier ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Zheng, Guoan; Willems, Phil; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-06-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is a recently introduced method of acquiring high-resolution, wide field of view (FOV) giga-pixel histology images. The FPM procedure first acquires a sequence of low-resolution images of a sample under variable-angle illumination. It then combines these images using a novel phase retrieval algorithm to improve the employed microscope's resolution beyond its conventional limit. Here, we first describe how FPM's resolution improvement can enhance wide FOV histology imaging. Second, we show that FPM also records a thin sample's optical phase, which can help pathologists digitally extract as much information as possible from a given histology slide. PMID:25481664

  9. Loop Quantum Cosmology: Recent Progress

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, M

    2004-01-01

    Aspects of the full theory of loop quantum gravity can be studied in a simpler context by reducing to symmetric models like cosmological ones. This leads to several applications where loop effects play a significant role when one is sensitive to the quantum regime. As a consequence, the structure of and the approach to classical singularities are very different from general relativity: The quantum theory is free of singularities, and there are new phenomenological scenarios for the evolution of the very early universe including inflation. We give an overview of the main effects, focussing on recent results obtained by several different groups.

  10. Recent progress in random magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, DH

    1992-01-01

    Spin glasses exhibit random magnetic ordering as a result of competing interactions such as exchange or anisotropy. While they are easily prepared, and many of their general properties have been described, a detailed understanding of their behaviour is still lacking after more than 30 years of study. This book reviews the progress that has been made over the last five years on several aspects of the spin glass problem. Unlike several recent books, the authors concentrate here on experimental results, limiting the theoretical discussion to efforts most directly related to such work. The field o

  11. Optimising AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon

    2005-01-01

    AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension of Java, is becoming increasingly popular. However, not much work has been directed at optimising compilers for AspectJ. Optimising AOP languages provides many new and interesting challenges for compiler writers, and this paper identifies and addresses three such challenges. First, compiling around advice efficiently is particularly challenging. We provide a new code generation strategy for around advice, which (unlike previous implementations) both avoids the use of excessive inlining and the use of closures. We show it leads to more compact code, and can also improve run-time performance. Second, woven code sometimes includes run-time tests to determine whether advice should execute. One important case is the cflow pointcut which uses information about the dynamic calling context. Previous techniques for cflow were very costly in terms of both time and space. We present new techniques to minimise or eliminate the overhead of cflow using both intra- and inter-procedural analyses. Third, we have addressed the general problem of how to structure an optimising compiler so that traditional analyses can be easily adapted to the AOP setting. We have implemented all of the techniques in this paper in abc, our AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ, and we demonstrate significant speedups with empirical results. Some of our techniques have already been integrated into the production AspectJ compiler, ajc 1.2.1.

  12. Dimensions of personality pathology in adolescents: psychometric properties of the DAPP-BQ-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor B; Koot, Hans M

    2008-12-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the dimensional approach to personality pathology by addressing the applicability of a personality pathology questionnaire, originally developed for adults, in adolescent samples. The psychometric properties of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents (DAPP-BQ-A) were studied in two samples including 170 adolescents referred for mental health services and 1,628 nonreferred adolescents, respectively. Factor analysis resulted in a strong replication of the original structure, retaining four factors (Emotional Dysregulation, Dissocial Behavior, Inhibitedness, and Compulsivity), which could be further organized into a two-dimensional structure with factors identifiable as Internalizing and Externalizing, suggesting a possible link between personality and psychopathology. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability proved to be satisfactory for all lower-order dimensions, with the exception of Intimacy Problems. Several of these dimensions showed considerable promise in differentiating nonreferred adolescents, referred adolescents without and referred adolescents with a personality disorder. The present findings underscore the need for a developmental perspective on personality pathology. Promising aspects of the dimensional approach to personality pathology in adolescence are discussed. PMID:19072681

  13. Genetics and pathology of alpha-secretase site AbetaPP mutations in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Development of therapeutics begins with delineating the precise disease pathology along with a reasonable understanding of the sequence of events responsible for the development of disease, or disease pathogenesis. For Alzheimer's disease (AD), the classical pathology is now known for quite some time; however, the disease pathogenesis has eluded our understanding for a complete century. This review, in addition to providing a brief overview of all primary events, will highlight those aspects of AD genetics and novel pathological descriptions linked to unique mutations within AbetaPP that have led to our better understanding of the pathogenesis of AD. Specifically, we will discuss how pathologies linked to the Dutch (E693Q) and Flemish AbetaPP (A692G) mutations have helped in understanding the role of CAA in dementia and in the development of dense-core plaques. In addition, this review will also point directions that warrant additional studies. PMID:16914877

  14. Holographic aspects of electric-magnetic dualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review recent work on holographic aspects of electric-magnetic dualities in theories that involve conformally coupled scalars and abelian gauge fields in asymptotically AdS4 spaces. Such models are relevant for the holographic description of M-theory. We also briefly comment on some new results on the holographic properties of generalized electric-magnetic duality in gravity

  15. Nuclear aspects of few-baryon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, B.F.

    1993-10-01

    Recent progress in understanding the bound state properties of the trinucleons and the alpha particle in terms of a hadron picture of the nucleus is reviewed. The role of three-body forces and meson exchange currents is examined. novel aspects of few-body hypernuclei as well as unresolved issues in this S {ne} O sector are summarized.

  16. Nuclear aspects of few-baryon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in understanding the bound state properties of the trinucleons and the alpha particle in terms of a hadron picture of the nucleus is reviewed. The role of three-body forces and meson exchange currents is examined. novel aspects of few-body hypernuclei as well as unresolved issues in this S ? O sector are summarized

  17. Placental and cord insertion pathologies: screening, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedaseck, Susan; Monchek, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Placenta previa, low-lying placenta, and placenta accreta are aberrations in the normal development of the placenta. Diagnosis in the prenatal period is essential because each of these pathologies can have a profound impact on the management of labor, birth, and the third stage. In recent years, there has been an increase in the occurrence of these placental abnormalities, with the increase in the cesarean rate considered to be a main cause of this phenomenon. Comprehensive risk assessment, combined with recent advances in ultrasonography, can provide earlier detection of impaired placental implantation. Umbilical cord insertion pathologies are also of concern. Velamentous cord insertion is a defect in the insertion site of the umbilical cord resulting from the atrophy of portions of the developing placenta. In this condition, the blood vessels of the umbilical cord are not protected by Wharton's jelly, resulting in a potential for increased risk of breakage when the amniotic membranes rupture. Vasa previa is a velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord in which the blood vessels are present over the cervical os. If these blood vessels rupture during labor, it can have catastrophic effects on the fetus. Prenatal diagnosis of this condition can allow the certified nurse-midwife/certified midwife (CNM/CM) to plan for the safe birth of the newborn and avoid fetal hemorrhage. This article provides a review of risk factors, diagnosis pathophysiology, and management options for these conditions, thus enabling the CNM/CM to provide safe, effective care and management. PMID:24751147

  18. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. METHODS: I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research recently published (2008-2009 by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. RESULTS: This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized.

  19. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Rocha-e-Silva.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. METHODS: I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) [...] recently published (2008-2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. RESULTS: This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized.

  20. Recent code systems at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently several code systems have been developed and utilized at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. It is not easy to construct and maintain a code system, but the fact is not well known in the researchers. For this reason, it will be very useful to publish informations about design concepts, characteristics, necessary computer features and amounts of invested manpower for the developments of some recent JAERI code systems. In this report, a general view of required manpower on unification of nuclear codes is discussed and four code systems, i.e., SRAC for thermal reactor analysis, TRITON for Tokamak MHD analysis, SPEEDI for emergent environmental dose prediction and RADHEAT for radiation shielding analysis are presented. They are described from aspects of (1) purpose and schedule of development, (2) outline of system, (3) results of benchmark tests, (4) utilized computer features, (5) invested manpower, and (6) desirable computer features. Finally common aspects of four code systems from viewpoint of necessary computer hardwares and softwares are discussed for future development of code systems. (author)

  1. Gender differences among pathological gamblers seeking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, George T; Petry, Nancy M

    2002-08-01

    This study investigated gender differences among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. During treatment intake, 115 pathological gamblers completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI; A. T. McLellan et al., 1985), including a section on gambling severity, as well as the South Oaks Gambling Screen (H. R. Lesieur & S. B. Blume, 1987). When age and income were controlled, gender differences emerged in ASI gambling, alcohol, and legal scores. Men initiated gambling, began gambling regularly, tried to stop gambling, and first entered gambling treatment at a younger age than women. Women were more likely to be living with someone with a gambling or drinking problem but themselves had fewer alcohol and legal problems. Results suggest that gender differences exist in the initiation of gambling dysfunction and its psychosocial correlates. Understanding these differences may assist in developing treatments that address differential needs of male and female pathological gamblers. PMID:12233991

  2. Pathological tau disrupts ongoing network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes-Caspi, Noa; Yamin, Hagar G; Kellner, Vered; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Cohen, Dana; Stern, Edward A

    2015-03-01

    Pathological tau leads to dementia and neurodegeneration in tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. It has been shown to disrupt cellular and synaptic functions, yet its effects on the function of the intact neocortical network remain unknown. Using in vivo intracellular and extracellular recordings, we measured ongoing activity of neocortical pyramidal cells during various arousal states in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy, prior to significant cell death, when only a fraction of the neurons show pathological tau. In transgenic mice, membrane potential oscillations are slower during slow-wave sleep and under anesthesia. Intracellular recordings revealed that these changes are due to longer Down states and state transitions of membrane potentials. Firing rates of transgenic neurons are reduced, and firing patterns within Up states are altered, with longer latencies and inter-spike intervals. By changing the activity patterns of a subpopulation of affected neurons, pathological tau reduces the activity of the neocortical network. PMID:25704951

  3. Pathology and pathobiology of the gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micev Marjan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies in Serbia revealed that gastric carcinoma is the third and the fifth main cause of cancer morbidity in men and women, respectively. Despite the declining incidence of gastric cancer, it remains the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths as it is worldwide. A well-defined carcinogenic inflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-cancer sequence typically precedes the development of most gastric adenocarcinomas. Alterations such as gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are merely markers of increased risk, while gastric epithelial dysplasia (GED represent a direct precursor of cancer. DNA damage and increased mucosal proliferation secondary to H pylori infection, combined with a suitable host susceptibility phenotype (eg, genetic polymorphisms in interleukin IL-1B, IL-1RN, and tumor necrosis factor a TNF-a genes, are important factors in this progression pathway. However, only a small minority of patients infected with H. pylori eventually develops gastric cancer, and eradication of H pylori in these patients does not seem to eliminate the risk of cancer completely. It has been shown that atrophy may be a better indicator of risk of cancer than intestinal metaplasia, and remains to be validated in routine clinical practice according to recent proposal for new quantitative methods. It is often associated with pseudopyloric gland metaplasia in the gastric corpus mucosa, which expresses a type of trefoil peptide, the spasmolytic polypeptide (termed spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia or SPEM and has been shown to be linked more closely to gastric cancer than intestinal metaplasia. Better histological characterization of adenomatous (or type I, hyperplastic (foveolar or type II and tubule-neck (mucocellular or type III GED, two-tiered grading system (low and high grade dysplasia as well as the introduction of Padova and Vienna international classificatons of dysplasia seem to be more helpful in GED survillance and comparative studies. A combination of histopathological features, serum markers such as pepsinogen I, and molecular tests that analyze host susceptibility polymorphisms and bacterial virulence factors, may allow development of strategies for early detection of cancer in the future. At present, pathobiology of gastric cancerogenesis is far from known, despite the progressive knowlegde on predisposing environmental conditions and genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, including tumour supressor genes, oncogenes, microsatellite instability and hypermethylation or the significance of E-cadherin mutational status association with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome. Recent evidence regarding the importance of several histopathologically derived prognostic factors, such as resection margin status and lymph node metastases and their implications have also been discussed. We aim to review these aspects, with special relevance to gastric cancer specimen reporting.

  4. [Soft tissue pathologies of the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margotta, V; Capogreco, M

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent form of neoplasia in the oral cavity is the squamous cell carcinoma (about 90% of cases) representing the 3-5% of all malignant tumors with about 56% of mortality rate, at 5 years from the diagnosis. In general, the neoplastic disease is now unanimly considered as a multifactorial and multiphasic pathology. Multiphasic since the carcinogenic process consists in the cellular capacity to acquire oncological potentialities through several stages such as: moltiplication (a), transmission (b) of malignity caracteristics to progenic cells, invasivity (c), capacity to give metastasis (d) and also resistance to chemiotherapy. Multifactorial since in the onset of the disease intrinsic and extrinsic factors are certainly involved. In the carcinogenic process of CCS a high percentage has been noticed of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the short arm (P) of cromosoms 3 and 9, which contains the tumor-suppressor genes p53 and DDC (Deleted in colon rectal cancer). In the onset of VADS carcinoma and in particular of oral CCS, it has also been formulated the hypothesis of an intrinsic genetic factor (Llewellyn et al., 2001) between patients, also young, who present the neoplasia even trough they have never been exposed to extrinsic risk factors such as smoke and alcohol. Since part of patients with oral CCS do not always refer a common risk factors history as possible extrinsic neoplasia causes, it has been formulated the hypothesis that some viral infections, for their oncogenic capacity, could be the main ethiological factors predisposing to this neoplasia. The HPV are responsible, either in the oral cavity or on the epidermis, for benign proliferations such as: Verruca Vulgaris, Condyloma Acuminatum, Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia, Squamous Cell Papillomas, but also lesions that are potentially or certainly malignant such as CCS and Verrucous Carcinoma. The molecular analysis performed show that proteins produced from E6 and E7 portions of viral genoma (HPV 16-18) interfer and degrade proteins p53 and pRb produced by tumor suppressor genes (TSg). Recently, thanks to new molecular biology techniques, several authors are studying potentially neoplastic lesions, in order to better understand the association with HPV. PMID:12686915

  5. Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions. PMID:25810632

  6. Pathology Case Study: Right Breast Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amortegui, Antonio J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman found a mass in her right breast three weeks before seeking treatment. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  7. Intracranial pathology of the visual pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Forell, W. E-mail: mueller-forell@neuroradio.klinik.uni-mainz.de

    2004-02-01

    Intracranial pathologies involving the visual pathway are manifold. Aligning to anatomy, the most frequent and/or most important extrinsic and intrinsic intracranial lesions are presented. Clinical symptoms and imaging characteristics of lesions of the sellar region are demonstrated in different imaging modalities. The extrinsic lesions mainly consist of pituitary adenomas, meningeomas, craniopharyngeomas and chordomas. In (asymptomatic and symptomatic) aneurysms, different neurological symptoms depend on the location of aneurysms of the circle of Willis. Intrinsic tumors as astrocytoma of any grade, ependymoma and primary CNS-lymphoma require the main pathology in the course of the visual pathway. Vascular and demyelinating diseases complete this overview of intracranial lesions.

  8. Pathology Case Study: An Ovarian Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dilip

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a girl discovered an ovarian mass at a young age. After surgical removal, the mass returned. Visitors can view gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of gynecological pathology.

  9. Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions.

  10. Pathology Case Study: Repeat Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Charles A.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 47-year-old woman has developed coronary disease following a heart transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

  11. Cervical pathology in West Virginia adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, H; Callahan, P; Aggarwal, S; Perkins, K; Young, K

    2000-01-01

    Cytologic screening is an important diagnostic tool used to detect precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. We studied the prevalence of cervical abnormalities, based on Pap smear results, in patients at the Outpatient Adolescent Clinic at West Virginia University. We found a high incidence of overall intraepithelial cell pathology (24%) in this group with 2.4% high grade and 9.9% low-grade lesions. These findings show that major cervical pathology is present in this age group. Furthermore, repeat smears at intervals of manage. Higher risk adolescents may need semiannual screening. PMID:10771629

  12. Pathology Case Study: Jaundice and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastacky, Sheldon

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 35-year-old man from Thailand has presented to the hospital with "jaundice, fatigue and weight loss of 10 to 15 pounds over the past few months." Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

  13. Pathology and pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignabert, Christophe; Dorfmuller, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a devastating, life-threatening disorder with no curative options, characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and secondary right ventricular failure. Although the etiologies of pulmonary arterial hypertension are multiple and its pathogenesis is complex, there is growing evidence that inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, aberrant vascular wall cell proliferation, as well as mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 gene play a crucial role in triggering pathological vascular remodeling. The present article outlines the current understanding of this disease from the point of view of pathology and pathobiology. PMID:24037624

  14. Pathology Case Study: Skin Rash and Proteinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Paul S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 8-year-old boy has a history of skin rash with concurrent hematuria and proteinuria. Visitors are given the microscopic and gross descriptions, immunoflourescent and electron microscopy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

  15. Pathology Case Study: Complications of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a pregnant woman experienced venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  16. Pathology Case Study: Large Right Lung Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Mona

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with chest pain after 25 years of smoking. Tests revealed significant problems with the heart and lungs before the man suddenly went into cardiac arrest and died. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students learning autopsy pathology.

  17. Aspect Oriented Requirements Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yakout A. Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirements engineering techniques that explicitly recognize the importance of clearly identifying and treating crosscutting concerns are called Aspect-oriented Requirements Engineering Approaches (AORE approaches. The emergence of aspect-oriented programming languages has raised the explicit need to identify crosscutting concerns already during the analysis phase. Besides this observation, the modular representation of crosscutting requirements is a first step to ensure traceability of crosscutting concerns through all other artifacts of the software lifecycle (architecture, design and implementation.Aspect-oriented requirements engineering approaches improve existing requirements engineering approaches through an explicit representation (and modularization of concerns that were otherwise spread throughout other requirements artifacts (such as use cases, goal models, viewpoints, etc..AORE approaches adopt the principle of separation of concerns at the analysis phase (the early separation of concerns. In other words, AORE approaches provide a representation of crosscutting concerns in requirements artifacts.

  18. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  19. Frontier in Pathology: SY17-2 FLATTENING THE WORLD OF PATHOLOGY TRAINING: WHAT CAN DIGITAL PATHOLOGY DO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, Lewis Allen; Fung, Kar Ming

    2014-10-01

    The world's need for diagnostic pathologists far out-paces our ability to train physicians to provide these services in a high quality manner. Additionally, the shift towards demonstrable competencies for physicians generally and pathologists specifically, underscores the need to direct training towards efficiently accomplishing the task, rather than just filling a time-defined period of apprenticeship.Digital pathology tools offer a means to both standardize and measure many of the specific competencies defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (US) and other bodies. And it has the potential to break down barriers to quality training for those in less-advantaged situations. One of the key issues is the relatively uneven distribution of training resources which the new digital pathology tools can 'flatten' just as the internet and other technologic advances have done for the worlds of engineering, commerce and education. This talk with outline some of the specific ways in which digital pathology has, and can further help address the problems of mal-distribution of pathology educational resources both for initial and on-going training, and the demonstration of attainment of competency in the key areas of medical knowledge, patient care, communication, system-based practice, professionalism, and practice-based learning. PMID:25188071

  20. Pim-1 kinase antagonizes aspects of myocardial hypertrophy and compensation to pathological pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraski, John A; Fischer, Kimberlee M; Wu, Weitao; Cottage, Christopher T; Quijada, Pearl; Mason, Matt; Din, Shabana; Gude, Natalie; Alvarez, Roberto; Rota, Marcello; Kajstura, Jan; Wang, Zeping; Schaefer, Erik; Chen, Xiongen; MacDonnel, Scott; Magnuson, Nancy; Houser, Stephen R; Anversa, Piero; Sussman, Mark A

    2008-09-16

    Pim-1 kinase exerts potent cardioprotective effects in the myocardium downstream of AKT, but the participation of Pim-1 in cardiac hypertrophy requires investigation. Cardiac-specific expression of Pim-1 (Pim-WT) or the dominant-negative mutant of Pim-1 (Pim-DN) in transgenic mice together with adenoviral-mediated overexpression of these Pim-1 constructs was used to delineate the role of Pim-1 in hypertrophy. Transgenic overexpression of Pim-1 protects mice from pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy relative to wild-type controls as evidenced by improved hemodynamic function, decreased apoptosis, increases in antihypertrophic proteins, smaller myocyte size, and inhibition of hypertrophic signaling after challenge. Similarly, Pim-1 overexpression in neonatal rat cardiomyocyte cultures inhibits hypertrophy induced by endothelin-1. On the cellular level, hearts of Pim-WT mice show enhanced incorporation of BrdU into myocytes and a hypercellular phenotype compared to wild-type controls after hypertrophic challenge. In comparison, transgenic overexpression of Pim-DN leads to dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by increased apoptosis, fibrosis, and severely depressed cardiac function. Furthermore, overexpression of Pim-DN leads to reduced contractility as evidenced by reduced Ca(2+) transient amplitude and decreased percentage of cell shortening in isolated myocytes. These data support a pivotal role for Pim-1 in modulation of hypertrophy by impacting responses on molecular, cellular, and organ levels. PMID:18784362

  1. [Malignant solid tumours in Brazzaville children: epidemiological and anatomo-pathological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peko, J F; Moyen, G; Gombe-Mbalawa, C

    2004-05-01

    In this retrospective study over six years the authors report 65 malignant solid tumours of the children under the age of 15 years old. The average age was 7.9 years with a peak of frequency between 5 and 9 years. There was a male prevalence with a sex-ratio of 1.3. The most frequent histological types were: lymphoma of Burkitt (52%), retinoblastoma (20%), nephroblastoma (9%) and malignant tumours of the soft tissues (6%). The malignant solid tumours of the child are relatively rare and histologically very diversified. PMID:15255355

  2. Normal and pathological NMR imaging aspects of the posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to compare normal PLC (limits lateral condyle anterior sub luxation) anatomy and its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance, with the various lesions observed in MRI, from the simple popliteus tendinous contusion to the complete PLC rupture. For this specific work on PLC lesions, we selected 61 examinations among the traumatic knees explored during the last 3 years. Surgical correlation is obtained for the 61 patients. MRI examinations are performed on a 0.5 T. unit. Normal PLC anatomy is compared to the dissection of 4 anatomic subjects. Normal MRI slices are evaluated with this reference analysis. The principle anatomical structures of the PLC include the lateral collateral ligament, the popliteus tendon, the arcuate ligament, the fabello fibular ligament, the posterolateral condylar capsule, and the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus. Surgical findings confirm PLC lesion for 58 patients with 3 false positive. Diagnosis of these lesions is important because chronical posterolateral laxity is secondary to the destabilization of lateral condyle. Unrecognized and untreated posterolateral instability may result in failure of ACL (limits lateral condyle posterior sub-luxation) reconstruction. When clinical tests are doubtful or complex, or the examination very painful, MRI evaluates completely the traumatic knee and particularly the PLC. (authors). 3 refs., 26 figs

  3. Clinical diagnostic aspects of thyroid pathology in patients under medical observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Check-ups of the patients exposed to ionizing radiation at their place of work often reveal autoimmune thyroiditis. Tit is frequently revealed 2-3 years from the disease beginning in patients with the mean age 48.5 years. The necessity of obligatory examination protocol both at the stage of diagnosis and annual monitoring was indicated

  4. Emphysematous pyelonephritis in a diabetic leading to renal destruction: pathological aspects of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, S; Vijaya, C; Geethamani, V; Savitha, A K

    2013-06-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a severe, potentially fatal necrotizing pyelonephritis with a variable clinical presentation, ranging from mild abdominal pain to septic shock. The majority of cases occur in diabetics with poor glycemic control, while a small percentage may be due to urinary tract obstruction. We present a case of a 57 year old male patient, diabetic on treatment, presenting with left flank pain and poor stream of urine since one week. Laboratory tests revealed that the patient had electrolyte imbalance, ketoacidosis and high blood sugar. Urine culture was positive for Escherichia coli with a signifi cant colony count. Radiological examination gave a diagnosis of Left Type 1 Emphysematous Pyelonephritis. Inspite of giving vigorous resuscitation and antibiotics with nephrostomy, the patient had to undergo nephrectomy due to extensive renal parenchymal destruction. The nephrectomy specimen was studied in detail to know the histopathological findings in a case of diabetic patient with emphysematous pyelonephritis. We present this case not only because of it being a rare complication of diabetes, but also to focus on the histopathological findings of the same, documentation of which is limited in literature. PMID:23817403

  5. Molecular, Functional, and Pathological Aspects of the Mitochondrial ADP/ATP Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dahout-Gonzalez (UMR 5092 CEA-CNRS-Université Joseph Fourier Département de Réponse et Dynamique Cellulaires)

    2006-08-01

    In providing the cell with ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation, the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier plays a central role in aerobic eukaryotic cells. Combining biochemical, genetic, and structural approaches contributes to understanding the molecular mechanism of this essential transport system, the dysfunction of which is implicated in neuromuscular diseases.

  6. Chronic alveolar hydatidosis and secondary amyloidosis: pathological aspects of the disease in four strains of mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Alkarmi, T. O.; Ali-khan, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloidogenic potentials of alveolar hydatid cyst, the larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, were studied in BALB/c, C57BL/6J, CBA/J and A/JAX strains of mice. To determine strain susceptibility and sensitivity of various soft organs to amyloidosis, the intensity of inflammation and mean weights of the larval cyst masses from each host strain were correlated at various time intervals postinfection (p.i.) with the onset and amount of splenic, hepatic and kidney amyloid deposits. The ons...

  7. Cáncer de piel no melanoma: aspectos clínicos - patológicos / Non melanoma skin cancer: clinic-pathological aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Diaz Plasencia; Enrique, Tantalean - Ramella; Carlos, Garcia Peralta.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente retrospectivo evaluó a 120 pacientes con 130 lesiones de cáncer primario de la piel: 78 lesiones de carcinoma basocelular (CBC) y 52 de carcinoma epidermoide (CE) diagnosticados en el Hospital Belén, Trujillo, Perú, desde 1980 a 1990 con la finalidad de identificar sus características cl [...] ínicas e histopatológicas. El CE fue más frecuente en pacientes mayores de 80 años (p=0.044), del sexo masculino (p=0.025), se localizó con mayor frecuencia en trono y extremidades (p Abstract in english This retrospective analysis evaluate to 120 patients with 130 cancers of the skin with histologically proved diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (n=78) or squamous cell carcinoma (n=52) seen at Belen Hospital Trujillo, Peru, between 1980 and 1990 with the aim to identify their clinicopathologic featur [...] es. Squamous cell carcinomas was more frequent in patients older than 80 years of age (p=0.044), in men than in women (p=0.025), predominantly occurred on the trunk or extremities (p

  8. Organisational aspects of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses. PMID:25736672

  9. 14.4 ‘Innovation for speech language pathology’ - a new educational seminar

    OpenAIRE

    Kogovs?ek, Damjana; Umanski, Daniil

    2012-01-01

    ‘Innovation for SLP’ is a semester-long educational seminar we have recently developed for advanced speech language pathology (SLP) students in Slovenia. The seminar is designed to provide students with tools for creative problem solving in their future professional environment.

  10. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng

    2008-06-01

    The past century has seen tremendous changes in the scope and practice of pathology laboratories in tandem with the development of the medical services in Malaysia. Major progress was made in the areas of training and specialization of pathologists and laboratory technical staff. Today the pathology laboratory services have entered the International arena, and are propelled along the wave of globalization. Many new challenges have emerged as have new players in the field. Landmark developments over the past decade include the establishment of national quality assurance programmes, the mushrooming of private pathology laboratories, the establishment of a National Accreditation Standard for medical testing laboratories based on ISO 15189, and the passing of the Pathology Laboratory Act in Parliament in mid-2007. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 seeks to ensure that the pathology laboratory is accountable to the public, meets required standards of practice, participates in Quality Assurance programmes, is run by qualified staff, complies with safety requirements and is subject to continuous audit. The Act is applicable to all private laboratories (stand alone or hospital) and laboratories in statutory bodies (Universities, foundations). It is not applicable to public laboratories (established and operated by the government) and side-room laboratories established in clinics of registered medical or dental practitioners for their own patients (tests as in the First and Second Schedules respectively). Tests of the Third Schedule (home test blood glucose, urine glucose, urine pregnancy test) are also exempted. The Act has 13 Parts and provides for control of the pathology laboratory through approval (to establish and maintain) and licensing (to operate or provide). The approval or license may only be issued to a sole proprietor, partnership or body corporate, and then only if the entity includes a registered medical practitioner. Details of personnel qualifications and laboratory practices are left to be specified by the Director-General of Health, providing for a formal recognition process and room for revision as pathology practices evolve. Encompassed in the responsibilities of the licensee is the requirement that samples are received and results issued through, and management vested in, a registered medical or dental practitioner. This effectively prohibits "walk-ins" to the laboratory and indiscriminate public screening. The requirement for a person-in-charge in accordance with class and speciality of laboratory ensures that the laboratory is under the charge of the pathology profession. Examined carefully, the requirements of the Act are similar to laboratory accreditation, but are backed by legislation. Many of these details will be spelt out in the Regulations, and these in turn are likely to fall back on National professional guidelines, as accreditation does. Although not at first obvious, enforcement of the Act is based on self-regulation by pathology laboratory professionals. Sincere professional input is thus required to embrace its philosophy, ensure rational and transparent enforcement of legislation, and develop National guidelines for good pathology practices upon which enforcement may be based. PMID:19108405

  11. Applying aspects to a real-time embedded operating system

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Francisco; Silva, Carlos A.; Montenegro, Se?rgio; Tavares, Adriano

    2007-01-01

    The application of aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to the embedded operating system domain is still a very controversial topic, as this area demands high performance and small memory footprint. However, recent studies quantifying aspects overheads in AspectC++ show that the resource cost is very low. Therefore, operating system development may benefit with the modularization of crosscutting concerns and system specialization offered by AOP. This paper addresses our experience in applying...

  12. Coupling Metrics for Aspect Oriented Programming -A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kotrappa Sirbi,; Prakash Jayanth Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Metrics are an important technique in quantifying desirable software and software development characteristics of aspect- oriented software development (AOSD).Over the last few years, a growing number of studies have explored how Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) might impact software maintainability. In this paper, we present a systematic review of recent AO programs and designs metrics studies. We look at attributes most frequently used as indicators of maintainability in current aspect-orie...

  13. [Continuing eco-pathological survey: 4. Demonstration of pathologic associations in dairy cow stock: herd data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, B; Fayet, J C; Brochart, M; Barnouin, J; Paccard, P

    1986-01-01

    Data concerning frequencies of 17 main diseases in 59 dairy farms from continual eco-pathological survey, are analyzed by classical regression test, principal components analysis and analysis of variance. Thirty-three statistical relations (positive simple correlations) are shown. Clinical mastitis and retained placenta are associated to nine diseases each, metritis, stillbirth and non-infectious foot disorders to six, dystocia and infectious foot disorders to four, pathology of calf and abortion to three, mammary edema and appetite disorders to two. Ovarian pathology, digestive disorders and teat lesions are "isolated", being associated to only one other disease. The pathological frequencies in dairy farms seem to change in the same way, indicating the existence of common risk factors, and leading to propose a global hygienic prevention. The pathological associations allow to definite some groups of dairy farms showing one or other dominant pathological complex. In the frame of our sample of dairy farms, two groups seem to be determined: one with calving disorders and calf pathology centred on retained placenta, the other with foot disorders, infectious and metabolic troubles, centred on mastitis, as dominant diseases. PMID:3467643

  14. Pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis: recent insight from cell biology and renal pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Fabris, Antonia; Abaterusso, Cataldo; Cosaro, Alex; Ceol, Monica; Mezzabotta, Federica; Torregrossa, Rossella; Tiralongo, Emilia; Del Prete, Dorella; D’angelo, Angela; Anglani, Franca

    2008-01-01

    Randall’s plaques are very common in idiopathic calcium-oxalate nephrolithiasis. These papillary plaques have an apatite mineral structure. While these calcium deposits are generally assumed to be secondary to a purely physico-chemical phenomenon, we advance the hypothesis that they form due to a truly ectopic biomineralization in the renal tissue, and that Henle’s loop epithelial cells, or pericyte-like interstitial cells, or papillary stem cells differentiating along a bone lineage migh...

  15. Pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis: recent insight from cell biology and renal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Fabris, Antonia; Abaterusso, Cataldo; Cosaro, Alex; Ceol, Monica; Mezzabotta, Federica; Torregrossa, Rossella; Tiralongo, Emilia; Del Prete, Dorella; D'Angelo, Angela; Anglani, Franca

    2008-05-01

    Randall's plaques are very common in idiopathic calcium-oxalate nephrolithiasis. These papillary plaques have an apatite mineral structure. While these calcium deposits are generally assumed to be secondary to a purely physico-chemical phenomenon, we advance the hypothesis that they form due to a truly ectopic biomineralization in the renal tissue, and that Henle's loop epithelial cells, or pericyte-like interstitial cells, or papillary stem cells differentiating along a bone lineage might be involved. PMID:22460990

  16. Immunohistochemical organization patterns of the follicular dendritic cells, myofibroblasts and macrophages in the human spleen—New considerations on the pathological diagnosis of splenectomy pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco, Pablo Guisado; Rodri?guez, Jose? L. Villar; Marti?nez, Jose? Iban?ez; Ca?mpora, Ricardo Gonza?lez; Davidson, Hugo Galera

    2009-01-01

    There is reliable information about how changes in spleen histology are influenced by the relationship among B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and myofibroblasts. Moreover, if it can be applied in the day-by-day pathology laboratory. This work intends to elucidate morpho-functional aspects of relationships of these cells in the different spleen compartments, how they are influenced by pathological conditions and how basic immunohistochemical techniques could optimize the histo...

  17. Clinical and tomographic aspects of macular microholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the clinical aspects and evaluate optical coherence tomography of macular microholes. Methods: Seven patients were assessed (8 eyes) with microholes of the macula. All patients underwent complete eye examination, fundus photography, fluorescent angiography and OCT-3 imaging. Results: Ages ranged from 26 to 69 years. Six patients were female (85.7%) and five of them had microhole in the right eye. The presenting symptom was decrease in visual acuity (71.3%) and central scotoma in (14.3%). Five eyes (71.4%) had no defects shown by fluorescent angiography. A defect in the outer retina was demonstrated in all eyes on optical coherence tomography. The lesions were nonprogressive. Conclusion: Macular microholes are small lamellar defects in the outer retina. The condition is nonprogressive, generally unilateral and compatible with good visual acuity. Fundus biomicroscopy associated with an optical coherence tomography are the main elements in the diagnosis and study of this pathology. (author)

  18. Gout. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  19. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made

  20. Chiral models: geometric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review on nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric chiral models is presented. The main attention is paid to geometric aspects of the Calabi-Yau varieties. Instanton solutions of the chiral models with nontrivial topology, the Kahler Ricci-plane varieties in particular, are considered. 197 refs

  1. New detectors: fundamental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the fundamental aspects of the X-ray radiation detection in the particular case of the mammography, the performances criterion of the digital detectors and the main technological solution of the market. The authors also detailed the use possibilities to enhance the images representation by correcting the acquisition channel degradations. (A.L.B.)

  2. Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Intraocular Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Wei; Li, Hua; Hu, Zhu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of intraocular cysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestode infection. Total 8 patients diagnosed with intraocular cysticercosis at the Red Cross Hospital of Yunnan Province, China were examined retrospectively. Patients with clear dioptic media had undergone fundus chromophotography. All patients underwent B ultrasonography of the ocular region (CT) successive scanning of the orbit and cerebral tissues. Parasites were extracted surgically and then examined pathologically. The fundus chromophotography showed a white and condensing scolex package in the vesicle. The B ultrasonic examination showed a vesicle-like echogenic mass in the vitreous chamber, in which the high-level echo spot was the cysticercus scolex. The pathological examinations showed that the vesicle wall exhibited hyaline degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration, neuroglial fiber, and glial cell proliferation layers from the inside to the outside. The scolex is round and is composed of the outer tissue (the body wall) and the inner furrow tissue; these tissues migrated together. Primordially differentiated sucking discs were found in one case, but no hooklets were found. The inner scolex tissue was folded like a paper flower. The severity of intraocular disease is closely correlated with the pathophysiological processes of the cysticercus worm. Pathological examination of the intraocular lesions can help to evaluate the course of the disease as well as to provide a scientific basis for effective antiparasitic medication. PMID:23710092

  3. Tau pathology induces intraneuronal cholesterol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner, Frauke; Ohm, Thomas G

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest the involvement of cholesterol metabolism in the development and progression of Alzheimer disease and Niemann-Pick type C disease, but not of frontotemporal dementias. In these 3 neurodegenerative diseases, however, protein tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation into neurofibrillary tangles are observed. To elucidate the relationship between cholesterol and tau, we compared sterol levels of neurons burdened with neurofibrillary tangles with those of their unaffected neighbors using semiquantitative filipin fluorescence microscopy in mice expressing P301L mutant human tau (a well-described model of FTDP-17) and in P301L transgenic mice lacking apolipoprotein E (the major cholesterol transporter in the brain). Cellular unesterified cholesterol was higher in neurons affected by tau pathology irrespective of apolipoprotein E deficiency. This argues for an impact of tau pathology on cellular cholesterol homeostasis. We suggest that there is a bidirectional mode of action: Disturbances in cellular cholesterol metabolism may promote tau pathology, but tau pathology may also alter neuronal cholesterol homeostasis; once it is established, a vicious cycle may promote neurofibrillary tangle formation. PMID:25101701

  4. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  5. Head and neck pathologies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?rfan Karaca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The head and neck pathologies encountered during childhood are embryonal remnants ,infectious and benign and malign neck masses. Differential diagnosis is usually made easily, according to the localisation of lesions. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 20-2

  6. Pathological pregnancy and psychological symptoms in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelanovi?, Vedran; Babi?, Dragan; Oreskovi?, Slavko; Tomi?, Vajdana; Martinac, Marko; Juras, Josip

    2012-09-01

    Pregnancy is followed by many physiologic, organic and psychological changes and disorders, which can become more serious in pregnancy followed by complications, especially in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to find out and analyze the prevalence and intensity of psychological disorders in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy and compare it with conditions in pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research is approved by the Ethical committee of the Mostar University Hospital Center, and it was made in accordance with Helsinki declaration and good clinical practices. The research conducted section for pathology of pregnancy of Department for gynecology and obstetrics of the Mostar University Hospital Center. It included 82 pregnant women with disorders in pregnancy developement and control group consisted of pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research work was conducted from September 2007 to August 2008 in Mostar University Hospital Center. Pregnant women had Standard and laboratory tests, Ultrasound. CTG examinations were done for all pregnant women and additional tests for those women with complications during pregnancy. Pregnant women completed sociobiographical, obstetrical-clinical and psychological SCL 90-R questionnaire. Pregnant women with pathological pregnancy exibited significantly more psychological symptoms in comparison to pregnant women with normal pregnancy (p bleeding in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:23213943

  7. Postmenopausal tamoxifen treatment and endometrial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I; Altaras, M M; Shapira, J; Tepper, R; Beyth, Y

    1994-12-01

    Tamoxifen is widely used as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer patients with positive estrogen receptors. Data on a possible association of endometrial pathologies with tamoxifen treatment have been accumulating. In this review, we examine the current literature and include our own experience with this occurrence. We recommend close supervision of these patients. PMID:7885659

  8. Pathology of radiation induced lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined pathological findings of radiation induced lung damage. Twenty-three cases are chosen from our hospital autopsy cases for 9 years, which fulfil strict criteria of radiation lung damage. Lung damage could be classified into 3 groups : 1) interstitial pneumonia type (9 cases), 2) intermediate pneumonia type (8 cases), and 3) alveolar pneumonia type (6 cases), according to the degree of intra-luminal exudation. These classification is well correlated with clinical findings. Pathological alveolar pneumonia type corresponds to symptomatic, radiologic ground glass pneumonic shadow. And pathologic interstitial type corresponds to clinical asymptomatic, radiologic reticulo-nodular shadow. From the clinico-pathological view point these classification is reasonable one. Radiation affects many lung structures and showed characteristic feature of repair. Elastofibrosis of the alveolar wall is observed in every cases, obstructive bronchiolitis are observed in 5 cases, and obstructive bronchiolitis in 9 cases. They are remarkable additional findings. Thickening of the interlobular septum, broncho-vascular connective tissue, and pleural layer are observed in every cases together with vascular lesions. (author)

  9. Retroperitoneal fibrosis. Demographic, clinical and pathological findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Bani-hani, Kamal E.; Bani-hani, Ibrahim H.; Al-heiss, Hussein A.; Omari, Hamza Z.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis including the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostic criteria and effective treatment of the disease. METHODS This study was carried out at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, Irbid, Jordan, during the year 2001. Records of 15 patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, clinical and pathological criteria was evaluated and analyzed. RESULTS ...

  10. Social Aspects of Virtual Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Shwarts-Asher, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    There has been a transformation from individual work to team work in the last few decades (Ilgen, 1999), and many organizations use teams for many activities done by individuals in the past (Boyett & Conn, 1992 ; Katzenbach & Smith, 1993). In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in computer-mediated groups because of the increases in globalization of business operations leading to geographically dispersed executives and decision makers. However, what seems to be lacking is some focus in terms of problem settings and corresponding tools to support collaborative decision making. The research question of this study deals with the dynamics of virtual teams' members. A model, suggesting that team dynamics can increase the teams' output, is presented, and a methodology to examine the model is illustrated. An experiment was performed, in which subjects, who were grouped into teams, had to share information in order to complete a task. The findings indicate that the social aspect of the virtual tea...

  11. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 Expression in Pathological Events

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve, Pilar; Bovolenta, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Secreted Frizzled Related Proteins (Sfrps) are a family of secreted proteins that can bind both to Wnt ligands and Frizzled receptors, thereby modulating the Wnt signalling cascades. Recent studies have shown that Sfrps can also interact with Wnt unrelated molecules such as RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, Tolloid metalloproteinases or integrin-fibronectin complexes. Alterations in the levels of Sfrp expression have been recently associated with different pathological cond...

  12. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ? Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ? Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ? Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ? Particulate Cr(VI) may augment severity and alter phenotype of ongoing allergic asthma.

  13. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ? Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ? Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ? Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ? Particulate Cr(VI) may augment severity and alter phenotype of ongoing allergic asthma.

  14. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad?? algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Padé algorithm does not facilitate caching of intermediate results, it was up to 3× faster than eigendecomposition on the same matrices. Conclusion Development of robust software for computing non-reversible dinucleotide, codon and higher evolutionary models requires implementation of the Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm.

  15. Thermal methodology: recent developments; Methodologie thermique: developpements recents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, J.; Lepoutre, F.; Balageas, D. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)]|[CEA Le Ripault, 37 - Tours (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference day organized by the French society of thermal engineering (SFT) was devoted to the recent advances in thermal instrumentation. Eight papers were presented and were dealing with: the measurement of the microscopic thermal properties of C/C and C/C-SiC composite materials; the metrology of the local probe thermal microscopy (analysis of the probe-sample thermal interaction); the emission factor of semi-transparent materials at high temperature (2000 deg.C); the study of the tungsten-rhenium couples between 1000 and 2000 deg.C; the theoretical aspects of thermocouple instrumentation in the estimation of surface or interface thermal conditions; the microscale thermo-physical characterisation of metal coatings; the thermal microscopy measurement of the contact resistance of a metal inclusion in a thermoplastic matrix; and the application of laser-induced fluorescence in thermal metrology (from turbulence to combustion). (J.S.)

  16. Recent advances in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins KJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly J Perkins,1,2 Kay E Davies21Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, 2MRC Functional Genomics Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKAbstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, an allelic X-linked progressive muscle-wasting disease, is one of the most common single-gene disorders in the developed world. Despite knowledge of the underlying genetic causation and resultant pathophysiology from lack of dystrophin protein at the muscle sarcolemma, clinical intervention is currently restricted to symptom management. In recent years, however, unprecedented advances in strategies devised to correct the primary defect through gene- and cell-based therapeutics hold particular promise for treating dystrophic muscle. Conventional gene replacement and endogenous modification strategies have greatly benefited from continued improvements in encapsidation capacity, transduction efficiency, and systemic delivery. In particular, RNA-based modifying approaches such as exon skipping enable expression of a shorter but functional dystrophin protein and rapid progress toward clinical application. Emerging combined gene- and cell-therapy strategies also illustrate particular promise in enabling ex vivo genetic correction and autologous transplantation to circumvent a number of immune challenges. These approaches are complemented by a vast array of pharmacological approaches, in particular the successful identification of molecules that enable functional replacement or ameliorate secondary DMD pathology. Animal models have been instrumental in providing proof of principle for many of these strategies, leading to several recent trials that have investigated their efficacy in DMD patients. Although none has reached the point of clinical use, rapid improvements in experimental technology and design draw this goal ever closer. Here, we review therapeutic approaches to DMD, with particular emphasis on recent progress in strategic development, preclinical evaluation and establishment of clinical efficacy. Further, we discuss the numerous challenges faced and synergistic approaches being devised to combat dystrophic pathology effectively.Keywords: dystrophy, animal models, pharmacological, exon skipping, gene therapy, utrophin

  17. Role of transportin-1 in the pathogenesis of FTLD-FUS: a pathological, biochemical and cellular study

    OpenAIRE

    Brelstaff, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common form of pre-senile dementia. Recent discoveries have identified the proteins present in the pathological ubiquitinated inclusions of previously undifferentiated subtypes of FTLD. Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) is the primary pathological marker of a subtype now called FTLD-FUS. This normally nuclear protein is seen within the cytoplasmic and intranuclear aggregates of FTLD-FUS. FUS, together with Ewing’s Sarcoma (EWS) and TATA box b...

  18. Prostate carcinoma (PC) - an organ-related specific pathological neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organ- and tumour-related specific characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PC) are presented in an overview under various aspects. It is the key for understanding pathological changes, including PC, to consider the subdivision of the prostate into anatomically and functionally distinguishable zones, especially the transitional zone (TZ) and the peripheral zone (PZ). The pseudoneoplastic hyperplasia of the TZ, combined with inflammatory consequences and age-related changes, forms a differential diagnostic challenge to both clinico-radiological diagnosis and macroscopic and microscopic examination. High-degree prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN III) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) are presented as precursor lesions of PC with varying significance and assessment. Moreover, there are discussed the following characteristic features of PC: localisation types, focality, volume, progression, double-graduation according to Gleason, tumour stage, and prognosis. The most important prognosis factors of PC (category I) include the categories of the TNM system, such as stage, surgical marginal situation, degree and also the preoperative PSA level as a (poor) substitute for the tumour volume. Potential prognosis parameters (category II) show the tumour volume and the DNS ploidy, while there continues to exist a large number of non-established parameters (category III). The prognostic validity of the pathological examinations depends, on the one hand, on the tissions depends, on the one hand, on the tissue extent (needle biopsy, transurethral resection (TURP), so-called simple prostatectomy, radical prostatectomy (RPE)) and the prostate zones covered. On the other hand, the prognostic certainty also depends on the tumour-adequate macroscopic and microscopic assessment of an RPE that can only be a partial or complete handling in transversal large-area sections. (orig.)

  19. Recent advances in intestinal lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukas, Periklis G; de Leval, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A large variety of lymphoma types may develop as primary intestinal neoplasms in the small intestines or, less often, in the colorectum. Among these are a few entities such as enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma or immunoproliferative small intestinal disease that, essentially, do not arise elsewhere than in the gastrointestinal tract. In most instances the primary intestinal lymphomas belong to entities that also occur in lymph nodes or other mucosal sites, and may show some peculiar features. In the case of follicular lymphoma, important differences exist between the classical nodal cases and the intestinal cases, considered as a variant of the disease. It is likely that the local intestinal mucosal microenvironment is a determinant in influencing the pathobiological features of the disease. In this review we will present an update on the clinical, pathological and molecular features of the lymphoid neoplasms that most commonly involve the intestines, incorporating recent developments with respect to their pathobiology and classification. We will emphasize and discuss the major differential diagnostic problems encountered in practice, including the benign reactive or atypical lymphoid hyperplasias, indolent lymphoproliferative disorders of T or natural killer (NK) cells, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphoproliferations. PMID:25639480

  20. Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waschbisch Anne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The investigation of central nervous system vascular changes in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS is a time-honored concept. Yet, recent reports on changes in venous cerebrospinal outflow, the advent of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques and the investigation of immunomodulatory properties of several vascular mediators on the molecular level have added new excitement to hypotheses centering around vascular pathology as determining factor in the pathophysiology of MS. Here we critically review the concept of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in MS patients and describe new imaging techniques including perfusion weighted imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging and diffusion weighted imaging which reveal central nervous system hypoperfusion, perivascular iron deposition and diffuse structural changes in the MS brain. On a molecular basis, vascular mediators represent interesting targets connecting vascular pathology with immunomodulation. In summary, the relation of venous changes to the pathophysiology of MS may not be as simple as initially described and it certainly seems awkward to think of the complex disease MS solely as result of a simple venous outflow obstruction. Yet, the investigation of new vascular concepts as one variable in the pathophysiology of the autoimmune attack seems very worthwhile and may add to a better understanding of this devastating disorder.

  1. AspectJ in action practical aspect-oriented programming

    CERN Document Server

    Laddad, Ramnivas

    2003-01-01

    A guide to aspect-oriented programming and the AspectJ language, this book provides code examples that enable quick implementation of functionality in a system. Thorough introductions to AOP and AspectJ will help developers learn or advance their knowledge of AspectJ. Examples of everyday situations in which AspectJ solutions can be applied, such as logging, policy enforcement, resource pooling, business logic, thread-safety, authentication and authorization, and transaction management are provided. In addition, design patterns and idioms are covered, as is business rule implementation. The latest technologies, such as JEES, JAAS, and log4j, are explained and connected with AspectJ.

  2. Drift chambers and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some properties of multiwire drift chambers are reviewed. The discussion includes methods for the resolution of the left/right ambiguity, the determination of the 'second coordinate' in a drift chamber (i.e. the coordinate parallel to the anode wire) and the double track resolution. Experimental results for the performance of drift chambers operated at high and low gas pressure are reported. The second part of the report deals with the recent development of pictorial drift chambers. Two systems are described in detail: The 'jet chamber system' developed at Heidelberg and the 'time projection chamber' developed at Berkeley. Test results are presented. The aspects of particle identification in pictorial drift chambers are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Recent developments in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essentially a review of recent progress in Quantum Mechanics obtained by the ''Geneva School'', put all together in a synthesis for the first time. During these twelve last years Quantum Mechanics has developed deeply in three aspects: 1) the interpretation has been completely clarified but many ''senior'' physicists delight in the mystery of their school-days Quantum Mechanics and do not want to change their minds. 2) The formalism has been developed and generalized to many (if it is not all) physical situations. 3) Many new rules of calculation have been developed. In conclusion many paradoxes and/or unsolved problems have been solved and many calculations which usually appear just as tricks can be explained and justified. I want here to give a brief survey of each one of these three points and to end by some examples which show the power and the efficiency of this new theory. (orig.)

  4. Aspects of B physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof

  5. Aspects of Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Marteinsdo?ttir, I?na

    2003-01-01

    Social phobia is a disabling, lifelong disorder characterised by fear in social settings. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge about diagnostic, neurobiologic and epidemiologic aspects of social phobia. Thirty-two individuals were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and II psychiatric disorders, the Karolinska Scales of Personality and the Temperament and Character Inventory. Social phobia was accompanied by concurrent axis I disorders in about 2...

  6. Aspects of B physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  7. Genetic aspects of strabismus

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Rosane da Cruz; Oelrich Faye; Bateman Bronwyn

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the genetic aspects of strabismus. Methods: Ophthalmic and orthoptic evaluations were performed prospectively on 110 strabismic probands and 478 relatives. We used 3 different criteria in the diagnosis of strabismus: primary diagnosis (dx1) defined as any manifest horizontal or vertical deviation, a secondary diagnosis (dx2) including esophoria (>7 prism diopters) or exophoria (>9 prism diopters), and a tertiary diagnosis (dx3) including abnormal fusional amplitudes, acco...

  8. Electrochemical kinetics theoretical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Vetter, Klaus J

    1967-01-01

    Electrochemical Kinetics: Theoretical Aspects focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations in electrochemical kinetics. The book first offers information on electrochemical thermodynamics and the theory of overvoltage. Topics include equilibrium potentials, concepts and definitions, electrical double layer and electrocapillarity, and charge-transfer, diffusion, and reaction overvoltage. Crystallization overvoltage, total overvoltage, and resistance polarization are also discussed. The text then examines the methods of determining electrochemical reaction mechanisms

  9. Aspects of duality

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Kasper

    1999-01-01

    This thesis discusses various aspects of duality in quantum field theory and string theory. In the first part we consider duality in topological quantum field theories, concentrating on the Donaldson and Seiberg-Witten theories as (dual) approaches to the study of four-manifolds. Lower-dimensional variants of these theories are also discussed. In the second part of the thesis we discuss duality in 2D sigma models by studying the interplay between renormalization group flows ...

  10. Developing and Fostering a Dynamic Program for Training in Veterinary Pathology and Clinical Pathology: Veterinary Students to Post-graduate Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lairmore, Michael D.; Oglesbee, Michael; Weisbrode, Steve E.; Wellman, Maxey; Rosol, Thomas; Stromberg, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Recent reports project a deficiency of veterinary pathologists, indicating a need to train highly qualified veterinary pathologists, particularly in academic veterinary medicine. The need to provide high-quality research training for veterinary pathologists has been recognized by the veterinary pathology training program of the Ohio State University (OSU) since its inception. The OSU program incorporates elements of both residency training and graduate education into a unified program. This r...

  11. Interfaces with English aspect diachronic and empirical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegeler, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The field of verbal aspect has been a focus for the derivation of a multiplicity of theoretical approaches ranging over decades of linguistic research. From the point of view of recent studies, though, there has been relatively little emphasis on the nature of the interaction of aspect with other categories, and the ways in which our knowledge of aspect acts as a primary semantic contributor to the creation of other basic verbal parameters such as tense and modality. This book aims to cross some of the categorial borders, using a collection of studies on the interfaces of English aspect with o

  12. Fetal MRI of pathological brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the superior tissue contrast, high spatial resolution, and multiplanar capabilities, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict fetal brain pathologies with high accuracy. Pathological fetal brain development may result from malformations or acquired conditions. Differentiation of these etiologies is important with respect to managing the actual pregnancy or counseling future pregnancies. As a widened ventricular system is a common hallmark of both maldevelopment and acquired conditions, it may cause problems in the differential diagnosis. Fetal MRI can provide detailed morphological information, which allows refinement of the diagnosis of ventricular enlargement in a large number of cases. Systematic work-up of morphological details that may be recognized on MR images provides an approach for achieving a correct diagnosis in cases of ventricle enlargement. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of orbital and visual pathway pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of the first books to deal with imaging of pathology of the entire visual system. It is divided into two parts, general and special. In the general part, the most important basics of modern imaging methods are discussed, but with less emphasis on the physical background than in purely neuro-/radiological textbooks. Chapters are devoted to the meticulous presentation of imaging anatomy of the orbit and intracranial visual pathway. The latest knowledge on the indication, technique, and results of functional MR imaging is presented. Visual system impairment in the pediatric age group is also discussed. The special part of the book provides detailed descriptions of the symptoms and clinical and imaging findings in individual patients with orbital and intracranial pathologies. This book is specifically designed to be of value not only to neuroradiologists but also to ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, oto-/rhino-laryngologists, and neurologists who require more detailed information on these special diseases. (orig.)

  14. Modern pathology techniques in breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction of mass screening programs employing mammography resulted inmore frequent detection of small, non-palpable breast lesions. In such cases obtaining material for pathologic or cytological examination necessitates the use of special techniques, including stereotactic fine needle aspiration biopsy directed by mammography or sonography. Stereotactic mammography does also allow marking a part of the breast which should be excised and examined by mammography after excision. Small amount of pathology material from aspiration biopsy does not allow performing determination of steroid receptors with the use of standard biochemistry methods and immunochemistry techniques are advocated in these cases. One of the new tumor characteristics of potential prognostic value is the DNA ploidy, which may be measured by either flow cytometry or cell image analysis. (author)

  15. Pathology of osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathological examination of the resected femoral heads from approximately 2000 total hip replacement operations carried out at the Hospital for Joint Diseases from 1984 to 1989 identified the presence of osteonecrosis in 345 patients (377 femoral heads). In 232 patients the osteonecrosis, referred to as 'idiopathic,' had occurred in the absence of a subcapital fracture. The present paper describes the pathology of the necrotic lesions in these 232 patients. The use of undecalcified sections and microradiography provides evidence of bone marrow calcification which, at the margin of the lesion, is sufficient to influence the radiographic features of the lesion significantly. Although a subchondral fracture is an almost constant feature of osteonecrosis when it occurs in a femoral head with a normal articular cartilage, no such fracture was found in cases in which osteonecrosis had occurred in an osteoarthritic joint. (orig.)

  16. Doppler flow patterns in pediatric pulmonary pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate, in a number of pediatric lung diseases, a series of Doppler flow patterns according to their pulmonary or systemic origin, assessing the morphology of the spectral curve. We have reviewed the Doppler studies carried out in 22 patients with a variety of pulmonary pathologies, including several pulmonary abnormalities: three cases of sequestration, four cases of pulmonary vein drainage problems (one with no evidence of associated pulmonary abnormality, two with scimitar syndrome and one variant with accessory diaphragm), one case of cystic adenomatoid malformation, three cases of metastatic neoplastic lesion, one case of hydatid cyst and 10 cases of infections pathology and atelectasis, the underlying causes of which were unknown. We have found four basis patterns of pulmonary or systemic arterial and venous vascularization in ultrasonographic studies. We conclude that the use of Doppler ultrasound associated with standard ultrasonography is a very helpful tool in the initial diagnosis of pulmonary vascularization abnormalities. (Author)

  17. Clinical syndromes with variable pathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Frederick T

    2007-02-01

    Frequently, placentas sent for pathologic examination include a clinical diagnosis that does not suggest a specific placental lesion. Pathologists who do not have great experience in this field may need some assistance with selecting the pertinent placental lesions to look for. This brief outline is included to define these conditions and present a list of the specific placental lesions that deserve consideration. The placental examination should be directed with the goal of identifying or noting and recording specifically the presence or absence of the relevant pathologic lesions. The syndromes or conditions considered in this context include neonatal encephalopathy, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, maternal diabetes mellitus, thrombophilias, HELLP syndrome, and fetal hydrops. PMID:17455861

  18. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Anterior Mediastinal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine, Jeff S.

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This specific case involves the evaluation of a fifty-seven year old female patient with an anterior mediastinal mass. From the patient's history we are aware of family history of Zollinger Ellison syndrome, and gastrinoma. It is also known that the patient has hyperparathyroidism and a 2 cm prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma. Clinical laboratory data, FNA cytology results, gross and microscopic descriptions, and images are all included to aid in the diagnosis. The official diagnosis is also included, which allows students to check their own conclusions. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

  20. [Pathology and pathologists in fiction revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizze, H

    2008-11-01

    Pathology and pathologists are rarely the subjects of works of fiction. In the existing sources, the kind of representation naturally depends on the occupations and attitudes of the respective authors. The surgeon and gynecologist Carl Ludwig Schleich recollected Rudolf Virchow's free and easy handling of an autopsy assistant and his simultaneous understanding for a mourning husband. The dermatologist Gottfried Benn processed his disturbing impressions of pathology as an expressionistic dialogue between professor and students, with a violent ending. The writer and dramatic adviser Günther Weisenborn recalled unpleasant details about the autopsy course in his earlier medical studies, which he linked with individual views about the life of a deceased young woman. Praise, so to speak, to the dissecting pathologist have been sensitively written by the lawyer Maxence van der Meersch and by the surgeon Peter Bamm. Finally, the bestselling novelist Arthur Hailey gives an excellent fictional portrayal of the microscopic pathologist in The Final Diagnosis. PMID:18810439

  1. Pathology Case Study: Large Anterior Abdominal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkar, Irina

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 72 year old woman who presents with a three day history of constipation and a five year history of a large anterior abdominal mass in the right lower quadrant. Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, hospital treatment course, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

  2. Frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen section diagnosis is extensively used in various branches of pathology, but its application in ophthalmic pathology was recognised only in the 1970s. We studied 10 sections of ocular and adenexal lesions by frozen section diagnosis, which included orbital lesions (4 cases, lid lesions (3 cases, and intraocular tissue (1 case. The time taken for processing ranged between 10 to 15 minutes. Diagnoses based on frozen section evaluation included lymphoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, solar keratosis, compound naevus, silicone oil globules in cataractous lens, neurofibromatosis, pseudotumour, retinoblastoma, and chronic blepharitis. Although further histopathologic examination correlated well with the frozen section (100% observations, the diagnosis was deferred in the case of naevus and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Our study shows that frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic surgery is quite reliable and is particularly useful in ocular adenexal lesions

  3. What would my avatar do? Gaming, pathology, and risky decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KiraBailey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has revealed a relationship between pathological video game use and increased impulsivity among children and adolescents. A few studies have also demonstrated increased risk-taking outside of the video game environment following game play, but this work has largely focused on one genre of video games (i.e., racing. Motivated by these findings, the aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between pathological and non-pathological video game use, impulsivity, and risky decision making. The current study also investigated the relationship between experience with two of the most popular genres of video games (i.e., first-person shooter and strategy and risky decision making. Consistent with previous work, approximately 7% of the current sample of college-aged adults met criteria for pathological video game use. The number of hours spent gaming per week was associated with increased impulsivity on a self-report measure and on the temporal discounting task. This relationship was sensitive to the genre of video game; specifically, experience with first-person shooter games was positively correlated with impulsivity, while experience with strategy games was negatively correlated with impulsivity. Hours per week and pathological symptoms predicted greater risk-taking in the risk task and the Iowa Gambling task, accompanied by worse overall performance, indicating that even when risky choices did not pay off, individuals who spent more time gaming and endorsed more symptoms of pathological gaming continued to make these choices. Based on these data, we suggest that the presence of pathological symptoms and the genre of video game (e.g., first-person shooter, strategy may be important factors in determining how the amount of game experience relates to impulsivity and risky-decision making.

  4. Pathologies Associated with the p53 Response

    OpenAIRE

    Gudkov, Andrei V.; Komarova, Elena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although p53 is a major cancer preventive factor, under certain extreme stress conditions it may induce severe pathologies. Analyses of animal models indicate that p53 is largely responsible for the toxicity of ionizing radiation or DNA damaging drugs contributing to hematopoietic component of acute radiation syndrome and largely determining severe adverse effects of cancer treatment. p53-mediated damage is strictly tissue specific and occurs in tissues prone to p53-dependent apoptosis (e.g.,...

  5. Executive function abnormalities in pathological gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Mungai Francesco; Vivarelli Laura; Consoli Giorgio; Conversano Ciro; Catena Dell'Osso Mario; Marazziti Donatella; Di Nasso Elena; Golia Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder characterized by persistent and maladaptive gambling behaviors with disruptive consequences for familial, occupational and social functions. The pathophysiology of PG is still unclear, but it is hypothesized that it might include environmental factors coupled with a genetic vulnerability and dysfunctions of different neurotransmitters and selected brain areas. Our study aimed to evaluate a group of patients sufferin...

  6. [Value of echography in salivary pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P

    1991-05-01

    Major advances in echography techniques over the past few years include the development of simple high performance units adapted to investigating the salivary glands. This non-traumatic, painless and inexpensive technique offers a means of rapid examination and is fully complementary to X-ray and xero and sialographic imagery, particularly in tumor pathology. The author gives a review of normal images then presents different lesions of the salivary gland. PMID:1880766

  7. Cytotoxic edema: mechanisms of pathological cell swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Danny; Bhatta, Sergei; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2007-01-01

    Cerebral edema is caused by a variety of pathological conditions that affect the brain. It is associated with two separate pathophysiological processes with distinct molecular and physiological antecedents: those related to cytotoxic (cellular) edema of neurons and astrocytes, and those related to transcapillary flux of Na+ and other ions, water, and serum macromolecules. In this review, the authors focus exclusively on the first of these two processes. Cytotoxic edema results from unchecked ...

  8. The pathology of meconium ileus equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Lev, R.

    1984-01-01

    A case of meconium ileus equivalent in a 25-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis is reported and the pathology of this condition is described. On gross examination the lumen of the terminal ileum was completely obstructed by a mass of inspissated faecal material with a putty-like consistency. The principal microscopic findings were plugging of the mucosal crypts with mucoid secretion, distention of goblet cells and the presence of a thick layer of mucus, admixed with faecal material, adherent ...

  9. Colorectal cancer pathology reporting: a regional audit

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, A. D.; Biffin, A. H.; Mella, J.; Radcliffe, A. G.; Stamatakis, J. D.; Steele, R. J.; Williams, G. T.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To audit the information content of pathology reports of colorectal cancer specimens in one National Health Service region. METHODS: All reports of colorectal cancer resection specimens from the 17 NHS histopathology laboratories in Wales during 1993 were evaluated against: (a) standards previously agreed as desirable by pathologists in Wales; and (b) standards considered to be the minimum required for informed patient management. RESULTS: 1242 reports were audited. There was notable va...

  10. Causalgia, pathological pain, and adrenergic receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Perl, Edward R.

    1999-01-01

    Control of expression of molecular receptors for chemical messengers and modulation of these receptors’ activity are now established as ways to alter cellular reaction. This paper extends these mechanisms to the arena of pathological pain by presenting the hypothesis that increased expression of ?-adrenergic receptors in primary afferent neurons is part of the etiology of pain in classical causalgia. It is argued that partial denervation by lesion of peripheral ...

  11. Pathology of Captive Moustached Tamarins (Saguinus mystax)

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Cheng, Lily I.; Claire, Marisa E. St; Ward, Jerrold M.; Elkins, William R.

    2008-01-01

    The pathology of 33 moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax) previously used in hepatitis A and GB virus studies is reported. Chronic lesions in colon, heart, and kidney were common in the monkeys and appeared not to be due to the experimental exposures. Colitis cystica profunda (CCP), a disease that affects humans and is characterized by the presence of mucin-filled epithelial downgrowths and cysts in the colonic submucosa, was found in 24 of the 33 (72.7%) tamarins. Interstitial myocardial fib...

  12. Malignant Mesothelioma: Clinical, Pathological and Radiological Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Ye?im Y?ld?r?m; Özgür Katranc?o?lu; Hüseyin Lakadamyal?; Feride Sapmaz; ?sa Döngel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a tumor of locally invasive character and of fatal course, frequently arising following asbest exposure. In the present study we attempted to retrospectively evaluate the clinical, pathological, and radiological findings of 27 cases diagnosed with MPM. Material and Method: 27 cases diagnosed with MPM in our medical facility have been included into the study, 14 females, and 13 males. Of the cases, 4 have been diagnosed based on transthoracic pleural biop...

  13. Pathology and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Safaee A; Moghimi-dehkordi B; Sr, Fatemi; Ghiasi S; MR Zali

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. During the past decades, survival of colorectal cancer patients has improved worldwide, however, it is not clear what factors have contributed to this development. This study was designed to ev aluate the prognostic impact of a wide spectrum of pathologic parameters on survival rate in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: 1127 patients with colorectal cancer who re...

  14. Neurofibrillary pathology and aluminum in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, R. W.; Lee, V. M. Y.; Trojanowski, J. Q.

    1995-01-01

    Since the first reports of aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration in experimental animals, extensive studies have been performed to clarify the role played by aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional evidence implicating aluminum in AD includes elevated levels of aluminum in the AD brain, epidemiological data linking aluminum exposure to AD, and interactions between aluminum and protein components in the pathological lesions o...

  15. Communication Pathology building : virtual model, night view

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbe, S.

    2008-01-01

    A German immigrant, W H Fleischman, was commissioned by the Department of Public Works in the 1930s to design a building to house the Weather Bureau. In 1963 Government donated the building to the University and in 1965 it became the home of the Department of Communication Pathology. The building also houses the Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication. The design of the building reflects a strong international influence and elements of the German Bauhaus style.

  16. Communication Pathology building : virtual model day view

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbe, S.

    2008-01-01

    A German immigrant, W H Fleischman, was commissioned by the Department of Public Works in the 1930s to design a building to house the Weather Bureau. In 1963 Government donated the building to the University and in 1965 it became the home of the Department of Communication Pathology. The building also houses the Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication. The design of the building reflects a strong international influence and elements of the German Bauhaus style.

  17. Coupling Metrics for Aspect Oriented Programming -A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrappa Sirbi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metrics are an important technique in quantifying desirable software and software development characteristics of aspect- oriented software development (AOSD.Over the last few years, a growing number of studies have explored how Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP might impact software maintainability. In this paper, we present a systematic review of recent AO programs and designs metrics studies. We look at attributes most frequently used as indicators of maintainability in current aspect-oriented (AO programs. In this review work consolidates data from recent research results, highlights circumstances when the applied metrics suitable to AO programs and draws attention to deficiencies where AO metrics need to be improved.

  18. Pathological and Evolutionary Implications of Retroviruses as Mobile Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Brown

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses, a form of mobile genetic elements, have important roles in disease and primate evolution. Exogenous retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, have significant pathological implications that have created a massive public health challenge in recent years. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, which are the primary focus of this review, can also be pathogenic, as well as being beneficial to a host in some cases. Furthermore, retroviruses may have played a key role in primate evolution that resulted in the incorporation of these elements into the human genome. Retroviruses are mobile genetic elements that have important roles in disease and primate evolution. We will further discuss the pathogenic potential of retroviruses, including their role in cancer biology, and will briefly summarize their evolutionary implications.

  19. Innate Immune Programing by Endotoxin and Its Pathological Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C.; Gilliam, Elizabeth A.; Li, Liwu

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages play pivotal roles in inflammation and homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that dynamic programing of macrophages and monocytes may give rise to distinct “memory” states. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a classical pattern recognition molecule, dynamically programs innate immune responses. Emerging studies have revealed complex dynamics of cellular responses to LPS, with high doses causing acute, resolving inflammation, while lower doses are associated with low-grade and chronic non-resolving inflammation. These phenomena hint at dynamic complexities of intra-cellular signaling circuits downstream of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this review, we examine pathological effects of varying LPS doses with respect to the dynamics of innate immune responses and key molecular regulatory circuits responsible for these effects. PMID:25610440

  20. Typhoid fever - clinical and endoscopic aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Murinello; A., Morbey; J. Figueira, Coelho; P., Mendonça; A. C., Pires; V. Magalhães, Ramalho; N. Carrilho, Ribeiro; A., Lázaro; H., Peres; J., Netta.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre tifóide é uma infecção intestinal causada pela Salmonella typhi, manifestada por quadro septicémico, ocorrendo incidência elevada de casos em regiões com deficientes condições sanitárias, através do consumo de água e alimentos contaminados por fezes de indivíduos doentes ou portadores assint [...] omáticos. Em países desenvolvidos os casos verificados são geralmente “importados”. A observação endoscópica das ulcerações da ileocolite tífica tem sido raramente descrita, não havendo referências prévias em Portugal da documentação colonoscópica das ulcerações tíficas. Baseados num caso clínico, os autores fazem uma revisão sobre febre tifóide, no que concerne à patogenia, histopatologia, quadro clínico, aspectos endoscópicos das ulcerações, e terapêutica antibiótica aconselhada nos casos de estirpes de Salmonella typhi sensíveis ou resistentes a vários grupos de antibióticos. Abstract in english Typhoid fever is an enteric disease due to Salmonella typhi, presenting as a septicaemic illness, affecting an elevated number of people living in regions with poor sanitary conditions, acquired through the ingestion of water and food contaminated by feces of acutely ill patients or chronic carriers [...] of the microorganism. In developed countries the disease is usually “imported”. Colonoscopic demonstration of ulcerations of typhoid ileocolitis is scarcely referred in medical literature, and there are no previous references to endoscopic aspects of typhoid ileocolitis in Portugal. Based on this, the authors review typhoid fever as far as are pathogeny, pathology, clinical picture and colonoscopic aspects are concerned as well as therapy recommended for susceptible and resistant strains of Salmonella typhi.

  1. Typhoid fever - clinical and endoscopic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murinello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is an enteric disease due to Salmonella typhi, presenting as a septicaemic illness, affecting an elevated number of people living in regions with poor sanitary conditions, acquired through the ingestion of water and food contaminated by feces of acutely ill patients or chronic carriers of the microorganism. In developed countries the disease is usually “imported”. Colonoscopic demonstration of ulcerations of typhoid ileocolitis is scarcely referred in medical literature, and there are no previous references to endoscopic aspects of typhoid ileocolitis in Portugal. Based on this, the authors review typhoid fever as far as are pathogeny, pathology, clinical picture and colonoscopic aspects are concerned as well as therapy recommended for susceptible and resistant strains of Salmonella typhi.A febre tifóide é uma infecção intestinal causada pela Salmonella typhi, manifestada por quadro septicémico, ocorrendo incidência elevada de casos em regiões com deficientes condições sanitárias, através do consumo de água e alimentos contaminados por fezes de indivíduos doentes ou portadores assintomáticos. Em países desenvolvidos os casos verificados são geralmente “importados”. A observação endoscópica das ulcerações da ileocolite tífica tem sido raramente descrita, não havendo referências prévias em Portugal da documentação colonoscópica das ulcerações tíficas. Baseados num caso clínico, os autores fazem uma revisão sobre febre tifóide, no que concerne à patogenia, histopatologia, quadro clínico, aspectos endoscópicos das ulcerações, e terapêutica antibiótica aconselhada nos casos de estirpes de Salmonella typhi sensíveis ou resistentes a vários grupos de antibióticos.

  2. Pathological conditions associated with rhinitis medicamentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloševi? Dušanka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinitis medicamentosa (nose-drop-nose" is a term used for pathological condition of the nasal mucous membrane that results from long-term abuse with intranasal vasoconstrictors. The aim of this work was to examine what lead the patients with nosedropnose rhinitis to the initial usage of intranasal vasoactive drugs, in this prospective study, 92 patients with rhinitis medicamentosa were included. The evaluation of all study subjects comprised the history, ORL, microbiological and radiological examination, skin prick tests with a battery of routine respiratory and nutritive allergens and nasal cytology. The results of this study showed that the pathological conditions for initial use of intranasal vasoactive drugs were: acute upper respiratory infections in 293%, vasomotor rhinitis in 21.7%, allergic rhinitis in 16.3%, deviated nasal septum in 13.0%, nasal polyposis in 12%, rhinitis induced by mechanical trauma in 4.4%, and hormonal rhinitis in 3.3% of patients with rhinitis medicamentosa. In conclusion, the most common pathological conditions for developing rhinitis medicamentosa were chronic inflammatory and structural diseases manifested by permanent nasal obstruction as well as acute upper respiratory infections are.

  3. Capturing clinically significant eating pathology in adolescence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rasmus, Isomaa; Anna-Lisa, Isomaa; Mauri, Marttunen; Riittakerttu, Kaltiala-Heino.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Several large-scale studies on adolescent mental health have used questionnaire items derived from DSM-IV criteria to assess eating disorders. The aim of the present brief report was to analyse the capacity of self-reported eating disorder symptoms to capture clinically si [...] gnificant eating disorders. Methods: All pupils in the ninth grade (N = 606, response rate 98.2%, mean age = 15.4) of comprehensive school in a defined area were invited to participate in the study. Adolescents who reported some form of eating pathology (n = 126) were invited to an interview (RAB). Results: Anorexia based on the self-report resulted in a positive predictive value of 60.0% for lifetime and 20% for current eating disorder, when compared to the results in the RAB. No case of BN was detected by the RAB, but self-reported BN symptoms were predictive of both EDNOS and subclinical eating pathology. Conclusions: Self-reported eating disorder symptoms seem to be relatively good predictors of broadly defined eating pathology, but may result in overestimation of clinical conditions.

  4. Design patterns as aspects: a quantitative assessment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudio, Sant' Anna; Alessandro, Garcia; Uirá, Kulesza; Carlos, Lucena; Arndt von, Staa.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Design patterns offer flexible solutions to common problems in software development. Recent studies have shown that several design patterns involve crosscutting concerns. Unfortunately, object-oriented (OO) abstractions are often not able to modularize those crosscutting concerns, which in turn decr [...] ease the system reusability and maintainability. Hence, it is important verifying whether aspect-oriented approaches support improved modularization of crosscutting concerns relative to design patterns. Ideally, quantitative studies should be performed to compare object-oriented and aspect-oriented implementations of classical patterns with respect to important software engineering attributes, such as coupling and cohesion. This paper presents a quantitative study that compares aspect-based and OO solutions for a representative set of design patterns. We have used stringent software engineering attributes as the assessment criteria. We have found that most aspect-oriented solutions improve separation of pattern-related concerns, although some aspect-oriented implementations of specific patterns resulted in higher coupling and more lines of code.

  5. The distal semimembranosus complex: normal MR anatomy, variants, biomechanics and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, Javier; Jbara, Marlena; Maimon, Ron [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 Tenth Avenue, NY 11219, Brooklyn (United States); Matityahu, Amir; Hwang, Ki [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Padron, Mario [Department of Radiology, Clinica CEMTRO, Madrid (Spain); Mota, Javier [Department of Radiology, Instituto Clinica Corachan, Barcelona (Spain); Beltran, Luis [New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2003-08-01

    To describe the normal MR anatomy and variations of the distal semimembranosus tendinous arms and the posterior oblique ligament as seen in the three orthogonal planes, to review the biomechanics of this complex and to illustrate pathologic examples. The distal semimembranosus tendon divides into five tendinous arms named the anterior, direct, capsular, inferior and the oblique popliteal ligament. These arms intertwine with the branches of the posterior oblique ligament in the posterior medial aspect of the knee, providing stability. This tendon-ligamentous complex also acts synergistically with the popliteus muscle and actively pulls the posterior horn of the medial meniscus during knee flexion. Pathologic conditions involving this complex include complete and partial tears, insertional tendinosis, avulsion fractures and bursitis. (orig.)

  6. A New Approach to the Treatment of Combined Pathology of Male Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Artifexov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to develop an adequate pathogenetically supported algorithm of correction of combined pathology of male sexuality relying on pathogenetic aspects of its formation. Materials and methods. There were analyzed the treatment results of 120 men with chronic prostatitis, prostatic hyperplasia, and impotency. 60 men received traditional treatment, and 60 men were treated according to the developed algorithm. Results. The proposed algorithm of combined therapy of sexual pathology, including chronic diseases of the prostate gland and sexual dysfunction with primary correction of sexual status taking into account the specificity of pathogenesis in each case was found to be reliably more effective than the attempts to restore sexual status under traditional urologic approaches aimed at minimizing symptoms indicating at first glance a possible organic lesions of the prostate gland.

  7. Legal aspects of the hydraulic fracturing method

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Duraj

    2011-01-01

    In recent months the possibility of extracting shale gas by way of the hydraulic fracturing method in Poland as well as across EU territory has been widely discussed. The European Parliament is to decide whether to ban this method. There are various legal, ecological and economical aspects influencing European legislators. It is hard not to notice how strongly the anti- and pro- hydraulic fracturing lobbies are connected with business. At the moment there are no specific regulations that rela...

  8. Atopic dermatitis : Aspects of defence defects

    OpenAIRE

    Hagstro?mer, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease, typically with a chronic relapsing course and a defective skin barrier function. Recently, mutations of the skin barrier gene encoding filaggrin have been reported in a portion of the patients. In this thesis some aspects of defence defects in AD were studied. In paper I, the risk of developing any cancer was increased by 13%. Excess risks were observed for cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, brain, and lung and for...

  9. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  10. Strategic Aspects of Bundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)

  11. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  12. Radiological aspects of Arthroplasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of new surgical techniques, of new prosthetic materials, and the increase in life expectancy with greater coverage of health services has ugmented the performance of hip replacements in our country. The radiologist should be familiar with the different surgical techniques and prosthetic devices, the evaluation of its components and associated complications. The most frequently performed arthroplasties are: shoulder, elbow, hip and knee replacement. This article reviews the most frequent prosthetic devices used, the radiological aspects of arthroplasties and their most common complications.

  13. Theoretical aspects of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Michael W; Hejazi, Pooya

    2010-01-01

    The immune system recognizes a myriad of invading pathogens and their toxic products. It does so with a finite repertoire of antibodies and T cell receptors. We here describe theories that quantify the dynamics of the immune system. We describe how the immune system recognizes antigens by searching the large space of receptor molecules. We consider in some detail the theories that quantify the immune response to influenza and dengue fever. We review theoretical descriptions of the complementary evolution of pathogens that occurs in response to immune system pressure. Methods including bioinformatics, molecular simulation, random energy models, and quantum field theory contribute to a theoretical understanding of aspects of immunity. PMID:22432581

  14. Radiographic aspects of xeroradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of a conventional radiographic image can be characterized in terms of five basic parameters; density, contrast, latitude, resolution and noise. Since xeroradiographic images exhibit very limited broad area contrasts, and image formation is predominantly due to edge enhancement, a straightforward description of image quality using the same five parameters is not adequate. A detailed study was made of the radiographic aspects of xeroradiography with special reference to mammography, and a summary of major findings to date with appropriate references to published papers is presented

  15. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  16. Aspects of Insider Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter; Bishop, Matt

    The insider threat has received considerable attention, and is often cited as the most serious security problem. It is also considered the most difficult problem to deal with, because an "insider" has information and capabilities not known to external attackers. The difficulty in handling the insider threat is reasonable under those circumstances; if one cannot define a problem precisely, how can one approach a solution, let alone know when the problem is solved? This chapter presents some aspects of insider threats, collected at an inter-disciplinary workshop in 2008.

  17. Aspects of Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The insider threat has received considerable attention, and is often cited as the most serious security problem. It is also considered the most difficult problem to deal with, because an “insider” has information and capabilities not known to external attackers. The difficulty in handling the insider threat is unsurprising under those circumstances; if one cannot define a problem precisely, how can one approach a solution, let alone know when the problem is solved? This chapter presents some aspects of insider threats, collected at an inter-disciplinary workshop in 2008.

  18. Solar neutrinos. Astrophysical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a short pedagogical introduction to some aspects of the solar neutrino problem. The basic attention is concentrated on a qualitative consideration of the pp and CNO reactions responsible for hydrogen burning in the Sun, starting from an elementary derivation of the formula for the nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rate. We outline the physical content of the standard solar models, the problem of chemical composition of the Sun, expected neutrino energy spectrum, radial distributions of the neutrino fluxes in the Sun, and uncertainties in the predicted neutrino event rates

  19. Aspects of symmetry violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violations of symmetries have been used to determine (or test) the theoretical dynamics or to study structure. Recent experiments on parity non-conservation and time reversal symmetry, and that depend on spin properties, are used to illustrate both applications

  20. Cost Analysis on Imaging Diagnostic Techniques in Cerebral and Abdominal Neonatal Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina BOTAR-JID

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improvement of health care quality and cost control are the main aims of the health care reform in Romania. Objective: The aims of the research are to analyse the trend of costs for imaging techniques used as diagnostic tools for cerebral and abdominal neonatal pathology and to study the relationship between cost and diagnostic benefits. Design: This is a retrospective observational study design without a control group, conducted in the Radio-Imaging Department, Cluj District University Hospital, Romania, from October 2000 to February 2006. Patients: The study population was represented by neonates investigated in the Radio-Imaging Department, Cluj District University Hospital. Intervention: Five imaging diagnostic techniques used in the diagnosis of cerebral and abdominal neonatal pathology were investigated. Measurements: The costs of the investigated techniques were calculated. The concordance between clinical and imaging diagnostic was recorded. Results: Magnetic resonance proved to be the most expensive investigation. The rate between the raising of costs on investigation type on year was constant. The average cost of imaging investigations for patients with identified pathological aspects (€ 42.72 was not statistically significant (p > 0.05 compared with the average cost for patients with no pathologic imaging aspects (€ 37.62. The concordance between the clinical suspicion and the radio-imaging diagnosis was of 52.35%. Conclusions: The raise of radio-imaging investigation costs had a decreasing tendency over the years studied, decrease explained by the stabilization of the Romanian monetary market. The results on concordance analysis lead to the necessity of training of both clinicians and radiologists.

  1. Recent evolutions of refrigerating machineries and heat pumps; Evolutions recentes des machines a froid et thermopompes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 10 papers (or series of transparencies) concerning some recent developments about refrigerating machineries and heat pumps as used in space heating, air-conditioning and industrial refrigeration. Various aspects are developed: thermodynamic cycles, thermal performances, dimensioning, modeling, refrigerants substitution, design of flanged exchangers, compressors etc.. (J.S.)

  2. TESTICULAR CANCER – CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE PATHOLOGY PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marinca

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer (TC may originate in the structure of the seminiferous tubule or the interstitial tissue, but the vast majority (> 95% arise from the germinal epithelium. Germ cell tumors (GCT are classified as seminomas (S, 50% of TC, non-seminomas (NS, 40%, and tumors composed of several cell lines (mixed-type tumors, MT, 10%. We reevaluated the available specimens for 39 cases of GCT (15 S, 12 NS, 12 MT. The major distinction to be made was between pure S and NS (including MT, but additional data were obtained in order to assess and quantify several other histological features of potential interest (share of different tumor subtypes, cytoplasm staining, intratumoral necrosis, lymphocytic infiltration, invasion of tunica albuginea and rete testis, tumor emboli, spermatogenesis not evaluated during the initial (diagnostic examination. Their impact on disease-free (DFS and overall survival (OS was also evaluated. Mean follow-up duration was 47.11 months (range 4.73-104.0 months. We found the vascular component of the tumor (p=0,034 to be linked to DFS of NS and only the lymphocytic infiltrate (p=0,0001 to both DFS and OS in S. The pathology exam can be considered as an independent prognostic factor of utmost importance in TC, and might need to include additional information about these two aspects and possibly others, but research on a larger number of patients is needed.

  3. Primary Ileocaecal Lymphoma: Clinico Pathological Features And Result of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokat H.Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad, N.A. Wani, Mohd Y.Kharadi, Azra Shah, Gul javed, T.J.Qureshi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to establish the clinico-pathological features and response totreatment in primary ileocaecal lymphomas. Fifteen patients with primary ileocaecal lymphomawere analyzed with respect to clinical presentation, histopathological aspects and response to varioustreatment modalities. Abdominal pain and a palpable abdominal mass were the commonest presentingfeatures. Ten (66.66% patients had clinical stage liE disease, four (26.66% had stage IE, and onepatient (6.66% had stage IV disease. Malignant lymphoma small lymphocytic (MLSL was presentin 40% of patients followed by malignant lymphoma diffuse large cell (MLDLC in 26.26% andmalignant lymphoma diffuse small cleaved cell (MLDSC in 20% ofpatients. Malignant lymphomadiffuse mixed (MLDM and malignant lymphoma lymphoblastic (MLL was present in 6.66% ofpatients in each. All the patients underwent laparotomy with 14 undergoing surgical resection whichincluded resection of terminal ileum. In one patient only, a biopsy was taken. Combinationchemotherapy (CCT, 4 to 6 cycles ofCHOP/CVP was used in all the patients. Three patients withpersistent residual disease after surgery and CCT were treated with 35 Grays (Gy ofexternal beamradiotherapy on a tele-cobalt unit at 80 cms ofsource to skin distance. Eleven (73% patients remaineddisease free at 10 months to 14 years from the start of treatment. The survival trends indicate apoorer outcome for more advanced cl inical stage. A well designed prospective and randomized trialbased on a large number of patients is essential to work out an optimal management policy inprimary ileocaecal lymphoma.

  4. Jogo patológico e motivação para mudança de comportamento / Pathological gambling and motivation for behavior change

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Cauduro de, Souza; Jaqueline Garcia da, Silva; Margareth da Silva, Oliveira; Simone Armentano, Bittencourt; Suzana Dias, Freire.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Jogo Patológico é um transtorno com impacto significativo na sociedade, acarretando prejuízos sociais, financeiros e emocionais aos indivíduos. Neste artigo, realizou-se uma revisão sobre a patologia que envolve o hábito de jogar e as possibilidades terapêuticas envolvidas, principalmente o aspect [...] o motivacional como fator essencial no tratamento. Considerando que a motivação para mudança é um importante aspecto a ser considerado na elaboração de estratégias e intervenções nesta patologia, a presente revisão relaciona o Jogo Patológico com o tema da motivação para mudança. Foram consultadas as bases de dados Pschynfo, Web of Science, Medline e Lilacs com os descritores pathological gambling, gamblers, treatment, stages of change, motivational interviewing e readiness to change, entre 1990 e 2008. Também foram analisados livros e artigos que não se encontravam nas referências das fontes indexadas. Da literatura científica pesquisada, observou-se que a maioria dos estudos sugere mais pesquisas com ensaios controlados para tratamento desta patologia e ressalta que a motivação do paciente parece ser fundamental como fator preditivo em qualquer modalidade terapêutica. Abstract in english Pathological Gambling is a disorder with a significant impact on society, causing social, financial and emotional injuries to individuals. In this paper, we conducted a review of scientific literature on Pathological Gambling, focusing on aspects related to this disorder, and its therapeutic possibi [...] lities, especially the motivational aspect as an essential factor to treatment. Considering motivation to change as an important issue to be considered in order to develop treatment strategies and interventions for this disorder, this review related Pathological Gambling to motivation to change. The following databases were consulted: Pschynfo, Web of Science, Medline and Lilacs; using the keywords pathological gambling, gamblers, treatment, stages of change, motivational interviewing and readiness to change, between 1990 and 2008. We also examined books and articles that were not in the references of the indexed sources. From the scientific literature searched, it was observed that most studies suggest the need for more research with controlled trials to treat this condition; and the motivation of the patient appears to be crucial as a predictive factor in any therapeutic modality.

  5. Differential equations and applications recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Differential Equations and Applications : Recent Advances focus on the latest developments in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems, Neural Networks, Fluid Dynamics, Fractional Differential Systems, Mathematical Modelling and Qualitative Theory. Different aspects such as Existence, Stability, Controllability, Viscosity and Numerical Analysis for different systems have been discussed in this book. This book will be of great interest and use to researchers in Applied Mathematics, Engineering and Mathematical Physics.

  6. Tau immunotherapy modulates both pathological tau and upstream amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Carranza, Diana L; Guerrero-Muñoz, Marcos J; Sengupta, Urmi; Hernandez, Caterina; Barrett, Alan D T; Dineley, Kelly; Kayed, Rakez

    2015-03-25

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathological accumulation of tau appears to be a downstream effect of amyloid ? protein (A?). However, the relationship between these two proteins and memory loss is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the specific removal of pathological tau oligomers in aged Tg2576 mice by passive immunotherapy using tau oligomer-specific monoclonal antibody. Removal of tau oligomers reversed memory deficits and accelerated plaque deposition in the brain. Surprisingly, A?*56 levels decreased, suggesting a link between tau and A? oligomers in the promotion of cognitive decline. The results suggest that tau oligomerization is not only a consequence of A? pathology but also a critical mediator of the toxic effects observed afterward in AD. Overall, these findings support the potential of tau oligomers as a therapeutic target for AD. PMID:25810517

  7. Characterization of knee meniscal pathology: correlation of gross, histologic, biochemical, molecular, and radiographic measures of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Brandon L; Monibi, Farrah A; Stoker, Aaron M; Kuroki, Keiichi; Bal, B Sonny; Cook, James L

    2015-04-01

    Meniscal pathology is an extremely prevalent problem, which inevitably leads to osteoarthritis and associated pain, swelling, and disability. Relatively little data are available regarding the molecular, biochemical, and histologic aspects of meniscal disease. This study characterizes meniscal pathology in the presence of symptomatic osteoarthritis and correlates clinical and basic science data in an attempt to delineate clinically relevant mechanisms of disease. Twenty-seven knees from 23 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty comprised the affected group and 6 aged nonsymptomatic knees were used as controls. All meniscal tissues were harvested and subjectively scored for gross and histologic pathology. Biochemical analyses were performed to determine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, collagen (hydroxyproline) content, and water content. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted for genes involved in synthesis (collagens [col] 1, 2, 3, and 6), degradation (matrix metalloproteinases [MMP-1, -2, -3, -13]), and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor). Weight-bearing, anterior-posterior radiographic views were used to determine joint space measurements for lateral and medial compartments, and were subjectively scored for osteoarthritic changes. Data were compared for statistically significant differences and to determine the presence and strength of correlations among variables assessed. Affected menisci had significantly higher gross and histologic pathology scores compared with control menisci. Affected menisci had significantly higher water, proteoglycan, and collagen content compared with control menisci. Col 1, 3, and 6 gene expression levels for the affected group were significantly increased compared with controls. MMP-13 expression was significantly increased for the affected group. MMP-2 and -3 expression levels were significantly lower in the affected group compared with controls. The affected group had significantly more joint space narrowing and higher radiographic scores for medial compared with lateral compartments. Several strong and moderately strong correlations were present between variables. These data suggest that in vitro measures of meniscal pathology have potential value for understanding disease mechanisms and predicting clinical disease. PMID:24807193

  8. IFPA meeting 2014 workshop report: Animal models to study pregnancy pathologies; new approaches to study human placental exposure to xenobiotics; biomarkers of pregnancy pathologies; placental genetics and epigenetics; the placenta and stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaux, S; Erwich, J J H M; Favaron, P O; Gil, S; Gallot, D; Golos, T G; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Guibourdenche, J; Heazell, A E P; Jansson, T; Laprévote, O; Lewis, R M; Miller, R K; Monk, D; Novakovic, B; Oudejans, C; Parast, M; Peugnet, P; Pfarrer, C; Pinar, H; Roberts, C T; Robinson, W; Saffery, R; Salomon, C; Sexton, A; Staff, A C; Suter, M; Tarrade, A; Wallace, J; Vaillancourt, C; Vaiman, D; Worton, S A; Lash, G E

    2015-04-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2014 there were six themed workshops, five of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of animal models, xenobiotics, pathological biomarkers, genetics and epigenetics, and stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25703592

  9. Clowns benefit children hospitalized for respiratory pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Mario; Isola, Elena; Paolone, Giuseppe; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children to the control group (CG). During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings. PMID:21785637

  10. Recent research on the heavy transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is devoted to recent research (performed in the 1980s) on the heavy members of the group, defined as the transcurium elements (with a few references to related work on lighter elements). It covers the discovery of the three heaviest elements, the discovery of new isotopes, investigation of interesting decay properties of some previously known isotopes, investigations of some heavy ion reaction mechanisms in this region, and recent investigations of nuclear and chemical properties. It is not exhaustive in its coverage, is necessarily succinct, and inevitably places emphasis on those aspects with which the author is most familiar. 92 refs., 3 figs

  11. Recent advances in shoulder research

    OpenAIRE

    Killian, Megan L.; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Galatz, Leesa M.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Shoulder pathology is a growing concern for the aging population, athletes, and laborers. Shoulder osteoarthritis and rotator cuff disease represent the two most common disorders of the shoulder leading to pain, disability, and degeneration. While research in cartilage regeneration has not yet been translated clinically, the field of shoulder arthroplasty has advanced to the point that joint replacement is an excellent and viable option for a number of pathologic conditions in the shoulder. R...

  12. Prognostic influence of clinical and pathological factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a study of 53 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lenine G., Brandão; Beatriz G., Cavalheiro; Consuelo R., Junqueira.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES AND INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma, a neoplasia of intermediate prognosis and differentiation, does not always respond predictably to known treatments. This study aimed to correlate the clinical progression of surgically treated patients with clinical and pathological data. MET [...] HODS: A total of 53 patients were followed for 75 months (mean average) in tertiary-care hospital. The clinical status of patients at the end of the study period was characterized to determine correlations with a range of disease aspects. A value of p

  13. Penn State: Plant Pathology Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This selection of online fact sheets concerned with plant diseases was compiled by Professor Gary W. Moorman, a Professor of Plant Pathology at Penn State. The concise fact sheets address "common diseases of plants frequently grown in greenhouses, interiorscapes, and in outdoor landscapes and nurseries in the northeastern U.S." The sheets are organized under categories for Woody Ornamental, and Floral and Foliage Plants, as well as a General Information category. Factsheets address such diseases as Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Pythium Root Rot, Botrytis Blight, Rhizoctonia, and more. There are sheets for a wide variety of plants and trees including Iris, Tulip, Maple, and Oak, to name a few.

  14. Pathology Case Study: Seizures and Progressive Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Michael

    This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old female has seizures and progressive dementia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  15. Noninflammatory fallopian tube pathology in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noninflammatory tubal abnormalities are rare in children and usually not well covered by traditional educational material. The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and are common to many other conditions, so its preoperative diagnosis is rarely made. The purpose of this study was to review the hospital charts and imaging findings in children and sexually inactive adolescents who showed fallopian tube pathology. Understanding of the pertinent findings of previous imaging examinations might assist radiologists in making the correct preoperative diagnosis and increase the likelihood of preserving the fallopian tubes. The clinical entities described in this article include isolated tubal torsion, paratubal cysts, hydrosalpinx, undescended/ectopic fallopian tube, and tubal inguinal hernia. (orig.)

  16. Noninflammatory fallopian tube pathology in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University Hospital HUG, Unit of Pediatric Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Vunda, Aaron [University Hospital, Clinic of Pediatric Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland); Borzani, Irene; Napolitano, Marcello [Ospedale Buzzi, Pediatric Radiology, Milan (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    Noninflammatory tubal abnormalities are rare in children and usually not well covered by traditional educational material. The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and are common to many other conditions, so its preoperative diagnosis is rarely made. The purpose of this study was to review the hospital charts and imaging findings in children and sexually inactive adolescents who showed fallopian tube pathology. Understanding of the pertinent findings of previous imaging examinations might assist radiologists in making the correct preoperative diagnosis and increase the likelihood of preserving the fallopian tubes. The clinical entities described in this article include isolated tubal torsion, paratubal cysts, hydrosalpinx, undescended/ectopic fallopian tube, and tubal inguinal hernia. (orig.)

  17. Applications of the scanner in osteoarticular pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors take stock of current applications of the scanner in osteoarticular pathology. At first (1978-1983 approximately), only the vertebral column could be studied by this technique. Now, almost all the osteoarticular system is susceptible to study. Established examples are: study of the sacrum, of the traumatized acetabulum, of the femoropatellar apparatus, and measurement of torsion in the lower limbs. New applications are: study of the back of the foot, of the patellar cartilage, of the glenoid cavity, of the bones and soft parts of the hand, three-dimensional reconstructions, scanning radiology. The authors index and analyse these new techniques

  18. Foxl-2 in gonad development and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaubert, F; Galmiche, L; Lortat-Jacob, S; Fournet, J C; Fellous, M

    2011-01-01

    The Foxl-2 gene is involved in eyelid and ovary development. Mutations can lead to a shortened protein and malformations such as BPES associated or not to POF. Forkhead point mutation C134W is a marker of adult type granulosa cell tumors only. Foxl-2 dysregulation is also present in DSD and DSD associated tumors such as Gonadoblastoma and gonadoblastoma like intratubular undetermined germ cell neoplasia. A similar spectrum of pathology involvement is also found for WT1 and RET and gives a new insight into the relationship between development, malformations and oncogenesis. PMID:22164424

  19. Pathology Case Study: Progressive Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böker, Dieter-Karsten

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman sought help for an progressive eight-year diminished sense of hearing, which developed with vertigo and left-side tinnitus. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of Neuropathology.

  20. Imaging of the normal and pathological orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized techniques (CT and MRI) allow precise delineation of orbital anatomy and abnormalities. Orbital tumors are nicely depicted by these methods; various examples are illustrated in this article, with discussion of the respective impact of CT and MRI. Orbital inflammation and foreign bodies usually represent radiologic emergencies, prompting use of CT (frequently) or MRI (occasionally). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is indicated for diagnosis of vascular changes (mainly carotid-cavernous fistula, aneurysms, angiomas, Rendu-Osler disease). Angiography is usually done to ascertain the possibility of an interventional procedure. Orbital vascular interventions include re-canalization of occluded vessels, and embolization of pathologic (tumorous or post-traumatic) vessels. (orig.)

  1. CT heads diagnosing chest pathology? Whatever next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdsworth, Gary, E-mail: gary.holdsworth@midyorks.nhs.uk [Radiology Department, Midyorks Hospitals NHS Trust, Pinderfields General Hospital Aberford Road Wakefield, West Yorkshire, WF1 4DG (United Kingdom); Clarke, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.clarke@midyorks.nhs.uk [Radiology Department, Midyorks Hospitals NHS Trust, Pinderfields General Hospital Aberford Road Wakefield, West Yorkshire, WF1 4DG (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    This case report presents two cases where subcutaneous emphysema visualised on computerised tomography examinations of the head subsequently led to the diagnoses of pathology within the thorax. The pathophysiology of traumatic subcutaneous emphysema within the head and neck is briefly discussed, along with examples of other causes of this condition within this anatomical region. The primary aim of this report is to draw attention to the necessity for a thorough review of any CT head examination, including both intra- and extra-cranial structures, undertaken at a variety of window settings.

  2. Pathology Case Study: Anterior Mediastinal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Debra L.

    This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65 year old male has an anterior mediastinal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology medicine.

  3. Pathology of inherited manganese transporter deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechpammer, Mirna; Clegg, Michael S; Muzar, Zukhrofi; Huebner, Philip A; Jin, Lee-Way; Gospe, Sidney M

    2014-04-01

    We followed a patient with manganese transporter deficiency due to homozygous SLC30A10 mutations from age 14 years until his death at age 38 years and present the first postmortem findings of this disorder. The basal ganglia showed neuronal loss, rhodanine-positive deposits, astrocytosis, myelin loss, and spongiosis. SLC30A10 protein was reduced in residual basal ganglia neurons. Depigmentation of the substantia nigra and other brainstem nuclei was present. Manganese content of basal ganglia and liver was increased 16-fold and 9-fold, respectively. Our study provides a pathological foundation for further investigation of central nervous system toxicity secondary to deregulation of manganese metabolism. PMID:24599576

  4. Pathology Case Study: New Onset Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Ronald

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old nurse is experiencing headaches and seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  5. Pathology Case Study: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Rajendra

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman was diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, and became a candidate for a bone marrow transplant. Visitors can view both PB Count Chart and Flow Cytometry, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of hematopathology.

  6. Pathology Case Study: Pineal Gland Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezube, Bruce J.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old diabetic woman presents to the hospital a two-week history of confusion, disorientation, and short-term memory loss. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

  7. Clinico- Pathological Study Of Ichthyosis Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Utpal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinico- pathological study of 28 cases of ichthyosis vulgaris appeared with in the age of 5 years. The presence of the disease since birth was also found. While most (24 patients showed a diminution of severity in summer with an aggravation during winter, 4 patients followed the opposite seasonal pattern. Only in 4 patients, fine scales in the scalp were detected. One patient showed an affection of flexures. There was also a low occurrence of palmo- planter hyperkeratosis, follicular keratosis, fissuring of hands and feet and atopy.

  8. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  9. Aspects of Gond Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Vahia, M N

    2013-01-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment o...

  10. Aspects of free probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, Dan

    2006-03-01

    Free probability theory provides a probabilistic framework for quantities with the highest degree of noncommutativity. This brings out the ties among von Neumann algebras of free groups, the large N limit of random multimatrix models, the operators of the Boltzmann Fock space and combinatorics of noncrossing partitions. Many concepts of classical probability theory have free probability counterparts. In particular, the free analogues of entropy and of Fisher's information will be one of the main focuses of the talk. The analysis of the free variables involved, relies on free difference quotient derivations, which give rise to bialgebras in the class with derivation comultiplication, which appears to be selfdual. Duality for such bialgebras underlies the free entropy and analytic aspects of the free Markov property.

  11. Legal aspects of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiations is regulated in France in all fields of application. The main principles governing inspection activities in the food industry are outlined. Conventional preservation methods are mentioned, after which a discussion is devoted to the preservation of food products by irradiation treatment and the increasing importance given to this technique. Consumer protection automatically implies the obligatory use of dosimetry by inspection organisms if the irradiated merchandise is likely to serve for human or animal consumption. Irradiation treatment permits are granted in a context of specific statutory texts mentioned here. Supervision is constant, but always both realistic and flexible. Each aspect of this treatment is discussed in maximum detail if not quite exhaustively, with special emphasis on dosimetry as an indispensable safety factor

  12. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  13. Political and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig

  14. [Mental deficiency: organic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonna, T

    1979-01-01

    This review of the organic aspects of mental retardation considers this handicap among the other chronic neuropediatric disorders and is one of the numerous possible manifestations of a cerebral damage occurring in a developing nervous system. The relative frequency of the different etiologies is discussed in relation to the severity of the mental handicap. The prenatal causes of mental deficiency which are the most frequent are reviewed and a distinction is made between malformations and pseudomalformations. Particular mention of the fetal alcohol syndrome is made. The role of perinatal medicine in the epidemiology of mental retardation is discussed and the diagnostic approach of a particular child with mental retardation is presented with the personal experience of the author in the pediatric department, CHUV, Lausanne. The possible measures to prevent mental retardation are finally discussed. PMID:482889

  15. Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific pathological personality traits of all DSM-IV-TR clusters. PMID:24897966

  16. Recent Issues in Leptogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    Baryogenesis via leptogenesis provides an appealing mechanism to explain the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Recent refinements in the understanding of the dynamics of leptogenesis include detailed studies of the effects of lepton flavors and of the role possibly played by the lepton asymmetries generated in the decays of the heavier singlet neutrinos $N_{2,3}$. A review of these recent developments in the theory of leptogenesis is presented.

  17. Computer aided tool for diagnosis of ENT pathologies using digital signal processing of speech and stroboscopic images

    OpenAIRE

    Zorrilla, Amaia Me?ndez; Zapirain, Begon?a Garci?a; Izquierdo, Agusti?n Pe?rez

    2012-01-01

    The development of computer software and other technologies greatly facilitates the evaluation of pathological voice patients. This fact allows to reduce exploration time, improves the reproducibility of results and creates the possibility of test protocol standardization needed for the intercommunication between the different voice specialists. The proposed application encompasses the most important aspects which should be taken into account regarding dysphonic patients. It is a multidimensi...

  18. Interferon-?-induced gene expression in CD34 cells: identification of pathologic cytokine-specific signature profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Weihua; Miyazato, Akira; Chen, Guibin; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2006-01-01

    Hematopoietic effects of interferon-? (IFN-?) may be responsible for certain aspects of the pathology seen in bone marrow failure syndromes, including aplastic anemia (AA), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and some forms of myelodysplasia (MDS). Overexpression of and hematopoietic inhibition by IFN-? has been observed in all of these conditions. In vitro, IFN-? exhibits strong inhibitory effects on hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells. Previously, we have studied the transcri...

  19. New developments in clinical aspects of lymphatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Peter S; Rockson, Stanley G

    2014-03-01

    The lymphatic system is fundamentally important to cardiovascular disease, infection and immunity, cancer, and probably obesity--the four major challenges in healthcare in the 21st century. This Review will consider the manner in which new knowledge of lymphatic genes and molecular mechanisms has demonstrated that lymphatic dysfunction should no longer be considered a passive bystander in disease but rather an active player in many pathological processes and, therefore, a genuine target for future therapeutic developments. The specific roles of the lymphatic system in edema, genetic aspects of primary lymphedema, infection (cellulitis/erysipelas), Crohn's disease, obesity, cancer, and cancer-related lymphedema are highlighted. PMID:24590276

  20. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The meA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA exposure levels and MN frequency (r = 0.384, p = 0.001) and TL (r = 0.333, p = 0.005). Regarding the genetic polymorphisms studied, no significant effect was found on the genotoxic endpoints. The results of the present biomonitoring study emphasize the need to develop safety programs

  1. Cellular Aspects of Prion Replication In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Vorberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in mammals that are caused by unconventional agents predominantly composed of aggregated misfolded prion protein (PrP. Prions self-propagate by recruitment of host-encoded PrP into highly ordered b-sheet rich aggregates. Prion strains differ in their clinical, pathological and biochemical characteristics and are likely to be the consequence of distinct abnormal prion protein conformers that stably replicate their alternate states in the host cell. Understanding prion cell biology is fundamental for identifying potential drug targets for disease intervention. The development of permissive cell culture models has greatly enhanced our knowledge on entry, propagation and dissemination of TSE agents. However, despite extensive research, the precise mechanism of prion infection and potential strain effects remain enigmatic. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the cell biology and propagation of prions derived from cell culture experiments. We discuss recent findings on the trafficking of cellular and pathologic PrP, the potential sites of abnormal prion protein synthesis and potential co-factors involved in prion entry and propagation.

  2. Biophysical Aspects of Transmembrane Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovich, Sandor

    2005-01-01

    Transmembrane signaling is one of the most significant cell biological events in the life and death of cells in general and lymphocytes in particular. Until recently biochemists and biophysicists were not accustomed to thinking of these processes from the side of a high number of complex biochemical events and an equally high number of physical changes at molecular and cellular levels at the same time. Both types of researchers were convinced that their findings are the most decisive, having higher importance than the findings of the other scientist population. Both casts were wrong. Life, even at cellular level, has a number of interacting physical and biochemical mechanisms, which finally build up the creation of an "excited" cell that will respond to particular signals from the outer or inner world. This book handles both aspects of the signalling events, and in some cases tries to unify our concepts and help understand the signals that govern the life and death of our cells. Not only the understanding, bu...

  3. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with pathologic fracture and recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Laksha; Schade, Valerie L; Manoso, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastomas account for calcaneus is the fifth most common location of occurrence. Males in their second decade of life are most often affected, presenting with an insidious onset of localized pain, swelling, and tenderness. The finding of associated pathologic fracture has been rare. Imaging studies can aid in the formulation of the differential diagnosis and surgical plan. The definitive diagnosis requires histologic examination. Curettage and bone grafting is curative in >80% of cases. Local recurrence rates of ?38% have been reported, most often because of inadequate resection, and have been associated with malignant conversion and metastasis. Adjuvant therapies can help minimize the incidence of local recurrence. Long-term follow-up examinations are recommended, given the protracted interval that can exist between recurrence and the potential for malignant conversion and metastasis. We present the case of a young, healthy, active male with a calcaneal chondroblastoma and associated pathologic fracture whose initial treatment consisted of curettage, hydrogen peroxide lavage, and allogeneic bone grafting. Recurrence developed at 15 months postoperatively and was treated with repeat curettage, high-speed burring, and reconstruction with steel Steinman pins and polymethylmethacrylate, resulting in no pain or recurrence at the 5-month follow-up point. PMID:25624038

  4. Digital pathology in personalized cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Garcia Rojo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of small molecule inhibitors of growth factor receptors, and the discovery of somatic mutations of the thyrosine kinase domain, have resulted in new paradigms for cancer therapy. Digital microscopy is an important tool for surgical pathologists. The achievements in the digital pathology field have modified the workflow of pathomorphology labs, enhanced the pathologist’s role in diagnostics, and increased their contribution to personalized targeted medicine. Digital image analysis is now available in a variety of platforms to improve quantification performance of diagnostic pathology. We here describe the state of digital microscopy as it applies to the field of quantitative immunohistochemistry of biomarkers related to the clinical personalized targeted therapy of breast cancer, non-small lung cancer and colorectal cancer: HER-2, EGFR, KRAS and BRAF genes. The information is derived from the experience of the authors and a review of the literature. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 570–578

  5. THYROID PATHOLOGY IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dum?chi??-?argu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is defined by a chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism, in the presence of polycystic ovaries and the absence of the other causes. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of thyroid pathology in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This study is a retrospective one and was made from January 2003 to December 2009 in the Endocrinology Clinic of “Saint Spiridon” Hospital and included a number of 483 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The study includes: anamnesis dates, clinical exams, hormonal determinations, and echographic examinations of the thyroid and ovaries. Results From this group, were taken in evidence for thyroid malfunctions 179 women: 74 autoimune thyroiditis, 88 goiters, 8 congenital mixedems, 6 Basedow diseases, 1 thyroid neoplasm, 1 toxic adenoma and 1 struma ovarii. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have a high prevalence of thyroid pathology (37,6%. This raises the possibility that female hormones might play a pathogenic role in such diseases. Conclusions: Evaluation of the thyroid gland with a blood test for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, antithyroglobulin and antithyroid peroxidase antibody plus an echographic examination, should be a part of the investigation of polycystic ovary syndrome. Likewise, PCOS should be evaluated in patient with under-active thyroid gland.

  6. Objective pathological diagnosis of coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Watkins, G; Lam, N V; Tsuda, H; Hermann, C; Johal, J; Liu, H

    1981-05-01

    Pertinent pathological features of lungs obtained at autopsies from 99 coal miners were compared with those observed in the lungs of 268 male town dwellers of comparable age who were not occupationally related to the coal mining or other industries at risk for development of pneumoconiosis. The degree of anthracotic pigment deposition and severity of type of pigmented lesion with its accompanying reticulum fiber formation and fibrosis were significantly greater in lungs of miners. There was a high degree of overlap in degree of pigment deposition, particularly those quantitated as grades 1 and 2 and in lesions regarded as types 1 and 2. The greatest divergence was observed for prevalence of nodular pulmonary lesions (type 4). There was also a considerable divergence in the type 3 alteration characterized by nonnodular aggregates of carbon-laden macrophages accompanied by minimal reactive fibrosis. It appears that an objective pathological diagnosis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) can be rendered only by the demonstration of type 4 lesions. Approximately 25% of coal miners exhibited unequivocal features of CWP. No significant differences concerning incidence or types of emphysema or frequency of chronic cor pulmonale were encountered between the two populations. PMID:7230368

  7. Pathology and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaee A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common cancers in the world. During the past decades, survival of colorectal cancer patients has improved worldwide, however, it is not clear what factors have contributed to this development. This study was designed to ev aluate the prognostic impact of a wide spectrum of pathologic parameters on survival rate in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: 1127 patients with colorectal cancer who registered in one cancer registry in Iran were followed from their diagnos tic date to Jan 1, 2007 (as failure time. Overall survival time was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify the patho logic factors that could independently influence survival. Results: The overall survival rate at 5 years after diagnosis was 61%. Histology grade, status of regional ly mph node metastasis, distant metastasis and pathologic tumor stage were related to survival rate according to univariate analysis. Nevertheless, in multivariate analysis, only histology grade, distant metastasis and tumor size had influence on survival of colorectal cancer patients. Conclusion: Generally the prognosis of disease is not poor; however, distant metastasis, poor differentiat ion and higher tumor size should be considered to have additional risks of death in colorectal cancer.

  8. Domoic acid toxicologic pathology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Olga M

    2008-01-01

    Domoic acid was identified as the toxin responsible for an outbreak of human poisoning that occurred in Canada in 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels [Mytilus edulis]. The poisoning was characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs. Among the most prominent features described was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Domoic acid is produced by certain marine organisms, such as the red alga Chondria armata and planktonic diatom of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Since 1987, monitoring programs have been successful in preventing other human incidents of ASP. However, there are documented cases of domoic acid intoxication in wild animals and outbreaks of coastal water contamination in many regions world-wide. Hence domoic acid continues to pose a global risk to the health and safety of humans and wildlife. Several mechanisms have been implicated as mediators for the effects of domoic acid. Of particular importance is the role played by glutamate receptors as mediators of excitatory neurotransmission and the demonstration of a wide distribution of these receptors outside the central nervous system, prompting the attention to other tissues as potential target sites. The aim of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of ASP, DOM induced pathology including ultrastructural changes associated to subchronic oral exposure, and discussion of key proposed mechanisms of cell/tissue injury involved in DOM induced brain pathology and considerations relevant to food safety and human health. PMID:18728725

  9. Domoic Acid Toxicologic Pathology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Pulido

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid was identified as the toxin responsible for an outbreak of human poisoning that occurred in Canada in 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels [Mytilus edulis]. The poisoning was characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs. Among the most prominent features described was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Domoic acid is produced by certain marine organisms, such as the red alga Chondria armata and planktonic diatom of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Since 1987, monitoring programs have been successful in preventing other human incidents of ASP. However, there are documented cases of domoic acid intoxication in wild animals and outbreaks of coastal water contamination in many regions world-wide. Hence domoic acid continues to pose a global risk to the health and safety of humans and wildlife. Several mechanisms have been implicated as mediators for the effects of domoic acid. Of particular importance is the role played by glutamate receptors as mediators of excitatory neurotransmission and the demonstration of a wide distribution of these receptors outside the central nervous system, prompting the attention to other tissues as potential target sites. The aim of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of ASP, DOM induced pathology including ultrastructural changes associated to subchronic oral exposure, and discussion of key proposed mechanisms of cell/tissue injury involved in DOM induced brain pathology and considerations relevant to food safety and human health.

  10. Groove pancreatic carcinomas: radiological and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabata, Toshifumi; Terayama, Noboru; Sanada, Junichiro; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Matsui, Osamu [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University, School of Medicine, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa City 920-8641 (Japan); Kadoya, Masumi [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University, School of Medicine, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa City 920-8641 (Japan); Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shinshu University, Shinshu 390-8621 (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of pancreatic head carcinomas mainly invading the groove between the duodenum and the pancreatic head. Nine patients with pathologically proven pancreatic head carcinomas underwent thin-slice dynamic CT, MR imaging, duodenal endoscopy, and angiography (seven patients). Plate-like masses within the groove region were seen in all cases, which showed hypointensity on T1-weighted images and slight hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images. The masses appeared hypovascular in the early phase and delayed enhancement in the late phase of dynamic CT and MR imaging. On MR cholangiopancreatography, stenosis of intrapancreatic common bile duct was seen in all patients, whereas stenosis of the main pancreatic duct was seen in only three cases. Endoscopy revealed luminal narrowing of the duodenum in all patients, and duodenal mucosal biopsy demonstrated adenocarcinoma in seven patients. Abdominal arteriography showed serrated encasement of peripancreatic arteries in seven patients who received angiographic examinations. The CT and MR imaging findings of groove pancreatic carcinomas resemble those of groove pancreatitis. Differential diagnosis may be achieved by the pathological diagnosis of a biopsy specimen of the duodenal mucosa and arterial encasement on arteriography. (orig.)

  11. Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallès, Vicenç

    2015-02-01

    There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. PMID:25434846

  12. The preanalytic phase in veterinary clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. PMID:25438659

  13. Pathology Case Study: Substernal Chest Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Larry

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology featuring a 49-year-old married white male school teacher was a 2 pack/day smoker with a history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and obesity, and a family history of coronary artery disease. He was awakened from his sleep at 03:00 with crushing substernal chest pain which radiated to his left arm and was accompanied by shortness of breath. This case study provides learning objectives along with autopsy findings both gross and microscopic in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  14. Abnormal expression of transcription factor AP-2? in pathologic placentas*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Rachel M.; Stanek, Jerzy; Khoury, Jane; Handwerger, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent studies from our laboratory have indicated that the transcription factor AP-2? plays a critical role in the differentiation of human villous cytotrophoblast cells (CTB) to syncytiotrophoblast cells (STB). However, little is known about the expression of AP-2? in placentas from pathologic pregnancies. This study compares the expression of AP-2? in placentas from high-risk pregnancies to gestational age-matched controls. Paracentral sections from grossly unremarkable areas of 10 placentas from each group of pregnancies complicated by mild preeclampsia (PE), severe PE, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic hypertension (HTN), fetal growth restriction (FGR) and 10 control cases of placentas from normal pregnancies matched for gestational age (CG) were double immunostained for AP-2? and E-cadherin. The total numbers of CTB and STB and the numbers of AP-2? positive and negative nuclei in both of these cell types were counted by two pathologists blinded to disease status, in ten representative 40x fields (HPF) for each placenta. Abnormal placental maturation in most of pathologic pregnancies was evidenced by a 1.5–1.7-fold lower STB to CTB ratio. AP-2? expression in STB was lower in mild PE, DM, HTN and FGR (p<0.0001 in each instance) and was higher by 2-fold in severe PE, though this increase was not statistically significant (p=0.3). Since AP-2? has been shown to be critical for villous CTB differentiation, our findings suggest that abnormalities in the AP-2? cascade of transcription factors and/or signaling molecules may contribute to the pathogenesis of the abnormal maturation in placentas in certain types of high-risk pregnancies. The different pattern of AP-2? expression in mild and severe PE clearly suggests that these conditions may have two independent pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:22575257

  15. Rescue of tau-induced synaptic transmission pathology by paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Hadas; Shemesh, Or A; Spira, Micha E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies have revealed that the onset of cognitive decline correlates better with synaptic dysfunctions than with hallmark pathologies such as extracellular amyloid-? plaques, intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau or neuronal loss. Recent experiments have also demonstrated that anti-cancer microtubule (MT)-stabilizing drugs can rescue tau-induced behavioral decline and hallmark neuron pathologies. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying tau-induced synaptic dysfunction as well as those involved in the rescue of cognitive decline by MTs-stabilizing drugs remain unclear. Here we began to study these mechanisms using the glutaminergic sensory-motoneuron synapse derived from Aplysia ganglia, electrophysiological methods, the expression of mutant-human tau (mt-htau) either pre or postsynaptically and the antimitotic drug paclitaxel. Expression of mt-htau in the presynaptic neurons led to reduced excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude generated by rested synapses within 3 days of mt-htau expression, and to deeper levels of homosynaptic depression. mt-htau-induced synaptic weakening correlated with reduced releasable presynaptic vesicle pools as revealed by the induction of asynchronous neurotransmitter release by hypertonic sucrose solution. Paclitaxel totally rescued tau-induced synaptic weakening by maintaining the availability of the presynaptic vesicle stores. Postsynaptic expression of mt-htau did not impair the above described synaptic-transmission parameters for up to 5 days. Along with earlier confocal microscope observations from our laboratory, these findings suggest that tau-induced synaptic dysfunction is the outcome of impaired axoplasmic transport and the ensuing reduction in the releasable presynaptic vesicle stores rather than the direct effects of mt-htau or paclitaxel on the synaptic release mechanisms. PMID:24574970

  16. Rescue of tau-induced synaptic transmission pathology by paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha E. Spira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and other tauopathies have revealed that the onset of cognitive decline correlates better with synaptic dysfunctions than with hallmark pathologies such as extracellular amyloid-? plaques, intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau or neuronal loss. Recent experiments have also demonstrated that anti-cancer microtubule-stabilizing drugs can rescue tau-induced behavioral decline and hallmark neuron pathologies. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying tau-induced synaptic dysfunction as well as those involved in the rescue of cognitive decline by microtubules stabilizing drugs remain unclear. Here we began to study these mechanisms using the glutaminergic sensory-motoneuron synapse derived from Aplysia ganglia, electrophysiological methods, the expression of mutant-human-tau (mt-htau either pre- or post-synaptically and the antimitotic drug paclitaxel. Expression of mt-htau in the presynaptic neurons led to reduced excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP amplitude generated by rested synapses within 3 days of mt-htau expression, and to deeper levels of homosynaptic depression. mt-htau-induced synaptic weakening correlated with reduced releasable presynaptic vesicle pools as revealed by the induction of asynchronous neurotransmitter release by hypertonic sucrose solution. Paclitaxel totally rescued tau-induced synaptic weakening by maintaining the availability of the presynaptic vesicle stores. Postsynaptic expression of mt-htau did not impair the above described synaptic-transmission parameters for up to 5 days. Along with earlier confocal microscope observations from our laboratory, these findings suggest that tau-induced synaptic dysfunction is the outcome of impaired axoplasmic transport and the ensuing reduction in the releasable presynaptic vesicle stores rather than the direct effects of mt-htau or paclitaxel on the synaptic release mechanisms.

  17. Aspect-oriented programming with AspectJ

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Pavlov; Daniela Gotseva

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the fundamental concepts of a complete AOP system. It discusses the AspectJ language specification and implementation. The article examines the use of the language, as well as its features and tooling support. It lays out a common crosscutting problem to illustrate the general syntax of the traditional AspectJ Language. The development tools of the AspectJ language are described and compared to popular Java development tools.

  18. Aspect-oriented programming with AspectJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pavlov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fundamental concepts of a complete AOP system. It discusses the AspectJ language specification and implementation. The article examines the use of the language, as well as its features and tooling support. It lays out a common crosscutting problem to illustrate the general syntax of the traditional AspectJ Language. The development tools of the AspectJ language are described and compared to popular Java development tools.

  19. Basic pathologies of neurodegenerative dementias and their relevance for state-of-the-art molecular imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising life-expectancy in the modern society has resulted in a rapidly growing prevalence of dementia, particularly of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dementia turns into one of the most common age-related disorders with deleterious consequences for the concerned patients and their relatives, as well as worrying effects on the socio-economic systems. These facts justify strengthened scientific efforts to identify the pathologic origin of dementing disorders, to improve diagnosis, and to interfere therapeutically with the disease progression. In the recent years, remarkable progress has been made concerning the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence indicates that a common basis of many neurodegenerative dementias can be found in increased production, misfolding and pathological aggregation of proteins, such as ss-amyloid, tau protein, a-synuclein, or the recently described ubiquitinated TDP-43. This progressive insight in pathological processes is paralleled by the development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the exact contribution or mechanism of different pathologies with regard to the development of disease is not yet sufficiently clear. Considerable overlap of pathologies has been documented in different types of clinically defined dementias post mortem, and it has been difficult to correlate post mortem histopathology data with disease-expression during life. Molecular imaging procedures muring life. Molecular imaging procedures may play a valuable role to circumvent this limitation. In general, methods of molecular imaging have recently experienced an impressive advance, with numerous new and improved technologies emerging. These exciting tools may play a key role in the future regarding the evaluation of pathomechanisms, preclinical evaluation of new diagnostic procedures in animal models, selection of patients for clinical trials, and therapy monitoring. In this overview, molecular key pathologies, which are currently regarded to be strongly associated with the development of different dementias, will be shortly summarized; it will also be discussed how state-of-the-art imaging technology can assist to visualize these processes now and in the future. (orig.)

  20. Basic pathologies of neurodegenerative dementias and their relevance for state-of-the-art molecular imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Rising life-expectancy in the modern society has resulted in a rapidly growing prevalence of dementia, particularly of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dementia turns into one of the most common age-related disorders with deleterious consequences for the concerned patients and their relatives, as well as worrying effects on the socio-economic systems. These facts justify strengthened scientific efforts to identify the pathologic origin of dementing disorders, to improve diagnosis, and to interfere therapeutically with the disease progression. In the recent years, remarkable progress has been made concerning the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence indicates that a common basis of many neurodegenerative dementias can be found in increased production, misfolding and pathological aggregation of proteins, such as ss-amyloid, tau protein, a-synuclein, or the recently described ubiquitinated TDP-43. This progressive insight in pathological processes is paralleled by the development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the exact contribution or mechanism of different pathologies with regard to the development of disease is not yet sufficiently clear. Considerable overlap of pathologies has been documented in different types of clinically defined dementias post mortem, and it has been difficult to correlate post mortem histopathology data with disease-expression during life. Molecular imaging procedures may play a valuable role to circumvent this limitation. In general, methods of molecular imaging have recently experienced an impressive advance, with numerous new and improved technologies emerging. These exciting tools may play a key role in the future regarding the evaluation of pathomechanisms, preclinical evaluation of new diagnostic procedures in animal models, selection of patients for clinical trials, and therapy monitoring. In this overview, molecular key pathologies, which are currently regarded to be strongly associated with the development of different dementias, will be shortly summarized; it will also be discussed how state-of-the-art imaging technology can assist to visualize these processes now and in the future. (orig.)