WorldWideScience

Sample records for pathology aspects recents

  1. Uterus MRI. Normal and pathological aspects

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a non invasive procedure, is taking a place of growing importance as a means of radiological exploration. Its use in uterine pathologies has shown considerable developments. This requires an excellent knowledge of the normal and pathological aspects of the uterus. In fact it exists a zonal anatomy of the uterus which varies according to hormonal impregnation and this is very well seen by MRI. MRI gives excellent results in the diagnosis and study of different uterine pathologies. The radiological appearance of leiomyomas differs depending on the presence or not of degenerative changes within them. Uterine adenomyosis is also well studied by MRI. Lastly different studies in the literature have shown MRI to be a reliable method of exploration with a high degree of fiability, specificity and sensibility to study the local spread of malignant uterine diseases. The authors report their experience and also that present in the literature concerning the study of the uterus by MRI

  2. Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology

    In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520

  3. Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology

    van der Walt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry and aspirate morphology are discussed where translation to the BMB is possible. Classifications undergo constant cha...

  4. Uterus MRI. Normal and pathological aspects. IRM de l'uterus. Aspects normaux et pathologiques

    Moulin, G.; Bartoli, J.M.; Gaubert, J.Y.; Bayle, O.; Distefano-Louineau, D.; Kasbarian, M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire La Timone, 13 - Marseille (FR))

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a non invasive procedure, is taking a place of growing importance as a means of radiological exploration. Its use in uterine pathologies has shown considerable developments. This requires an excellent knowledge of the normal and pathological aspects of the uterus. In fact it exists a zonal anatomy of the uterus which varies according to hormonal impregnation and this is very well seen by MRI. MRI gives excellent results in the diagnosis and study of different uterine pathologies. The radiological appearance of leiomyomas differs depending on the presence or not of degenerative changes within them. Uterine adenomyosis is also well studied by MRI. Lastly different studies in the literature have shown MRI to be a reliable method of exploration with a high degree of fiability, specificity and sensibility to study the local spread of malignant uterine diseases. The authors report their experience and also that present in the literature concerning the study of the uterus by MRI. 44 refs.

  5. Atmospheric Aspects of Recent Arctic Environmental Change

    Serreze, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Evidence assembled over the past several decades shows the Arctic system as in the midst of significant environmental change. This includes pronounced warming over most land areas, reductions in sea ice extent, alterations in precipitation, river discharge and sea ice circulation, and warming and increased areal extent of the Arctic Ocean's Atlantic layer. The accepted paradigm is that these changes relate to general dominance of the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The AO is defined as the leading mode of Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure variability. It can be considered as an index of the strength of the circumpolar vortex. Circulation variability associated with the AO is most pronounced over the Atlantic sector, such that its index is strongly correlated with that of the NAO, which describes mutual strengthening and weakening of the Icelandic Low and Azores High. Whether the AO is a more fundamental mode than the NAO is acontinuing issue of debate. In the broadest sense, environmental changes associated with the dominant positive phase of the AO/NAO are responses to alterations in surface wind regimes and transports of heat and moisture. However, linkages with some variables, such as winter discharge from the Siberian rivers, appear to be indirect. Furthermore, while the AO/NAO is best expressed in winter, many Arctic changes, such as reduced sea ice extent, are most apparent during summer. Variability in other key variables, such as precipitation over the Eurasian Arctic watersheds, exhibit only weak links. The AO/NAO are natural modes of variability which operate on a spectrum of time scales. There is ample evidence that multidecadal variability in the AO/NAO relates to variability in sea surface temperatures. However, growing evidence suggests that the recent positive tendency may contain an anthropogenic component. A leading contender is stratospheric ozone loss. In this framework, the atmospheric

  6. Serrated polyposis syndrome: Molecular, pathological and clinical aspects

    Carla Guarinos; Cristina Sánchez-Fortún; María Rodríguez-Soler; Cristina Alenda; Artemio Payá; Rodrigo Jover

    2012-01-01

    Hyperplastic polyps have traditionally been considered not to have malignant potential.New pathological classification of serrated polyps and recent discoveries about the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis have revolutionized the concepts and revitalized the research in this area.Until recently,it has been thought that most colorectal cancers arise from conventional adenomas via the traditional tumor suppressor pathway initiated by a mutation of the APC gene,but it has been found that this pathway accounts for only approximately 70%-80%of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases.The majority of the remaining colorectal cancer cases follow an alternative pathway leading to CpG island methylator phenotype carcinoma with BRAF mutation and with or without microsatellite instability.The mechanism of carcinomas arising from this alternative pathway seems to begin with an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene.Serrated polyposis syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by multiple and/or large serrated polyps of the colon.Clinical characteristics,etiology and relationship of serrated polyposis syndrome to CRC have not been clarified yet.Patients with this syndrome show a high risk of CRC and both sporadic and hereditary cases have been described.Clinical criteria have been used for diagnosis and frequent colonoscopy surveillance should be performed in order to prevent colorectal cancer.In this review,we try to gather new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of serrated polyps in order to understand their possible clinical implications and to make an approach to the management of this syndrome.

  7. Fabry disease: recent advances in pathology, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring

    Hoffmann Björn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Fabry disease (α-galactosidase A deficiency accumulation of Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 leads to progressive organ failure and premature death. The introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT was the beginning of a new era in this disorder, and has prompted a broad range of research activities. This review aims to summarize recent developments and progress with high impact for Fabry disease. Methods A Pubmed analysis was performed using the search terms "Fabry disease", "Anderson-Fabry disease", "alpha-galactosidase A" and "Gb3". Of the given publications by 31st January 2009 only original articles recently published in peer reviewed journals were included for this review. Case reports were included only when they comprised a new aspect. In addition we included relevant conference abstracts when the results had not already been published as original articles. Results Apart from Gb3-accumulation cellular and organ specific damages may be related also to inflammatory and immunological consequences. It will be interesting whether this may lead to new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of Fabry disease. Since newborn screening is still difficult in Fabry disease, detection of patients in populations at risk is of great importance. Undiagnosed patients with Fabry disease may still be found in cohorts of subjects with renal diseases, cardiomyopathy and TIA or stroke. Efforts should be undertaken to identify these individuals and initialise ERT in order to hault disease progression. It has also been demonstrated that Gb3-accumulation leads to pre-clinical damages and it is believed that early treatment may be the only possibility so far to prevent irreversible organ damage.

  8. Aspects of ecological radiation endocrinology and occupational pathology

    The collection consists of works on radiation endocrinology and occupational pathology in different branches of industry - petroleum, mining, cotton, non-ferrous metallurgy as well as agriculture. Collection is intended for endocrinologists and occupational pathologists, for specialists of labour protection and occupational safety, for doctors examining of industrial and agricultural workers (author)

  9. Recent advances in prostate cancer pathology: Gleason grading and beyond.

    Shah, Rajal B; Zhou, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Since its initial description in 1966 by Dr Donald Gleason, Gleason grading has become the cornerstone in the management of prostate cancer (PCa). With widespread use of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening and needle core biopsy, the diagnosis and management of PCa have dramatically evolved. In addition, better understanding of the morphological spectrum of prostate cancer and its clinical significance have prompted the refinement of the grading criteria and reporting guidelines commensurate to contemporary practice. The modification of the Gleason grading system implemented by the International Society of Urological Pathology in 2005 and subsequent revision in 2014 has profoundly impacted how PCa is graded and managed. This review aims to provide a concise update on the refinement of the histological criteria for various Gleason patterns and problem areas of Gleason grading, and provide recommendations on how to improve the grading reproducibility. The new proposal to group Gleason scores into clinically meaningful "grade groups" will also be discussed. Finally, we will discuss how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsy and emerging genetic markers may help improve the Gleason grading accuracy and risk stratification currently based on clinicopathological parameters. PMID:26991008

  10. [Syphilis. Part 1: Introduction, pathology and clinical aspects].

    Gross, G; Flaig, B; Rode, S

    2013-10-01

    In Germany more than 3,500 people become infected with syphilis annually. As elsewhere in Western Europe there is a low level endemicity with a concentration among population subgroups with high rates of partner exchange, such as men who have sex with other men. In Germany after initially reduced numbers of cases, the incidence rate has increased after the turn of the millennium. In 2011 the incidence reached 4.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest incidence since the introduction of the Infection Protection Act of 2001. Syphilis, like other sexually transmitted infections and diseases with its manifold clinical manifestations and complex diagnostics, is a large global problem for public health systems. The recent resurgence of syphilis presents a challenge for all physicians but particularly for dermatologists and venereologists because the skin and adjacent mucous membranes are initially affected. Rapid diagnosis, differential diagnosis, consequent treatment and monitoring can cure the disease. Prevention of misdiagnosis is essential otherwise severe, sometimes fatal cardiovascular complications, neurosyphilis and transfer to unborn and newborn children can occur. The synergy of syphilis and sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of special importance. Syphilis together with genital herpes and other sexually transmitted genital and oral ulcers is an important pacemaker for HIV. PMID:24150827

  11. International Clinical Guidelines for the Adoption of Digital Pathology: A Review of Technical Aspects.

    García-Rojo, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Digital slides, also called whole-slide images, are being evaluated to replace conventional microscopy, and several guidelines have been published. This paper reviews technical specifications of digital pathology systems that have been included in the guidelines and position papers from the Canadian Association of Pathologists, the College of American Pathologists, the American Telemedicine Association, the Digital Pathology Association, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, the European Commission, the Spanish Society of Anatomic Pathology, The Royal College of Pathologists and The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. In conclusion, most technical aspects are well covered by these guidelines, although they offer limited information regarding image quality and compression, and file formats. PMID:27100834

  12. Pathological aspects of core needle biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions.

    Usami, Shin; Moriya, Takuya; Kasajima, Atsuko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Ishida, Takanori; Sasano, Hironobu; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the incidence of non-palpable or noninvasive breast cancer has increased. Consequently, criteria for choosing procedures to obtain pathological materials had changed. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB) are both reliable procedures for detecting breast cancer. However, for non-palpable lesions, the diagnostic accuracy of CNB is higher. The main limits of FNA are the high rate of insufficient sampling and inability to determine invasiveness. CNB is an established alternative to surgical biopsy, and CNB can avoid excess surgical biopsies in a large number of patients. In addition to accurate histological diagnosis, there is interest in obtaining prognostic information from CNB, especially for patients being considered for preoperative (neoadjuvant) therapy. CNB provides useful information about histologic type and grade. However, an unavoidable problem of CNB is underestimation of invasion. On the other hand, there is good concordance in particular for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) between CNB and surgical excision. Several aspects of CNB remains controversial, such as diagnosing papillary lesions by CNB, problems regarding tumor cell displacement after CNB, and management of lobular neoplasia (LN) on CNB. PMID:16286907

  13. Aspects of recent reforms of teacher education in Sweden

    Åstrand, Björn

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines some aspects of reforms of teacher education in Sweden. The main features of latest reform and their context is analyzed. The focus of the paper is the complex situation of teacher education as a professional programme within the higher education system. An underpinning notion is that the higher education system, the traditional Swedish universities have not recognized the strategic importance of teacher education and therefore not in reality provided it with equal opportu...

  14. Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases

    Koffi Amégbor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. This average age was 46.9 years for men and 43.8 years for women. The most frequent cancers for men were prostate cancer (12.9%, nonmelanoma skin cancer (10.4%, and gastric cancer (10.3%. For women it was breast cancer (27.1%, cervix cancer (11.2% and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.3%. Histologically, it was carcinomas in 68.1% of the cases, sarcomas in 11% of the cases and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in 12.6% of the cases. Children cancers were primarily Burkitt lymphoma (27.9% of cases and retinoblastoma (8.5% of cases. Conclusion. This study shows that cancers are frequent in Togo and emphasizes on the necessity of having a cancer register for the prevention and the control of this disease in Togo.

  15. [Morphological characteristics of temporal area skin in patients with an additional pathology on age aspect

    Tverdokhlib I.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Improvement of the technical aspects of surgery in aesthetic surgery led to an increase in the number of transactions and significant increase contingent of women who are turning to specialized clinics. But it also significantly increased the proportion of patients with a variety of concomitant diseases requiring new approaches to operational technologies and special attention in the postoperative period. In this group of patients is high risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications significantly limits the range of indications. So to prevent these complications is an important question when planning operations in aesthetic surgery of the face. Objective. Determine structural and functional changes of temporal area skin in women of different age groups with an additional internal pathology. Methods. Intraoperative biopsy material of skin of 104 women at the age from 19 to 73 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face skin correction, was investigated. Results and conclusion. It was determined, that involutive dynamic of microvessel condition in papillary layer of derma coincides with grade reduction of relative volume of microvessels bed. Microcirculation age changes include structural disorders of intrapapillary capillary loops, disorganization of arterioles in papillary and reticular layers of derma, disorders of venules because of the changes in microenvironmental fibrillar network. It is typical at the patients with nicotinic dependence, ischemic heart disease, hypertonic disease, a diabetes, and also adiposity of a different degree essential infringement of microvessels bed structure criteria of skin condition that gives the basis for allocation of the given contingent of patients as group of high intraoperative and postoperative risk at carrying out of frontlift. Citation: Tverdokhlib IV, Makarchuk OI. [Morphological characteristics of temporal area skin in patients

  16. Pathophysiological aspects of recent advances in current thyroid function testing

    The paper first discusses thyroid function and thyroid ''status'', which is determined by thyroid gland function in secreting T4, and peripheral bio-transformation of T4. The accuracy of a current in-vitro diagnostic strategy ensures high reliability in clinical routine. More recent test procedures for iodothyronines and immunological phenomena need further evaluation. Later, the bio-transformation of T4 to bioactive and regulatory iodothyronines is discussed with respect to its possible clinical implications. Finally, the significance of TBG in the interpretation of T4 and T3 concentrations is determined and more attention is directed to its functional heterogeneity. (author)

  17. Feline panleukopenia virus revisited : molecular characteristics and pathological lesions associated with three recent isolates

    M. Van Vuuren

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The low incidence of clinical signs or pathological lesions compatible with feline panleukopenia in cats has created the perception among practitioners that the disease has disappeared since the emergence of canine parvovirus type 2 in the late 1970s.Three parvoviruses that were recently isolated from a domestic cat and 2 cheetahs in cell culture or detected by means of the polymerase chain reaction were shown to be typical feline parvoviruses. Phylogenetic comparison with other FPV isolates did not reveal a particular African cluster.

  18. Oceanographic Aspects of Recent Changes in the Arctic

    Morison, J. H.

    2002-12-01

    In the Arctic recent decadal-scale changes have marked the atmosphere, ocean, and land. Connections between the oceanographic changes and large-scale atmospheric circulation changes are emerging. Surface atmospheric pressure has shown a declining trend over the Arctic. In the 1990s, the Arctic Ocean circulation took on a more cyclonic character, and the front separating Atlantic-derived waters of the Eurasian Basin and the Pacific-derived waters of the Canadian Basin shifted counterclockwise. The temperature of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean reached record levels. The cold halocline, which isolates the surface from the warm Atlantic water, grew thinner disappearing entirely from the Amundsen Basin at one point [Steele and Boyd, 1998]. Arctic sea ice extent has decreased 3% per decade since the 1970s [Parkinson et al., 1999]. Sea ice thickness over much of the Arctic decreased 43% between 1958-1976 and 1993-1997 [Rothrock et al., 1999]. Arctic ecosystems have responded to these changes. Sea ice studies in the late 1990s indicate that the sea ice algal species composition changed from decades before, with the species recently being characterized by more brackish and freshwater forms. Barents Sea fisheries have shifted north following reductions in ice extent. Pacific salmon species have been found entering rivers in the Arctic. There is evidence that this complex of pan-Arctic changes is connected with the rising trend in the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or Northern Hemisphere atmospheric polar vortex in the 1990s. Theoretical evidence that a positive trend in the AO index might be indicative of greenhouse warming raises the possibility that the recent complex of changes is an Arctic characteristic of global climate change. Also, the changes in ice cover manifest a connection between the complex of change and global climate through ice-albedo feedback, by which reductions in ice cover reduce the amount of sunlight reflected from the earth's surface. Another important

  19. Some psycho-physiological aspects of ecstasy in recent research

    Nora Ahlberg

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to present some psycho-physiological perspectives of recent date concerned with the phenomenon of ecstasy. As almost none of this research has yet been assimilated by comparative religion, the focus here is on illustrating some of the background for renewed speculation on the relationship between psyche and soma. Traditional Western science has usually operated with a distinction between external and internal processes. Perhaps owing to this idea of the independence of our internal processes from our intentional consciousness, reports from other cultures such as those concerning the extraordinary achievements of holy men (e.g. their capacity to lie buried for days, or survive unclothed at very low temperatures have tended to be ignored as fantastic rumours (which, to some extent, is certainly true and myths. In a similar way the varieties of religious ecstatic states have often been countered with a shrug by psychiatrists. The recently renewed interest in consciousness within general psychology, together with what may be called marginal psychology and the drug revolt of youth culture have, however, provoked new speculation concerning human potential, speculation which in due time might also benefit comparative religion. From the perspective of comparative religion the primary concern is with cultural tradition and interpretation. Among our many new potential methods for better understanding ecstatic phenomena by means of experimental methods, biofeedback has been the most sensational one. It is above all the research in biofeedback that has forced many scientists to reconsider their view of the autonomic nervous system as a system completely independent of human will and control.

  20. Epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and therapeutic aspects of gastric cancer in Morocco

    Sanna Elmajjaoui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Gastric cancer is a relatively frequent cancer and has poor prognosis. The present study is the first Moroccan study to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, therapeutic characteristics, and outcomes of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including 154 cases of gastric cancer treated at the National Institute of Oncology between January 2007 and December 2007. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years (18-87 years and the sex ratio was 2.14. Risk factors were dominated by tobacco use (30.5% and gastric ulcer (4.5%. The average interval between symptom presentation and consultation was 8.7 months (1-48 months. The clinical symptoms were dominated by epigastric pain (88.7%, vomiting (62.3%, and weight loss (80.5%. Oeso-gastric fibroscopy was performed in all patients and showed an ulcerated aspect in 77.9% of the cases. The location of the tumor was antropyloric in 42.2% of the cases. The most common histology was adenocarcinoma (72.8%, followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (22%, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST; 3.2%, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET; 2%. Tumor stage was metastatic in 62% of the cases, locally advanced in 18.5% of the cases, and localized in only 8% of the cases; however, 11.5% of patients were not staged. Also, 46% of the patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 111 were not treated, 6.4% received chemotherapy first (non-resectable (one patient was operated, 20.6% received surgery first followed by adjuvant treatment, 4.5% received chemo-radiotherapy, 5.4% received chemotherapy only, and 27% received palliative chemotherapy. In the sub-group of patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 35, 48.5% received chemotherapy based on Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone (CHOP regimen. In the sub-group diagnosed with GIST (n = 5 histology, all cases received surgery first and 2 cases received adjuvant chemotherapy based on doxorubicin. Finally

  1. Cancer Etiology and Selected Aspects of Cancer Pathology: A Decimal Classification, (Categories 51.4 and 51.5).

    Schneider, John H.

    This is a hierarchical decimal classification of information related to various types of carcinogenesis (Chemical, viral, hormonal, radiation), cancer demography, and selected descriptive and "in vitro" aspects of cancer pathology. It is a working draft of categories taken from an extensive classification of many fields of biomedical information.…

  2. Population aspects of formation of gastroenterological pathology in patients of different age groups

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Process of development of the most important forms of pathology of the digestive organs among people of different ages has been analyzed in a large industrial center for sixteen years. The age groups liable to gastroenterological pathology have been identified under conditions of social stress

  3. Curriculum Guidelines for Aspects of Oral Pathology for Dental Assisting Education.

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for structuring an oral pathology curriculum for dental assistants include: a definition of oral pathology; the scope of instruction and relationships with other fields; recommendations for prerequisites; core content in various subfields; specific behavioral objectives; and suggestions for sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  4. Posttranslational modifications of lysine and evolving role in heart pathologies - Recent developments

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Van Eyk, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, 5-6 (2015), s. 1164-1180. ISSN 1615-9853 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : heart pathologies * neddylation * sumoylation * proteomics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.807, year: 2014

  5. [Criminalistic-identification aspect of image diagnosis of skeleton pathology characteristics].

    Kaliszczak, Mirosław

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author showed possibilities for adaptation of the most present-day medical achievements in the field of noninvasive diagnosis of individual characteristics of human skeleton pathology--at crime detection and during criminalistic identification particularly. The identification value of image diagnosis for individual characteristics of the pathologically changed skeleton has been exemplified with: X-ray radiography, both conventional and computer-assisted tomography, scintigraphy, ultrasonography and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. The paper's conclusion is formulating of new definitions for identification method of individuals, based on image diagnosis--named osteopathoscopy--which can be an alternative method to controversial radiology. PMID:14669691

  6. Pathological anatomy of the hepatic lymph vessels from the radiological aspect

    Deimer, E.; Schmidmeier, L.; Hohenberg, G. (Erzherzogin-Sophien-Spital der Stadt Wien (Austria))

    1984-01-01

    With increased formation of lymph the lymphatic vessels of the liver are detectable on X-ray and can be assessed. Lymphatic vessels of the portal areas and Glisson's capsule and the pathways of the efferent extrahepatic lymphatics are described. Examples of pathological hepatograms in cirrhosis are presented.

  7. An antique pistol fatality: consideration of the legal and pathological aspects: a case report.

    Cook, Deborah S; James, Ryk S

    2002-10-01

    This article presents a case report of a shooting using an antique pistol. The unusual pathological findings are presented, together with a review of the law in this area. It seems that there is currently a loophole in the 1997 Firearms Act by means of which 'enthusiasts' or 'collectors' may legally possess weapons and then subsequently acquire ammunition illegally. PMID:12487522

  8. Pathological anatomy of the hepatic lymph vessels from the radiological aspect

    With increased formation of lymph the lymphatic vessels of the liver are detectable on X-ray and can be assessed. Lymphatic vessels of the portal areas and Glisson's capsule and the pathways of the efferent extrahepatic lymphatics are described. Examples of pathological hepatograms in cirrhosis are presented. (Author)

  9. Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog

    B.D.C. Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

  10. The epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: insights into physiological and pathological aspects of oral tissues

    Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the human biological system, the individual cells divide and form tissues and organs. These tissues are hetero-cellular. Basically any tissue consists of an epithelium and the connective tissue. The latter contains mainly mesenchymally-derived tissues with a diversified cell population. The cell continues to grow and differentiate in a pre-programmed manner using a messenger system. The epithelium and the mesenchymal portion of each tissue have two different origins and perform specific functions, but there is a well-defined interaction mechanism, which mediates between them. Epithelial mesenchymal interactions (EMIs are part of this mechanism, which can be regarded as a biological conversation between epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations involved in the cellular differentiation of one or both cell populations. EMIs represent a process that is essential for cell growth, cell differentiation and cell multiplication. EMIs are associated with normal physiological processes in the oral cavity, such as odontogenesis, dentino-enamel junction formation, salivary gland development, palatogenesis, and also pathological processes, such as oral cancer. This paper focuses the role EMIs in odontogenesis, salivary gland development, palatogenesis and oral cancer.

  11. Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies

    This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developed in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolution, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies. (author)

  12. Pathological and parasitological aspects of the peacock (Pavo cristatus infection by Tanaisia(Paratanaisiabragai

    Rafael C. Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Trematodes belonging to the family Eucotylidae, including Tanaisia(ParatanaisiabragaiSantos, 1934are parasites of the kidney and ureter that affect several species of domestic and wild birds. Tanaisia bragaiis considered a low pathogenic parasite, but high worm burdens may determine clinical complications, including signs of apathy, weight loss, diarrhea and death. This paper describes the first report of infection by T. bragai in peacocks (Pavo cristatus, which constitutes a new host record and offers data on the lesions associated to this parasitism, although the degree of pathogenicity and parasite load may be considered mild. These birds did not exhibit clinical signs of parasitism. The macroscopic exam revealed discreet yellow spots on the liver. In the histological sections of the kidney, specimens of T. bragai were found in the collecting ducts, which were markedly dilated, with a thickened wall. Other findings included a mild inflammatory reaction in the wall of the ducts (but sometimes absent, flattening of lining epithelial cells and small, multifocal points of calcification around the collecting ducts. The microscopic examination of the parasites revealed trematodes with an elongated body, well-developed sub terminal oral sucker, pharynx present, short esophagus, cecum somewhat undulating or not, with blind end, testes symmetrical, equatorial, irregular in shape or slightly lobed, vitelline fields extending in both pre-ovarian and post ovarian fields, uterus very long, intercecal or sometimes overlapping the cecum and containing large quantities of eggs. The present findings suggest the need for further diagnostic studies on the prevalence of this trematode in peacocks as well as pathologic studies for the determination of the potential pathogenicity of this parasite in this species of bird. Moreover, infected peacocks could serve as carriers of T. bragai to be transferred to other bird species, thereby contributing to the

  13. Allergic fungal sinusitis: clinico-pathological aspects. Findings on CT and MR

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) represents the most recently described form of chronic sinusitis caused by fungi. It occurs in affects teenagers and young adults with atopic antecedents. This disease is a non-invasive chronic sinusitis, fungus acts as the allergen, causing a host immune response, mediated by type I and III reactions. Typically, several paranasal sinuses are usually involved with unilateral predominance. Most common clinical findings are headache, different grades of nasal obstruction and proptosis. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed for this entity, including imaging findings obtained with computed tomography (CT). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings together have recently been postulated as practically pathognomonic. Treatment and prognosis of this entity, different from other types of fungal sinusitis, makes important to achieve a correct diagnosis. On this task, imaging studies as CT and MR play an important role. (Author) 23 refs

  14. Urachal cancer: contemporary review of the pathological, surgical, and prognostic aspects of this rare disease.

    Behrendt, Mark A; DE Jong, Jeroen; VAN Rhijn, Bas W

    2016-04-01

    . Scientific knowledge about UraC is comprised of single center experiences, small collected cohorts or pathology/cancer registry database searches. Many questions like validated staging, (neo)adjuvant treatment options, differences in outcome for different tumor types and the existence of a common genetic origin are still unanswered. Future studies and trials are needed to address these important topics. PMID:26583595

  15. [The pathology of the peritoneo-vaginal process in the young males: clinical and therapeutical aspects in 160 cases].

    Fall, P A; Gueye, S M; Ndoye, A; Sylla, C; Abdallahi, M O; Diame, A A; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe the clinical and therapeutical aspects of pathology of the peritoneo-vaginal process. We have performed a retrospective study including 160 patients operated between January 1990 up to December 1996. Mean age at diagnosis was 8 years, ranged from 1 month to 13 years old. All patients were male. The abnormality was located in the right side in 60% of cases and was bilateral in 6.7% of cases. The main clinical features were scrotal mass (81%) and scrotal pain (13.46%). The diagnosis was made at birth only in 20% of cases. A maldescended testis was associated in 7.5% of cases. A groin incision have been used in 91.25% of patients. The average hospital stay after surgery was 1 day. Thus, the pathology of the peritoneo-vaginal process is common and apparently banal. Need for treatment through a groin incision owing to the possibility of associated maldescended testis. PMID:15779188

  16. Identifying aspects of Ambient Intelligence through a review of recent developments

    Maria Charalampidou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It has already been realized by the scientific and technical community that a new form of technology is going to lead the future technological developments. This technology will be more human-centric and will be more and more “hidden” within everyday-life objects. It will be smarter, personalized, pervasive and ubiquitous. This technology includes what is called Ambient Intelligence (AmI. In this paper, we identify the main aspects of AmI through a review of the recent developments that have been achieved in these aspects of AmI and Ambient Intelligence Environments (AmIEs, as well as point out the problems yet to be solved and the visions of the future.

  17. Aspects of gametogenesis and radiation pathology in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen); gametogenesis, pt. 1

    In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads. Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and autoradiographical methods, including investigation of living male germinal cells, are used. The gross anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems is simple as compared to other insect species. In newly hatched larvae the gonads contain on an average 13 germinal cells. Gonads in larvae which are less than 7 days old cannot be distinguished as being male or female. This distinction becomes possible after the apical cell and the apical somatic tissue respectively is formed in the young gonad. Spermatogenesis is treated in a number of paragraphs dealing with the description and identification of germinal and somatic cell types, the ontogenetic development of the testis, the dynamics of spermatogenesis and aspects comparative spermatogenesis. A proper identification of the testicular cell types is considered to be imperative to any correct experimental approach of spermatogenesis. Morphological descriptions of the various germinal and somatic cell types are given accordingly. Comparison of mainly morphological features of male germinal cell types in a number of insect species, including H. antiqua, indicates possibilities for comparative research of spermatogenesis in various insect species. This could provide a basis for comparative radiobiological or other experimental investigations on insect spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis share a number of features, which suggests a certain similarity of the processes involved

  18. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to communicate

  19. Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery

    Stjernholm, Christina [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Soedersjukhuset

    2003-07-01

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to

  20. Recent Trends in the World Gas Market: Economical, Geopolitical and Environmental Aspects

    Alessandro Toscano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is considered by energy experts to be the most promising fossil fuel for the 21st century, and as a matter of fact, the International Energy Agency (IEA introduced for the first time in the 2011 World Energy Outlook a high gas use scenario called the “Golden Age of Gas”. Natural gas is an easy to burn and clean fuel; its proven reserves are large and furthermore, enormous possibilities are offered by unconventional resources. There are anyway some geopolitical concerns in the global gas market, since the most important reserves are concentrated in a limited number of countries; the environmental impacts in the extraction of shale gas should also be taken into account. The paper presents an updated and thorough overview of recent advances and trends in the global gas market, highlighting the role of Europe in the World scenario. Statistical data from the main international reports are presented; economical, geopolitical and especially environmental aspects are presented and discussed.

  1. Left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cattle: recent developments in epidemiological and etiological aspects

    Winden, van, F.A.A.M.; Kuiper, R.

    2003-01-01

    The research with respect to displacement of the abomasum (DA) in dairy cattle is reviewed. Evaluated articles describe epidemiological and experimental studies. The occurrence is elevated with regard to breed, gender, age, concurrent diseases, environmental aspects and production levels as contributing factors and emphasis is placed on the effects of nutrition and metabolism. Reviewing the experimental work, distinction is made between the research into gas production in the abomasum and hyp...

  2. Well-established and more recent aspects of combined therapy of gynaecological tumours

    The question of superiority concerning operative or radiation therapy should not make us forget that the combined therapy of gynaecologic carcinomas was proven to be good. The differing therapy results are due to the problems of classifying the phases, the ages of the patients, the histology, and, not less important, the radiation sensibility of gynaecologic tumours. The psychological and psychosomatic aspects of treating gynaecologic tumours are discussed. (APR)

  3. ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF INFECTOLOGY AND VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS. Part 1. Bioethics and social justice in infectious pathology

    O. I. Kubar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The serial materials on the history of establishment and the modern concepts of bioethics in the field of infectious pathology is planned to present in several articles. In the current report problems of forming and compliance of social responsibility are considered. It is demonstrated the universal importance of ethic principles and specificity of their realization in the different stages of combating with infectious diseases. 

  4. ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF INFECTOLOGY AND VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS. Part 1. Bioethics and social justice in infectious pathology

    O. I. Kubar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The serial materials on the history of establishment and the modern concepts of bioethics in the field of infectious pathology is planned to present in several articles. In the current report problems of forming and compliance of social responsibility are considered. It is demonstrated the universal importance of ethic principles and specificity of their realization in the different stages of combating with infectious diseases. 

  5. Left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cattle: recent developments in epidemiological and etiological aspects.

    Van Winden, Steven C L; Kuiper, Rogier

    2003-01-01

    The research with respect to displacement of the abomasum (DA) in dairy cattle is reviewed. Evaluated articles describe epidemiological and experimental studies. The occurrence is elevated with regard to breed, gender, age, concurrent diseases, environmental aspects and production levels as contributing factors and emphasis is placed on the effects of nutrition and metabolism. Reviewing the experimental work, distinction is made between the research into gas production in the abomasum and hypomotility of the abomasum, since both represent presumed pathways in the development of DA. Although the different fields of research have positive contributions to the understanding of the pathogenesis of DA, contradictions in the different studies are present. This is partly due to extrapolation of results from sheep to cows, or because of a low number of cows in the experiments. Finally, general suggestions are made for further research in the field of the pathogenesis of DA. PMID:12588683

  6. Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides

    The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent Earthquakes, and Consequential Mudflows and Landslides, held in Moscow, October 1989. The annexes to the document provide information on the participants, the work programme and the resolution adopted at each of the seminars. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia under the recent crisis

    Jaššo Matej; Finka Maroš

    2010-01-01

    Territorial cohesion has been one of the most prominent topics of discourse among spatial planners, urban sociologists, economists and experts from various other fields. Territorial systems with high degree of cohesion are better equipped to withstand the external pressures and situational imbalancies. Recent global crisis exposed these imbalancies and challenged the smooth and balanced spatial development of European countries. Major economic setbacks influenced entire society in Slova...

  8. Legal aspects of recent studies on the health effects of radiation

    The risk of ionising radiation has recently been reviewed by three different high-level bodies. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) issued in 1988 a report to the General Assembly with the title ''Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionising Radiation''. A review of the biological effects of ionizing radiations has also been performed by the United States National Research Council's Committee BEIR V, published in 1989, with the title ''Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionising Radiation''. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has in November 1990 adopted its new recommendations issued as ICRP Publication 60. One of the newer health hazards is non-ionizing radiation (NIR), exposure to which extends from occupational into the field of public health. There are also collaborate studies on the health risks of non-ionizing radiation performed by e.g. the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). The most recent studies on the health effects of radiation are discussed in the paper. (author)

  9. Recent floods in the Middle Ebro River, Spain: hydrometeorological aspects and floodplain management

    S. Domenech

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ebro River has the largest Mediterranean basin in the Iberian Peninsula and the third one by surface among those of the Mediterranean Sea. The middle stretch of this river is especially interesting because it constitutes a very economically important axis of population in a semi-arid environment context. Flooding processes are common in the Middle Ebro River, but the combination among decrease of discharges, dam construction and expansion and reinforcement of defences created an unusually quiet period as regards flooding events during the last quarter of the previous century. Nevertheless, with the turn of the century it seems that the Middle Ebro River has entered into new dynamics, with bigger and more frequent floods, the appearance of which has changed its seasonal nature. The most relevant examples are those of February 2003 and March–April 2007. The present paper examines these recent trends and discusses their possible causes from the points of view of hydro-meteorology, flood management through the use of reservoirs, and floodplain management. The consequences of recent floods in the Middle Ebro River have reopened the debate about possible risk management measures.

  10. ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposit: Global aspects and recent developments in China

    It is concluded that most of known ISL-amenable uranium deposits are attributed to roll sub-type, a minority to basal-channel sub-type, and a few to tabular in case that redistribution of U occurred. Such a classification and related explanation are beneficial to exploration in China. However, there exist significant differences between deposits in Central Asia and those in Wyoming in aspects of tectonic background, scale and shape of host sandbodies, and attitude of ore bodies though all are attributed to the same roll sub-type. Similar situation is presented for deposits of basal channel sub-type. So, it is proposed to establish deposit model and model series, providing guidelines for exploration. Four model series and eleven models have been tentatively formulated, including: 1) Central Asia-South Texas series (Chu Sarysu-Syr Darya, Central Kyzylkum, Yili and South Texas models) where hosts are large-scale tabular sandbodies, usually developed on the slope parallel to the long axis of the basin and ore bodies have a 'C' shape with convex surfaces perpendicular to the long axis of the basin; 2) Wyoming series (Shirley-Wind River-Powder River and Great Divide models) where hosts are moderate/small sandbodies forming a wide ribbon, deposited in compressive for e-land basins while ore bodies occur on both margins of ribbon-shaped sandbodies with the convex surfaces directed outwards; 3) Grants series (Grants-primary and Grants re-distributed models) where host sandstones were deposited as channel fill within a large-scale humid alluvial fan, containing plenty of organic matter, and ore bodies are mostly tabular in shape, transformed locally into roll form; and 4) Siberia-Bohemia series (West Siberia, Trans-baikal-West Yunnan and North Bohemia models) where U concentrations occur in, on, and/or adjacent to detrital plant debris within the channel sandstone, filling incised valley. Besides, recognition criteria are briefly explained. On the other hand, the sandstone

  11. Moral and Spiritual Aspects of Counseling: Recent Developments in the West

    Mumtaz Fatima Jafari

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring the moral and spiritual dimension of counseling. Since professional counseling has developed in the West, cultural peculiarities and individualistic orientation of the Occident permeate the profession. Recently a surge of interest in spirituality and religion has been noted with some focused treatment on a new approach of counseling. The new approach suggests that spirituality in life is central to the individual, family, and community. Therapists are increasingly examining the relationship between spirituality and general psychological wellness. Both secular and religious professionals are recognizing the paradigm shift from illness to wellness and individualism to collectivism. Counseling has grown out of the premise that therapists need to be value-free. The emerging perspective of an integrated outlook of counseling with religion and spirituality has resulted in a fundamental conflict with the prevailing value system of the profession. Counselors still wish to avoid the role of a moralist. The controversy is also related to the desired assertiveness of a therapist in attaching a moral and spiritual dimension while advocating certain values. Psychotherapy, as a moralistic enterprise, requires modification in its training programmes. Therapists need to reorient themselves as scientists with a profound moral or spiritual commitment. Clients need and demand this reorientation. This profession has the claim of responding to the needs of its clientele and it cannot ignore the emerging thrust in its practice.

  12. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: Clinical and molecular aspects of recently identified kidney cancer syndrome.

    Hasumi, Hisashi; Baba, Masaya; Hasumi, Yukiko; Furuya, Mitsuko; Yao, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease that predisposes patients to develop fibrofolliculoma, lung cysts and bilateral multifocal renal tumors, histologically hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, papillary renal cell carcinoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The predominant forms of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome-associated renal tumors, hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma are typically less aggressive, and a therapeutic principle for these tumors is a surgical removal with nephron-sparing. The timing of surgery is the most critical element for postoperative renal function, which is one of the important prognostic factors for Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome patients. The folliculin gene (FLCN) that is responsible for Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome was isolated as a novel tumor suppressor for kidney cancer. Recent studies using murine models for FLCN, a protein encoded by the FLCN gene, and its two binding partners, folliculin-interacting protein 1 (FNIP1) and folliculin-interacting protein 2 (FNIP2), have uncovered important roles for FLCN, FNIP1 and FNIP2 in cell metabolism, which include AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated energy sensing, Ppargc1a-driven mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mTORC1-dependent cell proliferation. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is a hereditary hamartoma syndrome, which is triggered by metabolic alterations under a functional loss of FLCN/FNIP1/FNIP2 complex, a critical regulator of kidney cell proliferation rate; a mechanistic insight into the FLCN/FNIP1/FNIP2 pathway could provide us a basis for developing new therapeutics for kidney cancer. PMID:26608100

  13. Recent Research on Pathological Internet Use%病理性互联网使用研究进展

    潘琼; 肖水源

    2002-01-01

    @@ 病理性互联网使用[1-3](PIU,pathological internet use),又称网络成瘾[4-8](IA,internet addiction)、网络成瘾障碍[9](IAD,internet addiction disorder)、强迫性网络使用[8](compulsive internet use)等,每个术语均反映了对过度上网(excessive Internet use)性质的不同理解.纽约市精神病学家Ivan博士[9]于1995年首次提出"网络成瘾障碍(IAD,internet addiction disorder)"这一概念,用以描述那些整天只盯住电脑屏幕上网,而不顾家庭责任的网民.国外一些精神病学家和心理学家对此领域进行了一系列探索性研究[4-6,10],证实PIU患者在工作、学习、经济、人际关系和婚姻等方面有不同程度的损害.本文就PIU的研究进展作一概要介绍.

  14. Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder.

    Belpomme, Dominique; Campagnac, Christine; Irigaray, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    flow (BBF) in the temporal lobes of each case with pulsed cerebral ultrasound computed tomosphygmography. Both disorders were associated with hypoperfusion in the capsulothalamic area, suggesting that the inflammatory process involve the limbic system and the thalamus. Our data strongly suggest that EHS and MCS can be objectively characterized and routinely diagnosed by commercially available simple tests. Both disorders appear to involve inflammation-related hyper-histaminemia, oxidative stress, autoimmune response, capsulothalamic hypoperfusion and BBB opening, and a deficit in melatonin metabolic availability; suggesting a risk of chronic neurodegenerative disease. Finally the common co-occurrence of EHS and MCS strongly suggests a common pathological mechanism. PMID:26613326

  15. P53 Overexpression in Bladder Urothelial Neoplasms: New Aspect of World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology Classification

    Hassan Ahmadnia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable differences in P53 expression between papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP and varying grades of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Ten biopsy specimens of the patients with PUNLMP, 20 of the patients with papillary low-grade TCC, 20 of those with invasive high-grade TCC, and 10 of healthy individuals were stained for P53 protein by immunohitochemical methods. Histological grading was performed according to the World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology consensus classification of urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Results: Nuclear P53 protein in invasive high-grade TCC was slightly more frequent than that in noninvasive low-grade papillary TCC (P = .35. Ten percent of specimens with PUNLMP had nuclear P53 accumulation, while in low-grade and high-grade TCCs, 75% and 85% of the specimens were positive for P53 protein accumulation (P P53 was nil in all normal transitional epithelium specimens. Conclusion: Overexpression of P53 in papillary low-grade TCC and invasive high-grade TCC, while lacking of expression in PUNLMP indicates that mutations of P53

  16. Studies on Clinical Aspects, Pathological Changes, Immunohistochemistry, 14-3-3 protein, PrP Gene, and Animal Transmission of Creutzldt-Jakob Disease in China

    Lin Shilie; Zhao Jiexu; Jiang Xinmei; Song Xiaonan; Wang Weimin; Fan Yengyeng; Tao Yuiqin; Chen Xiuyun

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical manifestations, pathological changes, expression of PrP gene, 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and experimental animal transmission of Creuizfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in China. Methods Clinical aspects of 24 patients with CJD which was confirmed neuropathological were evaluated. Brain sections of 10 cases of them were given immunostaining with antiserum to a synthetic polypeptide of prioni protein (PrP). PrP gene was analyzed in 10 cases, and 14-3-3 protein in CSF was detected in 5 cases. Experimental mouse transmission was carried out using brain suspension from 7 patients with CJD. Results 1) Nineteen cases with sporadic CJD, 3 cases with iatrogenic CJD, 1 case with inherited CJD and 1 case with coexistence of Alzheimer disease(AD) and CJD were found. 2) The percentage of acute and subacute onset was high up to 96%. The illness duration was shorter in a subacute onset and the brain atrophy was not obvious.3) The synaptic type of PrP deposition was shown in paraffin sections in all -cases by immunostaining.4) 14-3-3 protein was detected in 5 eases in cerebrospinal fluid with CJD 5) Spongiform degeneration and PrP deposition could be shown in the brain sections of experimental mouse transmission. Conclusion There are special characteristics in clinical aspects of CJD in China. The detection of 14-3-3 protein can provide objective evidence for early diagnosis of CJD in order to prevent its transmission

  17. Clinical and pathologic considerations of the qualitative and quantitative aspects of lupus nephritogenic autoantibodies: A comprehensive review.

    Gatto, Mariele; Iaccarino, Luca; Ghirardello, Anna; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Autoantibodies are key mediators in determining the clinical manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The mechanisms by which antibodies may be harmful to self tissues encompass complement mediated inflammation, cell apoptosis and immune-complexes mediated damage, however the precise cooperation of antibodies in SLE have not been unravelled so far. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a protean feature of SLE resulting in wide variety of symptoms including asymptomatic proteinuria, mild renal disease until end-stage renal failure which are triggered by complex autoantibody interactions. Novel clues concerning development and self-maintenance of LN have come to light in recent times, pointing straight to a multistep inflammatory process which is incited by anti-chromatin antibodies, the best known being anti-DNA and anti-nucleosome antibodies, culminating in a self-maintaining inflammatory loop with spreading of glomerular inflammation. In the maintenance of the inflammatory process pro-inflammatory antibodies are involved, among which anti-C1q are thought to play a major role, whereas hindrance of the nephritic process could be actively mediated by protective autoantibodies. Despite being so relevant in occurrence of LN, nor anti-chromatin neither anti-C1q antibodies have been precisely characterized in terms of origin, antigen specificity and mechanisms of action. Moreover, novel autoantibodies are emerging in LN which can modify disease course, whereas the pathogenic value of a myriad of cross-reactive antibodies has been progressively challenged. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive view of known and emerging autoantibody reactivities involved in renal inflammation and damage going over their origin, mechanisms of action and interactions in determining LN course. PMID:26879422

  18. Mentalization and theory of mind in borderline personality organization: exploring the differences between affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in emotional pathology

    Górska, Dominika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This article addresses the problem of explaining emotional pathology (levels of personality organization using the concepts of theory of mind (ToM and mentalization. Although these terms are used interchangeably to describe the “ability to interpret the behavior of others in terms of mental states,” they do not have identical status in emotional disorders. ToM refers to a “cold” knowledge, whereas mentalization requires the activation of relational and emotional representations, as well as processing of emotional experience (whether reflection or defense. The aim of the study was to compare the cognitive (ToM and affective (mentalization aspects of “understanding the behavior of others in terms of mental states” in the clinical group – consisting of patients with borderline personality organization (N = 30; and the control group (N = 30. Method: The Borderline Personality Inventory was used as a diagnostic questionnaire for the organization of personality, the Strange Stories Test was employed to measure ToM, and the Mental States Task instrument measured mentalization. Results: With respect to mentalization, different patterns of results were obtained: the activation of overwhelming mental states and primitive defenses in the clinical group; as well as the inhibition of the recognition of mental content by defenses, such as denial and suppression of emotions, in the control group. No differences were observed in ToM between groups. Conclusions: In explaining the personality organization levels, only the affective, and not the cognitive, aspects of “understanding the behavior of others in terms of mental states” are significant. People with borderline personality organization, as well as healthy individuals, use “cold” knowledge about internal states. However, the activation of relational and emotional representations triggers different mental states in both groups.

  19. Recent Progress on Ferroelectric Polymer-Based Nanocomposites for High Energy Density Capacitors: Synthesis, Dielectric Properties, and Future Aspects.

    Prateek; Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Raju Kumar

    2016-04-13

    Dielectric polymer nanocomposites are rapidly emerging as novel materials for a number of advanced engineering applications. In this Review, we present a comprehensive review of the use of ferroelectric polymers, especially PVDF and PVDF-based copolymers/blends as potential components in dielectric nanocomposite materials for high energy density capacitor applications. Various parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss, breakdown strength, energy density, and flexibility of the polymer nanocomposites have been thoroughly investigated. Fillers with different shapes have been found to cause significant variation in the physical and electrical properties. Generally, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanofillers with large aspect ratios provide enhanced flexibility versus zero-dimensional fillers. Surface modification of nanomaterials as well as polymers adds flavor to the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites. Nowadays, three-phase nanocomposites with either combination of fillers or polymer matrix help in further improving the dielectric properties as compared to two-phase nanocomposites. Recent research has been focused on altering the dielectric properties of different materials while also maintaining their superior flexibility. Flexible polymer nanocomposites are the best candidates for application in various fields. However, certain challenges still present, which can be solved only by extensive research in this field. PMID:27040315

  20. Nominal aspect

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1991-01-01

    In a general way the notion 'aspect' can be defined as the way in which a property or relation is represented in some dimension. Two kinds of aspect can be distinguished: verbal and nominal aspect. The study of verbal aspect has a long tradition, but nominal aspect has only been introduced recent......' (which will be analysed as nominal aspect markers below), (ii) noun-incorporation, and (iii) predicate nouns....

  1. Aspects récents de la thermodynamique des solutions de polymères Recent Aspects of the Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions

    Dayantis J.

    2006-11-01

    of recent research by the Paris School which has been treating polymer solutions by similarity ta magnetic transitions.

  2. Updates of pathologic myopia.

    Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Lai, Chi-Chun; Cheung, Chiu Ming Gemmy

    2016-05-01

    Complications from pathologic myopia are a major cause of visual impairment and blindness, especially in east Asia. The eyes with pathologic myopia may develop loss of the best-corrected vision due to various pathologies in the macula, peripheral retina and the optic nerve. Despite its importance, the definition of pathologic myopia has been inconsistent. The refractive error or axial length alone often does not adequately reflect the 'pathologic myopia'. Posterior staphyloma, which is a hallmark lesion of pathologic myopia, can occur also in non-highly myopic eyes. Recently a revised classification system for myopic maculopathy has been proposed to standardize the definition among epidemiological studies. In this META-PM (meta analyses of pathologic myopia) study classification, pathologic myopia was defined as the eyes having chorioretinal atrophy equal to or more severe than diffuse atrophy. In addition, the advent of new imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) has enabled the detailed observation of various pathologies specific to pathologic myopia. New therapeutic approaches including intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and the advance of vitreoretinal surgeries have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with pathologic myopia. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on topics related to the field of pathologic myopia, and to outline the remaining issues which need to be solved in the future. PMID:26769165

  3. The Dangers of Failure Masking in Fault-Tolerant Software: Aspects of a Recent In-Flight Upset Event

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    On 1 August 2005, a Boeing Company 777-200 aircraft, operating on an international passenger flight from Australia to Malaysia, was involved in a significant upset event while flying on autopilot. The Australian Transport Safety Bureau's investigation into the event discovered that an anomaly existed in the component software hierarchy that allowed inputs from a known faulty accelerometer to be processed by the air data inertial reference unit (ADIRU) and used by the primary flight computer, autopilot and other aircraft systems. This anomaly had existed in original ADIRU software, and had not been detected in the testing and certification process for the unit. This paper describes the software aspects of the incident in detail, and suggests possible implications concerning complex, safety-critical, fault-tolerant software.

  4. Mentalization and theory of mind in borderline personality organization: exploring the differences between affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in emotional pathology

    Górska, Dominika; Marszał, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This article addresses the problem of explaining emotional pathology (levels of personality organization) using the concepts of theory of mind (ToM) and mentalization. Although these terms are used interchangeably to describe the “ability to interpret the behavior of others in terms of mental states,” they do not have identical status in emotional disorders. ToM refers to a “cold” knowledge, whereas mentalization requires the activation of relational and emotional representations, as wel...

  5. [Recent findings on the epidemiological and experimental aspects of the measurement of serum bile acids in occupational exposure to xenobiotics].

    Franco, G; Fonte, R; Lorena, M

    1989-11-01

    The functional activity of the liver and the variety of its responses to injury makes the choice of appropriate tests a difficult task. However, because of the highly efficient uptake of bile acids by the normal hepatocyte, the determination of serum bile acids (SBA) concentration has been proposed as a test to detect early changes of liver function not associated to cytotoxicity. Several studies of biomonitoring subjects occupationally exposed to hepatotoxic substances have been carried out by evaluating total SBA or primary SBA, as indicators of early liver dysfunction. Even though these studies are not completely comparable because of the different protocols adopted, most of them reveal a significant increase of SBA concentrations among the exposed subjects in respect of unexposed controls. Furthermore, higher prevalences of subjects exposed to organic solvents mixture with abnormal SBA concentrations in respect of controls have been observed. Increased serum bile acids concentrations among the subjects exposed to a variety of xenobiotics have been explained as a change in hepatocyte function, particularly in one of the steps involved in bile acids transport. However, the lack of any relationship between the indices of doses and SBA concentrations remains an important point to clarify. This fact could be interpreted as a consequence of the delayed biological effect responsible for increased serum bile acids during the exposure. As regards the nature of the mechanisms involved in the increase of SBA concentrations, recent observations pointed out that some chlorinated aliphatics were able to inhibit cell membrane ATPases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2562752

  6. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

  7. Priorities in seed pathology research

    Nameth S.T.

    1998-01-01

    Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of...

  8. Glucocerebrosidase 1 deficient Danio rerio mirror key pathological aspects of human Gaucher disease and provide evidence of early microglial activation preceding alpha-synuclein-independent neuronal cell death

    Keatinge, Marcus; Bui, Hai; Menke, Aswin; Chen, Yu-Chia; Sokol, Anna M.; Bai, Qing; Ellett, Felix; Da Costa, Marc; Burke, Derek; Gegg, Matthew; Trollope, Lisa; Payne, Thomas; McTighe, Aimee; Mortiboys, Heather; de Jager, Sarah; Nuthall, Hugh; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Fleming, Angeleen; Schapira, Anthony H.V.; Renshaw, Stephen A.; Highley, J. Robin; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Panula, Pertti; Burton, Edward A.; O'Neill, Michael J.; Bandmann, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessively inherited glucocerebrosidase 1 (GBA1) mutations cause the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher's disease (GD). Heterozygous GBA1 mutations (GBA1+/−) are the most common risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies typically focused on the interaction between the reduction of glucocerebrosidase (enzymatic) activity in GBA1+/− carriers and alpha-synuclein-mediated neurotoxicity. However, it is unclear whether other mechanisms also contribute to the increased risk of PD in GBA1+/− carriers. The zebrafish genome does not contain alpha-synuclein (SNCA), thus providing a unique opportunity to study pathogenic mechanisms unrelated to alpha-synuclein toxicity. Here we describe a mutant zebrafish line created by TALEN genome editing carrying a 23 bp deletion in gba1 (gba1c.1276_1298del), the zebrafish orthologue of human GBA1. Marked sphingolipid accumulation was already detected at 5 days post-fertilization with accompanying microglial activation and early, sustained up-regulation of miR-155, a master regulator of inflammation. gba1c.1276_1298del mutant zebrafish developed a rapidly worsening phenotype from 8 weeks onwards with striking reduction in motor activity by 12 weeks. Histopathologically, we observed marked Gaucher cell invasion of the brain and other organs. Dopaminergic neuronal cell count was normal through development but reduced by >30% at 12 weeks in the presence of ubiquitin-positive, intra-neuronal inclusions. This gba1c.1276_1298del zebrafish line is the first viable vertebrate model sharing key pathological features of GD in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissue. Our study also provides evidence for early microglial activation prior to alpha-synuclein-independent neuronal cell death in GBA1 deficiency and suggests upregulation of miR-155 as a common denominator across different neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26376862

  9. Advanced Glycation End-Products and Their Receptors: Related Pathologies, Recent Therapeutic Strategies, and a Potential Model for Future Neurodegeneration Studies.

    Pinkas, Adi; Aschner, Michael

    2016-05-16

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the result of a nonenzymatic reaction between sugars and proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids. AGEs are both consumed and endogenously formed; their accumulation is accelerated under hyperglycemic and oxidative stress conditions, and they are associated with the onset and complication of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. AGEs exert their deleterious effects by either accumulating in the circulation and tissues or by receptor-mediated signal transduction. Several receptors bind AGEs: some are specific and contribute to clearance of AGEs, whereas others, like the RAGE receptor, are nonspecific, associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, and considered to be mediators of the aforementioned AGE-related diseases. Although several anti-AGE compounds have been studied, understanding the underlying mechanisms of RAGE and targeting it as a therapeutic strategy is becoming increasingly desirable. For achieving these goals efficiently and expeditiously, the C. elegans model has been suggested. This model is already used for studying several human diseases and, by expressing RAGE, could also be used to study RAGE-related pathways and pathologies to facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27054356

  10. Pathological gambling

    ... to a gambling habit. Stressful situations can worsen gambling problems. ... to avoid letting other people know about their problem. The American Psychiatric Association defines pathological gambling as having five or more of the following ...

  11. RECOGNITION, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL PATHOLOGIES IN AXEL HONNETH'S RECENT WRITINGS Reconocimiento, justicia y patologías sociales en los trabajos recientes de Axel Honneth

    STÉPHANE HABER

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses Axel Honneth's recent book on Reification and its relation to Honneth's theory of recognition. It critically examines Honneth's hypothesis concerning the existential roots of recognition, and compares two classical concepts of social critique, Reification and alienation, in order to argue for the superiority of the latter over the formerEste ensayo discute el último libro de Axel Honneth sobre la cosificación (Verdinglichung, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005) y su relación con la...

  12. Purely cutaneous sclerosing IgG4-related disease of the cephalic region: case report and a mini-review of the clinical and pathological aspects.

    Muscardin, Luca; Paolino, Giovanni; Panetta, Chiara; Donati, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently defined emerging entity. Many different organs may be affected by this disease: pancreas, salivary and lacrimal glands, liver, peritoneum and lung. Also the skin may be affected, as secondary localization, while as primary cutaneous localization it has been rarely described. A male patient presented at our Institute with a two-year history of sclerosing erythematous nodules of the scalp. Histological examination showed a T-lymphocyte (CD3+) infiltrate with interspersed plasmacytoid cells and the interposition of a fibrosclerotic tissue. We found numerous IgG4+ cells at the periphery of the nodular structures, while the serum levels of IgG4 and the remaining blood chemistry analysis were normal. Only a few cases of primitive cutaneous pseudo-lymphomatous IgG4-related disease have been described in the literature. Our case showed the same clinical and histologic features of those previously described; the etiology of IgG4-related diseases remains to be elucidated. PMID:26340764

  13. RECOGNITION, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL PATHOLOGIES IN AXEL HONNETH'S RECENT WRITINGS Reconocimiento, justicia y patologías sociales en los trabajos recientes de Axel Honneth

    STÉPHANE HABER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Axel Honneth's recent book on Reification and its relation to Honneth's theory of recognition. It critically examines Honneth's hypothesis concerning the existential roots of recognition, and compares two classical concepts of social critique, Reification and alienation, in order to argue for the superiority of the latter over the formerEste ensayo discute el último libro de Axel Honneth sobre la cosificación (Verdinglichung, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005 y su relación con la teoría del reconocimiento avanzada por el mismo autor. El ensayo examina críticamente la nueva hipótesis de Honneth sobre las raíces existenciales del reconocimiento, y hace una comparación entre dos conceptos clave de la teorí crítica, la cosificación y la alienación, para argumentar la superioridad teórica de esteúltimo concepto

  14. Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

  15. Digital pathology

    Sucaet, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology has experienced exponential growth, in terms of its technology and applications, since its inception just over a decade ago. Though it has yet to be approved for primary diagnostics, its values as a teaching tool, facilitator of second opinions and quality assurance reviews and research are becoming, if not already, undeniable. It also offers the hope of providing pathology consultant and educational services to under-served areas, including regions of the world that could not possibly sustain this level of services otherwise. And this is just the beginning, as its adoption b

  16. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  17. Comparative molecular developmental aspects of the mammalian- and the avian lungs, and the insectan tracheal system by branching morphogenesis: recent advances and future directions

    Maina John N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas exchangers fundamentally form by branching morphogenesis (BM, a mechanistically profoundly complex process which derives from coherent expression and regulation of multiple genes that direct cell-to-cell interactions, differentiation, and movements by signaling of various molecular morphogenetic cues at specific times and particular places in the developing organ. Coordinated expression of growth-instructing factors determines sizes and sites where bifurcation occurs, by how much a part elongates before it divides, and the angle at which branching occurs. BM is essentially induced by dualities of factors where through feedback- or feed forward loops agonists/antagonists are activated or repressed. The intricate transactions between the development orchestrating molecular factors determine the ultimate phenotype. From the primeval time when the transformation of unicellular organisms to multicellular ones occurred by systematic accretion of cells, BM has been perpetually conserved. Canonical signalling, transcriptional pathways, and other instructive molecular factors are commonly employed within and across species, tissues, and stages of development. While much still remain to be elucidated and some of what has been reported corroborated and reconciled with rest of existing data, notable progress has in recent times been made in understanding the mechanism of BM. By identifying and characterizing the morphogenetic drivers, and markers and their regulatory dynamics, the elemental underpinnings of BM have been more precisely explained. Broadening these insights will allow more effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions of developmental abnormalities and pathologies in pre- and postnatal lungs. Conservation of the molecular factors which are involved in the development of the lung (and other branched organs is a classic example of nature’s astuteness in economically utilizing finite resources. Once purposefully formed, well

  18. Erythromelalgia : Clinical aspects, pathology and therapy

    2012-01-01

    List of papers. Papers I-IV and Appendix I-II are removed from the thesis due to copyright restrictions. Paper I Lalgaard OM, Seem E, Kvernebo K: Erythromelalgia: a clinical study of 87 cases. J Int Med 242:191-7, 1997 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.1997.00185.x Paper II Kalgaard OM, Clausen OP, Mellbye OJ, Hovig T, Kvernebo K: Nonspecific capillary proliferation and vasculopathy indicate skin hypoxia in erythromelalgia. Arch Dermatol 147(3):309-14,2011 doi:10.10...

  19. Clinico-Pathological aspects of Shock

    Kulkarni M.D.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Shock can be defined as “a common grave medical emergency characterised basically by reduction in the effective circulating blood volume and blood pressure”. (Robbins or as “Disparity between the volume of blood and the volume capacity of the vascular system” which cause inability of body tissue to metabolise nutrients due to inadequate oxygen supply. Shock can be classified into: Primary and Secondary.Cardiogenic, Vasogenic, Hematogenic, Neurogenic and Electrocution. The therapy includes Blood, Plasma, Saline transfusion, antibiotic, antihistaminic, hyperimmune serum, vasoconstrictor according to the cause of the shock. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 163-165

  20. The analysis of the recent economic and social aspects important for the management of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic

    Full text: The management system of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic is using already more that ten years as a one tool a monetary value of man Sv. The appropriate values are published in the Decree on radiation protection and they are distinguished for different types and levels of exposure. The derivation of these values has been done about 15 years ago based on studies performed at the 90's. Recently the State Office for Nuclear Safety initiated a new pilot study with the following scope: 1-) To analyze the current economic approaches and techniques used for the determination of the monetary statistical value of the human life under new economical, political and social conditions; 2-) To design the mathematical model for the determination of the lost production and to gain economic and demographic data necessary for the calculation; 3-) To organize a pilot survey of the public opinion in the Czech Republic with the accent on the detriment caused by ionizing radiation and on the willingness to pay for the averted risk or to accept the compensation of the elevated risk. The first evaluation of the results shows that a new evaluated values are not significantly different for the currently used values in the legislation. Although the approaches of the life value estimation are different the valuation is relatively consistent and the average value of the statistical life fall into the range between 300 - 350 thousands CZK (app.10-13 ths EUR) per one year of life. The study confirmed a fact that the optimization of the processes covering the threat of the human health and life is very complicated, complex and demanding a multidisciplinary approach. The study and research will continue in the future focusing to the particular aspects of the problem. The poster will describe in details the methods used and will present the results achieved. (author)

  1. 'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological

    Henry H. Bauer

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available 'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry (N-rays, polywater as well as the recent case of cold fusion in electrochemistry involved research practices not clearly distinguishable from those in (revolutionary science. The concept of 'pathological science' was put forth nearly half a century ago in a seminar and lacks justification in contemporary understanding of science studies (history, philosophy, and sociology of science. It is time to abandon the phrase.

  2. Aspectos clínico-patológicos da intoxicação experimental por selenito de sódio em eqüinos Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental poisoning by sodium selenite in horses

    Pedro Brandini Néspoli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Dadas as controvérsias sobre a intoxicação por selênio, foram realizados nove experimentos com a administração de selenito de sódio, por via intramuscular, em eqüinos, com o intuito de estudar e melhor fundamentar os aspectos clínico-patológicos e toxicológicos sobre esse tema. Conseguiram-se produzir quadros com evoluções superaguda, aguda, subaguda e crônica; alguns sinais clínicos de origem nervosa observados nos quadros agudos foram similares aos descritos para "blind staggers"; a despeito disto, o carácter conflitante e duvidoso das descrições sobre essa pretensa entidade historicamente descrita, não permite uma comparação mais exata. O quadro crônico, por outro lado, configurou claramente a primeira reprodução de "alkali disease", por via parenteral, em eqüinos. Estabeleceu-se 1,49 mg/kg de selenito de sódio como a dose única letal para essa espécie. Descrevem-se diversos achados clínico-patológicos relativos aos sistemas cardiovascular e nervoso, antes não mencionados na literatura relativa aos eqüinos intoxicados por selênio. Entre eles, destacam-se, clinicamente, sopro e arritmia cardíacos, desdobramento de bulhas e convulsão. À necropsia, um animal apresentou nítido achatamento das circunvoluções cerebrais e, em relação à histopatologia, lise e necrose de neurônios do córtex, edema de astrócitos, bem como ativação endotelial e gliose. Em relação à patogênese, postula-se que as alterações degenerativo-necróticas observadas no sistema nervoso central, devam-se ao edema, por sua vez conseqüente ao aumento da permeabilidade vascular, determinada pelo selenito de sódio.Due to the numerous contradictions on selenium poisoining, and in order to improve knowledge about the clinical, pathological and toxicological aspects, experiments were performed with intramuscular injections of sodium selenite in 9 horses. Peracute, acute, subacute and chronic poisoning was reproduced; some nervous

  3. Aspectos patológicos de 155 casos fatais de cães atropelados por veículos automotivos Pathological aspects of 155 fatal cases of dogs victimized by motor vehicles accidents

    Rafael Almeida Fighera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O atropelamento por veículos automotivos contribui significativamente para as estatísticas de morte em cães. Entretanto, há poucos estudos sobre os aspectos patológicos reportados na literatura. Este artigo descreve 155 casos fatais de atropelamento por veículos automotivos em cães. Dos 155 cães atropelados, em 138 (89,0% havia lesões que explicavam a morte ou a razão para a eutanásia desses cães. Essas lesões incluíram traumatismo espinhal-medular (43 [27,7%], ruptura de órgãos parenquimatosos (40 [25,8%], traumatismo cranioencefálico (28 [18,1%], ruptura de órgãos ocos (16 [10,3%], fratura de costelas com laceração de órgãos parenquimatosos (15 [9,7%] e ruptura de diafragma com deslocamento de vísceras abdominais para a cavidade torácica (10 [6,4%].Motor vehicle-related trauma significantly contributes to death statistics of dogs. There are however few documented reports on the pathological aspects of such cases. This paper describes 155 fatal cases of dogs victimized by motor vehicle accidents. In 138 (89.0% of the 155 dogs hit by motor vehicles there were lesions that could explain the death or reason for these dogs being euthanatized. These lesions included vertebrospinal trauma (43 [27.7%], rupture of parenchymal organs (40 [25.8%], cranioencephalic trauma (28 [18.1%], rupture of hollow organs (16 [10.3%], rib fracture with subsequent laceration of parenchymal organs (15 [9.7%], and diaphragmatic rupture with displacement of abdominal viscera into the thoracic cavity (10 [6.4%].

  4. The clinical, pathological, and recent follow-up of pure mitochondrial myopathy%单纯线粒体肌病的临床病理及近期随访

    喻绪恩; 石永光; 王训; 韩咏竹; 杨任民; 程楠; 胡文彬; 胡纪源; 李凯

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical, muscle pathological findings and follow - up results of four cases diagnosed with pure mitochondrial myopathy, but they had been misdiagnosed as polymyositis, muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy and so on. Methods The clinical, electrophysiological and muscle biopsy pathology, and recent follow - up results were retrospectively analysed in the 4 patients. Results The clinical performance of the four cases was limb proximal muscle weakness and muscle atrophy. The lactic acid of 2 cases increased, and the other 2 normal. The creatine kinase of three cases increased slightly, and the other 1 normal. EMG showed that 3 cases had myogenic damage and one case had neurogenic damage. RRF were seen in the muscle tissue pathology of four cases. A large number of blue fibers were found in 1 case double staining of S/C. The four cases had improved to varying degrees by low - dose hormone Bu-tylphthalide, large doses of coenzyme Q10, vitamin B2, and comprehensive treatment when they had been followed -up for three months. Three cases returned to normal work and one case's improvement was not obvious when followed in 6 months. Conclusion The pure mitochondrial myopathy is not specific in clinical and electrophysiological examination, but its muscle biopsy pathology and tissue enzymatic staining are indispensable in diagnosing the disease, and an early mitochondrial protection treatment may be a benign course of the disease.%目的 报道4例曾被误诊为多发性肌炎、肌营养不良症和脊肌萎缩症而后被确诊的单纯线粒体肌病的临床、肌肉病理表现和随访结果.方法 对4例患者的临床、肌肉组织病理和近期随访结果进行总结和回顾性分析.结果 4例患者临床均表现为四肢近端肌无力和肌萎缩,血乳酸2例升高、2例正常,肌酸激酶3例轻度升高、1例正常,肌电图3例肌源性损害、1例神经源性损害.肌肉组织病理4例均可见RRF,1

  5. Pathological gambling.

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  6. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    Jonhan Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users′ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists′ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number

  7. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  8. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    Huazhang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS, adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus. Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx; Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP software v.1.3. The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and

  9. The Danish Pathology Register

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  10. Challenging aspects of treatment strategies in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: “Why did recent clinical trials fail?”

    Peter; Moritz; Becher; Nina; Fluschnik; Stefan; Blankenberg; Dirk; Westermann

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure(HF) is the leading cause of hospitalization among older adults and the prevalence is growing with the aging populations in the Western countries. Epidemiologic reports suggest that approximately 50% of patients who have signs or symptoms of HF have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. This HF type predominantly affects women and the elderly with other co-morbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and overt volume status. Most of the current treatment strategies are based on morbidity benefits such as quality of life and reduction of clinical HF symptoms. Treatment of patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction displayed disappointing results from several large randomized controlled trials. The heterogeneity of HF with preserved ejection fraction, understood as complex syndrome, seems to be one of the primary reasons. Here, we present an overview of the current management strategies with available evidence and new therapeutic approach from drugs currently in clinical trials, which target diastolic dysfunction, chronotropic incompetence, and risk factor management. We provide an outline and interpretation of recent clinical trials that failed to improve outcome and survival in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction.

  11. An assessment of international trade related to bioenergy use in Austria—Methodological aspects, recent developments and the relevance of indirect trade

    Increasing international biomass trade for energy and concerns about sustainability of globally traded biomass have raised interest in assessments of cross-border trade related to bioenergy. Within this paper, approaches to overcome methodological difficulties related to biomass trade are proposed and applied for the case of Austria. Biomass currently has a share of 15.5% in Austria’s primary energy consumption of 1354 PJ (2009). According to energy statistics, the rate of self-sufficiency with biomass for energy (defined as the ratio of domestic production to inland consumption, with both imports and exports taken into account) is 91%. However, feedstock imports for transport fuel production and indirect imports of wood-based fuels (wood processing residues and waste liquor of the paper industry originating from imported wood) are not taken into account in energy statistics, but prove to be of some significance. Imports of agricultural commodities to the amount of 9.7 PJ can be attributed to domestic biofuel production, and indirect imports of wood-based fuels, account for 31 PJ. With these import streams taken into account, the share of domestic fuels in bioenergy use is only 67%, rather than 84%, as official energy statistics suggest. On the other hand, Austria is exporting more than 50% of its production of sawnwood, panelboard and paper products. - Highlights: ► We investigate biomass cross-border trade related to bioenergy use in Austria. ► International biomass trade for energy has increased significantly in recent years. ► A flow wood diagram is derived to identify indirect trade streams of wood fuels. ► Biofuel feedstock imports are about as important as direct biofuel imports. ► 33% of bioenergy in Austria originate from imported biomass (2009).

  12. Recent developments in the layer-by-layer assembly of polyaniline and carbon nanomaterials for energy storage and sensing applications. From synthetic aspects to structural and functional characterization

    Marmisollé, Waldemar A.; Azzaroni, Omar

    2016-05-01

    The construction of hybrid polymer-inorganic nanoarchitectures for electrochemical purposes based on the layer-by-layer assembly of conducting polymers and carbon nanomaterials has become increasingly popular over the last decade. This explosion of interest is primarily related to the increasing mastery in the design of supramolecular constructs using simple wet chemical approaches. Concomitantly, this continuous research activity paved the way to the rapid development of nanocomposites or ``nanoblends'' readily integrable into energy storage and sensing devices. In this sense, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique has allowed us to access three-dimensional (3D) multicomponent carbon-based network nanoarchitectures displaying addressable electrical, electrochemical and transport properties in which conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, and carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes or nanographene, play unique roles without disrupting their inherent functions - complementary entities coexisting in harmony. Over the last few years the level of functional sophistication reached by LbL-assembled carbon-based 3D network nanoarchitectures, and the level of knowledge related to how to design, fabricate and optimize the properties of these 3D nanoconstructs have advanced enormously. This feature article presents and discusses not only the recent advances but also the emerging challenges in complex hybrid nanoarchitectures that result from the layer-by-layer assembly of polyaniline, a quintessential conducting polymer, and diverse carbon nanomaterials. This is a rapidly developing research area, and this work attempts to provide an overview of the diverse 3D network nanoarchitectures prepared up to now. The importance of materials processing and LbL integration is explored within each section and while the overall emphasis is on energy storage and sensing applications, the most widely-used synthetic strategies and characterization methods for ``nanoblend

  13. Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012 Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012

    Mariana M. Flores

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40, cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente, visto que na população total de cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063 essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respectivamente. Na necropsia (n=40, os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5% e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%, e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%, pulmão (60%, fígado (52,5%, peritônio (42,5%, rim (37,5%, encéfalo (30%, pleura (25% e coração (22,5%. Hemoperitônio (42,5% e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5% foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25, os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%, de baixo grau (64% e com estroma escasso (84%, mas frequentemente (68% havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28% e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12% foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24, utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma.Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central

  14. Multimodal neuroimaging as a window into the pathological physiology of schizophrenia: Current trends and issues.

    Isobe, Masanori; Miyata, Jun; Hazama, Masaaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing the detailed brain anatomy of individuals with schizophrenia has been made possible by recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although structural MRI cannot be currently used to diagnose schizophrenia, multimodal MRI can reveal insightful information on key clinical aspects of the pathological physiology of schizophrenia. However, in this regard, the number of multimodal MRI studies is still limited and definitely required. In this review, we discuss how classical and popular theories on the pathological physiology of schizophrenia can be re-examined using neuroimaging studies, and also discuss how multimodal MRI studies may provide additional findings. The pathological hypotheses examined include the "progressive brain disease hypothesis" and "disconnection hypothesis". This article is discussed mainly based on recent findings published by our research group. PMID:26235681

  15. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  16. Exosomes in liver pathology.

    Sato, Keisaku; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are small (∼100nm) membrane-bound extracellular vesicles released by various types of cells into biological fluids. They contain proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs as cargo. Different cell types can take up exosomes by endocytosis and the cargo contained within them can be transferred horizontally to these recipient cells. Exosomal proteins and miRNAs can be functional and regulate physiological cell events modifying the microenvironment in target cells, a key event of liver pathology. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can alter tumor growth, cell migration, antiviral infection and hepatocyte regeneration, indicating that exosomes have great potential for development as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. Analyses of circulating total or exosomal miRNAs have identified a large number of candidate miRNAs that are regulated in liver diseases, and the diagnostic testing using single or multiple miRNAs shows good sensitivity and specificity. Some candidate miRNAs have been identified to play an important role in various liver disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in liver diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential, mainly focusing on exosomes but also includes microvesicles in liver pathology. PMID:26988731

  17. Recent Advances in Geriatric Medicine

    N.A. Ansari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is a natural process. In the words of Seneca;“Old age is an incurable disease”, but more recently,Sir James Sterling Ross commented: “You do not healold age. You protect it; you promote it; you extendit” [1]. These are in fact the basic principles ofpreventive medicine. Old age should be regarded as anormal, inevitable biological phenomenon. The studyof the physical and psychological changes which areincident to old age is called gerontology. The care ofthe aged is called clinical gerontology or geriatrics.Another aspect of gerontology is social gerontology which was born on the one hand out of the instincts of humanitarian and social attitudes and on the other out of the problems set by the increasing number of old people[2]. Experimental gerontology is concerned withresearch into the basic biological problems of ageing, into its physiology, biochemistry, pathology and psychology.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology

    Marsot-Dupuch, K. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Vignaud, J. [Val de Grace, Hopital d`Instruction du Service de Sante des Armees, 75 - Paris (France); Mehdi, M. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Pharaboz, C. [Hopital Begin, Hopital d`Instruction des Armees, 94 - Saint-Mande (France); Meyer, B. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service d`ORL, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-10-01

    Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

  19. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD. PMID:25300121

  20. "Slide less pathology": Fairy tale or reality?

    Indu, M; Rathy, R; Binu, M P

    2016-01-01

    Pathology practice is significantly advanced in various frontiers. Therefore, "slide less digital" pathology will not be a mere imagination in near future. Digitalization of histopathological slides (whole slide imaging [WSI]) is possible with the help of whole slide scanner. The WSI has a positive impact not only in routine practice but also in research field, medical education and bioindustry. Even if digital pathology has definitive advantages, its widespread use is not yet possible. As it is an upcoming technology in our field, this article is aimed to discussessential aspects of WSI. PMID:27601824

  1. Forms of pathologization

    Brinkmann, Svend

    before, perhaps due to the malaises of modernity. Instead, we have learned to think and talk about human problems in new ways, viz. ways that involve pathologization. Pathologization, however, is not a unitary phenomenon, and the presentation gives an overview of four types of pathologization, which are...

  2. Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects

    E. Sáinz de Murieta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la patología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una pIntroduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabitants, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical

  3. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer;

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...... are twofold, both driven by the main hypothesis that PD patients who develop PG secondary to treatment with dopamine agonists have a decreased sensitivity towards dopamine and hence an increased demand for dopamine. The neurophysiological subproject 1 uses PET imaging to determine changes of dopamine...

  4. Hygrothermal Behavior, Building Pathology and Durability

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.

  5. [Internet use and pathological internet engagement in a sample of college students].

    Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate multiple consequences of pathologically excessive internet use. This study investigated the correlate of internet usage, with pathological internet engagement. Participants were 514 college students from the University of Athens who completed a questionnaire covering various aspects of internet use, Young's Internet Addiction Test, scales investigating online gambling addiction and cybersexual addiction and scales investigating suicidal ideation and the use of psychoactive substances. We found that the daily Internet use (b=0,38, t=10,38, pgambling addiction, cybersexual addiction, suicidal ideation and alcohol abuse, compared with other groups. Pathological internet engagement, particularly in young people, is a new psychopathological parameter that should be incorporated in the diagnostic and therapeutic horizon of mental health professionals. PMID:21971197

  6. Canine and feline oral pathology

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present a brief review of the main conditions affecting the oral cavity of dogs and cats. In recent years there has been increased attention with regard to veterinary dentistry, being several and frequent the pathologies located in the oral cavity of our pets. These diseases mainly affect the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and may, in chronic cases, also affect vital organs. This condition could have different causes, including hereditary, conge...

  7. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    Jonhan Ho; Orly Aridor; Parwani, Anil V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP) workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of ...

  8. Foundational aspects of security

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia;

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....

  9. Diabetic nephropathy : pathology, genetics and carnosine metabolism

    Mooyaart, Antien Leonora

    2011-01-01

    My thesis concerns different aspects of diabetic nephropathy. A pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy is developed, a meta-analyis of genes in diabetic nephropathy is developed and the other chapters are about the CNDP1 gene in relation to kidney disease, mainly diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed. PMID:22870841

  11. Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos

    B.D.C. Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de neurônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marca

  12. Granulovacuolar degeneration: a neurodegenerative change that accompanies tau pathology.

    Köhler, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Granule-containing vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons are a neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease. Granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) is not disease-specific and can be observed in other neurodegenerative disorders and even in the brains of non-demented elderly people. However, several studies have reported much higher numbers of neurons undergoing GVD in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease cases. Recently, a neuropathological staging system for GVD has facilitated neuropathological assessment. Data obtained by electron microscopy and immunolabeling suggest that GVD inclusions are a special form of autophagic vacuole. GVD frequently occurs together with pathological changes of the microtubule-associated protein tau, but to date, the relationship between the two lesions remains elusive. Originally identified in hematoxylin- and silver-stained sections, immunolabeling has shown that the granules are composed of a variety of proteins, including those related to tau pathology, autophagy, diverse signal transduction pathways, cell stress and apoptosis. Several of these proteins serve as markers of GVD. Most researchers and authors have interpreted the sequestration of proteins into GVD inclusions as either a cellular defense mechanism or one that leads to the impairment of important cellular functions. This review provides a detailed overview of the various aspects of GVD and focuses on the relationship between tau pathology and GVD. PMID:27062260

  13. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento experimental por Bothrops alternatus em bovinos Clinic and pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by Bothrops alternatus venom in cattle

    Saulo A. Caldas

    2008-06-01

    , acompanhada de hemorragia, no entorno do local da inoculação nos animais que receberam o veneno por via intramuscular; essa lesão era discreta nos músculos próximos ao local de inoculação subcutânea. Nos bovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído por sangue e não edema. Não foram observadas mioglobinúria, nem lesões macro ou microscópicas significativas nos rins. Este estudo indica que exemplares de B. alternatus, caso inoculem todo seu veneno, poderiam levar bovinos adultos à morte. Por outro lado, pelo fato de ofídios serem capazes de regular a quantidade de veneno inoculada e, possivelmente, não considerarem bovinos como presa potencial, é provável que o número de acidentes nessa espécie seja pequeno, o que está de acordo com o observado na maioria dos centros diagnóstico anátomo-patológico no país.The aim of this study was to determine the clinical-pathological alterations and laboratory findings in cattle inoculated with Bothrops alternatus venom, with the intention of providing information for the establishment of diagnosis and differential diagnosis procedures, as well as to elucidate some obscurities observed in the pertinent literature. The lyophilized venom was diluted in 1 ml of physiologic solution. It was administered to 5 bovines by the subcutaneous route at doses of 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25mg/kg body weight, and to 2 bovines by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.25 e 0.45mg/kg. Six bovines died and the only animal that survived, who had subcutaneously received the venom at a dose of 0.0625mg/kg, recovered. The first clinical signs were observed from 25min to 5h30min after the inoculation. The clinical evolution time varied from 7 hours 18 minutes to 92 hours. Regardless of the dose, the clinical picture was characterized by swelling (hemorrhage/hematoma at the site of inoculation, increase in bleeding time and capillary refill time, paleness of mucous membranes and

  14. Microcomputer basics, Part IV: Using microcomputers in pathology.

    Siguel, E N

    1984-03-01

    Microcomputers are invading every aspect of life including the practice of pathology. This last in a series of articles is designed to help neophytes make effective use of these new tools. This article describes how microcomputers can be used in pathology and provides guidelines for deciding what processes are worth computerizing and for selecting software. No specific program is recommended. PMID:10265488

  15. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment. PMID:7670717

  16. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Diana Mandelker; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Gregory Riedlinger; Andrew Quinn; Luigi K F Rao; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Michael Mahowald; Lane, William J; Beckwith, Bruce A; Baron, Jason M.; David S McClintock; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology ...

  17. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  18. Patología forense y neurología asociada de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos: Estudio práctico Forensic pathology and associated neurology of head injury: Practical aspects

    J.L. Palomo Rando

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reúnen en este trabajo de forma sucinta los conocimientos más útiles en la resolución forense de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE letales. El estudio está orientado hacia la identificación macroscópica, la causalidad y los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones, con apoyo iconográfico. Se hace especial hincapié en la valoración de las fracturas craneales, las hemorragias subaracnoideas por lesión de la arteria vertebral, el edema y la hiperemia cerebral postraumáticos, así como algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la autopsia de los fallecidos por trauma cefálico, incluida la retención y fijación del encéfalo. Algunos de estos conocimientos son antiguos y aunque olvidados o desconocidos por muchos han resistido el paso del tiempo, manteniendo plena vigencia. Igualmente se incluyen las características clínicas esenciales de cada trastorno, los nuevos avances en el diagnóstico neuropatológico de los TCE, en su fisiopatología y sus sospechadas relaciones con la posterior aparición de enfermedad degenerativa tipo Alzheimer y las alteraciones genómicas que predisponen a una evolución fatal de TCE ligeros o moderados.This review summarizes in a brief format the most useful tips in the forensic evaluation of fatal head trauma. This study is aimed at the macroscopic evaluation, causality and production mechanisms of the lesions, with image-based support. Skull fractures, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to lesion of the vertebral artery, posttraumatic cerebral edema and hyperaemia as well as basic recommendations to carry out the autopsy procedure (including the retention and fixation of the brain in bodies with a lethal traumatic brain injury (TBI will be analyzed. Some of this knowledge has been developed a long time ago, and although sometimes forgotten, their meaning is still fully patent. This study also points out the essential clinical characteristics of each condition and recent advances in the

  19. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Sandra eMerscher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  20. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

  1. [Pathological-anatomical aspects of vagabondage (author's transl)].

    Veith, G; Schwindt, W

    1976-01-01

    Autopsies of 65 agabonds including 2 females are evaluated. Dwarfism, kyphoskoliosis and other skeletal deformities, malformations, disfigurations of the face and tatoo-marks are frequent exteriors. Compared with autopsies in other grous of population there are also numerical differences in internal diseases: In equivalent age groups ulcers of the stomach, duodenum or gastric resection respectively are found in 35,4% of our colective, in 8, % of clinical autopsies and in 4,8% of epileptic patients. Furthermore hypertension, myocardial infarction, chronic emphysema of the lungs and active tuberculosis of the lung are more frequent than in control groups... PMID:1044291

  2. Clinical and pathological aspects on some odontogenic tumors

    Tie Jun Li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Odontogenic tumors constitute a very diverse group of lesions that reflects the complex processes of odontogenesis. Controversies over their classification/subtyping, terminology and diagnosis have been persisted, which has direct bearings on therapeutic and/or prognostic implications.

  3. [Sudeck disease--pathology, clinical aspects and therapy].

    Schulz, R H; Buch, K

    1998-06-01

    In our opinion the etiology of Sudeck's disease (acute reflex bone atrophy) plays a decisive role in therapeutic planning. The therapy is based on clinical and radiological findings. Physiotherapy addresses the symptom complex of pain, hyperemia, edema formation, and limitations of movement which act in a vicious circle and its intensity is modified according to the prevailing clinical and possibly also radiological findings. A strict coupling of the therapy to a classification according to stage is not recommended. Pharmacological therapy is merely a supporting element and focuses on the sympathetic overexcitability. The best therapy for Sudeck's disease is prophylaxis. Interventions collected under the general term early functional mobilization are, especially after surgical measures, a major factor in the avoidance of neurovegetative dysregulation in the sense of sympathetic reflex dystrophy. PMID:9738286

  4. Clinical, Pathological and Immunological Aspects of Transplacental PRRS Virus Infection

    Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes Danish research activities on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) with emphasis on experimental infections in pregnant swine. The first case of PRRS was diagnosed in Denmark in 1992 and subsequently the disease spread to most other parts of the country....... The first animal experiments elucidated the pathogenicity of Danish PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates in pregnant sows together with the effects of infection at various stages of gestation. In 1996, the introduction of a vaccination program using an attenuated live PRRS vaccine led to an epidemic of...... American type PRRSV in the previously unaffected Danish pig population. Acute PRRS like disease was observed in non-vaccinated as well as in vaccinated herds, and it was demonstrated that the vaccine strain had reverted to virulence. By experimental infection of late term pregnant sows, we demonstrated...

  5. Clinico-pathological aspects of colorectal serrated adenomas

    Ashish Chandra; Adnan A Sheikh; Anton Cerar; Ian C Talbot

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the association of colorectal serrated adenomas (SAs) with invasive carcinoma, local recurrence, synchronicity and metachronicity of lesions.METHODS: A total of 4536 polyps from 1096patients over an eight-year period (1987-1995) were retrospectively examined. Adenomas showing at least 50% of serrated architecture were called SAs by three reviewing pathologists.RESULTS: Ninety-one (2%) of all polyps were called SAs, which were found in 46 patients. Invasive carcinomas were seen in 3 out of 46 (6.4%) patients, of whom one was a case of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A male preponderance was noted and features of a mild degree of dysplasia were seen in majority (n=75,83%) of serrated adenomas. Follow-up ranged 1-12years with a mean time of 5.75 years. Recurrences of SAs were seen in 3 (6.4%) cases, synchronous SAs in 16 (34.8%) cases and metachronous SAs in 9 (19.6%)cases.CONCLUSION: Invasive carcinoma arising in serrated adenoma is rare, accounting for 2 (4.3%) cases studied in this series.

  6. Complications of Pathologic Myopia.

    Cho, Bum-Joo; Shin, Joo Young; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic myopia (PM) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The pathophysiology of PM is not fully understood, but the axial elongation of the eye followed by chorioretinal thinning is suggested as a key mechanism. Pathologic myopia may lead to many complications such as chorioretinal atrophy, foveoschisis, choroidal neovascularization, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, cataract, and glaucoma. Some complications affect visual acuity significantly, showing poor visual prognosis. This article aims to review the types, pathophysiology, treatment, and visual outcome of the complications of PM. PMID:26649982

  7. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  8. Alzheimer’s Disease: Pathological Mechanisms and Recent Insights

    Niedowicz, Dana M; Nelson, Peter T.; Murphy, M. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Amyloidopathies cause neurodegeneration in a substantial portion of the elderly population. Improvements in long term health care have made elderly individuals a large and growing demographic group, marking these diseases as a major public health concern. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most studied form of neurodegenerative amyloidopathy. Although our understanding of AD is far from complete, several decades of research have advanced our knowledge to the point where it is conceivable that so...

  9. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders. PMID:25600034

  10. TC pathological Neck

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  11. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  12. Recommendations for minimum information for publication of experimental pathology data: MINPEPA guidelines.

    Scudamore, Cheryl L; Soilleux, Elizabeth J; Karp, Natasha A; Smith, Ken; Poulsom, Richard; Herrington, C Simon; Day, Michael J; Brayton, Cory F; Bolon, Brad; Whitelaw, Bruce; White, Eric S; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Arends, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are essential research tools in modern biomedical research, but there are concerns about their lack of reproducibility and the failure of animal data to translate into advances in human medical therapy. A major factor in improving experimental reproducibility is thorough communication of research methodologies. The recently published ARRIVE guidelines outline basic information that should be provided when reporting animal studies. This paper builds on ARRIVE by providing the minimum information needed in reports to allow proper assessment of pathology data gathered from animal tissues. This guidance covers aspects of experimental design, technical procedures, data gathering, analysis, and presentation that are potential sources of variation when creating morphological, immunohistochemical (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH) datasets. This reporting framework will maximize the likelihood that pathology data derived from animal experiments can be reproduced by ensuring that sufficient information is available to allow for replication of the methods and facilitate inter-study comparison by identifying potential interpretative confounders. PMID:26387837

  13. Neuroinlfammation and comorbidities are frequently ignored factors in CNS pathology

    Raluca Elena Sandu; Ana Maria Buga; Adriana Uzoni; Eugen Bogdan Petcu; Aurel Popa-Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all drug interventions that have been successful pre-clinically in experimental stroke have failed to prove their efifcacy in a clinical setting. This could be partly explained by the complexity and heterogeneity of human diseases as well as the associated co-morbidities which may render neuroprotective drugs less efifcacious in clinical practice. One aspect of crucial importance in the physiopathology of stroke which is not completely understood is neuroinlfammation. At the pres-ent time, it is becoming evident that subtle, but continuous neuroinlfammation can provide the ground for disorders such as cerebral small vessel disease. Moreover, advanced aging and a number of highly prevalent risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis could act as “silent contributors” promoting a chronic proinlfammatory state. This could aggravate the out-come of various pathological entities and can contribute to a number of subsequent post-stroke complications such as dementia, depression and neurodegeneration creating a pathological vicious cycle. Moreover, recent data suggests that the inlfammatory process might be closely linked with multiple neurodegenerative pathways related to depression. In addition, pro-inlfammatory cyto-kines could play a central role in the pathophysiology of both depression and dementia.

  14. Vasculitides with cutaneous expression in children: clinico-pathological correlations.

    Borroni, G; Grassi, S; Carugno, A

    2015-02-01

    The most recent pediatric vasculitis classifications (EULAR/PRINTO/PRES) have proposed the use of an integration of clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory data, imaging and pathologic data. Pediatric vasculitis represent a peculiar clinical-diagnostic model, compared to the corresponding adult pathology chapter, and in particular, dermatopathologic aspects of these diseases identify more specific issues, made contingent by crucial variables such as duration of vasculitis lesion, site of the biopsy, proper biopsy depth, and possibility to correlate histopathological findings with immunopathological results. Possible additional diagnostic difficulties may arise from the fact that, in children, the same systemic disease, such as lupus erythematosus, may present with different clinical manifestations, with histopathological features of a precise type of vasculitis specific for that type of clinical manifestation. Examples are provided by hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, cryoglobulinemic purpura, lymphocytic vasculitis of livedoid lesions. This paper describes the cutaneous histopathological findings of some vasculitis related pediatric diseases, be they pertaining to a systemic vasculitis with corresponding cutaneous vasculitis, to a systemic vasculitis with sporadic cutaneous vasculitic involvement, and to a systemic vasculitis without cutaneous vasculitic involvement. Type and level of histopathological vasculitic involvement, caliber of the vessel, type of vasculitis associated infiltrate, are likewise reliable integration in the complex diagnostic path of vasculitis in childhood. On the basis of these criteria dermatopathologists should be confident in identifying the type of the vasculitis and relate them to a specific pediatric disease. PMID:25516220

  15. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Diana Mandelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program′s core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  16. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation. PMID:11092063

  17. interdisciplinary aspects

    Kempf, Davorin

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Symmetry is a universal principle in nature, sciences and arts. Generally speaking symmetry means that something looks the same when observed from certain different aspects. Symmetry is almost always broken – more or less, directly (in praxis) or spontaneously (in quantum field theory). There are discrete and continuous symmetries. Various forms of discrete symmetries – like bilateral, translative or rotative – associated with the field of arts, can also be recognized in our natu...

  18. Feline oral pathology

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The main pathologies of the oral cavity are of utmost importance, not only by the number of exposed individuals, but also by the consequences which stems. With the development of this work, we intend to conduct a brief approach to the same, since, specifically affecting domestic felines. Feline Lymphoplasmatic Gingivostomatitis (GELF), the Feline Odontoclastic Reabsorption Lesions (LROF) Complex and gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis, have been studied, some of which are considered an enigma i...

  19. Pathology of tropical appendicitis.

    S. C. Gupta; A. K. Gupta; Keswani, N. K.; Singh, P. A.; Tripathi, A.K.; Krishna, V.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, 2921 appendicectomies were performed at this hospital. All were subjected to routine histopathological examination. In 95% of cases, histopathological examination did not add any further information but in 153 (5%) cases, clinically important pathological findings were detected for the first time. Seventy (2.3%) specimens showed typical evidence of tuberculosis. Parasitic infestation was detected in 75 (2.5%), including enterobiasis (1.4%), amoebiasis (0.5%), ascariasi...

  20. Microchimerism in Endocrine Pathology

    Rust, Daniel W.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2009-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated...

  1. Expanding application of digital pathology in Japan - from education, telepathology to autodiagnosis

    Tsuchihashi Yasunari

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Digital pathology, i.e., applications of digital information technologies to pathology practice, has been expanding in the recent decades and the mode of pathology diagnostic practice is changing with enhanced precision. In the present study the changing processes of digital pathology in Japan were investigated and trends to future were discussed. Methods The changing status of digital pathology was investigated through reviewing the records of annual meetings of the Japan...

  2. Radiological aspects of childhood pulmonary blastoma

    The objective is to present different clinical and radiological aspects of an uncommon primary lung tumor. Patients, Between 1974 and 1994, this rare pathology, which has seldom been reported in the literature, was diagnosed in four patients in our hospital. The clinical, radiological and pathological findings are presented. the prognosis is poor. Two of the four patients is disease-free-and the fourth is undergoing cytoreduction. (Author) 8 refs

  3. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  4. Comparative pathology in bivalves: Aetiological agents and disease processes.

    Carella, F; Feist, S W; Bignell, J P; De Vico, G

    2015-10-01

    Comparative pathology as a scientific discipline studies animal diseases in relation to their aetiology, pathogenesis and prognosis. Among the main aspects of this discipline, regressive changes, host defense responses with pathological implications and progressive changes, represent the majority of the possible responses of cells and tissues to pathogens and exposure to chemicals. One of the most persistent issues in the field of invertebrate pathology is the variability in terminology and definition, which has led to confusion in scientific communication. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the pathological basis of bivalve disease (defensive, regressive and progressive phenomena) and contribute to the standardised terminology for bivalve molluscan disease in the context of comparative pathology. PMID:26215472

  5. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2016-03-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26851666

  6. Pathological potential of astroglia

    Chvátal, Alexandr; Anděrová, Miroslava; Neprašová, Helena; Prajerová, Iva; Benešová, Jana; Butenko, Olena; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, Suppl.3 (2008), S101-S110. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/1316; GA ČR GA305/06/1464; GA ČR GA305/08/1384; GA ČR GA309/08/1381; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : astrocyte * astrogliosis * brain pathology Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  7. Marketing the pathology practice.

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace. PMID:7625911

  8. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  9. Recent Progress in Nuclear Astrophysics

    Langanke, K

    1999-01-01

    The manuscript reviews progress achieved in recent years in various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear aspects of supernova collapse and explosion, neutrino-induced reactions and their possible role in the supernova mechanism and nucleosynthesis, explosive hydrogen burning in binary systems, and finally the observation of $\\gamma$-rays from supernova remnants.

  10. Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history.

    De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism. PMID:23480073

  11. [Cystic renal pathology].

    Rosi, P; Cesaroni, M; Bracarda, S; Rociola, W; Virgili, G

    1993-08-01

    Ultrasonography has a great interest in diagnosis of cystic kidney disorders for typical eco-pattern of this pathology. In this work we show the eco-pattern of the most common cystic kidney disorders. Particularly we examine simple cysts (typical, atypical, complicated), multicystic kidney dysplasia, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (infantile) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (adult age). The so-called neoplastic cysts (multiloculated cysts, multiloculated cysts nephroma, cystic nephroblastoma), medullar cysts (medullary sponge kidney, medullary cystic disease), parapyelic cysts, acquired cystic kidney disease in renal failure patients, parasitic cysts, epidermoid cysts. About this disorders we present the more typical and expressive ultrasonographic appearance and we define the role and the opportunity of diagnostic setting by echography, moreover ultrasonography allows us to make a differential diagnosis between cystic kidney disorders and other kidney disease. PMID:8353538

  12. Molecular pathology of single gene disorders.

    Weatherall, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies using recombinant DNA technology have led to an understanding of the basic molecular pathology of single gene disorders. Furthermore, methods are being developed for finding genes for conditions, whose underlying biochemistry is still not understood, or which may contribute to polygenic systems that underlie common diseases. As well as providing new approaches to carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and treatment of single gene disorders, these advances promise to provide imp...

  13. Recent developments in biodosimetry

    This report reviews recent developments in biodosimetry (1989-1993), and presents a comparative study of the existing techniques and their future prospects. The report summarizes the sensitivity, reproducibility, limiting dose, dose-rate, energy, linear energy transfer (LET) responses, sources of variability and uncertainty, and other practical aspects of each bio-indicator. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach are evaluated on the basis of a set of common criteria for particular applications. (author). 155 refs., 15 tabs

  14. The Pathology of Communication, from Sign to Symptom

    Doina Mihaela POPA

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing what the Palo Alto researchers define as the pathology of language; postulating the well-known axioms of communication, these authors also set forth some aspects related to human interaction, which affect our daily language, and which engender serious semantic disruptions, which are implicitly, interpersonal.

  15. Clinical surgical and pathological characterization of nodular thyroid disease

    Nodular thyroid disease is a worrisome endocrine problem due to its association with cancer. To characterize patients hospitalized with this condition according to clinical surgical and pathological aspects, as well as to determine the effectiveness of the cytology by fine-needle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis

  16. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  17. Recent references

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  18. The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

  19. Rotator cuff pathology

    Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2*-weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

  20. General Aspects

    Höfle, Gerhard

    Epothilone is a microbial product, and thus its history may be traced back to the discovery of the respective microbe, Sorangium cellulosum, a bacterium belonging to the taxonomic group of myxobacteria, which originally has been described by Roland Thaxter in 1892 (1). Today this group of organisms comprises around 40 species, one of which is Sorangium cellulosum. For a long time, myxobacteria were only known for their gliding motility and sophisticated life cycle, although it had been occasionally speculated that they might produce secondary metabolites like actinomycetes or bacilli (2). In 1975 Hans Reichenbach and his group at the German Centre for Biotechnology (GBF; now called the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research) set out to isolate strains of myxobacteria from soil samples collected all over the world, and to examine their secondary metabolism. In 1978, while work was already ongoing, I joined them and took over the chemistry part. In the same year the first structure of a myxobacterial metabolite, ambruticin, was published by a group from Warner-Lambert (3) making us very confident of being on the right track. Ambruticin had been isolated from a Sorangium cellulosum strain, and was identified as a unique cyclopropane polyketide structure exhibiting potentially useful antifungal properties. Ambruticin and its derivatives had been developed for medical application for some time, and recently gained new interest (4).

  1. Recent Workshops

    Wickens, F. J.

    Since the previous edition of ATLAS e-news, the NIKHEF Institute in Amsterdam has hosted not just one but two workshops related to ATLAS TDAQ activities. The first in October was dedicated to the Detector Control System (DCS). Just three institutes, CERN, NIKHEF and St Petersburg, provide the effort for the central DCS services, but each ATLAS sub-detector provides effort for their own controls. Some 30 people attended, including representatives for all of the ATLAS sub-detectors, representatives of the institutes working on the central services and the project leader of JCOP, which brings together common aspects of detector controls across the LHC experiments. During the three-day workshop the common components were discussed, and each sub-detector described their experiences and plans for their future systems. Whilst many of the components to be used are standard commercial components, a key custom item for ATLAS is the ELMB (Embedded Local Monitor Board). Prototypes for this have now been extensively test...

  2. Recent recordings

    Steve Goldfarb

    The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project would like to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures concerning ATLAS and the LHC. Most recently, we produced a series of presentations made at the First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas, held at SLAC in August. The complete set of lectures can be found here.There is a lot of outstanding material there, relevant to all of ATLAS, including detector summaries, trigger and physics talks, software and computing presentations, and an overview of operations. Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.Additional ATLAS material, including plenary lectures, workshops and tutorials, can be found via our portal athttp://www.wlap.org/atlasincluding: First ATLAS Physics Workshop of the Americas (Aug 2007) Glasgow Overview Week Plenary Sessions (Jul 2007) CTEQ Workshop: "Physics at ...

  3. Priorities in seed pathology research Prioridades na pesquisa em patologia de sementes

    S.T. Nameth

    1998-01-01

    Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of...

  4. Câncer de mama feminino: aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos cadastrados de 2005 a 2008 num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe Female breast cancer: clinical and pathological aspects of cases registered between 2005 and 2008 at a public oncology service in the Brazilian State of Sergipe

    Leila Luíza Conceição Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer os aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos de câncer de mama feminino cadastrados num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: procurou-se fazer uma associação do estadiamento com as características presentes nos tumores. A coleta de dados foi realizada em 165 prontuários de mulheres cadastradas no período de 2005 a 2008 no ambulatório de oncologia do Hospital Cirurgia, localizado em Aracaju-Sergipe, por meio de formulário de coleta de dados, em 2009. RESULTADOS: identificou-se o carcinoma ductal invasivo como o tipo de neoplasia mamária mais frequente com 80,8% dos casos; 76 (46,1% neoplasias foram diagnosticadas em estádio avançado (IIB, III e IV e a mastectomia prevaleceu como tipo de cirurgia utilizado no tratamento independente do estadiamento. Quanto aos receptores hormonais todos apresentaram associação com o grau do estádio e, ainda, notou-se que a positividade do estrogênio e progesterona é fator de proteção para um pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: é notável que os casos de câncer de mama estudados apresentam maior agressividade biológica, cursando com pior prognóstico, considerando o estádio clínico. Fazem-se necessárias ações de detecção precoce voltadas ao câncer de mama na atenção básica de Sergipe para redução da morbi-mortalidade, melhora da sobrevida e qualidade de vida entre as mulheres acometidas por essa neoplasia.OBJECTIVES: to discover the clinical and pathologic aspects of cases of female breast cancer registered at a public oncology service in Sergipe. METHODS: an attempt was made to associate the stage with the characteristics of the tumors. Data was gathered from 165 medical records taken between 2005 and 2008 at the oncology outpatients clinic of the Hospital Cirurgia, in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, using a data collection form in 2009. RESULTS: ductal invasive carcinoma was identified as the most frequent kind of neoplasia, accounting for 80.8% of

  5. Infectious endocarditis: rlieumatologic aspects

    G M Tarasova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess rheumatologic aspects of modern infectious endocarditis (IE and to determine role of anti-inflammatory therapy in complex treatment of the disease. Material and methods. 50 pts with IE (24 female, 26 male aged 16 to 60 years were included. Primary IE was diagnosed in 15, secondary - in 35 cases. 7 pts had acute and 43 — subacute course. 40 pts had definite and 10 — probable IE. Results. Mean period till correct diagnosis establishment was 112± 116,5 days. Diagnostic difficulties were more frequent in subacute variant of IE (p=0,03. Heart diseases prevailed among cardiac risk factors (p=0,0l. Clinical picture of IE was very polymorphous. Glucocorticoids (GC were administered to 21 pts in addition to antibiotics due to signs of organ immunopatology and high laboratory measures of immune activity. Positive effect of glucocorticoids was achieved in 64% of pts. Conclusion. Development of immunological changes complicates timely diagnosis of IE and requires exclusion of different diseases including rheumatic pathology. IE treatment strategy does not exclude administration of GC low doses for prominent immunopathological signs in addition to massive antibacterial therapy.

  6. Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.

    Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2014-06-01

    This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling. PMID:23423730

  7. Expectations and essentials for the community practice of pathology.

    Horowitz, Richard E

    2006-08-01

    In 3 surveys during the past 10 years, community hospital pathologists were asked what they want, need, or look for when employing a pathologist and, more specifically, what skills and knowledge a newly minted pathologist should have to be successful in the community practice of pathology. The most recent survey, done in spring of 2005, cited surgical pathology diagnosis, frozen section diagnosis, gross dissection, cytology, and fine-needle aspiration as essentials in anatomic pathology. For clinical pathology, knowledge of clinical medicine and test strategies that use the laboratory for clinical problem solving was paramount. New expectations in the latest survey were knowledge of molecular pathology and experience in quality assurance procedures. New pathologists generally meet the expectations of the community hospital workplace; however, there were some deficiencies: they were not proficient in gross pathology or autopsy pathology, they were slow, and many lack the clinical knowledge and experience to be effective consultants. The principal attribute that determines success in the practice of pathology, however, is skill in communication and interpersonal relations, and this remains the major deficiency of the fledgling pathologist. PMID:16867856

  8. Adolescence and Eating Pathologies

    Valeria Caggiano

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007). The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics) reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population) suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002), cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schi...

  9. Reversing pathologically increased EEG power by acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation.

    Adamchic, Ilya; Toth, Timea; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic Coordinated Reset (CR) neuromodulation is a patterned stimulation with tones adjusted to the patient's dominant tinnitus frequency, which aims at desynchronizing pathological neuronal synchronization. In a recent proof-of-concept study, CR therapy, delivered 4–6 h/day more than 12 weeks, induced a significant clinical improvement along with a significant long-lasting decrease of pathological oscillatory power in the low frequency as well as γ band and an increase of the α power in a ...

  10. Recent recordings

    Steven Goldfarb

    The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project is happy to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures, including the full Plenary Session from the ATLAS Overview Week, held at CERN in October. Archives from that event are located here and directly on the Indico agenda. Click on the pictures below to access more information. Latest NewsAs announced in the Collaborative Tool Workshop, held on Tuesday of the Overview Week, future events in the Michigan Archives will be available for viewing with a Flash Player plug-in (right image above), as well as the usual Real Player plug-in. This additional option, made possible by our usage of the Lecture Object and standard formats for storing all media and metadata, allows the viewer to choose her/his preferred environment. As always, viewing of the lectures is supported on all major platforms and browsers and there is also the option to download lectures for remote viewing with limited or no network bandwidth.ATLAS 2007 ArchivesAdditional...

  11. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author)

  12. Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology

    Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands

  13. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using Aspect......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  14. Going fully digital: Perspective of a Dutch academic pathology lab

    Nikolas Stathonikos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, whole slide imaging has become more affordable and widely accepted in pathology labs. Digital slides are increasingly being used for digital archiving of routinely produced clinical slides, remote consultation and tumor boards, and quantitative image analysis for research purposes and in education. However, the implementation of a fully digital Pathology Department requires an in depth look into the suitability of digital slides for routine clinical use (the image quality of the produced digital slides and the factors that affect it and the required infrastructure to support such use (the storage requirements and integration with lab management and hospital information systems. Optimization of digital pathology workflow requires communication between several systems, which can be facilitated by the use of open standards for digital slide storage and scanner management. Consideration of these aspects along with appropriate validation of the use of digital slides for routine pathology can pave the way for pathology departments to go "fully digital." In this paper, we summarize our experiences so far in the process of implementing a fully digital workflow at our Pathology Department and the steps that are needed to complete this process.

  15. Digital photography in anatomical pathology

    Leong F; Leong A

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and ed...

  16. Development of pathology in Turkey

    Gökhan GEDİKOĞLU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şâhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “Tıphane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliyei Şâhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “İstanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and İstanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in İstanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in İstanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

  17. AspectKE*

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend on...... demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  18. Telocyte implications in human pathology: An overview.

    Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Rosa, Irene; Manetti, Mirko

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes are a recently described interstitial cell population widely distributed in the stromal compartment of many organs in vertebrates, including humans. Owing to their close spatial relationship with multiple cell types, telocytes are universally considered as 'connecting cells' mostly committed to intercellular signaling by converting the interstitium into an integrated system that drives organ development and contributes to the maintenance of local tissue homeostasis. Increasing evidence indicates that telocytes may cooperate with tissue-resident stem cells to foster organ repair and regeneration, and that telocyte damage and dysfunction may occur in several disorders. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent findings concerning the implication of telocytes in a variety of pathologic conditions in humans, including heart disease, chronic inflammation and multiorgan fibrosis. Based on recent promising experimental data, there is realistic hope that by targeting telocytes alone or in tandem with stem cells, we might be able to promote organ regeneration and/or prevent irreversible end-stage organ damage in different pathologies. PMID:26805444

  19. Isotopes and radiation in plant pathology

    Although ionizing radiations were first applied to phytopathological problems 50 years ago, it is only in recent years that this work has come into its own. Plant diseases are often complex since they may involve interactions between the host, the vector and its pathogen. These pathogens range from viral bodies, through unicellular organisms, to well-organized living entities such as nematodes. Each member of these interactions is amenable to investigation by radiobiological techniques. The collection of papers forming this Report is based on papers originally presented at an IAEA panel by experts on the application of radiation and radioisotopes in plant pathology. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-01-01

    The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breedingfocuses recent progress in our understanding of thegenetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book isdivided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I,Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advancesin molecular biology and laboratory procedures thathave been developed recently to manipulate DNA.Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomicsapproaches form as a powerful tool for investigatingthe molecular mechanisms of the...

  1. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-01-01

    The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigatin...

  2. RHIC SPIN PROGRAM: MACHINE ASPECTS AND RECENT PROGRESS

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. However, the acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian Snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian Snakes and polarimeters are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible

  3. Recent additions to fundament aspects of quantum mechanics

    Problems like those of Schroedinger's can comprise quantum systems as classical systems, the measurement process and reality. After a reviewing the history of interpretation of quantum mechanics it is shown how a generalized algebraic quantum theory (e.g. G.G. Emch 1986) can tackle these problems and paradoxes. This theory treats systems with infinite degrees of freedom and open systems. It is applicable both to quantum as to classical systems and thus to the measurement process with its irreversibility. The usual linear Schroedinger equation is replaced by a non-linear one where the nonlinear terms reflect the interaction of the system with its environment or with the measuring apparatus. (Quittner) To appear also in 'Naturwissenschaft und Weltbild', 1992

  4. [Recent aspects of therapy with androgenic and anabolic steroids].

    Schambach, H; Nitschke, U; Kröhne, H J

    1983-11-15

    From the pharmacology of the therapeutically available androgen preparations and the clinical experience results that a highly dosed androgen long-term therapy is effectively possible only by testosterone esters which are to be injected intramuscularly (e.g. testosterone oenanthate). It is indicated in all forms of endocrine hypogonadism, certain aplastic anaemias and if necessary in extreme male high growth. In partial androgen deficiency (pubertas tarda, Klinefelter's syndrome, climacterium virile and others) orally applicable androgens such as testosterone-undecanoate (Andriol) and mesterolone (Vistimon) can be used. The latter is to be preferred when a hyperoestrogenism is present, e.g. in liver cirrhosis. When 17-alpha-alkylated oral androgens are used, their often not sufficiently confirmed anabolic effect and their potential liver toxicity should more be taken into consideration. PMID:6666179

  5. Recent progress and advances in iterative software (including parallel aspects)

    Carey, G.; Young, D.M.; Kincaid, D. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the current state of iterative software packages. Of particular interest is software for large scale engineering and scientific applications, especially for distributed parallel systems. However, the authors will also review the state of software development for conventional architectures. This workshop will complement the other proposed workshops on iterative BLAS kernels and applications. The format for the workshop is as follows: To provide some structure, there will be brief presentations, each of less than five minutes duration and dealing with specific facets of the subject. These will be designed to focus the discussion and to stimulate an exchange with the participants. Issues to be covered include: The evolution of iterative packages, current state of the art, the parallel computing challenge, applications viewpoint, standards, and future directions and open problems.

  6. Vortical structures: Some aspects of the recent identification schemes

    Kolář, Václav; Šístek, Jakub

    Rio de Janeiro: ABCM, 2015. [23rd ABCM International Congress of Mechanical Engineering. Rio de Janeiro (BR), 06.12.2015-11.12.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 ; RVO:67985840 Keywords : vortical structures * vortex identification * vortex-identification schemes * decomposition of motion * corotation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics; BA - General Mathematics (MU-W)

  7. 'One medicine---one pathology': are veterinary and human pathology prepared?

    Cardiff, Robert D; Ward, Jerrold M; Barthold, Stephen W

    2008-01-01

    The American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association have recently approved resolutions supporting 'One Medicine' or 'One Health' that bridge the two professions. The concept is far from novel. Rudolf Virchow, the Father of Modern Pathology, and Sir William Osler, the Father of Modern Medicine, were outspoken advocates of the concept. The concept in its modern iteration was re-articulated in the 1984 edition of Calvin Schwabe's 'Veterinary Medicine and Human Health.' The veterinary and medical pathology professions are steeped in a rich history of 'One Medicine,' but they have paradoxically parted ways, leaving the discipline of pathology poorly positioned to contribute to contemporary science. The time has come for not only scientists but also all pathologists to recognize the value in comparative pathology, the consequences of ignoring the opportunity and, most importantly, the necessity of preparing future generations to meet the challenge inherent in the renewed momentum for 'One Medicine.' The impending glut of new genetically engineered mice creates an urgent need for prepared investigators and pathologists. PMID:18040269

  8. Adolescence and Eating Pathologies

    Valeria Caggiano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007. The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002, cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schilder, 2002, nutrition and weight (Halmi, 2003.These factors can be divided into four main categories: ‘the cultural pressure to acquire a thin body; the change in the woman’s social role; the mythical character granted to eating disorders; the prejudice against obesity’ (Dalle Grave, 2007. So far, the literature on this subject, however wide, has provided no conclusive data with reference to related issues, such as psychiatric comorbidities(Blinder et al, 2007. In particular, this study focused on the aspectof control, a significant feature of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder too, (Couturier, 2004 and on body-image disperception, peculiar to eating disorders (Neumark-Sztainer, 2000. To investigate co-morbidity between eating disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a questionnaire including items of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Dalle Grave, Ghisi, Calugi, 2006 was administered to a sample of adolescent students. The results provide significant correlations between Calculation Compulsions and the BSQ Behaviours variable, between Current MiscellaneousCompulsions and Body Image, between Current Miscellaneous Compulsionsand Body Shape/Self Esteem. Therefore the study provides further evidence in support of co-morbidity.

  9. IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NEUROSYPHILIS

    M. L. Chuhlovina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduced incidence of syphilis was reported in Russia over last years, along with increased prevalence of neurosyphilis. The issues of the mechanisms of the damage of nervous system and the immune response to syphilis are actual. Origin of syphilis antibodies from cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurosyphilis is considered. The role of intrathecal immunoglobulin production and dysfunction of blood-brain barrier in patients infected with syphilis is of special importance. The aim of the research was to analyze the immunological aspects of neurosyphilis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been shown to play an important role in infection with Treponema pallidium during clearance of the pathogenes. Potential virulence factors of Treponema pallidium have been discovered. It has been found that cell-mediated immune response is very important for defense against Treponema pallidium, while the key importance in bacterial clearance is put on Th1. Evidence has shown that the level of cytokines which are secreted by Th1 (IL-2, interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor and Th2 (IL-6 and IL-10 — lymphocytes, correlates with syphilis progression. The role of IL-10 in immune response regulation in patients infected with syphilis has been examined: this cytokine can inhibit the activity of immunocompetent cells. Some data has been produced concerning intrathecal production of immunoglobulins in neurosyphilis patients’ cerebrospinal fluid. The research of immunological parameters and composition of liquor in the patients with syphilis has revealed, that lymphocytes of peripheral blood are sensitized to antigens of the brain. It indicates the violation of permeability of patients’ blood-brain barrier. Nervous system becomes involved into the pathological process during the first weeks or months after syphilis infection. Cerebrospinal fluid changes can be detected at seronegative stage of the primary infection. The most expressed changes were found in

  10. Summary of third Nordic symposium on digital pathology

    Claes Lundstrom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-disciplinary and cross-sectorial collaboration is a key success factor for turning the promise of digital pathology into actual clinical benefits. The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, among stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the third NDP symposium in Linkφping, Sweden. The Nordic experiences, including several hospitals using whole-slide imaging for substantial parts of their primary reviews, formed a fertile base for discussions among the 190 NDP attendees originating from 15 different countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on adoption and validation aspects of clinical digital pathology use.

  11. Summary of third Nordic symposium on digital pathology

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Cross-disciplinary and cross-sectorial collaboration is a key success factor for turning the promise of digital pathology into actual clinical benefits. The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, among stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the third NDP symposium in Linkφping, Sweden. The Nordic experiences, including several hospitals using whole-slide imaging for substantial parts of their primary reviews, formed a fertile base for discussions among the 190 NDP attendees originating from 15 different countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on adoption and validation aspects of clinical digital pathology use. PMID:27141318

  12. Hispathologic aspects of Lyme Borreliosis.

    Koning, Johannes de

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent interest in Lyme disease a large number of papers has been published on its different aspects. The purpose of this thesis is to present a comprehensive study of the most important histopathological manifestations based on the experience obtained during the last 11 years. In

  13. A pathological science syndrome: A concern for energy science

    As researchers look for innovative concepts to produce electrical power it is worth considering the pathological science syndrome described by Nobel-Prize-winning chemist Irving Langmuir who identified six symptoms of pathological science caused by a loss of objectivity. Denis L. Rousseau has recently condensed Langmuir's six symptoms into two characteristics and added a third. The first characteristic of pathological science is that the effect being studied is often at the limits of detectability or has a very low statistical significance. The second characteristic is a readiness to disregard prevailing ideas and theories. The third identifying trait of pathological science is that the investigator finds it nearly impossible to carry out experiments designed to give a definitive answer. Rousseau has applied these characteristics to the study of polywater, infinite dilution, and cold fusion

  14. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease

  15. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. PMID:26260323

  16. Pharmacological Treatments in Pathological Gambling

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behavior. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved...... pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. METHODS: A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean...

  17. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27262674

  18. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  19. Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Mooney, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    The course of pathological gambling (PG) in women has been described as having a later age of initiation but a shorter time to problematic gambling ("telescoped"). This study examined evidence for telescoping and its relationship with comorbidities. Seventy-one treatment-seeking individuals with PG...

  20. Role of spinal cord glutamate transporter during normal sensory transmission and pathological pain states

    Stephens Robert L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glutamate is a neurotransmitter critical for spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and for generation and maintenance of spinal states of pain hypersensitivity via activation of glutamate receptors. Understanding the regulation of synaptically and non-synaptically released glutamate associated with pathological pain is important in exploring novel molecular mechanisms and developing therapeutic strategies of pathological pain. The glutamate transporter system is the primary mechanism for the inactivation of synaptically released glutamate and the maintenance of glutamate homeostasis. Recent studies demonstrated that spinal glutamate transporter inhibition relieved pathological pain, suggesting that the spinal glutamate transporter might serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of pathological pain. However, the exact function of glutamate transporter in pathological pain is not completely understood. This report will review the evidence for the role of the spinal glutamate transporter during normal sensory transmission and pathological pain conditions and discuss potential mechanisms by which spinal glutamate transporter is involved in pathological pain.

  1. Aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children

    P.P. Forget

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aimed at investigating some aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children. In the introduction general aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism are presented. Chapter 1 reviews recent litterature data on the intravenous fat tolerance test and on plasma postheparin li

  2. Dynamic aspects of musical imagery.

    Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-04-01

    Auditory imagery can represent many aspects of music, such as the starting pitches of a tune or the instrument that typically plays it. In this paper, I concentrate on more dynamic, or time-sensitive aspects of musical imagery, as demonstrated in two recently published studies. The first was a behavioral study that examined the ability to make emotional judgments about both heard and imagined music in real time. The second was a neuroimaging study on the neural correlates of anticipating an upcoming tune, after hearing a cue tune. That study found activation of several sequence-learning brain areas, some of which varied with the vividness of the anticipated musical memory. Both studies speak to the ways in which musical imagery allows us to judge temporally changing aspects of the represented musical experience. These judgments can be quite precise, despite the complexity of generating the rich internal representations of imagery. PMID:22524360

  3. What would my avatar do? Gaming, pathology, and risky decision making

    Kira eBailey; Robert eWest; Judson eKuffel

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has revealed a relationship between pathological video game use and increased impulsivity among children and adolescents. A few studies have also demonstrated increased risk-taking outside of the video game environment following game play, but this work has largely focused on one genre of video games (i.e., racing). Motivated by these findings, the aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between pathological and non-pathological video game use, impulsivity, and ri...

  4. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    , workflow, slide navigation and remote control. An increasing number of recent patents focused on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD and digital consultation networks. Conclusion: In the last 2 decades, there have been an increasing number of patents granted and patent applications filed related to digital pathology. The number of these patents quadrupled during the last decade, and this trend is predicted to intensify based on the number of patent applications already published by the USPTO.

  5. Synovial pathology: Magnetic resonance study

    The synovial membrane lines the inner surface of the entire joint capsule of the so-called synovial, or diarthrosis, joints. It also constitutes the lining synovial bursa and tendon sheaths. It is lubricated at all these sites by the synovial fluid secreted by the membrane itself. The identification of this structure is bases on the correct knowledge of its anatomical locations. Synovial membrane pathology includes lesions produced by tumors, inflammation, degeneration and trauma. In this report, we classify them as benign (cysts, chondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, inflammatory synovitis and hemangioma) or malignant (synovial sarcoma and hemangiosarcoma). Magnetic resonance (MR) constitutes a useful and reliable method for diagnosis synovial lesions, providing a means of determining their origin and identifying distinctive features of some types. We present our experience in 12 cases of synovial pathology studied by MR over the past year, all of which were confirmed by histopathological study. 13 refs

  6. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  7. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    Kayser Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351

  8. Error-free pathology: applying lean production methods to anatomic pathology.

    Condel, Jennifer L; Sharbaugh, David T; Raab, Stephen S

    2004-12-01

    The current state of our health care system calls for dramatic changes. In their pathology department, the authors believe these changes may be accomplished by accepting the long-term commitment of applying a lean production system. The ideal state of zero pathology errors is one that should be pursued by consistently asking, "Why can't we?" The philosophy of lean production systems began in the manufacturing industry: "All we are doing is looking at the time from the moment the customer gives us an order to the point when we collect the cash. And we are reducing that time line by removing non-value added wastes". The ultimate goals in pathology and overall health care are not so different. The authors' intention is to provide the patient (customer) with the most accurate diagnostic information in a timely and efficient manner. Their lead histotechnologist recently summarized this philosophy: she indicated that she felt she could sleep better at night knowing she truly did the best job she could. Her chances of making an error (in cutting or labeling) were dramatically decreased in the one-by-one continuous flow work process compared with previous practices. By designing a system that enables employees to be successful in meeting customer demand, and by empowering the frontline staff in the development and problem solving processes, one can meet the challenges of eliminating waste and build an improved, efficient system. PMID:15555747

  9. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Emmanuel Planel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  10. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  11. Human aspects in ambient intelligence contemporary challenges and solutions

    Bosse, Tibor; Neerincx, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent developments in the field of human aspects in Ambient Intelligence. It addresses multidisciplinary aspects of AmI with human-directed disciplines such as psychology, social science, neuroscience and biomedical sciences.

  12. Laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction.

    Yeung, WS; Ng, EH

    2000-01-01

    A number of advances have been made concerning the laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the treatment of male infertility. With the development of better embryo culture media, blastocyst transfer is now possible and is likely to reduce high-order multiple pregnancy in assisted reproduction treatment. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has become an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. The recent use of molecular biology techniques to d...

  13. Hispathologic aspects of Lyme Borreliosis.

    Koning, Johannes de

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent interest in Lyme disease a large number of papers has been published on its different aspects. The purpose of this thesis is to present a comprehensive study of the most important histopathological manifestations based on the experience obtained during the last 11 years. In the first years, serology was not yet available in our laboratory, the histopathology and demonstration of spirochaetes in tissue were a part of the cliagnostic tools; till to day the recognition ...

  14. Virtual endoscopy in odontogenic sinus disease. Study technique and main pathological findings.

    Fanucci, Ezio; Leporace, Mario; Di Costanzo, Giuseppe; Mannino, Michela; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2004-09-01

    The use of CT scans in dental pathology is an established technique. The potential applications of Dentascan are further enhanced by the use of virtual navigation software, resulting in endoscopy-like imaging of the maxillary sinus, thus optimising both the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to sinus pathology of dental origin. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the technical-methodological aspects of maxillary sinus virtual endoscopy with Dentascan software and to document the most important and frequent diseases. PMID:15343137

  15. Normality and Pathology in a Biological Age

    Nicolas Rose

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is the text of a lecture given at the Faculty of the Humanities, March 2001. It argues that one implication of recent advances in the sciences of life may be that the binary opposition of the normal and the pathological is put into question. Canguilheim’s distinction between vital and social norms is challenged and superseded by a Foucauldian genealogical approach to programs for the government of individuals, and the norms of life that emerged in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are argued to be fundamentally social. Viewing genetics, biopsychiatry, and the commercialisation of drug development and biomedicine, the author argues that the logic of normalisation is loosing its hold, and being replaced by strategies for the continuous molecular management of variation, the modulation of susceptibilities, and the capitalisation of life itself.

  16. Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus domesticus infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 Clinical and pathological aspects in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus infected experimentally with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 sporulated oocysts

    Fagner Luiz da C. Freitas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, sinais clínicos e alterações patológicas foram avaliados por 30 dias em frangos de corte, linhagem Cobb, machos, com dez dias de idade, infectados com Eimeria acervulina. Foram utilizados 192 animais distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo A inoculado com 1x10(6 oocistos esporulados; grupo B inoculado com 1x10(5 oocistos esporulados; grupo C inoculado com água destilada. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, diarréia e apatia. As alterações patológicas macroscópicas observadas foram: enterite, hiperemia seguido de congestão intestinal, excesso de exsudato mucoso no lúmen do intestino delgado, palidez e desidratação muscular, alto acúmulo de bile na vesícula biliar e deposição de gordura hepática. A atrofia de vilosidades e alta presença de células inflamatórias foram as alterações microscópicas observadas no epitélio intestinal. Na análise histopatológica do fígado observaram-se infiltrados inflamatórios e deposição de gordura. Os resultados demonstraram que frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com E. acervulina apresentam progressivas lesões intestinais de intensidade variável e que essas anormalidades são as principais causas de redução no desenvolvimento da ave.In the present study, clinical signs and pathological changes were evaluated during 30 days in broilers, lineage Cobb, males, with ten days old, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Were used 192 animals distributed in 3 groups: group A inoculated with 1x10(6 sporulated oocysts; group B inoculated with 1x10(5 sporulated oocysts; group C inoculated with distilled water. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, diarrhea and apathy. The pathological macroscopic changes observed were: enteritis, hyperemia with subsequent intestinal congestion, high concentration of mucus exudates in the lumen of the small intestine, pale and dehydration muscle, gall bladder full of liquid and deposition of hepatic fat. The villous atrophy

  17. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage building

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  18. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage buildings

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  19. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  20. Testing the Predictive Validity and Construct of Pathological Video Game Use.

    Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas; Tapscott, Ryan L; Lynch, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed. PMID:26694472

  1. Testing the Predictive Validity and Construct of Pathological Video Game Use

    Christopher L. Groves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607 classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504. Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254, such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed.

  2. Recent developments in building diagnosis techniques

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of recent research on building diagnosis techniques related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behavior and durability, and diagnostic techniques. It highlights recent advances and new developments in the field of building physics, building anomalies in materials and components, new techniques for improved energy efficiency analysis, and diagnosis techniques such as infrared thermography. This book will be of interest to a wide readership of professionals, scientists, students, practitioners, and lecturers.

  3. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  4. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  5. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton;

    2010-01-01

    epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens...... analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively...

  6. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  7. Role of ROBO4 Signalling in Developmental and Pathological Angiogenesis

    Suresh Singh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmembrane roundabout receptor family members (ROBO1–ROBO4 principally orchestrate the neuronal guidance mechanism of the nervous system. Secreted glycoprotein SLITs are the most appreciated ligands for ROBOs. Recently identified ROBO4 is the key mediator of SLIT-ROBO mediated developmental and pathological angiogenesis. Although SLIT2 has been shown to interact with ROBO4 as ligand, it remains an open question whether this protein is the physiologic partner of ROBO4. The purpose of this review is to summarise how reliable SLIT2 as ligand for ROBO4 is, if not what the other possible mechanisms demonstrated till date for ROBO4 mediated developmental and pathological angiogenesis are. We conclude that ROBO4 is expressed specially in vascular endothelial cells and maintains the vascular integrity via either SLIT2 dependent or SLIT2 independent manner. On the contrary, it promotes the pathological angiogenesis by involving different signalling arm(s/unknown ligand(s. This review explores the interactions SLIT2/ROBO1, SLIT2/ROBO1–ROBO4, ROBO1/ROBO4, and ROBO4/UNC5B which can be promising and potential therapeutic targets for developmental angiogenesis defects and pathological angiogenesis. Finally we have reviewed the ROBO4 signalling pathways and made an effort to elaborate the insight of this signalling as therapeutic target of pathological angiogenesis.

  8. A review of novel optical imaging strategies of the stroke pathology and stem cell therapy in stroke

    Markus eAswendt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transplanted stem cells can induce and enhance functional recovery in experimental stroke. Invasive analysis has been extensively used to provide detailed cellular and molecular characterization of the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells. But post mortem analysis is not appropriate to reveal the time scale of the dynamic interplay between the cell graft, the ischemic lesion and the endogenous repair mechanisms. This review describes non-invasive imaging techniques which have been developed to provide complementary in vivo information. Recent advances were made in analyzing simultaneously different aspects of the cell graft (e.g. number of cells, viability state and cell fate, the ischemic lesion (e.g. blood brain barrier consistency, hypoxic and necrotic areas and the neuronal and vascular network. We focus on optical methods, which permit simple animal preparation, repetitive experimental conditions, relatively medium-cost instrumentation and are performed under mild anesthesia, thus nearly under physiological conditions. A selection of recent examples of optical intrinsic imaging, fluorescence imaging (FLI and bioluminescence imaging (BLI to characterize the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells are discussed. Special attention is paid to novel optimal reporter genes/probes for genetic labeling and tracking of stem cells and appropriate transgenic animal models. Requirements, advantages and limitations of these imaging platforms are critically discussed and placed into the context of other non-invasive techniques, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET, which can be joined with optical imaging in multimodal approaches.

  9. Gynecomastia in German soldiers: etiology and pathology

    Kuhne, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We found a high incidence of patients with gynecomastia in the German Ministry of Defense Guard Battalion in Berlin. For this reason, we conducted the present study to investigate etiological and pathological aspects of this condition. Methods: Within six years, a total of 211 patients underwent surgery for gynecomastia. We compared this group of patients with a control group of healthy males without signs or symptoms of gynecomastia. The two groups were matched for median age. Results: The groups showed significant differences (p<0.05 in serum testosterone, free triiodothyronine (fT3, LH (luteinizing hormone and prolactin levels and in body mass index (BMI. In addition, there was a highly significant correlation between left-sided gynecomastia and membership in the Guard Battalion. Conclusions: We found differences in hormone blood levels between gynecomastia patients and a control group. Moreover, gynecomastia was predominantly seen on the left side in guard soldiers. A possible explanation is the mechanical impact of the carbine against the left side of the body during rifle drills.

  10. Iliopsoas: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Anderson, Christian N

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of the iliopsoas can be a significant source of groin pain in the athletic population. Commonly described pathologic conditions include iliopsoas bursitis, tendonitis, impingement, and snapping. The first-line treatment for iliopsoas disorders is typically conservative, including activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment can be considered if the patient fails conservative measures and typically involves arthroscopic lengthening of the musculotendinous unit and treatment of concomitant intra-articular abnormality. Tendon release has been described: in the central compartment, in the peripheral compartment, and at the lesser trochanter, with similar outcomes observed between the techniques. PMID:27343394

  11. Infestação simultânea por Cytodites nudus e Laminosioptes cysticola e seus aspectos patológicos em galinhas de subsistência Simultaneous infestation by Cytodites nudus and Laminosioptes cysticola and their pathological aspects in free-range chicken

    Juliana Inês Herpich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytodites nudus e Laminosioptes cysticola são ácaros cuja ocorrência é pouco relatada e cuja infestação simultânea nunca foi descrita na literatura científica brasileira. C. nudus é conhecido como ácaro dos sacos aéreos e pode provocar sinais respiratórios, pneumonia e emagrecimento, quando presente em grande número no hospedeiro. L. cysticola parasita o tecido conjuntivo de galiformes e provoca a formação de pequenos nódulos subcutâneos calcificados, que podem ser confundidos com nódulos de tuberculose aviária. No presente trabalho, são discutidos os aspectos patológicos das lesões causadas pelos ácaros C. nudus e L. cysticola e a caracterização morfológica desses parasitas.The occurrence of Cytodites nudus and Laminosioptes cysticola mites is rare and there is no report of this simultaneous infestation in Brazilian scientific literature. C. nudus is known as the air sacs mite and may cause respiratory signs as well as pneumonia and weight loss when present in large numbers in the host. L. cysticola is found in connective tissue of galliforms and causes formation of small calcified subcutaneous nodules that can be confused with the characteristic nodules found in avian tuberculosis. In this paper are discussed the pathological findings of lesions caused by C. nudus and L. cysticola and their morphological characterization.

  12. Aspect model unweaving

    Klein, Jacques; Kienzle, J. (ed.); Morin, B.; Jézéquel, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Since software systems need to be continuously available, their ability to evolve at runtime is a key issue. The emergence of models@runtime, combined with Aspect-Oriented Modeling techniques, is a promising approach to tame the complexity of adaptive systems. However, with no support for aspect unweaving, these approaches are not agile enough in an adaptive system context. In case of small modifications, the adapted model has to be generated by again weaving all the aspects, even those uncha...

  13. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.

  14. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    Kim, Mi Sung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sun Wha; Sung, Soon Hee [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.

  15. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos comparados da intoxicação por Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae em búfalos e bovinos Comparative epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of poisoning by Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae in buffalo and cattle

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Através de estudo experimental, verificou-se que, embora o quadro clínico-patológico seja essencialmente o mesmo, o búfalo é pelo menos duas vezes mais resistente que o bovino à ação tóxica de Arrabidaea bilabiata (Sprague Sandw. Os experimentos demonstraram também, que as folhas novas desta planta são duas vezes (em outubro, fim da época de seca ou uma vez e meio (em maio, fim da época de chuva mais tóxicas do que as folhas maduras, e que a planta é mais tóxica em outubro. Esses dados indicam que a menor incidência de intoxicação por plantas do grupo das que causam morte súbita, em búfalos na Amazônia, deva-se, em parte, à maior resistência dessa espécie animal. Também parece importante a coincidência do habitat preferencial dos búfalos (várzea com o habitat de A. bilabiata, planta menos tóxica que Palicourea marcgravii St.Hil., encontrada em terra firme que é o habitat preferido pelos bovinos.Experiments showed that the clinical and pathological pictures were essentially the same, but the buffalo was at least twice more resistant than the bovine to the toxic effect of Arrabidaea bilabiata (Sprague Sandw. It was also shown that the young leaves are twice (October, end of the dry season or one and a half (May, end of the rainy season more toxic than the mature leaves, and that the plant is more toxic in October. These data indicate that the smaller incidence of poisoning by plants of the group that causes sudden death in buffaloes in the Amazon Region is, in part, due to the greater resistance of this animal species to the toxic action of the plant. Also important seems to be the coincidence of the preferential habitat of the buffalo (flooded areas with the habitat of A. bilabiata, less toxic than Palicourea marcgravii St.Hil. which is a plant of the non-flooded areas, the preferential habitat of cattle.

  16. An appraisal of innovation in practical teaching in anatomic pathology - A students’ and teachers’ perspective

    Jyotsna V. Wader

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional pathology teaching is teacher-centred with an emphasis on acquiring theoretical knowledge. We, at the Department of Pathology, KIMSU introduced a new practical teaching methodology-“active learning” with emphasis on clinico-pathological correlation-for II year M.B.B.S. students to make pathology learning easy, interactive and clinically relevant. Objective: To evaluate student and tutor perception of the new practical teaching approach introduced in the Department of Pathology, KIMSU for II year M.B.B.S. students by analyzing responses to Likert-scale based standardized questionnaires. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken in the Department of Pathology, KIMSU in January 2013 among a sample population of 120 students of II M.B.B.S. (2011 batch and 08 tutors (Pathology post-graduate residents who anonymously graded their approval/disapproval for 17 parameters on a structured Likert scale. Data collected was analysed and results recorded.Conclusion:The survey indicated that there were both encouraging aspects- namely, use of audio-visual aids and A4-sized photomicrographs of practical slides, pre-practical briefings, formation of smaller groups for practicals-which were appreciated; and others-namely, the materials/equipment used in teaching and time management during practicals - that need more efforts from both teachers and students to achieve the objective of learning pathology.

  17. Pathologization and Depathologization of The “Free Worker” In Terms of The Psycho-Social Risk

    Hernan Camilo Pulido Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been a series of transformations in the configuration of the “psi complex” at work (Ingleby, 1985; Rose, 1985. From being concerned with aspects of the workers’ health in mainstream psychology, there has been a shift towards looking into the existing relationship between health, work, and psychology, in which a series of perspectives that prescribe work as risk, and the risks of work as psychosocial problems, have become a main concern. In this interplay between those psychological perspectives, new processes of pathologization and dephatologization of work and workers are produced. Taking as a point of departure the fiction of the "free worker" as the figure of subjectivity that conventional psychology takes for itself, this article aims at discussing three ways in which “psi complex” is recomposed to constitute the healthy worker according to the radical changes taking place in labour organization.

  18. Alzheimer disease pathology as a host response.

    Castellani, Rudy J; Lee, Hyoung-Gon; Zhu, Xiongwei; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A

    2008-06-01

    Identification of amyloid-beta and tau as the major protein components of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively, led to an exponential increase in investigations of these proteins and their corresponding metabolic pathways in Alzheimer disease (AD). The presumptions inherent in most studies and in the dogma of the amyloid cascade concept are that these hallmark lesions in AD brains contain molecules that drive the disease process, and that the proteinaceous accumulations are themselves toxic. On the other hand, the lesions of AD are, by definition, end-stage, and their relationship to the clinical disease is inconsistent; this has long been known but, generally, has not been acknowledged until relatively recently. Some recent attempts to address the etiology and pathogenesis of AD discard the pathology and focus on the interplay between invisible toxic intermediates, that is, amyloid-beta oligomers and the synapse. The concept that the hallmark lesions may be nontoxic (something we have long suggested) is slowly gaining acceptance. We favor the interpretation that senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles represent a host response to an upstream pathophysiologic process, and that the therapeutic targeting of lesions, including toxic intermediates, will succeed only in the event that the host response is directly deleterious. Therefore, renewed efforts aimed at elucidating fundamental age-related processes such as oxidative stress and/or inflammatory mediators are warranted. PMID:18520771

  19. Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology

    Yutaka Kikuchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The human cellular prion protein (PrPC is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored membrane glycoprotein with two N-glycosylation sites at residues 181 and 197. This protein migrates in several bands by Western blot analysis (WB. Interestingly, PNGase F treatment of human brain homogenates prior to the WB, which is known to remove the N-glycosylations, unexpectedly gives rise to two dominant bands, which are now known as C-terminal (C1 and N-terminal (N1 fragments. This resembles the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP in Alzheimer disease (AD, which can be physiologically processed by α-, β-, and γ-secretases. The processing of APP has been extensively studied, while the identity of the cellular proteases involved in the proteolysis of PrPC and their possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the neurotoxicity caused by prion proteins and the blockade of their normal proteolysis. For example, expression of non-cleavable PrPC mutants in transgenic mice generates neurotoxicity, even in the absence of infectious prions, suggesting that PrPC proteolysis is physiologically and pathologically important. As many mouse models of prion diseases have recently been developed and the knowledge about the proteases responsible for the PrPC proteolysis is accumulating, we examine the historical experimental evidence and highlight recent studies that shed new light on this issue.

  20. Vascular regulation of adult neurogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions

    Masato eSawada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells in the mammalian adult brain continuously produce new neurons throughout life. Accumulating evidence in rodents suggests that various aspects of adult neurogenesis, including the genesis, migration, and maturation of new neurons, are regulated by factors derived from blood vessels and their microenvironment. Brain injury enhances both neurogenesis and angiogenesis, thereby promoting the cooperative regeneration of neurons and blood vessels. In this paper, we briefly review the mechanisms for the vascular regulation of adult neurogenesis in the ventricular-subventricular zone under physiological and pathological conditions, and discuss their clinical potential for brain regeneration strategies.

  1. Pathology of hepatic iron overload

    Yves Deugnier; Bruno Turlin

    2007-01-01

    Although progress in imaging and genetics allow for a noninvasive diagnosis of most cases of genetic iron overload, liver pathology remains often useful (1) to assess prognosis by grading fibrosis and seeking for associated lesions and (2) to guide the etiological diagnosis, especially when no molecular marker is available.Then, the type of liver siderosis (parenchymal, mesenchymal or mixed) and its distribution throughout the lobule and the liver are useful means for suggesting its etiology: HLA-linked hemochromatosis gene (HFE) hemochromatosis or other rare genetic hemochromatosis,nonhemochromatotic genetic iron overload (ferroportin disease, aceruloplasminemia), or iron overload secondary to excessive iron supply, inflammatory syndrome,noncirrhotic chronic liver diseases including dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome, cirrhosis, and blood disorders.

  2. Aspects of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism

    Otten, Marten Henk

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe research into thyroid function has a long history. The recognition of goiter as pathology of the thyroid gland dates back to the ancient world of Rome and Greece and possibly even to the early history of chinese medicine. In an excellent review of the historical aspects of the discovery of thyroid hormones and their biological action (1) Pitt-Rivers describes the growing awareness of the significance of iodine for thyroid function early in the 19th century. The actual presence...

  3. Molecular pathology in real time.

    Ryška, Aleš

    2016-03-01

    With the development of sophisticated individualized therapeutic approaches, the role of pathology in classification of tumors is enormously increasing. The solely morphological characterization of neoplastic process is no more sufficient for qualified decision on optimal therapeutic approach. Thus, morphologic diagnosis must be supplemented by molecular analysis of the lesion with emphasis on the detection of status of certain markers used as predictive factors for targeted therapy. Both intrinsic and acquired types of intratumor heterogeneity have an impact at various moments of cancer diagnostics and therapy. The primary heterogeneity of neoplastic tissue represents a significant problem in patients, where only limited biopsy samples from the primary tumor are available for diagnosis, such as core needle biopsy specimens in breast cancer, transthoracic or endobronchial biopsies in lung cancer, or endoscopic biopsies in gastric cancer. Detection of predictive markers may be influenced by this heterogeneity, and the marker detection may be falsely negative or (less probably) falsely positive. In addition, as these markers are often detected in the tissue samples from primary tumor, the differences between molecular features of the primary lesion and its metastases may be responsible for failure of systemic therapy in patients with discordant phenotype between primary and metastatic disease. The fact of tumor heterogeneity must be taken into consideration already in establishing pathological diagnosis. One has to be aware that limited biopsy specimen must not always be fully representative of the entire tumor volume. To overcome these limitations, there does not exist one single simple solution. Examination of more tissue (preference of surgical resection specimens over biopsies, whenever possible), use of ultra-sensitive methods able to identify the minute subclones as a source of possible resistance to treatment, and detection of secondary molecular events from

  4. Contemporary pharmacotherapy and iatrogenic pathology

    Trailović D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, the pharmaceutical industry has developed into a powerful human activity highly influencing modern medicine. Thousands of synthetic therapeuticals have been developed, and these formulations enabled the successful treatment of many diseases, some of which were considered incurable. An increase in drug consumption followed the development of the pharmaceutical industry and the introduction of synthetic drugs. The widespread use of new medicals enabled the collection of data confirming their effectiveness, but also more and more data concerning side and unwanted effects were reported. Frequent side/unwanted effect reports gave rise to development of iatrogenic pathology, a new branch of clinical pathology. The knowledge of the possible unwanted effects of drugs on macro organisms did not enable the effective withdrawal of such formulations from the market. At the beginning, the reports concerning unwanted effects were not verealed. Consequently some potentially harmful formulations were used for years without methodical analyses of their side/unwanted effects. Some potentially dangerous formulations are still on the market such as drugs containing ulcerogenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic substances as well as those inducing bone marrow aplasia. The administration of these potentially dangerous formulations is understandable in the case of clear therapeutic indications allowing no alternatives. In these cases the risk of harmful side effects is greatly overwhelmed by the risk from the primary disease. Otherwise the administration of the potentially harmful drug is unjustified, especially if the indication is not a disease. Many potentially harmful drugs are formulated for use in healthy animals, recommended as growth, laying and milk stimulators, those allowing higher speed and strength in sport and racing horses, estrus inducers and suppressors. The misuse or maluse medication is highly present in sport horses daily

  5. Optimizing the pathology workstation "cockpit": Challenges and solutions

    Elizabeth A Krupinski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21 st century has brought numerous changes to the clinical reading (i.e., image or virtual pathology slide interpretation environment of pathologists and it will continue to change even more dramatically as information and communication technologies (ICTs become more widespread in the integrated healthcare enterprise. The extent to which these changes impact the practicing pathologist differ as a function of the technology under consideration, but digital "virtual slides" and the viewing of images on computer monitors instead of glass slides through a microscope clearly represents a significant change in the way that pathologists extract information from these images and render diagnostic decisions. One of the major challenges facing pathologists in this new era is how to best optimize the pathology workstation, the reading environment and the new and varied types of information available in order to ensure efficient and accurate processing of this information. Although workstations can be stand-alone units with images imported via external storage devices, this scenario is becoming less common as pathology departments connect to information highways within their hospitals and to external sites. Picture Archiving and Communications systems are no longer confined to radiology departments but are serving the entire integrated healthcare enterprise, including pathology. In radiology, the workstation is often referred to as the "cockpit" with a "digital dashboard" and the reading room as the "control room." Although pathology has yet to "go digital" to the extent that radiology has, lessons derived from radiology reading "cockpits" can be quite valuable in setting up the digital pathology reading room. In this article, we describe the concept of the digital dashboard and provide some recent examples of informatics-based applications that have been shown to improve the workflow and quality in digital reading environments.

  6. Pathology of Macular Foveoschisis Associated with Degenerative Myopia

    Johnny Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a clinicopathological paper on the histologic findings in myopia-associated macular foveoschisis. The findings on ophthalmic pathological study of a 73-year-old woman with high myopia are reviewed. Multiple retinoschisis cavities involving both the macula and retinal periphery were disclosed. Our paper offers tissue evidence and supports recent ocular coherence tomography reports of eyes with high myopia and associated macular foveoschisis.

  7. Pathology of Macular Foveoschisis Associated with Degenerative Myopia

    Flynn, Harry W; Chi-Chao Chan; Moshfeghi, Andrew A.; Rivers, Michael B.; Johnny Tang

    2010-01-01

    This is a clinicopathological paper on the histologic findings in myopia-associated macular foveoschisis. The findings on ophthalmic pathological study of a 73-year-old woman with high myopia are reviewed. Multiple retinoschisis cavities involving both the macula and retinal periphery were disclosed. Our paper offers tissue evidence and supports recent ocular coherence tomography reports of eyes with high myopia and associated macular foveoschisis.

  8. Quantum Dot-based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications

    Li Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are novel light emitting semiconductor nanocrystals with diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. In comparison with traditional organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs possess unique optical properties including extremely high fluorescence efficiency and minimal photobleaching which make them emerge as a new class of fluorescent labels for molecular imaging and biomedical analysis. Herein, recent advances in fundamental mechanisms and pathological applications of QD were reviewed.

  9. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time) on...... slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for...

  10. Pathologic mitoses and pathology of mitosis in tumorigenesis

    RG Steinbeck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The gist of my hypothesis (.. is a certain abnormal chromatin constitution. Each process, which brings about this chromatin constitution, would result in the origin of a malignant tumour. Certainly, I consider irregularities with mitosis as the normal mode of the origin of an incorrectly assembled nucleus. This statement by Boveri (1914 has considered earlier observations of asymmetric divisions in human cancers (Hansemann, 1890. The hypothesis is based on the understanding of mitosis as an equational bipartition of the hereditary substance (Flemming, 1879; Roux, 1883. Latest since it was known that genes are located on chromosomes (Sturtevant, 1913, their balanced transport in anaphase appeared as a condition of correct somatic proliferation. True mitoses guarantee the constancy of terminally differentiated tissues. Politzer (1934 has performed X-ray experiments to investigate abnormal karyokinesis with regard to anomalous chromatin condensation, chromosome breakage, spindle malformation, and failure in cytokinesis. On the basis of light microscopy, further significant progress in understanding the pathology of mitosis was not possible. Tumour cases with reduced chromosome numbers seduced to the idea that mitotic activity is rather under cytoplasmic than under nuclear control (Koller, 1947.

  11. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling ...

  12. Spiritual Pathology: The Case of Adolf Hitler

    W. George Scarlett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hitler had a noble purpose (to save the world and a strong faith in the laws of Nature as he understood Nature. He was, then, a spiritual person, though his spirituality was pathological and destructive. Here, the example of Hitler, his faith, and his spiritual pathology is given to both understand spiritual pathology in general and, through contrast, to understand positive spiritual development.

  13. Pathology of the region of the knee

    Aufdermaur, M.

    1981-09-01

    Radiological, clinical and pathologic-anatomical findings seen in four types of disorders of the region of the knee jointare described. An attempt is made to explain the clinical symptomatology on the basis of pathologic-anatomical findings. It is demonstrated that the histology of a giant cell neoplasm does not permit conclusions as to prognosis. Etiology and pathogenesis of villonodular synovitis and of chondrocalcinosis are unexplained. Pathologic-anatomical findings of chondromalacia patellae are those of early osteoarthrosis.

  14. The Notion "Pathology" in Set Theory

    DePauli-Schimanovich, Werner

    2008-01-01

    When we study the paradoxes of set theory we find out that there are mainly 2 types: the pathologies and the antinomies. These 2 notions are made precise and compared with the somehow inductively definable concept "abnormal". (See my paper "Naive Axiomatic Mengenlehre for Experiments" in arXiv.) In the following 5 Patho Theses are discussed in order to formalize this notion of pathology. This allows us to define formally the property "Hereditary-non-Pathological" for well-formed formulas. Wit...

  15. On-Line Full Text Pathology Database

    Fink, Daniel; Clark, Anthony; Sideli, Robert

    1988-01-01

    A free text database for pathology reports has been developed using the BRS/SEARCH free text management software. All pathology reports are stored in the free text pathology database. Standardized section headings make any word searchable both by itself or within the context of a specific part of the report. The free text management software supplies a rich set of Boolean, positional, and relational operators. These operators make an iterative search strategy an effective method of searching ...

  16. Impact of age and gender on cardiac pathology in children and adolescents with marfan syndrome.

    Mueller, G.C.; Stark, V.; Steiner, K.; Kodolitsch, Y. von; Rybczynski, M.; Weil, J.; Mir, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac pathologies are the major aspect in the treatment strategies for Marfan syndrome (MFS). In this progressive disease, less is known about manifestations and progression of cardiovascular symptoms in children. To define a certain decision regarding therapeutic options, knowledge concerning the

  17. Beginnings: Introducing Computer Technology to Students in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

    McErlain, Eileen; Squibb, Kevin

    In the areas of audiology and speech science, computer technology has moved to the forefront in both the clinical and laboratory settings. It is imperative that students in both speech-language pathology and audiology acquire fundamental skills with all aspects of computer technology in order to maintain professional marketability. A survey of 75…

  18. Some challenges in forensic veterinary pathology: a review.

    Munro, R; Munro, H M C

    2013-07-01

    Forensic veterinary pathology is a diverse discipline that is in an early phase of its development. Common challenges include estimation of the age of skin wounds and bruises, the diagnosis of drowning and estimation of the time since death. However, many details of the pathological findings related to these various aspects await validation. The 'multispecies' nature of veterinary pathology, combined with the preponderance of published observations originating from animal experimentation, rather than casework, poses two challenges. Firstly, extrapolation of results between species may jeopardize the reliability (and credibility) of the forensic opinion. Secondly, experimental studies may not truly reflect the spectrum of changes seen in actual cases (e.g. extent of injuries, infection, age and health of victim). With regard to drowning, diagnosis based on post-mortem findings remains problematical. Methods for estimation of the time since death (also known as the post-mortem interval) continue to be a major focus of study, with fresh avenues such as post-mortem diagnostic imaging offering interesting possibilities. PMID:23153727

  19. Late running is not too late against Alzheimer's pathology.

    Herring, Arne; Münster, Yvonne; Metzdorf, Judith; Bolczek, Bastien; Krüssel, Sarah; Krieter, David; Yavuz, Ilkay; Karim, Fro; Roggendorf, Constanze; Stang, Anthony; Wang, Yachao; Hermann, Dirk M; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Keyvani, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade a vast number of animal studies have produced overwhelming evidence that exercise not only compensates for memory loss by increasing brain plasticity and cognitive reserve but also directly counteracts Alzheimer-like pathology when provided before disease onset or in early disease stages. But so far, there is little knowledge about therapeutic effects of training when started in advanced disease stages. In the present study we show that following seven months of sedentary life style five months of wheel running, started four months after disease onset was still able to mitigate at least some aspects of the full-blown Alzheimer's pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Late running had mild but significant effects on structural plasticity by increasing the dendritic complexity. It further reduced beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden and enhanced Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier, along with attenuating microgliosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy deficits, resulting in better memory performance and less agitation. However, unlike early exercise, late running did not affect abnormal amyloid precursor protein metabolism, tau pathology, or angiogenesis. These results allow concluding that it is never too late to counteract Alzheimer's disease with physical training but the earlier the intervention starts, the more pronounced is the therapeutic potential. PMID:27312772

  20. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory

    Ioan C Cucoranu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI. In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States.

  1. General safety aspects

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

  2. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MEDIATION

    IULIA FLOCA

    2011-01-01

    Today the Romanian state gives some advantages to those who use mediation. If the Romanian state would take further steps, mediation would work as in the countries with old tradition. The article refers to success and failure got in the two years of practice. The mediation can be seen in two aspects: The first aspect regarding the mediation itself can lead to a mediation agreement. The mediation agreement gives both winnings to the conflict parts and professional satisfactions to the mediator...

  3. Psychosocial aspects of cancer pain.

    Stiefel, F

    1993-05-01

    Pain, and especially cancer pain, is not a pure nociceptive, physical experience, but involves different dimensions of man, such as personality, affect, cognition, behavior and social relations. Cancer pain is best conceptualized as the convergence of multiple activated systems with feedback mechanisms to a complex, multidimensional model. The psychosocial aspects of this multidimensional model will be analyzed with special emphasis on results from recent research. Although most research has been conducted on the role of affect and cognition in cancer pain, data on other factors such as personality, behavior or social aspects exist and will be presented. In the second part of this paper the implications of these results for therapeutic strategies in clinical work will be discussed. Although a considerable body of knowledge exists to support the hypothesis of a multidimensional model of cancer pain, where psychosocial variables play an important role, only a few studies address the issue of to what degree different factors exercise their influence. This may be different from patient to patient and may change over the course of the disease. Whatever importance these single variables in the multidimensional model of cancer pain may have, the patient is best treated when none of these aspects is neglected in the assessment and all are taken care of in the treatment. A multidisciplinary team, with a psychiatrist as one of the team members, is often best prepared to fulfill this task. PMID:8149139

  4. Practical pathology of aging mice

    Piper M. M. Treuting

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

  5. Clinical and pharmacological aspects of inflammatory demyelinating diseases in childhood: an update.

    Spalice, Alberto; Parisi, Pasquale; Papetti, Laura; Nicita, Francesco; Ursitti, Fabiana; Del Balzo, Francesca; Properzi, Enrico; Verrotti, Alberto; Ruggieri, Martino; Iannetti, Paola

    2010-06-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases comprise a spectrum of disorders affecting the myelin of the central and peripheral nervous system. These diseases can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, radiological, laboratory and pathological findings. Recent studies have contributed to current awareness that inflammatory demyelinating diseases are not restricted to the adult age group, but are more common in pediatric age than previously believed. Some of pediatric inflammatory demyelinating diseases carry an unfavorable long-term prognosis but appropriate treatments can improve the outcome. The possibility of physical and cognitive disability resulting from these diseases, highlights the urgent need for therapeutic strategies for neurorehabilitation, neuroregeneration, and neurorepair. This review discusses characteristics of primary demyelinating diseases more frequently observed in childhood, focusing on epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatments. PMID:21119885

  6. Alterations in spatial memory and anxiety in the MAM E17 rat model of hippocampal pathology in schizophrenia

    Gastambide, Francois; Taylor, Amy M; Palmer, Clare; Svard, Heta; Karjalainen, Maija; Janhunen, Sanna K; Tricklebank, Mark; Bannerman, David M

    2016-01-01

    Adult rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at embryonic day 17 (E17) display robust pathological alterations in the hippocampus. However, discrepancies exist in the literature regarding the behavioural effects of this pre-natal manipulation. Therefore, a systematic assessment of MAM E17-induced behavioural alterations was conducted using a battery of dorsal and ventral hippocampus-dependent tests. Compared to saline controls, MAM E17-treated rats displayed deficits in spatial reference memory in both the aversive hidden platform watermaze task and an appetitive Y-maze task. Deficits in the spatial reference memory watermaze task were replicated across three different cohorts and two laboratories. In contrast, there was little, or no, effect on the non-spatial, visible platform watermaze task or an appetitive, non-spatial, visual discrimination task, respectively. MAM rats were also impaired in the spatial novelty preference task which assesses short-term memory, and displayed reduced anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze task. Thus, MAM E17 administration resulted in abnormal spatial information processing and reduced anxiety in a number of hippocampus-dependent behavioural tests, paralleling the effects of dorsal and ventral hippocampal lesions respectively. These findings corroborate recent pathological and physiological studies, further highlighting the usefulness of MAM E17 as a model of hippocampal dysfunction in at least some aspects of schizophrenia. PMID:25633092

  7. Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies?☆

    Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Clark, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in appetitive processing are central to the major psychological theories of addiction, with differential predictions made by the reward deficiency, incentive salience, and impulsivity hypotheses. Functional MRI has become the chief means of testing these predictions, with experiments reliably highlighting disturbances at the level of the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and affiliated regions. However, demonstrations of hypo-reactivity and hyper-reactivity of this circuitry in drug addicted groups are reported in approximately equal measure. Similar findings are echoed in the emergent neuroimaging literature on pathological gambling, which has recently witnessed a coming of age. The first aim of this article is to consider some of the methodological aspects of these experiments that could influence the observed direction of group-level effects, including the baseline condition, trial structure and timing, and the nature of the appetitive cues (drug-related, monetary, or primary rewards). The second aim is to highlight the conceptual traction that is offered by pathological gambling, as a model of a ‘toxicity free’ addiction and an illness where tasks of monetary reinforcement afford a more direct mapping to the abused commodity. Our conclusion is that relatively subtle decisions in task design appear capable of driving group differences in fronto-striatal circuitry in entirely opposing directions, even with tasks and task variants that look ostensibly similar. Differentiation between the psychological theories of addiction will require a greater breadth of experimental designs, with more research needed on processing of primary appetitive cues, aversive processing, and in vulnerable/at-risk groups. PMID:24179792

  8. Dietary restraint: what's the harm? A review of the relationship between dietary restraint, weight trajectory and the development of eating pathology.

    Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Anderson, L M; Reilly, E E; Gorrell, S

    2016-04-01

    Dietary restraint has historically been implicated as a risk factor for the development of eating pathology. Despite existing findings, recent research suggests that many individuals are capable of practicing dietary restraint without negative effects. In order to successfully incorporate the positive aspects of dietary restraint into interventions for healthy weight management, a nuanced examination of the relationship between dietary restraint and resulting eating patterns is necessary. Accordingly, the current review seeks to clarify the existing literature with regard to dietary restraint. First, this review examines the construct of dietary restraint and differentiates dietary restraint from related constructs, such as weight loss dieting. Second, it identifies situations in which dietary restraint has been linked with positive outcomes, such as healthy weight management and prevention of eating pathology. Altogether, it appears that dietary restraint can prove a beneficial strategy for those attempting to control their weight, as it does not relate to increased levels of eating pathology when practiced as part of a well-validated weight management programme. PMID:26841705

  9. How can the postgraduate training program in pathology departments in India be improved?

    Bhusnurmath, Shivayogi R; Bhusnurmath, Bharti S

    2011-01-01

    There exists a wide variation in the competence of the postgraduate residents trained in pathology in different institutions across India. This results in strong disparities in the clinical diagnostic skills, teaching skills, research capabilities and the managerial skills of the graduates. The end users of this training, namely the community, clinicians and health care institutions would benefit from a more uniform and better trained pathologist. The article reviews the reasons for the variation in the quality of the training programs. The main deficiencies include, lack of well-defined criteria for recruitment of residents, training facilities, faculty resources, curriculum with well-defined learning objectives and competencies, hands-on experiences in diagnostic and research activities, diagnostic specimens and medical autopsies, exposure to molecular pathology, pathology informatics, electron microscopy, research experiences, communication skills, professional behavior and bioethics, business practices in pathology and quality assurance. There is also a lack of defined career tracks in various disciplines in laboratory medicine, standard protocols for evaluation and regional and national oversight of the programs. The steps for rectification should include defining the competencies and learning objectives, development of the curriculum including teaching methods, facilities and evaluation strategies, communication skills, professional behavior skills, teaching skills, legal aspects of practicing pathology and the various career pathways to subspecialties in pathology. The training should include defined exposure to molecular pathology, electron microscopy, quality control and assurance, laboratory accreditation, business aspects of pathology practice, review of literature, evidence-based medicine, medical autopsy and medical informatics. Efforts should be made to share human and laboratory resources between regional cooperation. The oversight and accreditation

  10. How can the postgraduate training program in pathology departments in India be improved?

    Shivayogi R Bhusnurmath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a wide variation in the competence of the postgraduate residents trained in pathology in different institutions across India. This results in strong disparities in the clinical diagnostic skills, teaching skills, research capabilities and the managerial skills of the graduates. The end users of this training, namely the community, clinicians and health care institutions would benefit from a more uniform and better trained pathologist. The article reviews the reasons for the variation in the quality of the training programs. The main deficiencies include, lack of well-defined criteria for recruitment of residents, training facilities, faculty resources, curriculum with well-defined learning objectives and competencies, hands-on experiences in diagnostic and research activities, diagnostic specimens and medical autopsies, exposure to molecular pathology, pathology informatics, electron microscopy, research experiences, communication skills, professional behavior and bioethics, business practices in pathology and quality assurance. There is also a lack of defined career tracks in various disciplines in laboratory medicine, standard protocols for evaluation and regional and national oversight of the programs. The steps for rectification should include defining the competencies and learning objectives, development of the curriculum including teaching methods, facilities and evaluation strategies, communication skills, professional behavior skills, teaching skills, legal aspects of practicing pathology and the various career pathways to subspecialties in pathology. The training should include defined exposure to molecular pathology, electron microscopy, quality control and assurance, laboratory accreditation, business aspects of pathology practice, review of literature, evidence-based medicine, medical autopsy and medical informatics. Efforts should be made to share human and laboratory resources between regional cooperation. The

  11. Benign and pathological electrocardiographic changes in athletes.

    Machado, Marino; Vaz Silva, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in athletes during sport. It is a tragic event that generates significant media attention and discussion throughout society as to whether everything possible had been done to prevent it. Regular physical exercise causes cardiac remodeling at both the mechanical and electrical level, known as athlete's heart, resulting in an electrocardiogram (ECG) considered abnormal compared with the ECGs of the general population. Some of these electrocardiographic changes are considered normal or physiological in athletes, while others suggest underlying cardiac disease with the potential to cause sudden cardiac death. There is thus an urgent need to define the electrocardiographic patterns that allow or prohibit participation in sports, and to differentiate them in terms of gender, ethnicity and age. The purpose of this review is to present the latest data on the electrocardiographic changes considered benign or pathological that are typically found in athletes and to critically analyze the most recent criteria for classifying ECGs in this population (the Seattle criteria), comparing them with previous guidelines and with the latest studies on the subject. This article also examines the question of including ECGs in pre-participation screening programs, the US and European approaches to the subject, and the most up-to-date data on the sensitivity, specificity and cost-effectiveness of the ECG in athletes. PMID:26643438

  12. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    Nicola Maffulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Filippo Spiezia2, Vincenzo Denaro21Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones.Keywords: tendinopathy, rupture, percutanous repair, less invasive

  13. Parallel Aspects of the Microenvironment in Cancer and Autoimmune Disease

    Rahat, Michal A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and autoimmune diseases are fundamentally different pathological conditions. In cancer, the immune response is suppressed and unable to eradicate the transformed self-cells, while in autoimmune diseases it is hyperactivated against a self-antigen, leading to tissue injury. Yet, mechanistically, similarities in the triggering of the immune responses can be observed. In this review, we highlight some parallel aspects of the microenvironment in cancer and autoimmune diseases, especially hypoxia, and the role of macrophages, neutrophils, and their interaction. Macrophages, owing to their plastic mode of activation, can generate a pro- or antitumoral microenvironment. Similarly, in autoimmune diseases, macrophages tip the Th1/Th2 balance via various effector cytokines. The contribution of neutrophils, an additional plastic innate immune cell population, to the microenvironment and disease progression is recently gaining more prominence in both cancer and autoimmune diseases, as they can secrete cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as acquire an enhanced ability to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that are now considered important initiators of autoimmune diseases. Understanding the contribution of macrophages and neutrophils to the cancerous or autoimmune microenvironment, as well as the role their interaction and cooperation play, may help identify new targets and improve therapeutic strategies. PMID:26997761

  14. Loop quantum cosmology: Recent progress

    Martin Bojowald

    2004-10-01

    Aspects of the full theory of loop quantum gravity can be studied in a simpler context by reducing to symmetric models like cosmological ones. This leads to several applications where loop effects play a significant role when one is sensitive to the quantum regime. As a consequence, the structure of and the approach to classical singularities are very different from general relativity. The quantum theory is free of singularities, and there are new phenomenological scenarios for the evolution of the very early universe such as inflation. We give an overview of the main effects, focussing on recent results obtained by different groups.

  15. The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2009-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

  16. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Filippucci, E; Backhaus, M; D'Agostino, MA; Sanchez, EN; Iagnocco, A; Schmidt, WA; Bruyn, G; Kane, D; O'Connor, PJ; Manger, B; Joshua, F; Koski, J; Grassi, W; Lassere, MN; Swen, N; Kainberger, F; Klauser, A; Østergaard, Mikkel; Brown, AK; Machold, KP; Conaghan, PG

    2005-01-01

    of US pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with...

  17. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  18. Brain Connectivity in Pathological and Pharmacological Coma

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Soddu, Andrea; Lehembre, Rémy; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boveroux, Pierre; Boly, Mélanie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low-level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a “vegetative state” or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these “primary” sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher-order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread frontoparietal “global neuronal workspace” in DOC patients including the midline default mode network (“intrinsic” system) and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or “extrinsic system.” Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma, and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory, or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” brain

  19. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma.

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Soddu, Andrea; Lehembre, Rémy; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boveroux, Pierre; Boly, Mélanie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low-level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a "vegetative state" or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these "primary" sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher-order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread frontoparietal "global neuronal workspace" in DOC patients including the midline default mode network ("intrinsic" system) and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or "extrinsic system." Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma, and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory, or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between "intrinsic" and "extrinsic" brain networks. PMID:21191476

  20. Integrating anatomical pathology to the healthcare enterprise.

    Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Henin, Dominique; Fabiani, Bettina; Bourquard, Karima; Ouagne, David; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    For medical decisions, healthcare professionals need that all required information is both correct and easily available. We address the issue of integrating anatomical pathology department to the healthcare enterprise. The pathology workflow from order to report, including specimen process and image acquisition was modeled. Corresponding integration profiles were addressed by expansion of the IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative. Implementation using respectively DICOM Structured Report (SR) and DICOM Slide-Coordinate Microscopy (SM) was tested. The two main integration profiles--pathology general workflow and pathology image workflow--rely on 13 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standard. We propose a model of the case in anatomical pathology and of other information entities (orders, image folders and reports) and real-world objects (specimen, tissue samples, slides, etc). Cases representation in XML schemas, based on DICOM specification, allows producing DICOM image files and reports to be stored into a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System. PMID:17108550

  1. Common bile duct pathologies at nawabshah

    To determine the causes, presentation, management and outcome of Common Bile Duct (CBD) pathologies. All patients who presented with CBD pathologies. Data of all the patients with CBD pathologies was collected and entered on a proforma, including their complaints, positive examination findings, investigations, diagnosis, procedure performed and its outcome. During the study period 45 patients presented with CBD pathology. Amongst them 14 were males and the rest females (31), with a mean age of 36.7 years. Around 67% patients had choledocholithiasis as the commonest cause. Exploration of the CBD with T-tube insertion was the commonest procedure, performed in 69% patients. About 4% patients had retained stones and 20% developed wound infection. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. Most common pathology involving the CBD was secondary stones; 95% patients had associated gall stones also. (author)

  2. Skeletal muscle pathology in Huntington’s Disease.

    Daniel eZielonka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein (HTT. The neurological symptoms, that involve motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, are caused by neurodegeneration that is particularly widespread in the basal ganglia and cereberal cortex. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and in recent years it has become apparent that HD patients experience a wide array of peripheral organ dysfunction including severe metabolic phenotype, weight loss, HD-related cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle wasting, . Although skeletal muscles became a hallmark of HD, the mechanisms underlying muscular atrophy in this disorder are unknown. Skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of body mass and are highly adaptive to physiological and pathological conditions that may result in muscle hypertrophy (due to increased mechanical load or atrophy (inactivity, chronic disease states. The atrophy is caused by degeneration of myofibers and their replacement by fibrotic tissue is the major pathological feature in many genetic muscle disorders. Under normal physiological conditions the muscle function is orchestrated by a network of intrinsic hypertrophic and atrophic signals linked to the functional properties of the motor units that are likely to be imbalanced in HD. In this article, we highlight the emerging field of research with particular focus on the recent studies of the skeletal muscle pathology and the identification of new disease-modifying treatments.

  3. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  4. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breedingfocuses recent progress in our understanding of thegenetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book isdivided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I,Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advancesin molecular biology and laboratory procedures thathave been developed recently to manipulate DNA.Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomicsapproaches form as a powerful tool for investigatingthe molecular mechanisms of the plant responses tovarious types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding forbiotic stress addresses issues related to application ofmolecular based strategies in order to increase soybeanresistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, RecentTechnology reviews recent technologies into the realmof soybean monitoring, processing and product use.While the information accumulated in this book is ofprimary interest for plant breeders, valuable insightsare also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists,physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists andstudents. The book is a result of efforts made by manyexperts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia,Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil,Mexico.

  5. Recent developments in storage

    Heat storage in ground, storage by sensible heat and phase change, by means of chemical reactions, in aquifers is considered hydrogeological, geological and thermophysical aspects of aquifers are discussed. Refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Frontotemporal dementias: Recent advances and current controversies

    Leyton Cristian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal dementia (FTD syndromes comprise a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative conditions characterized by atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes. Three main clinical variants are recognized: Behavioral variant (bv-FTD, Semantic dementia (SD, and Progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA. However, logopenic/phonological (LPA variant has been recently described, showing a distinctive pattern of brain atrophy and often associated to Alzheimer′s disease pathology. The diagnosis of FTD is challenging, since there is clinical, pathological, and genetic overlap between the variants and other neurodegenerative diseases, such as motoneuron disease (MND and corticobasal degeneration (CBD. In addition, patients with gene mutations (tau and progranulin display an inconsistent clinical phenotype and the correspondence between the clinical variant and its pathology is unpredictable. New cognitive tests based on social cognition and emotional recognition together with advances in molecular pathology and genetics have contributed to an improved understanding. There is now a real possibility of accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis. The present review concentrates on new insights and debates in FTD.

  7. Standardization in digital pathology: Supplement 145 of the DICOM standards

    Rajendra Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As digital slides need a lot of storage space, lack of a singular method to acquire and store these large, two-dimensional images has been a major stumbling block in the universal acceptance of this technology. The DICOMS Standard Committee Working Group 26 has put in a tremendous effort to standardize storage methods so that they are more in line with currently available PACS in most hospitals for storage of radiology images. A recent press release (Supplement 145 of these standards was hailed by one and all involved in the field of digital pathology as it will make it easier for hospitals to integrate digital pathology into their already established systems without adding too much overhead costs. Besides, it will enable different vendors developing the scanners to upgrade their products to storage systems that are common across all systems.

  8. Nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsies: Applications in pathology and clinic

    The nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsy sections has been recently applied to investigate different muscle disorders. This technique, employed as a complementary examination in the frame of pathological studies, permitted to confirm the diagnosis for a first pathology and to elucidate the cause of a second. In skeletal muscles of a young patient suffering from a slow progressive myopathy, calcium accumulations have been demonstrated in histologically abnormal fibers. These findings have been compared to histopathological characteristics previously described. On the other hand, we have evaluated muscle sections from two patients who presented symptoms of an inflammatory myopathy, a rare pathology that recently emerged in France. The chemical analyses permitted us to highlight local aluminium infiltration in muscles. The hypothesis of an unusual reaction to intramuscular aluminium accumulation has been advanced. These studies demonstrate the capability for ion beam microanalytical techniques to address acute problems in pathology

  9. Digital slides and ACGME resident competencies in anatomic pathology: An altered paradigm for acquisition and assessment

    Lewis A Hassell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole slide digital imaging technology has matured considerably over the past decade. Applications in pathology education are widespread and are rapidly transforming the manner in which medical students learn pathology and histology, and they have a novel and significant impact on postgraduate continuing medical education. Whole slide digital images for use in pathology graduate education have been slower in adoption and remain much less widespread. Emphasis on professional competency by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME and credentialing organizations, however, appear poised to significantly increase. The convergence of these two forces is propitious for pathology training. This article examines the opportunities for the use of whole slide images (WSI in pathology residency training along with the developing potential uses in each of the areas of competency, as categorized by the ACGME. Barriers to WSI adoption in the pathology community are identified along with potentially significant promoters for adoption in training and practice. Current literature and recent presentations are reviewed. Digital pathology coupled with emphasis on competency is a shift of tremendous magnitude that can dramatically improve our abilities to help trainees acquire, demonstrate, and maintain the skills to practice pathology in the generation ahead.

  10. Lysosomal Fusion Dysfunction as a Unifying Hypothesis for Alzheimer's Disease Pathology

    Kristen E. Funk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is characterized pathologically by extracellular senile plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and granulovacuolar degeneration. It has been debated whether these hallmark lesions are markers or mediators of disease progression, and numerous paradigms have been proposed to explain the appearance of each lesion individually. However, the unfaltering predictability of these lesions suggests a single pathological nidus central to disease onset and progression. One of the earliest pathologies observed in Alzheimer's disease is endocytic dysfunction. Here we review the recent literature of endocytic dysfunction with particular focus on disrupted lysosomal fusion and propose it as a unifying hypothesis for the three most-studied lesions of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers.

    Michael A Irvine

    Full Text Available Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort.Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice, and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task. We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment.In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time.We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

  12. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  13. Recent code systems at JAERI

    Recently several code systems have been developed and utilized at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. It is not easy to construct and maintain a code system, but the fact is not well known in the researchers. For this reason, it will be very useful to publish informations about design concepts, characteristics, necessary computer features and amounts of invested manpower for the developments of some recent JAERI code systems. In this report, a general view of required manpower on unification of nuclear codes is discussed and four code systems, i.e., SRAC for thermal reactor analysis, TRITON for Tokamak MHD analysis, SPEEDI for emergent environmental dose prediction and RADHEAT for radiation shielding analysis are presented. They are described from aspects of (1) purpose and schedule of development, (2) outline of system, (3) results of benchmark tests, (4) utilized computer features, (5) invested manpower, and (6) desirable computer features. Finally common aspects of four code systems from viewpoint of necessary computer hardwares and softwares are discussed for future development of code systems. (author)

  14. General Risk Factors for Gambling Problems and the Prevalence of Pathological Gambling in Norway

    Johansson, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Pathological Gambling (PG) has not until recently been scientifically studied. In a series of epidemiological studies prevalences of Pathological gambling were assessed for both men and women, adults and adolescents, and also for games without monetary rewards, and for internet. In Norway the condition affects below one percent of the adult population (higher in men than in women), close to 2% percent among adolescents, and close to 3% for games without monetary reward. For “internet addictio...

  15. Astrocyte pathology in the prefrontal cortex impairs the cognitive function of rats

    Lima, A; Sardinha, Vanessa Morais; Oliveira, A. F.; Reis, M; Mota, Cristina de Fátima Sousa da; Silva, M. A.; Marques, Fernanda; Cerqueira, João; Pinto, Luisa; Sousa, Nuno; Oliveira, João F.

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astroglial cells is rising due to recent findings supporting dynamic neuron-astrocyte interactions. There is increasing evidence of astrocytic dysfunction in several brain disorders such as depression, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder; importantly these pathologies are characterized by the involvement of the prefrontal cortex and by significant cognitive impairments. Here, to model astrocyte pathology, we injected animals with the astrocyte specific toxin L-a-aminoadipate (L-AA) ...

  16. Metopism: As an Indicator of Cranial Pathology; A Good Example from Iranian Plateau

    Mohammad Mehdi Tavassoli

    2011-01-01

    Metopism had been observed as a genetic trait. Recent studies have brought to light that it can get as an indicator of cranial pathology. An example of this pathology has been studied by this author on an Iranian skeletal sample. The purpose of this paper is to provide basic information on the subject and thereby to create awareness among Iranian anthropologists and archaeologists of this new line of evidence as well as to pathologists.

  17. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  18. Toxicological aspects of water

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made

  19. Psychological Aspects of Aging.

    Mooney, Craig M.

    1980-01-01

    Psychological aspects of aging, based on gerontological hypotheses and research, are presented under three headings: intellectual abilities; emotional capacities; and motor capabilities. Consequences are discussed. Well-being throughout life depends on fulfillment of fundamental human needs; existential needs for nourishment, stimulation, rest,…

  20. Quantum Chromodynamics: Computational Aspects

    Schaefer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief introduction to QCD, the QCD phase diagram, and non-equilibrium phenomena in QCD. We emphasize aspects of the theory that can be addressed using computational methods, in particular euclidean path integral Monte Carlo, fluid dynamics, kinetic theory, classical field theory and holographic duality.

  1. Gout. Radiological aspects

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  2. Discussion on Improvement of Toxicological Pathology Study

    RenJin

    2003-01-01

    Toxicological pathology plays a key role in drug safety assessment. To enhance the research level of toxicological pathology, the following stud-ies should be carried out urgently: setting up a standard operation procedure (SOP) for toxico-logical pathology assessment; emphasizing on immunotoxicology evaluation; adopting a new ex-periment model of replacement, featuring high speed and reliability; introducing new techniques and new models in toxicological mechanism re-search; and establishing a new appraisal system to screen innovative drug and rapid and high pre-cision methods for early security assessment, de-tection and measurement.

  3. The Notion "Pathology" in Set Theory

    DePauli-Schimanovich, Werner

    2008-01-01

    When we study the paradoxes of set theory we find out that there are mainly 2 types: the pathologies and the antinomies. These 2 notions are made precise and compared with the somehow inductively definable concept "abnormal". (See my paper "Naive Axiomatic Mengenlehre for Experiments" in arXiv.) In the following 5 Patho Theses are discussed in order to formalize this notion of pathology. This allows us to define formally the property "Hereditary-non-Pathological" for well-formed formulas. With this property the system NACT* of Naive Axiomatic Class Theory is constructed, which has a "unique maximal" universe (in a special sense).

  4. Gastrointestinal pathology in neonates: new imaging strategies

    Ryan, Stephanie; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2010-06-15

    The mainstay of imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) pathology in infants has always been and still is the plain radiograph of the abdomen and conventional contrast studies. In this review emphasis is placed on the situations where there are new imaging strategies and alternative modalities of imaging, including US, CT, MRI and radionuclide studies. This review will deal with GI pathology in the newborn and in the older neonate. It will also refer to any new approaches to imaging GI pathology in the premature infant. Finally the review will address how antenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities has changed the imaging strategy and management of the neonate. (orig.)

  5. Increased functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and reward system in pathological gambling.

    Saskia Koehler

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum. PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder.

  6. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN and Chronic Pancreatitis: Overlapping Pathological Entities? Two Case Reports

    Athanasios Petrou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs are a recently classified pancreatic neoplasm with an increasing incidence. IPMN is often misdiagnosed as chronic pancreatitis because of symptoms of relapsing abdominal pain, pancreatitis, and steatorrhea and imaging findings of a dilated pancreatic duct of cystic lesions that are frequently confused with pseudocysts. Early recognition of IPMN allows for prompt surgical resection before malignant transformation. Case reports We report two cases of patients with long histories of chronic pancreatitis (more than 15 years that went on to develop IPMN. Both patients presented with symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, steatorrhoea and eventually weight loss. Biochemical and radiological findings were suggestive of chronic pancreatitis although no clear causes for this were identified. Both patients were followed up with multiple repeat scans with no reported sinister findings. Many years after the initial diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, radiological investigations identified pathological changes suggestive of neoplastic development and histology confirmed IPMN. Conclusions The cases demonstrate the ongoing challenges in diagnosing and managing IPMN effectively; highlights the important aspects of epidemiology in differentiating chronic pancreatitis and IPMN; continues the discussion surrounding the relationship between IPMN and chronic pancreatitis.

  7. Holographic Aspects of Electric-Magnetic Dualities

    de Haro, Sebastian; Petkou, Anastasios C.

    2007-01-01

    We review recent work on holographic aspects of electric-magnetic dualities in theories that involve conformally coupled scalars and abelian gauge fields in asymptotically AdS4 spaces. Such models are relevant for the holographic description of M-theory. We also briefly comment on some new results on the holographic properties of generalized electric-magnetic duality in gravity.

  8. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Public Finance

    David Trytko

    2000-01-01

    The Public Finance Department of the University of Economics in Prague (VŠE Praha) recently held an international conference on Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Public Finance. The main topics discussed were the public and the taxation sectors' respective decentralization, efficiency, and financial instruments. Economists from England, Czech Republic, Scotland, Italy, Belgium, Russia, Slovenia, Turkey, Slovakia, and several international organizations were present.

  9. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Coronaviridae, pathogenetic and clinical aspects: an update.

    Möstl, K

    1990-01-01

    A review is given about pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the well-known as well as of recently detected members of the family Coronaviridae. Special attention is paid to coronavirus infections of domestic cattle and pets, whereas avian, murine, rat and human coronaviruses are summarized briefly. PMID:1963836

  11. Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image

  12. Genetic and pathologic aspects of retinoic acid-induced limb malformations in the mouse

    Lee, Grace S.; Liao, Xiaoyan; Shimizu, Hirohito; Collins, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Because all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is teratogenic in all species tested and many of the specific defects induced are common across the phylogenetic spectrum, it would be logical to predict that murine strain differences in teratology to this agent are minimal. However, for specific defects, strain susceptibilities are vastly different. Studies with atRA have shown stark differences between C57BL/6 and SWV mouse strains in susceptibility to postaxial forelimb ectrodactyly and ectopic hindl...

  13. New aspects of the X-ray pathology of rheumatoid arthritis

    Intraosseal pseudocyst(s) were observed in 16 cases out of 205 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. The pseudocysts were localized most frequently in the bones of the proximal joints of the hands; their occurence in the tarsal bones was extremely rare. All cases exhibited positive rheumatoid factor. On the basis of the radio-morphological characteristics demonstrated on the radiograms the term ''poliarthritis chronica progressiva granularis-pseudocystica'' is suggested for this special form of rheumatoid arthritis. (L.E.)

  14. The epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: insights into physiological and pathological aspects of oral tissues

    Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh; Thaon Jon Jones

    2014-01-01

    In the human biological system, the individual cells divide and form tissues and organs. These tissues are hetero-cellular. Basically any tissue consists of an epithelium and the connective tissue. The latter contains mainly mesenchymally-derived tissues with a diversified cell population. The cell continues to grow and differentiate in a pre-programmed manner using a messenger system. The epithelium and the mesenchymal portion of each tissue have two different origins and perform specific fu...

  15. Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog

    B.D.C. Martins; B.B.J. Torres; A.A.M. Rodriguez; C.O. Gamba; Cassali, G.D.; G.E. Lavalle; G.D.C. Martins; E.G. Melo

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were ...

  16. Clinical and pathological aspects of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in sheep

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an outbreak of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in grazing sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, causing the death of 10 out of 860 adult sheep. Eight sick ewes were euthanized and necropsied. Cattle from this farm were also affected. Clinical signs included progressive weight loss, apathy and photosensitization. Four out of seven tested sheep had increased gamma-glutamyl transferase serum activity and two of them presented serum elevation of alkaline phosphatase. At necropsy, three out of eight ewes presented slightly irregular toughened livers with multifocal nodules, two out of eight ewes had a whitish liver with thickened fibrotic Glisson's capsule partially adhered to the diaphragm, and three out of eight ewes had smooth and grossly normal livers. Necropsy findings attributed to liver failure included hydropericardium (7/8, ascites (5/8, icterus (2/8, hydrothorax (1/8, and edema of mesentery (1/8. The main hepatic histological findings that allowed the establishment of the diagnosis were megalocytosis, proliferation of bile ducts and fibrosis. Spongy degeneration was observed in the brains of all eight necropsied sheep and was more severe at the cerebellar peduncles, mesencephalon, thalamus, and pons. These are suggested as the portions of election to investigate microscopic lesions of hepatic encephalopathy in sheep with chronic seneciosis. The diagnosis of Senecio spp. poisoning was based on epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory data, necropsy and histological findings.

  17. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology for Dental Hygienists.

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for structuring a pathology curriculum for dental hygienists include: definition of the field and its subfields; relationships with other fields; primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives; and suggestions for sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational safety. (MSE)

  18. The plant pathology of native plant restoration

    Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...

  19. MR-pathologic correlation of lung specimens

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new MR-pathologic correlation method utilizing a high-resolution MR technique with a 3-inch surface coil and elimination of susceptibility by replacing air in the pulmonary alveoli of lung specimens with water. Inflated cadaver lung specimens of various lung disorders were imaged using a conventional spin echo (SE) sequence in a clinical 1.5T MR scanner. The MR images were correlated with pathologic specimens. In six out of seven specimens, MR revealed detailed images corresponding to pathological changes. MR may provide a non-invasive and non-destructive method for examining lung specimens and for image-pathologic correlation

  20. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  1. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  2. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. PMID:25013083

  3. Clowns Benefit Children Hospitalized for Respiratory Pathologies

    Giuseppe Curcio; Elena Isola; Giuseppe Paolone; Mario Bertini

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children t...

  4. The interpersonal core of personality pathology

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptio...

  5. Widespread cytoskeletal pathology characterizes corticobasal degeneration.

    Feany, M B; Dickson, D W

    1995-01-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare, progressive neurological disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial pathology. Using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that the nonamyloid cortical plaques of CBD are actually collections of abnormal tau in the distal processes of astrocytes. These glial cells express both vimentin and CD44, markers of astrocyte activation. Glial pathology also includes tau-positive cytoplasmic inclusions, here localized ...

  6. Congenital pseudarthrosis of clavicle, differential diagnosis pathology

    The congenital pseudarthrosis of clavicle is a rare entity, frequently appearing without association to other pathologies and does not cause important limitations in the children. It can confuse with other traumatic pathologies like clavicle fracture. Most of the patients complain about the aesthetics and few times for pain. The treatment is generally surgical there is controversy about of carrying out surgery. We reported two clinical cases with pseudoarthrosis of the right clavicle that they received surgical treatment with satisfactory results.

  7. Recent experimental data

    Recent experimental data were reviewed for the neutron reaction cross sections of fission products. Some of our recent results on keV-neutron capture cross sections were compared with other experiments and the quality of recent experimental data was discussed. (author)

  8. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    Rune Erichsen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rune Erichsen1, Timothy L Lash1, Stephen J Hamilton-Dutoit2, Beth Bjerregaard3, Mogens Vyberg2,4, Lars Pedersen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Institute of Pathology, 4Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Pathology and the Pathology Data Bank, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB. The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens.Keywords: cohort profile, epidemiology, paraffin blocks, pathology

  9. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  10. Myelomeningocele: neglected aspects

    Woodhouse, Christopher R J

    2008-01-01

    The commonest cause of neurogenic bladder in children is myelomeningocele. Survival of children is much improved in the Western world, but by 35 years old, about 50% will have died. In adults, the commonest causes of death are lung and heart diseases. All physical aspects deteriorate with age, especially in those with thoracic lesions. Those who walk in childhood have a 20–50% chance of becoming wheelchair dependent as adults. Immobility, poor respiratory reserve, obesity, latex allergy and w...

  11. Prostate Cancer: All Aspects

    Ahmet Tefekli; Murat Tunc; Volkan Tugcu; Tarık Esen

    2013-01-01

    Hindawi Publishing Corporation The ScientificWorld Journal Volume 2013, Article ID 265234, 2 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/265234 Editorial Prostate Cancer: All Aspects Ahmet Tefekli,1 Murat Tunc,2 Volkan Tugcu,3 and TarJk Esen4 1 Bahcesehir School of Medicine, 34353 Istanbul, Turkey 2 Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34340 Istanbul, Turkey 3Department of Urology, Bakırkoy Training and Research Hospital, 34360 Istanbul, Turkey 4 Koc Univer...

  12. Electrochemical kinetics theoretical aspects

    Vetter, Klaus J

    1967-01-01

    Electrochemical Kinetics: Theoretical Aspects focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations in electrochemical kinetics. The book first offers information on electrochemical thermodynamics and the theory of overvoltage. Topics include equilibrium potentials, concepts and definitions, electrical double layer and electrocapillarity, and charge-transfer, diffusion, and reaction overvoltage. Crystallization overvoltage, total overvoltage, and resistance polarization are also discussed. The text then examines the methods of determining electrochemical reaction mechanisms

  13. Aspects of multimetric gravity

    We present a class of gravity theories containing N ≥ 2 metric tensors and a corresponding number of standard model copies. In the Newtonian limit gravity is attractive within each standard model copy, but different standard model copies mutually repel each other. We discuss several aspects of these multimetric gravity theories, including cosmology, structure formation, the post-Newtonian limit and gravitational waves. The most interesting feature we find is an accelerating expansion of the universe that naturally becomes small at late times.

  14. Aspects of B physics

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  15. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  16. [Seventy years of the Great October Socialist Revolution and the development of Soviet pathology].

    Smol'iannikov, A V; Shtern, R D; Khmel'nitskiĭ, O K; Paukov, V S; Perov, Iu L

    1987-01-01

    In reviewing briefly the changes that have taken place during the past decade (1977-86) in the theory and practice of pathology and, in the theory and practice of pathology and, more particularly, in the Pathology Service within the overall Soviet Health care system, it should be noted first of all that this period has been productive with regard to both the practical work of the pathology departments in hospitals and the research activities of scientific institutions. Pathology is gaining importance as a basic biomedical discipline. Considerable successes have been scored in fundamental research not only by the central scientific institutions but also by laboratories for morphologic research and departments of pathology at educational establishments in most of the Union Republics. Many of such laboratories and departments are well equipped and conduct work at a high technological and methodological level in areas of high priority. The number of interdisciplinary research projects has increased. A series of monographs has been published, devoted to various aspects of methodology on medicine, to the relationship between form and function, or to a critique of erroneous theories. Scientific cooperation with pathologists of other Socialist countries has been expanding, as has the participation of Soviet pathologists at international congresses, symposia, and other meetings. An important achievement has been the establishment of a network of pathology departments of hospitals and of pathologic service bureaus. There is little doubt that these bureaus which have so far been set up on a pilot basis, will become an important component of the Pathology Service on which this will rely for research progress and for keeping abreast of technological developments. They are also called upon to promote better services in rural areas. The construction of new buildings for hospital pathology departments has been expanded, but the rate and magnitude of this activity cannot yet be

  17. Tau Mislocation in Glucocorticoid-Triggered Hippocampal Pathology.

    Pinheiro, Sara; Silva, Joana; Mota, Cristina; Vaz-Silva, João; Veloso, Ana; Pinto, Vítor; Sousa, Nuno; Cerqueira, João; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-09-01

    The exposure to high glucocorticoids (GC) triggers neuronal atrophy and cognitive deficits, but the exact cellular mechanisms underlying the GC-associated dendritic remodeling and spine loss are still poorly understood. Previous studies have implicated sustained GC elevations in neurodegenerative mechanisms through GC-evoked hyperphosphorylation of the cytoskeletal protein Tau while Tau mislocation has recently been proposed as relevant in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. In light of the dual cytoplasmic and synaptic role of Tau, this study monitored the impact of prolonged GC treatment on Tau intracellular localization and its phosphorylation status in different cellular compartments. We demonstrate, both by biochemical and ultrastructural analysis, that GC administration led to cytosolic and dendritic Tau accumulation in rat hippocampus, and triggered Tau hyperphosphorylation in epitopes related to its malfunction (Ser396/404) and cytoskeletal pathology (e.g., Thr231 and Ser262). In addition, we show, for the first time, that chronic GC administration also increased Tau levels in synaptic compartment; however, at the synapse, there was an increase in phosphorylation of Ser396/404, but a decrease of Thr231. These GC-triggered Tau changes were paralleled by reduced levels of synaptic scaffolding proteins such as PSD-95 and Shank proteins as well as reduced dendritic branching and spine loss. These in vivo findings add to our limited knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of GC-evoked synaptic atrophy and neuronal disconnection implicating Tau missorting in mechanism(s) of synaptic damage, beyond AD pathology. PMID:26328538

  18. Ubiquilin 2 is not associated with tau pathology.

    Anna Nölle

    Full Text Available Accumulation of aberrant proteins in inclusion bodies is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Impairment of proteolytic systems is a common event in these protein misfolding diseases. Recently, mutations in the UBQLN 2 gene encoding ubiquilin 2 have been identified in X-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Furthermore, ubiquilin 2 is associated with inclusions in familial and sporadic ALS/dementia, synucleinopathies and polyglutamine diseases. Ubiquilin 2 exerts a regulatory role in proteostasis and thus it has been suggested that ubiquilin 2 pathology may be a common event in neurodegenerative diseases. Tauopathies, a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative diseases accompanied with dementia, are characterized by inclusions of the microtubule-binding protein tau. In the present study, we investigate whether ubiquilin 2 is connected with tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD, supranuclear palsy (PSP and Pick's disease (PiD and familial cases with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17. We show that ubiquilin 2 positive inclusions are absent in these tauopathies. Furthermore, we find decreased ubiquilin 2 protein levels in AD patients, but our results do not indicate a correlation with tau pathology. Our data show no evidence for involvement of ubiquilin 2 and indicate that other mechanisms underly the proteostatic disturbances in tauopathies.

  19. Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view

    Kemal KÖSEMEHMETOĞLU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In many recent studies in the literature have described and commented on “competency based resident training” in pathology. According to this model, competencies are subclassified in 6 main categories: Patient care, medical knowledge, practice based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems based practice. Assessment of competency forms the main component of this model.Under the framework of Ankara Society of Pathology, a working group, composed of 11 residents, 6 of which representing the Training and Research Hospitals of Ministry of Health and the rest representing the university hospitals in Ankara, was established in order to participate in the think-tank about resident training in pathology. A questionnaire, composed of 12 questions, was prepared. According to this questionnaire, the number of trainers in the university hospitals is much higher than in the commercial hospitals. While the total number of cases and cases per resident do not differ between the university and commercial hospitals, microscopes used for the educational purposes are significantly less in the commercial hospitals, that is due to less number of binocular microscopes. The amount of resident training program, which consists of intra and intersectional meetings, are similar in the university and commercial hospitals, however, theoretic lectures are given only in 3 departments. Residents working in the university hospitals have obviously heavier burden than in the commercial hospitals. Lastly, residents generally exclaimed that the time dedicated to the macroscopy training is less sufficient than time used for the microscopy training.The factors affecting the training of resident in pathology are divided into two main groups: 1 Factors directly affecting training (quality of trainer, time dedicated for education, feed back, eg. and 2 Conditions which waste residents' time. For instant, workload which does need

  20. Posttranslational modifications of lysine and evolving role in heart pathologies - Recent developments

    Šťastná, M. (Miroslava); Van Eyk, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the PTMs that occur on lysine, specifically neddylation and sumoylation, and the proteomic approaches that can be applied for identification and quantification. Of interest are the emerging roles for these modifications in heart disease and what can be inferred from studies in other cell types and organs.

  1. Pathologic Cellular Events in Smoking-Related Pancreatitis

    Pancreatitis, a debilitating inflammatory disorder, results from pancreatic injury. Alcohol abuse is the foremost cause, although cigarette smoking has recently surfaced as a distinct risk factor. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke and its toxins initiate pathological cellular events leading to pancreatitis, have not been clearly defined. Although cigarette smoke is composed of more than 4000 compounds, it is mainly nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which have been extensively studied with respect to pancreatic diseases. This review summarizes these research findings and highlights cellular pathways which may be of relevance in initiation and progression of smoking-related pancreatitis

  2. Pathologic Cellular Events in Smoking-Related Pancreatitis

    Thrower, Edwin [Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Pancreatitis, a debilitating inflammatory disorder, results from pancreatic injury. Alcohol abuse is the foremost cause, although cigarette smoking has recently surfaced as a distinct risk factor. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke and its toxins initiate pathological cellular events leading to pancreatitis, have not been clearly defined. Although cigarette smoke is composed of more than 4000 compounds, it is mainly nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which have been extensively studied with respect to pancreatic diseases. This review summarizes these research findings and highlights cellular pathways which may be of relevance in initiation and progression of smoking-related pancreatitis.

  3. Sphingolipid mediators in cardiovascular cell biology and pathology.

    Levade, T; Augé, N; Veldman, R J; Cuvillier, O; Nègre-Salvayre, A; Salvayre, R

    2001-11-23

    Sphingolipids have emerged as a new class of lipid mediators. In response to various extracellular stimuli, sphingolipid turnover can be stimulated in vascular cells and cardiac myocytes. Subsequent generation of sphingolipid molecules such as ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, is followed by regulation of ion fluxes and activation of various signaling pathways leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation, endothelial cell differentiation or apoptotic cell death, cell contraction, retraction, or migration. The importance of sphingolipids in cardiovascular signaling is illustrated by recent observations implicating them in physiological processes such as vasculogenesis as well as in frequent pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis and its complications. PMID:11717151

  4. The aging-disease false dichotomy: understanding senescence as pathology.

    Gems, David

    2015-01-01

    From a biological perspective aging (senescence) appears to be a form of complex disease syndrome, though this is not the traditional view. This essay aims to foster a realistic understanding of aging by scrutinizing ideas old and new. The conceptual division between aging-related diseases and an underlying, non-pathological aging process underpins various erroneous traditional ideas about aging. Among biogerontologists, another likely error involves the aspiration to treat the entire aging process, which recent advances suggest is somewhat utopian. It also risks neglecting a more modest but realizable goal: to develop preventative treatments that partially protect against aging. PMID:26136770

  5. 30 years of lymph node pathology: biomarkers and other advances.

    Ramsay, Alan D

    2013-03-01

    Over the last 30 years there has been a massive change in both the clinical and pathologic aspects of malignant lymphomas. Pathologists are now able to evaluate cellular phenotypes and lineages of tumor cells using a wide variety of biomarkers and molecular techniques. The ability to identify tumor cell phenotypes has revolutionized the classification of lymphomas, leading to an internationally agreed system based on the reliable recognition of specific clinico-pathologic entities. The World Health Organization classification combines clinical features, histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular and genetic marker data to precisely categorize lymphomas. On the clinical front the increasing use of needle core biopsies has made it easier and quicker to obtain tissue samples, and the development of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has revolutionized the assessment of patients both at presentation and after treatment. To improve overall outcomes for lymphoma patients there have been advances in the UK organization of cancer services. Cancer networks have been established, often with network multidisciplinary team meetings, and new diagnoses of lymphoma are reviewed on a network basis by pathologists specializing in the field. National and supranational quality control systems are in place for immunohistochemistry and for molecular techniques and multicenter clinical trials provide information about the efficacy of treatment regimens. The outcome of these advances is that a patient presenting in 2012 with suspected lymphoma can expect to be biopsied rapidly, to receive an accurate pathologic diagnosis by an expert hematopathologist, which will include prognostic marker information, and to have comprehensive disease assessment and discussion by a multidisciplinary team before embarking on the most appropriate treatment for his or her clinical situation. PMID:23417072

  6. The Role of Decidual Macrophages During Normal and Pathological Pregnancy.

    Ning, Fen; Liu, Huishu; Lash, Gendie E

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages perform many specific functions including host defense, homeostasis, angiogenesis, and tissue development. Macrophages are the second most abundant leukocyte population in the non-pregnant endometrium and pregnant decidua and likely play a central role in the establishment and maintenance of normal pregnancy. Importantly, aberrantly activated uterine macrophages can affect trophoblast function and placental development, which may result in various adverse pregnancy outcomes ranging from pre-eclampsia to fetal growth restriction or demise. Only by fully understanding the roles of macrophage in pregnancy will we be able to develop interventions for the treatment of these various pregnancy complications. This review discusses the general origin and classification of monocytes and macrophages and focuses on the phenotype and functional roles of decidual macrophage at the maternal-fetal interface in normal pregnancy, as well as discussing the potential contribution of the abnormal state of these cells to various aspects of pregnancy pathologies. PMID:26750089

  7. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: HRCT, MR, and pathologic findings

    Laurent, F.; Philippe, J.C. [Department of Medical Imaging, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Bordeaux (France); Vergier, B. [Department of Pathology, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Granger-Veron, B.; Darpeix, B.; Vergeret, J.; Blanc, P. [Department of Pneumology, University of Bordeaux, F-33000 Bordeaux (France); Velly, J.F. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Bordeaux, F-33000 Bordeaux (France)

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe high-resolution CT (HRCT) and MR findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings. A retrospective review of the medical records of our institution revealed seven patients with a diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia based on clinical data, chest films, bronchoalveolar lavage, and follow-up. Both HRCT and MR imaging were reviewed by two readers. Pathologic examination of the resected specimen or surgical biopsies were also reviewed in the four available cases. The HRCT findings were pulmonary consolidations (n = 6) with fatty (n = 3) or unspecific but low attenuation values (n = 3), areas of ground-glass opacities (n = 5), septal lines, and centrilobular interstitial thickening (n = 5). In five of the seven cases, a crazy-paving pattern of various spread was also present, either isolated (n = 1) or surrounding a pulmonary consolidation. In two cases traction bronchiectasis and cystic changes consistent with fibrosis were seen. At MR imaging (n = 2) a pulmonary consolidation of high signal intensity on T1-weighted image consistent with lipid content was present in one case. Pathologic examination (n = 4) showed the coexistence of lobules with lesions of various ages, sometimes in contiguous lobules, within the same patient. Recent lesions were those with alveolar fill-in by spumous macrophages and almost normal alveolar walls and septae. In more advanced lesions, lobules were filled in with larger vacuoles often surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates of alveolar walls, bronchiolar walls, and septa. The oldest lesions were characterized by fibrosis and parenchymal distortion around large lipid-containing vacuoles. The HRCT findings reflect pathologic findings in exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Although non-specific, consolidation areas of low attenuation values and crazy-paving pattern are frequently associated in exogenous lipoid pneumonia and are indicative of the diagnosis. (orig.) With 3 figs

  8. Rare non-epithelial ovarian neoplasms: Pathology, genetics and treatment.

    Foulkes, William D; Gore, Martin; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Rare non-epithelial ovarian neoplasms have posed management challenges for many years. Their rarity means that most specialist practitioners will see one such case every several years, and most generalists may never see a case. The first step in management is to establish the correct diagnosis and this may necessitate specialist pathology review. Here, we review recent developments in the pathology, genetics and treatment of small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) and sex cord-stromal tumours. Pathologically, these tumours often display morphological overlap with other neoplasms; for example, SCCOHT overlaps with many other "small round blue cell" tumours. Specific immunohistochemical stains, while useful, may not always be definitive. The discovery of somatic mutations in FOXL2 (adult granulosa cell tumours) and germline and somatic mutations in DICER1 (Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours) and SMARCA4 (SCCOHT) has demonstrated the value of molecular investigation as an adjunct to traditional histopathological approaches. In addition, the presence of germline mutations in a significant proportion of some of these neoplasms points to the need for genetic counselling and testing, offering the prospect of prevention and early diagnosis. Treatment of these rare tumours, as a group, should be on the basis of sound oncological principles, given that level 1 evidence will almost always be lacking. The rationale for experimental therapies must be clearly established. In view of the complex issues involved in the management of these conditions, expert opinion in pathology, genetics and treatment may be essential to offer the patient and her family the best chance of a good outcome. PMID:27079213

  9. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: HRCT, MR, and pathologic findings

    The objective of this study was to describe high-resolution CT (HRCT) and MR findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings. A retrospective review of the medical records of our institution revealed seven patients with a diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia based on clinical data, chest films, bronchoalveolar lavage, and follow-up. Both HRCT and MR imaging were reviewed by two readers. Pathologic examination of the resected specimen or surgical biopsies were also reviewed in the four available cases. The HRCT findings were pulmonary consolidations (n = 6) with fatty (n = 3) or unspecific but low attenuation values (n = 3), areas of ground-glass opacities (n = 5), septal lines, and centrilobular interstitial thickening (n = 5). In five of the seven cases, a crazy-paving pattern of various spread was also present, either isolated (n = 1) or surrounding a pulmonary consolidation. In two cases traction bronchiectasis and cystic changes consistent with fibrosis were seen. At MR imaging (n = 2) a pulmonary consolidation of high signal intensity on T1-weighted image consistent with lipid content was present in one case. Pathologic examination (n = 4) showed the coexistence of lobules with lesions of various ages, sometimes in contiguous lobules, within the same patient. Recent lesions were those with alveolar fill-in by spumous macrophages and almost normal alveolar walls and septae. In more advanced lesions, lobules were filled in with larger vacuoles often surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates of alveolar walls, bronchiolar walls, and septa. The oldest lesions were characterized by fibrosis and parenchymal distortion around large lipid-containing vacuoles. The HRCT findings reflect pathologic findings in exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Although non-specific, consolidation areas of low attenuation values and crazy-paving pattern are frequently associated in exogenous lipoid pneumonia and are indicative of the diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects

    Maria Giulia Battelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes.

  11. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects.

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes. PMID:26823950

  12. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Oscar DĂŠniz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  13. AspectJ in action practical aspect-oriented programming

    Laddad, Ramnivas

    2003-01-01

    A guide to aspect-oriented programming and the AspectJ language, this book provides code examples that enable quick implementation of functionality in a system. Thorough introductions to AOP and AspectJ will help developers learn or advance their knowledge of AspectJ. Examples of everyday situations in which AspectJ solutions can be applied, such as logging, policy enforcement, resource pooling, business logic, thread-safety, authentication and authorization, and transaction management are provided. In addition, design patterns and idioms are covered, as is business rule implementation. The latest technologies, such as JEES, JAAS, and log4j, are explained and connected with AspectJ.

  14. Study Progress on the Physiological and Pathological Factors that Affecting the Pulmonary Function%影响肺功能的主要生理及病理因素研究进展

    胡安美; 蔡珊

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there are more and more original studies about physiological and pathological aspects that affect pulmonary function in the literature. The research found that the pulmonary function is not only affected by smoking, air pollution and other environmental factors , but also has great relationship with physiological factors such as age , gender, weight,body mass index ( BMI ), waist circumference, etc. What's more, the pulmonary function is also associated with many pathological factors such as hlood sugar, cholesterol, hypertension, CRP, fibrinogen, adhesion molecules in plasma and so on. It is valuable to pay more attention to the physiological and pathological aspects of the patients to get better therapeutic effect for clinical doctors. The purpose of this review is to summary literature to update main proceedings of physiological and pathological factors that affect pulmonary function.%近年来有关影响肺功能的生理、病理因素方面的研究越来越多.肺功能除了受吸烟、粉尘、烟雾等环境因素影响外,还受多种生理及病理因素的影响,主要包括性别、年龄、体质量、体质指数、腰围等生理因素以及血压、血糖、血脂、高血压、急性期反应蛋白、纤维蛋白原、血浆黏附分子等病理因素的影响.了解肺功能的影响因素能为临床医生诊断和治疗疾病能提供重要的参考价值.本文就影响肺功能的生理、病理因素的研究进展进行总结.

  15. NASAL cytology: practical aspects and clinical relevance.

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Quaranta, N; Landi, M; Passalacqua, G

    2016-06-01

    Nasal cytology is a simple and safe diagnostic procedure that allows to assess the normal and pathological aspects of the nasal mucosa, by identifying and counting the cell types and their morphology. It can be easily performed by a nasal scraping followed by May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining and optical microscopy reading. This procedure allows to identify the normal cells (ciliated and mucinous), the inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells), bacteria, or fungal hyphae/spores. Apart from the normal cell population, some specific cytological patterns can be of help in discriminating among various diseases. Viral infections, allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis and overlapping forms can be easily identified. According to the predominant cell type, various entities can be defined (named as NARES, NARESMA, NARMA). This implies a more detailed knowledge and assessment of the disease that can integrate the standard diagnostic procedures. Nasal cytology also represents a useful research tool for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27009397

  16. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process. PMID:7429737

  17. Clinical and tomographic aspects of macular microholes

    Purpose: To describe the clinical aspects and evaluate optical coherence tomography of macular microholes. Methods: Seven patients were assessed (8 eyes) with microholes of the macula. All patients underwent complete eye examination, fundus photography, fluorescent angiography and OCT-3 imaging. Results: Ages ranged from 26 to 69 years. Six patients were female (85.7%) and five of them had microhole in the right eye. The presenting symptom was decrease in visual acuity (71.3%) and central scotoma in (14.3%). Five eyes (71.4%) had no defects shown by fluorescent angiography. A defect in the outer retina was demonstrated in all eyes on optical coherence tomography. The lesions were nonprogressive. Conclusion: Macular microholes are small lamellar defects in the outer retina. The condition is nonprogressive, generally unilateral and compatible with good visual acuity. Fundus biomicroscopy associated with an optical coherence tomography are the main elements in the diagnosis and study of this pathology. (author)

  18. Recent advances in understanding psoriasis

    Eberle, Franziska C.; Brück, Jürgen; Holstein, Julia; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Ghoreschi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    T helper (Th) cells producing interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) form the key T cell population driving psoriasis pathogenesis. They orchestrate the inflammation in the skin that results in the proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells. Besides Th17 cells, other immune cells that are capable of producing IL-17-associated cytokines participate in psoriatic inflammation. Recent advances in psoriasis research improved our understanding of the cellular and molecular players that are involved in Th17 pathology and inflammatory pathways in the skin. The inflammation-driving actions of TNF in psoriasis are already well known and antibodies against TNF are successful in the treatment of Th17-mediated psoriatic skin inflammation. A further key cytokine with potent IL-17-/IL-22-promoting properties is IL-23. Therapeutics directly neutralizing IL-23 or IL-17 itself are now extending the therapeutic spectrum of antipsoriatic agents and further developments are on the way. The enormous progress in psoriasis research allows us to control this Th17-mediated inflammatory skin disease in many patients.

  19. Recent advances in coronal heating

    De Moortel, Ineke

    2015-01-01

    The solar corona, the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, is orders of magnitude hotter than the solar surface. This 'coronal heating problem' requires the identification of a heat source to balance losses due to thermal conduction, radiation and (in some locations) convection. The review papers in this Theo Murphy meeting issue present an overview of recent observational findings, large- and small-scale numerical modelling of physical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere and other aspects which may affect our understanding of the proposed heating mechanisms. At the same time, they also set out the directions and challenges which must be tackled by future research. In this brief introduction, we summarize some of the issues and themes which reoccur throughout this issue.

  20. Recent Advances in Contextuality Tests

    Thompson, Jayne; Kurzyński, Paweł; Lee, Su-Yong; Soeda, Akihito; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2016-07-01

    Our everyday experiences support the hypothesis that physical systems exist independently of the act of observation. Concordant theories are characterized by the objective realism assumption whereby the act of measurement simply reveals preexisting well-defined elements of reality. In stark contrast quantum mechanics portrays a world in which reality loses its objectivity and is in fact created by observation. Quantum contextuality as first discovered by Bell [1] and Kochen-Specker [2] captures aspects of this philosophical clash between classical and quantum descriptions of the world. Here we briefly summarize some of the more recent advances in the field of quantum contextuality. We approach quantum contextuality through its close relation to Bell type nonlocal scenarios and highlight some of the rapidly developing tests and experimental implementations.

  1. Recent advances in mycotoxins detection.

    Chauhan, Ruchika; Singh, Jay; Sachdev, Tushar; Basu, T; Malhotra, B D

    2016-07-15

    Mycotoxins contamination in both food and feed is inevitable. Mycotoxin toxicity in foodstuff can occur at very low concentrations necessitating early availability of sensitive and reliable methods for their detection. The present research thrust is towards the development of a user friendly biosensor for mycotoxin detection at both academic and industrial levels to replace conventional expensive chromatographic and ELISA techniques. This review critically analyzes the recent research trend towards the construction of immunosensor, aptasensor, enzymatic sensors and others for mycotoxin detection with a reference to label and label free methods, synthesis of new materials including nano dimension, and transuding techniques. Technological aspects in the development of biosensors for mycotoxin detection, current challenges and future prospects are also included to provide a overview and suggestions for future research directions. PMID:27019032

  2. Recent English Loanwords in Slovene

    Nada Šabec

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Slovene-English language contact in general and English loanwords in Slovene in particular. The focus is on recent loanwords, where a great deal of variability in their pronunciation and spelling can be observed depending on the time of their borrowing, the channel of transmission (oral or written and the degree of their linguistic and social integration into Slovene. Sociolinguistic variables such as the age and education of the users play a role as well, as do the differences between the phonological and orthographic systems of the two languages. In addition to phonological, morphological and orthographic aspects of English loanwords, their meaning and its occasional adaptations and modifications will be addressed. Data for illustration purposes will be taken primarily from the media, especially electronic ones (blogs, forums, since this is the field in which various forms of loanwords feature most frequently.

  3. Strategic Aspects of Bundling

    The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)

  4. Aspects de la classification

    Mari, Jean-François; Napoli, Amedeo

    1996-01-01

    Les techniques de classification numérique ont toujours été présentes en reconnaissance des formes. Les réseaux de neurones montrent chaque jour leurs (très ?) bonnes propriétés de classification, et la classification se fait de plus en plus présente en représentation des connaissances. Ainsi, ce rapport présente, simplement dans un but introductif, les aspects mathématiques, statistiques, neuromimétiques et cognitifs de la classification.

  5. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton;

    2010-01-01

    epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of......Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective...... epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens...

  6. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation is characterised by neuronal lysosomal storage pathology

    Clayton, Emma L.; Mizielinska, Sarah; Edgar, James R.;

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We report that mice which express FTD-causative mutant CHMP2B at physiological levels develop a novel lysosomal storage pathology characterised by large neuronal autofluorescent aggregates. The...... human CHMP2B mutation brain than in neurodegenerative disease or age-matched control brains. These data suggest that lysosomal storage pathology is the major neuronal pathology in FTD caused by CHMP2B mutation. Recent evidence suggests that two other genes associated with FTD, GRN and TMEM106B are...... important for lysosomal function. Our identification of lysosomal storage pathology in FTD caused by CHMP2B mutation now provides evidence that endolysosomal dysfunction is a major degenerative pathway in FTD....

  7. Applying aspects to a real-time embedded operating system

    Afonso, Francisco; Silva, Carlos A.; Montenegro, Sérgio; Tavares, Adriano

    2007-01-01

    The application of aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to the embedded operating system domain is still a very controversial topic, as this area demands high performance and small memory footprint. However, recent studies quantifying aspects overheads in AspectC++ show that the resource cost is very low. Therefore, operating system development may benefit with the modularization of crosscutting concerns and system specialization offered by AOP. This paper addresses our experience in applying...

  8. [Memory: clinico-pathologic data].

    Duyckaerts, C; Suarez, S; Hauw, J J

    1998-01-01

    function (some types of aphasia may be considered as an amnesia of words). Subcortical amnesias are caused by diencephalic lesions; the topography of the critical structures is still discussed: mamillary bodies and mamillo-thalamic tract or dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus. The amygdaloid nucleus, the frontal lobe and the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus belong to a network of connections that could be involved in emotions. It could be responsible for the emotional flavor of a memory. Basal ganglia could play a role in procedural memory, but experimental or clinicopathological confirmations are still scarce. Finally, the involvement of the cholinergic innervation in the memory processes has been discussed: it could be direct, or according to more recent data, related to its role in attention. PMID:9834541

  9. Pathology informatics fellowship retreats: The use of interactive scenarios and case studies as pathology informatics teaching tools

    Roy E Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Last year, our pathology informatics fellowship added informatics-based interactive case studies to its existing educational platform of operational and research rotations, clinical conferences, a common core curriculum with an accompanying didactic course, and national meetings. Methods: The structure of the informatics case studies was based on the traditional business school case study format. Three different formats were used, varying in length from short, 15-minute scenarios to more formal multiple hour-long case studies. Case studies were presented over the course of three retreats (Fall 2011, Winter 2012, and Spring 2012 and involved both local and visiting faculty and fellows. Results: Both faculty and fellows found the case studies and the retreats educational, valuable, and enjoyable. From this positive feedback, we plan to incorporate the retreats in future academic years as an educational component of our fellowship program. Conclusions: Interactive case studies appear to be valuable in teaching several aspects of pathology informatics that are difficult to teach in more traditional venues (rotations and didactic class sessions. Case studies have become an important component of our fellowship′s educational platform.

  10. The present status of the use of isotopes and radiation in plant pathology

    In this paper it is not possible to cover the entire work done in plant pathology by means of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, it is possible to give a general survey of the methods used and the results obtained, citing some of the results obtained in the more important aspects of plant pathology such as - the effect of the various radiations upon pathogenic agents; the effect of the various radiations upon the host plant; some problems of the physiology of pathogenic micro-organisms studied with tracers; some problems of the physiology of the host plant studied with tracers; the use of radioactive isotopes in problems of different methods and techniques of diseases control in plants; and a few aspects of the use of nuclear energy connected with problems of preserving products of vegetable origin. 168 refs

  11. Recent advances in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Perkins KJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly J Perkins,1,2 Kay E Davies21Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, 2MRC Functional Genomics Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKAbstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, an allelic X-linked progressive muscle-wasting disease, is one of the most common single-gene disorders in the developed world. Despite knowledge of the underlying genetic causation and resultant pathophysiology from lack of dystrophin protein at the muscle sarcolemma, clinical intervention is currently restricted to symptom management. In recent years, however, unprecedented advances in strategies devised to correct the primary defect through gene- and cell-based therapeutics hold particular promise for treating dystrophic muscle. Conventional gene replacement and endogenous modification strategies have greatly benefited from continued improvements in encapsidation capacity, transduction efficiency, and systemic delivery. In particular, RNA-based modifying approaches such as exon skipping enable expression of a shorter but functional dystrophin protein and rapid progress toward clinical application. Emerging combined gene- and cell-therapy strategies also illustrate particular promise in enabling ex vivo genetic correction and autologous transplantation to circumvent a number of immune challenges. These approaches are complemented by a vast array of pharmacological approaches, in particular the successful identification of molecules that enable functional replacement or ameliorate secondary DMD pathology. Animal models have been instrumental in providing proof of principle for many of these strategies, leading to several recent trials that have investigated their efficacy in DMD patients. Although none has reached the point of clinical use, rapid improvements in experimental technology and design draw this goal ever closer. Here, we review therapeutic approaches to DMD, with particular emphasis on recent progress in strategic development, preclinical evaluation and

  12. Recent additions in the treatment of cough

    Gibson, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, cough is regarded as a challenging clinical problem due to its frequency and often limited therapeutic options. Chronic cough that remains refractory to usual medical treatment causes significant quality of life impairment in people with this problem. Methods We have examined current evidence on recent additions in the treatment of cough, specifically treatment of refractory chronic cough with speech pathology and gabapentin. Relevant randomised control trials, reviews and case reports were identified through a PubMed and SCOPUS search of English-language literature referring to these concepts over the last eight years. Summary Of the one hundred and two articles comprising this review the majority investigated the role of the transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1 in cough and the potential of TRP antagonists as effective anti-tussives. However, these have only been tested in the laboratory and therefore their clinical effectiveness is unknown. Behavioural treatments such as speech pathology have gained momentum and this was evident in the increasing number of articles investigating its positive effect on cough. Investigation on the effectiveness of neuromodulating medications in the treatment of cough have been supported primarily through case series reports and prospective reviews however; their use (particularly gabapentin) has been significantly advanced through recently conducted randomised controlled trials. Conclusions Recent additions in the treatment of chronic cough have been significant as they consider cough to have a unifying diagnosis of cough hypersensitivity with or without the presence of a neuropathic basis. Primarily, effective treatments for chronic cough target these areas and include behavioural treatment such as speech pathology and pharmaceutical treatment with neuromodulating medications such as gabapentin. PMID:25383209

  13. Energy and social aspects

    In this section, the social aspects of Cuba's energy system are described, based on the accessibility and availability of energy services and the affordability and acceptance of these energy services by the population. Accessibility refers to the existence of modern energy services and supporting infrastructures that allow the population, regardless of income level, place of residence, race, religion, etc., the use of modern fuels. Logistics and the economy determine the amount and kinds of energy and energy services available in each place. Even if energy services are accessible to the population, problems with their availability during particular time periods may exist; thus, this section discusses the problems of availability of modern fuels in Cuba. Affordability relates to the ability of the population to pay for the energy services that are accessible and available. Energy prices should be low enough (without affecting the profitability of the producing companies) to enable everyone's minimum requirements for modern energy services to be satisfied. Acceptability concerns the social and/or environmental problems related to energy chains, ranging from production and use to the disposal of waste generated by energy production. Making an assessment of the acceptability of an energy option is often difficult and sometimes involves many issues, including social, environmental, cultural, economic and religious aspects at local and regional levels

  14. PRAGMATIC ASPECT OF CITATION

    Tatiana Sergeevna SIRENKO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the prag-matic aspect of citation in fictional text from the in-tertextual point of view. The theory of intertextuality was formed in the works of M.Bakhtin and devel-oped by Y. Kristeva after the analysis of the works of post-modern writers. So allusion and citation began to be investigated not from the philology point of view only but from the linguistics as well. The pur-pose of the article is to investigate the pragmatic aspect of citation which includes also the investiga-tion of its pragmatic functions. Different views on the citation classification are also mentioned in the article as it is an actual problem in modern linguis-tics. Novels by British writer J. Fforde are the mate-rial for the investigation article because they pos-sess a big amount of intertextual inclusion in the text in general and citation in particular.

  15. Quantitative QCD: recent results

    We discuss some recent results in the phenomenology of perturbative QCD. Special emphasis is put on the ambiguities of the theoretical predictions and on low they affect the determination of the physical parameters. Recent calculations concerning jet and photon production at large momentum transfer are reviewed and two examples of calculations in the next-to-next to leading logarithm approximation are mentioned. (author)

  16. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  17. Pathological tau disrupts ongoing network activity.

    Menkes-Caspi, Noa; Yamin, Hagar G; Kellner, Vered; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Cohen, Dana; Stern, Edward A

    2015-03-01

    Pathological tau leads to dementia and neurodegeneration in tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. It has been shown to disrupt cellular and synaptic functions, yet its effects on the function of the intact neocortical network remain unknown. Using in vivo intracellular and extracellular recordings, we measured ongoing activity of neocortical pyramidal cells during various arousal states in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy, prior to significant cell death, when only a fraction of the neurons show pathological tau. In transgenic mice, membrane potential oscillations are slower during slow-wave sleep and under anesthesia. Intracellular recordings revealed that these changes are due to longer Down states and state transitions of membrane potentials. Firing rates of transgenic neurons are reduced, and firing patterns within Up states are altered, with longer latencies and inter-spike intervals. By changing the activity patterns of a subpopulation of affected neurons, pathological tau reduces the activity of the neocortical network. PMID:25704951

  18. Investigation of spinal pathology in notalgia paresthetica.

    Savk, Oner; Savk, Ekin

    2005-06-01

    A possible association of spinal pathology with notalgia paresthetica (NP) was investigated through clinical and radiographic evaluation. Forty-three NP patients underwent dermatologic and orthopedic examination accompanied by radiography of the spine. Sixty-one lesions in 43 patients were evaluated. In 34 patients, various vertebral pathologies were observed radiographically by a blinded investigator, and in 28 of these cases these changes were most prominent in the vertebrae which corresponded to a lesional dermatome. Thirty-seven lesions were accompanied by spinal changes decided to be relevant (60.7%). The striking correlation of NP localization with spinal pathology suggests that spinal nerve impingement may contribute to the pathogenesis of this entity. PMID:15928634

  19. Power loss mechanisms in pathological tracheas.

    Bates, A J; Comerford, A; Cetto, R; Schroter, R C; Tolley, N S; Doorly, D J

    2016-07-26

    The effort required to inhale a breath of air is a critically important measure in assessing airway function. Although the contribution of the trachea to the total flow resistance of the airways is generally modest, pathological alterations in tracheal geometry can have a significant negative effect. This study investigates the mechanisms of flow energy loss in a healthy trachea and in four geometries affected by retrosternal goitre which can cause significant distortions of tracheal geometry including constriction and deviation with abnormal curvature. By separating out the component of energy loss related to the wall shear (frictional loss), striking differences are found between the patterns of energy dissipation in the normal and pathological tracheas. Furthermore the ratio of frictional to total loss is dramatically reduced in the pathological geometries. PMID:26686396

  20. [Alcohol and pregnancy: diagnostic aspects and abnormalities in the placental vitamin A pathway].

    Sapin, V

    2008-01-01

    Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy is a reality in France leading to new-born specific clinical signs called "Fetal alcoholic syndrome/FAS" in 1.5 per 1000 births and to common clinical signs grouped into "Fetal Linked to Alcohol Spectrum Disorders" in 5 per 1000 births. Our works presented for the attribution of the SFBC 2007 price talked about two aspects of this public health problem. The first presented the recent evaluation of the alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Auvergne by the realization of the DATAMATER clinical and biological study on more than 800 "mother/baby" couples. We confirmed the reality of such maternal drinking (1.8 FAS per 1000 births) and also the useless of biological tools to help the diagnosis of the clinician where the clinical signs did not clearly belonged to FAS and when the maternal consumption was asked. The second aspect reviewed the placental abnormalities occurring during the FAS, which could explain the intra-uterine growth retardation. To better understand the genesis of such alterations, we proposed a new physio-pathological mechanism. The alcohol could alter the retinol (vitamin A) activation into retinoic acid, a fundamental morphogenic molecule for the optimal development and functions of the placenta. PMID:18957339

  1. Understanding biology by stretching proteins: recent progress.

    Galera-Prat, Albert; Gómez-Sicilia, Angel; Oberhauser, Andres F; Cieplak, Marek; Carrión-Vázquez, Mariano

    2010-02-01

    Single molecule manipulation techniques combined with molecular dynamics simulations and protein engineering have enabled, during the last decade, the mechanical properties of proteins to be studied directly, thereby giving birth to the field of protein nanomechanics. Recent data obtained from such techniques have helped gain insight into the structural bases of protein resistance against forced unfolding, as well as revealing structural motifs involved in mechanical stability. Also, important technical developments have provided new perspectives into protein folding. Eventually, new and exciting data have shown that mechanical properties are key factors in cell signaling and pathologies, and have been used to rationally tune these properties in a variety of proteins. PMID:20138503

  2. Trichinella murrelli: pathological features in human muscles at different delays after infection

    Dupouy-Camet J.; Paugam A.; De Pinieux G.; Lavarde V.; Vieillefond A.

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe the pathological aspects of muscles of three patients infected with Trichinella murrelli. Biopsies were carried out at various intervals. Six weeks after infection, the muscular larvae were not encapsulated whereas encapsulation was seen 10 weeks after infection. Six years after infection, the larvae were still alive in a nurse cell surrounded by a very thick capsule. Fourteen years after infection, cuticular larvae remnants were seen in degenerating nurse cells. The late...

  3. Development of a Model-tracing Intelligent Tutor in Diagnostic Pathology

    Crowley, Rebecca S; Monaco, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    We report on the design and development of an intelligent tutoring system in diagnostic pathology. Based on a cognitive model of skill in this domain, the system provides individualized instruction to students. An underlying production-rule system models diagnostic skills as a set of production-rules and domain knowledge as a set of working-memory elements. The model-tracing aspect of the system guides the student to correctly search a slide, identify relevant evidence, and formulate and test...

  4. Early detection of cryptic memory and glucose uptake deficits in pre-pathological APP mice

    Beglopoulos, V.; Tulloch, J; Roe, A D; Daumas, S.; Ferrington, L; Watson, R; Fan, Z.; Hyman, B. T.; Kelly, P. A. T.; Bard, F; Morris, R G M

    2016-01-01

    International audience Earlier diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease would greatly benefit from the identification of biomarkers at the prodromal stage. Using a prominent animal model of aspects of the disease, we here show using clinically relevant methodologies that very young, pre-pathological PDAPP mice, which overexpress mutant human amyloid precursor protein in the brain, exhibit two cryptic deficits that are normally undetected using standard methods of assessment. Despite ...

  5. Perspectives on low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron

    The advantages of the low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron configuration is discussed from the point of view of plasma confinement. Recent numerical results on the configuration study and the experimental data base are reviewed. (author)

  6. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin;

    2005-01-01

    in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions...... of US pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with...

  7. Pathology-designed custom molded foot orthoses.

    Rosenbloom, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Treating patients with custom foot orthoses for common pathologies is a rewarding experience when the proper steps are taken during foot casting and custom-orthosis prescription writing. This article describes successful methods for orthoses casting and prescription writing for custom-molded orthoses for Achilles tendonitis, pes planus, hallux limitus, plantar fasciitis/heel spurs, lateral ankle instability, metatarsalgia, and pes cavus. In addition, a summary of orthotic laboratory instructions for each pathology-designed custom orthosis is provided, which should be considered by orthotic laboratories. PMID:21276525

  8. Arabic Speech Pathology Therapy Computer Aided System

    Z. A. Benselama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns a computer aided pathological speech therapy program, based on speech models such as the hidden Markov model and artificial intelligence networks, in order to help persons, suffering from language pathologies, follow a correction learning process, with different interactive feedbacks, aiming to evaluate the degree of evolution of the illness or the therapy. We dealt with the Arabic occlusive sigmatism as a prime approach, which is the inability to pronounce the[s] or [∫]. Results obtained are satisfying and the therapy program is prepared, for autonomous use by patients, for deep analysis and verifications.

  9. Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity.

    Schaffner, Anna Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyses six case studies of theories of exhaustion-related conditions from the early eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the ways in which George Cheyne, George Beard, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, Alain Ehrenberg and Jonathan Crary use medical ideas about exhaustion as a starting point for more wide-ranging cultural critiques related to specific social and technological transformations. In these accounts, physical and psychological symptoms are associated with particular external developments, which are thus not just construed as pathology-generators but also pathologized. The essay challenges some of the persistently repeated claims about exhaustion and its unhappy relationship with modernity. PMID:25096856

  10. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  11. Intracranial pathology of the visual pathway

    Mueller-Forell, W. E-mail: mueller-forell@neuroradio.klinik.uni-mainz.de

    2004-02-01

    Intracranial pathologies involving the visual pathway are manifold. Aligning to anatomy, the most frequent and/or most important extrinsic and intrinsic intracranial lesions are presented. Clinical symptoms and imaging characteristics of lesions of the sellar region are demonstrated in different imaging modalities. The extrinsic lesions mainly consist of pituitary adenomas, meningeomas, craniopharyngeomas and chordomas. In (asymptomatic and symptomatic) aneurysms, different neurological symptoms depend on the location of aneurysms of the circle of Willis. Intrinsic tumors as astrocytoma of any grade, ependymoma and primary CNS-lymphoma require the main pathology in the course of the visual pathway. Vascular and demyelinating diseases complete this overview of intracranial lesions.

  12. Structural Aspects of Synthetic Ferrihydrite

    Michel, F. M.; Cismasu, C.; Tcaciuc, A. P.; Parise, J. B.; Brown, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    The role of natural ferrihydrite in geochemical and biological systems, and use of synthetic ferrihydrite in technological and industrial applications, is attracting broad scientific attention. The importance of ferrihydrite in these systems is primarily related to its large amount of reactive surface area (>350 m2 g-1) which has been shown to effectively scavenge a variety of potential contaminants (e.g., arsenic, chromium). In general, the association of ferrihydrite with metals and metalloids through sorption and co-precipitation is expected to alter its reactivity and thus affect its overall role in aqueous geochemical systems. Such changes in the reactivity of ferrihydrite nanoparticles, typically with all dimensions less than ~7 nm, are inextricably related to their atomic structure, i.e., the 3-dimensional arrangement of atoms. Evaluating the structures of particles with extreme small particle sizes (structure determination which are most sensitive to either short-range order (X-ray absorption spectroscopy) or long-range periodicity (X-ray or electron diffraction). However, the recent application of high-energy X-ray total scattering coupled with pair distribution function (PDF) analysis is providing new insight into the structural aspects of ferrihydrite, a material with no known crystalline counterpart. The information obtainable both directly and indirectly from the PDF will be discussed primarily using examples of synthetic inorganically-derived ferrihydrites. This work on synthetic samples complements our investigations of natural ferrihydrites forming in acid mine drainage-impacted waters. Such natural samples are inherently more complex because they typically form in the presence of dissolved inorganic species such as silica, aluminum, chromium, sulphate, etc., as well as organic matter. The complexity of natural ferrihydrites necessitates the use of synthetically-derived samples in order to evaluate specific changes in certain fundamental aspects of

  13. Different species of Aspergillus involved in ungual pathologies

    M. Zotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years non dermatophyte fungi (NDF are often described as responsible for onychomycosis. The problem related to these fungi concern their identification and treatment. Nowadays a number of Aspergillus were observed in this kind of pathologies but the identification at level of species is frequently omitted. In this work we analysed 26 cases of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus, belonging to 8 different species. The identification were based on micro- and macro-morphological characteristics; physiological characters; and molecular analysis (B-tubulin gene. 3 species are very interesting: A. perii, a species recently described; A.nominus, never described before in onychomycosis, and A.melleus, likely a new opportunistic fungus involved in medical mycology. Though the identification of these fungi is an additional workload for the laboratory of medical mycology, there is the need to increase the number of identified NDF in order to improve the management of onychomycosis.

  14. Pathology and pathophysiology of pulmonary manifestations in leptospirosis

    Marisa Dolhnikoff

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonosis occurring as large outbreaks throughout the world caused by Leptospira interrogans. The incidence of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis has been reported to be increasing in the last years, affecting up to 70% of the patients. Alveolar hemorrhage presented as dyspnea and hemoptysis is the main pulmonary manifestation. The emergence of massive hemoptysis and acute respiratory distress syndrome has characterized the recent changes reported in the clinical patterns of leptospirosis. The pulmonary involvement has been emerged as a serious life threat, becoming the main cause of death due to leptospirosis in some countries. In this review we present the main clinical and pathological manifestations of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis, with special focus on recent data concerning the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying lung injury.

  15. Aspects of Gond Astronomy

    Vahia, M N

    2013-01-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment o...

  16. Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence

    Kupka, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...

  17. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  18. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  19. Political and economic aspects

    The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig

  20. Various aspects of gravity

    Jankiewicz, Marcin

    2007-12-01

    This thesis summarizes research projects that I have been involved in during my graduate studies at Vanderbilt University. My research spanned different areas of theoretical high energy physics with gravity as a common denominator. I explore both fundamental and phenomenological aspects of: (i) mathematical physics where I have studied relations between partition functions of certain class of conformal field theories and Fischer-Griess Monster group; (ii) cosmology, where I performed a numerical study of a horizon size modes of scalar field; (iii) a black hole physics project involving possible extensions of the non-hair theorem in a presence of exotic types of scalar field; and (iv) a study of phenomenological space-time foam models and their relation to Planck scale physics.

  1. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 explained.

    Looi, Lai-Meng

    2008-06-01

    The past century has seen tremendous changes in the scope and practice of pathology laboratories in tandem with the development of the medical services in Malaysia. Major progress was made in the areas of training and specialization of pathologists and laboratory technical staff. Today the pathology laboratory services have entered the International arena, and are propelled along the wave of globalization. Many new challenges have emerged as have new players in the field. Landmark developments over the past decade include the establishment of national quality assurance programmes, the mushrooming of private pathology laboratories, the establishment of a National Accreditation Standard for medical testing laboratories based on ISO 15189, and the passing of the Pathology Laboratory Act in Parliament in mid-2007. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 seeks to ensure that the pathology laboratory is accountable to the public, meets required standards of practice, participates in Quality Assurance programmes, is run by qualified staff, complies with safety requirements and is subject to continuous audit. The Act is applicable to all private laboratories (stand alone or hospital) and laboratories in statutory bodies (Universities, foundations). It is not applicable to public laboratories (established and operated by the government) and side-room laboratories established in clinics of registered medical or dental practitioners for their own patients (tests as in the First and Second Schedules respectively). Tests of the Third Schedule (home test blood glucose, urine glucose, urine pregnancy test) are also exempted. The Act has 13 Parts and provides for control of the pathology laboratory through approval (to establish and maintain) and licensing (to operate or provide). The approval or license may only be issued to a sole proprietor, partnership or body corporate, and then only if the entity includes a registered medical practitioner. Details of personnel qualifications and

  2. ASPECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

    Cebuc Georgiana; Potecea Valeriu

    2009-01-01

    In the last twenty years world-wide companies tried to adapt their organizational culture to the external environment and to the new challenges. Recent crises put to the test organizational culture, in the sense that only companies with a strong and versa

  3. Recent Developments in NEURON

    Hines, Michael L.; Carnevale, Nicholas T.

    2005-01-01

    We describe four recent additions to NEURON's suite of graphical tools that make it easier for users to create and manage models: an enhancement to the Channel Builder that facilitates the specification and efficient simulation of stochastic channel models

  4. Recent results from PETRA

    Recent results on the search for new particles, new thresholds and on properties of B-mesons are reported. No new particle has been observed. More stringent limits on production cross sections have been obtained. (orig.)

  5. Long-term follow-up of post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Hurler syndrome: Clinical, biochemical, and pathological improvements

    Eriko Yasuda

    2015-03-01

    In conclusion, this long-term post-HSCT observation should shed light on a new aspect of therapeutic effect associated with skeletal pathology and GAG levels as a biomarker, indicating that HSCT is a primary choice at an early stage for not only CNS but also skeletal system in combination of appropriate surgical procedures.

  6. Hierarchical Distribution of the Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology in the Thalamus of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Rüb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neuropathological research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), knowledge regarding the exact pathoanatomical distribution of the tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus of AD patients in the advanced Braak and Braak AD stages V or VI of the cortical cytoskeletal pathology is still fragmentary. Investigation of serial 100 μm-thick brain tissue sections through the thalamus of clinically diagnosed AD patients with Braak and Braak AD stage V or VI cytoskeletal pathologies immunostained with the anti-tau AT8 antibody, along with the affection of the extraterritorial reticular nucleus of the thalamus, reveals a consistent and severe tau immunoreactive cytoskeletal pathology in the limbic nuclei of the thalamus (e.g., paraventricular, anterodorsal and laterodorsal nuclei, limitans-suprageniculate complex). The thalamic nuclei integrated into the associative networks of the human brain (e.g., ventral anterior and mediodorsal nuclei) are only mildly affected, while its motor precerebellar (ventral lateral nucleus) and sensory nuclei (e.g., lateral and medial geniculate bodies, ventral posterior medial and lateral nuclei, parvocellular part of the ventral posterior medial nucleus) are more or less spared. The highly stereotypical and characteristic thalamic distribution pattern of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology represents an anatomical mirror of the hierarchical topographic distribution of the cytoskeletal pathology in the interconnected regions of the cerebral cortex of AD patients. These pathoanatomical parallels support the pathophysiological concept of a transneuronal spread of the disease process of AD along anatomical pathways. The AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus most likely contributes substantially to the neuropsychiatric disease symptoms (e.g., dementia), attention deficits, oculomotor dysfunctions, altered non-discriminative aspects of pain experience of AD patients, and the disruption of their

  7. Legal aspects of the hydraulic fracturing method

    Marta Duraj

    2011-01-01

    In recent months the possibility of extracting shale gas by way of the hydraulic fracturing method in Poland as well as across EU territory has been widely discussed. The European Parliament is to decide whether to ban this method. There are various legal, ecological and economical aspects influencing European legislators. It is hard not to notice how strongly the anti- and pro- hydraulic fracturing lobbies are connected with business. At the moment there are no specific regulations that rela...

  8. Atopic dermatitis : Aspects of defence defects

    Hagströmer, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease, typically with a chronic relapsing course and a defective skin barrier function. Recently, mutations of the skin barrier gene encoding filaggrin have been reported in a portion of the patients. In this thesis some aspects of defence defects in AD were studied. In paper I, the risk of developing any cancer was increased by 13%. Excess risks were observed for cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, brain, and lung and for...

  9. Aspects of haemophilia prophylaxis in Sweden.

    Ljung, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment of haemophilia has been gaining acceptance as the optimal therapeutic option in an increasing number of haemophilia centres in the developed world in recent years. This paper focus on three aspects of prophylactic therapy: when to start treatment, venous access and the dose/dose interval. Evidence is in favour of prophylactic treatment to be started at an early age using either a peripheral vein with 1-2 injections per week and a successive increase in the frequency dep...

  10. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special atten...

  11. Human Brown Fat and Obesity: Methodological Aspects

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special...

  12. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  13. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J; Gjedde, A; Møller, A

    2010-01-01

    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... suggest a dopaminergic basis of monetary losses in pathological gambling, which might explain loss-chasing behavior. The findings may have implications for the understanding of dopamine dysfunctions and impaired decision-making in pathological gambling and substance-related addictions....

  14. Pathological Gambling and Substance Use Disorders

    Wareham, Justin D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) has been considered as a behavioral addiction having similarities with substance use disorders (SUDs). Shared features exist in diagnostic, clinical, physiological, and behavioral domains. Current conceptualizations of addiction, as well as experimental studies of PG and SUDs, are reviewed in order to provide a perspective on the areas of convergence between addictive behaviors in PG and SUDs.

  15. [Quality Management System in Pathological Laboratory].

    Koyatsu, Junichi; Ueda, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Even compared to other clinical laboratories, the pathological laboratory conducts troublesome work, and many of the work processes are also manual. Therefore, the introduction of the systematic management of administration is necessary. It will be a shortcut to use existing standards such as ISO 15189 for this purpose. There is no standard specialized for the pathological laboratory, but it is considered to be important to a pathological laboratory in particular. 1. Safety nianagement of the personnel and environmental conditions. Comply with laws and regulations concerning the handling of hazardous materials. 2. Pre-examination processes. The laboratory shall have documented procedures for the proper collection and handling of primary samples. Developed and documented criteria for acceptance or rejection of samples are applied. 3. Examination processes. Selection, verification, and validation of the examination procedures. Devise a system that can constantly monitor the traceability of the sample. 4. Post-examination processes. Storage, retention, and disposal of clinical samples. 5. Release of results. When examination results fall within established alert or critical intervals, immediately notify the physicians. The important point is to recognize the needs of the client and be aware that pathological diagnoses are always "the final diagnoses". PMID:26591432

  16. CLINICO - PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARCINOMA OF PENIS

    Sarada; Venkataramana; Ramanaiah; De, Anuradha; Srihari Rao; Srikanth Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of penis is a tumor with devastating psycho sexual repercussions on the patient . It was reported from different parts of the world with wide variation in incidence . Several factors were considered as inducing agents for cancer of penis . A clinic - pathological study is undertaken to find the incidence , the probable causative factors and the possible treatment methods that can be adapted . Preputi...

  17. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  18. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  19. Speech-Language-Pathology and Audiology Handbook.

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains State Education Department rules and regulations that govern speech-language pathology and audiology in New York State. The handbook also describes licensure and first registration as a licensed speech-language pathologist or audiologist. The introduction discusses professional regulation in New York State while the second…

  20. Diagnosis through images in mamma pathology

    Doctor Arguedas mentions the usefulness of mammography and ultrasonic. According to the patient's age and in relation to the possible pathology. He also includes the procedure to be followed, to obtain an integral diagnostic, wich will be clinic, radiological and ecographic. (S. Grainger)

  1. Voice data mining for laryngeal pathology assessment.

    Hemmerling, Daria; Skalski, Andrzej; Gajda, Janusz

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of different methods of speech signal analysis in the detection of voice pathologies. Firstly, an initial vector was created consisting of 28 parameters extracted from time, frequency and cepstral domain describing the human voice signal based on the analysis of sustained vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ all at high, low and normal pitch. Afterwards we used a linear feature extraction technique (principal component analysis), which enabled a reduction in the number of parameters and choose the most effective acoustic features describing the speech signal. We have also performed non-linear data transformation which was calculated using kernel principal components. The results of the presented methods for normal and pathological cases will be revealed and discussed in this paper. The initial and extracted feature vectors were classified using the k-means clustering and the random forest classifier. We found that reasonably good classification accuracies could be achieved by selecting appropriate features. We obtained accuracies of up to 100% for classification of healthy versus pathology voice using random forest classification for female and male recordings. These results may assist in the feature development of automated detection systems for diagnosis of patients with symptoms of pathological voice. PMID:26471193

  2. Quantifying Pathology in Diffusion Weighted MRI

    Caan, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis algorithms are proposed for quantification of pathology in Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) data. Functional evidence for brain diseases can be explained by specific structural loss in the white matter of the brain. That is, certain biomarkers may exist where the

  3. Abdominal CT in acute arterial pathology

    The abdominal arterial pathology as studied by CT imagings is reviewed. The illustrated morphology of aortic aneurysms complications (arterial embolism, dissection and arteriosclerotic ulcer ) are studied. The signs that lead to diagnosis are assessed and the major points on which to base a correct radiological study are reviewed

  4. Pathological α-synuclein distribution in subjects with coincident Alzheimer's and Lewy body pathology.

    Toledo, Jon B; Gopal, Pallavi; Raible, Kevin; Irwin, David J; Brettschneider, Johannes; Sedor, Samantha; Waits, Kayla; Boluda, Susana; Grossman, Murray; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Edward B; Arnold, Steven E; Duda, John E; Hurtig, Howard; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Adler, Charles H; Beach, Thomas G; Trojanowski, John Q

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the distribution patterns of Lewy body-related pathology (LRP) and the effect of coincident Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology using a data-driven clustering approach that identified groups with different LRP pathology distributions without any diagnostic or researcher's input in two cohorts including: Parkinson disease patients without (PD, n = 141) and with AD (PD-AD, n = 80), dementia with Lewy bodies subjects without AD (DLB, n = 13) and demented subjects with AD and LRP pathology (Dem-AD-LB, n = 308). The Dem-AD-LB group presented two LRP patterns, olfactory-amygdala and limbic LRP with negligible brainstem pathology, that were absent in the PD groups, which are not currently included in the DLB staging system and lacked extracranial LRP as opposed to the PD group. The Dem-AD-LB individuals showed relative preservation of substantia nigra cells and dopamine active transporter in putamen. PD cases with AD pathology showed increased LRP. The cluster with occipital LRP was associated with non-AD type dementia clinical diagnosis in the Dem-AD-LB group and a faster progression to dementia in the PD groups. We found that (1) LRP pathology in Dem-AD-LB shows a distribution that differs from PD, without significant brainstem or extracranial LRP in initial phases; (2) coincident AD pathology is associated with increased LRP in PD indicating an interaction; (3) LRP and coincident AD pathology independently predict progression to dementia in PD, and (4) evaluation of LRP needs to acknowledge different LRP spreading patterns and evaluate substantia nigra integrity in the neuropathological assessment and consider the implications of neuropathological heterogeneity for clinical and biomarker characterization. PMID:26721587

  5. MRI findings of peripheral schwannoma: pathologic correlation

    To characterize the MRI appearance of the peripherally located schwannoma as compared with pathologic findings. 11 cases of 13 lesions of the schwannoma confirmed by pathology were analyzed, respectively. T1, T2 and Gadolinium-enhanced T1 weighted sagittal and axial images were obtained. The signal intensity, contour of lesion, and relationship with surrounding tissue were analyzed. All cases were correlated with MRI and pathologic findings. In 9 out of the 11 cases, schwannoma was connected to the main nerve trunk. Among them, tumors were located centrally in 6 cases and eccentrically in 3 cases. MR findings of schwannoma were iso signal intensity on T1WI (8 cases) with muscle intensity, high signal intensity on T2WI (all cases), strong heterogenous enhancement in all cases. 8 cases showing heterogenous appearance on T2WI, showed mixture of Antoni-A and B area and multifocal hemorrhage. Central low and peripheral high signal intensity on T2WI (Target sign) was mainly high cellular component in the central portion and diffuse myxoid degeneration at the periphery, pathologically. Reversed target appearance (central high, peripheral low on T2WI) revealed central cystic degeneration with low cellular component and hemorrhage in the central portion, and high cellular component at the periphery. Linear band-like low signal intensity on T2WI, suggesting capsule of the schwannoma, was not the true capsule proven by pathology. Thin true capsule was not visualized on T2WI. MR appearance of schwannoma was non-specific. The signal intensity on T2 weighted MR imaging was determined by the presence of multifocal hemorrhage, focal cystic and myxoid degeneration, admixture of Antoni-A and B area

  6. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  7. LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF LYING

    Shchypachova, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the range of problems associated with the study of the linguistic side of communicative phenomenon of lying, which, being not only the socio-psychological component of human life in society, but also a kind of code of any communication, in recent years has increasingly turned the focus of research interest in different fields – philosophy, sociology, psychology, law and linguistics. False statements are presented as a component of a refusal system to a partner of the com...

  8. Aspects of leak detection

    Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A requirement of a Leak before Break safety case is that the leakage from the through wall crack be detected prior to any growth leading to unacceptable failure. This paper sets out to review some recent developments in this field. It does not set out to be a comprehensive guide to all of the methods available. The discussion concentrates on acoustic emission and how the techniques can be qualified and deployed on operational plant.

  9. A review of certain recent advances in primary health care

    Baldacchino, Marilyn; Bezzina, Glorianne; Scerri, Anne Marie; Sammut, Mario R.

    2014-01-01

    A strong primary health care system is the keystone of health care and helps patients manage their health conditions in the community, whilst also providing disease prevention services. Primary care is a continuously evolving specialty, with recent exciting innovations, aiming to improve all aspects of care and to meet people’s needs and expectations. A search for articles focusing on the specific aspects of recent advances in primary health care was done using interne...

  10. Dopaminergic and clinical correlates of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: A case report

    Mette Buhl Callesen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic medication for motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease recently has been linked with impulse control disorders, including pathological gambling, which affects up to 8% of patients. Pathological gambling often is considered a behavioral addiction associated with disinhibition, risky decision-making, and altered striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Using [11C]raclopride with positron emission tomography, we assessed dopaminergic neurotransmission during Iowa Gambling Task performance. Here we present data from a single patient with Parkinson’s disease and concomitant pathological gambling. We noted a marked decrease in [11C]raclopride binding in the left ventral striatum upon gambling, indicating a gambling-induced dopamine release. The results imply that pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease is associated with a high dose of dopaminergic medication, pronounced motor symptomatology, young age at disease onset, high propensity for sensation seeking, and risky decision-making. Overall, the findings are consistent with the hypothesis of medication-related pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease and underscore the importance of taking clinical variables, such as age and personality, into account when patients with Parkinson’s disease are medicated, to reduce the risk of pathological gambling.

  11. ISO: highlights of recent results

    Metcalfe, L.; Salama, A.

    ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) mission, operating in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 240 microns, made over 26000 scientific observations during its 2.5 year operational lifetime. ISO's results broke new ground on all scales. New asteroid counts and improved asteroid thermophysical models augmented important advances in Solar System chemistry to comprise a striking body of results addressing our planetary system. In turn, parallels between the chemical composition of Solar System dust and dust around other stars revealed by the comparison of stellar spectra with cometary spectra, together with results on the incidence and stability of stellar disks, recall the birth of our Solar System and point to fundamental similarities with other star systems. Numerous important facts concerning the chemistry of the ISM have unfolded, such as the ubiquity of water and of the probably-organic carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs). The large systematic body of data on galactic stars has permitted fascinating advances in the characterisation of important aspects of stellar evolution. Investigations of nearby normal galaxies complement template specimens of interacting galaxies. These in turn exemplify galaxy evolutionary processes in the early Universe associated with a huge burst of dust-obscured star formation at redshifts of just below one. This global surge of star formation has vital implications for the interpretation and explanation of major components of the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) and for charting the global history of star formation and the relative importance of sources which derive their energy from accretion processes. Representative examples of key aspects of ISO's recent scientific output will be presented, once again affirming ISO's place at the forefront of successful space-borne astronomy missions.

  12. Genetic aspects of strabismus

    Ferreira Rosane da Cruz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the genetic aspects of strabismus. Methods: Ophthalmic and orthoptic evaluations were performed prospectively on 110 strabismic probands and 478 relatives. We used 3 different criteria in the diagnosis of strabismus: primary diagnosis (dx1 defined as any manifest horizontal or vertical deviation, a secondary diagnosis (dx2 including esophoria (>7 prism diopters or exophoria (>9 prism diopters, and a tertiary diagnosis (dx3 including abnormal fusional amplitudes, accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A ratio, and/or stereopsis; monofixation syndrome; 4 prism diopters base out; and/or abnormal Maddox test responses. Analyses were carried out within mating types. Results: Hypotheses of autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance with no sporadics were rejected. Based on the dx1, 25% of the families had more than one individual affected and there was vertical transmission in 13%; adding dx2 there were 36% of the families with more than one affected and 21% had vertical transmission; and adding dx3, there were 73% with more than one affected and 51% with vertical transmission. Conclusions: There is evidence for a pattern consistent with an autosomal dominant form of strabismus in most families.

  13. Neutronic and thermalhydraulic aspects

    Precise computation of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor represents one of the basic aspects of reactor design and operation. Neutron flux is computed by solving Boltzmann's linear equation. Anyway, the direct solution of the equation involves too great a number of operations for practical application, leading up to TeraFlops or even PetaFlops supercomputing capabilities. Physical and mathematical models are then required to handle the extensive variety of configurations encountered. Numerical methods must be adapted to the rapid evolution of computer power, as also computer architecture: sequential, vector or parallel. Physical and mathematical models must allow for very fast estimation for online control and monitoring, adequate quantification for industrial studies and high-precision, best estimate computations. Coupling of neutronics to mechanics and two-phase flow thermohydraulics must be implemented in order to improve the accuracy in best-estimate computation schemes and to take into account the transient behaviour of the plant during normal operation or incidents. In this field of continuous improvement, the new methods applied in Reactor Physics lead obviously to good results and provide the improvements required in the future for the needs of efficiency, safety and advanced fuel cycle. This trend and the ''evolutionary'' implementation in large and modular software systems will be illustrated by the example of the SAPHYR system. (authors). 3 tabs

  14. Electrical aspects of rainout

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission

  15. Pathological Image Information - Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available Image Information Description of data contents Information regarding each high-resolution digital image in t...he Pathological Images (SVS format) section. Data file File name: open_tggates_pathological_image....zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates-pathological-images/LATEST/op...view/open_tggates_pathological_image#en Data acquisition method Information enter...ts. Liver or Kidney. FILE_LOCATION FTP server path to the pathological images. CA

  16. Social Strain, Self-Control, and Juvenile Gambling Pathology: Evidence From Chinese Adolescents

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent concerns over youthful problem gambling, few gambling studies have looked into Asian adolescent populations. This study of a stratified, random sample of high school students in Hong Kong is designed to estimate the prevalence of gambling pathology among Chinese adolescents and to examine the relationships between social strain,…

  17. Mucinous nonneoplastic cyst of the pancreas: A truly novel pathological entity?

    Brian K.P. Goh; Yu-Meng Tan; Puay-Hoon Tan; London L.P.J. Ooi

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a novel and distinct pancreatic cystic tumor termed "mucinous nonneoplastic" cyst was described in the literature.We report our experience with a 71-year-old female with a cystic tumor in the body of the pancreas demonstrating features suggestive of this diagnosis. We also review the literature regarding this "novel" pathological entity and discuss critically its existence and its differential diagnoses.

  18. Lymphaticovenous Bypass Decreases Pathologic Skin Changes in Upper Extremity Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    Torrisi, Jeremy S.; Joseph, Walter J.; Ghanta, Swapna; Cuzzone, Daniel A.; Albano, Nicholas J.; Savetsky, Ira L.; Gardenier, Jason C.; Skoracki, Roman; Chang, David; Mehrara, Babak J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent advances in microsurgery such as lymphaticovenous bypass (LVB) have been shown to decrease limb volumes and improve subjective symptoms in patients with lymphedema. However, to date, it remains unknown if these procedures can reverse the pathological tissue changes associated with lymphedema. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze skin tissue changes in patients before and after LVB.

  19. Biophysical Aspects of Transmembrane Signaling

    Damjanovich, Sandor

    2005-01-01

    Transmembrane signaling is one of the most significant cell biological events in the life and death of cells in general and lymphocytes in particular. Until recently biochemists and biophysicists were not accustomed to thinking of these processes from the side of a high number of complex biochemical events and an equally high number of physical changes at molecular and cellular levels at the same time. Both types of researchers were convinced that their findings are the most decisive, having higher importance than the findings of the other scientist population. Both casts were wrong. Life, even at cellular level, has a number of interacting physical and biochemical mechanisms, which finally build up the creation of an "excited" cell that will respond to particular signals from the outer or inner world. This book handles both aspects of the signalling events, and in some cases tries to unify our concepts and help understand the signals that govern the life and death of our cells. Not only the understanding, bu...

  20. ASPECTS OF INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT METHODS

    Artemy Varshapetian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For manufacturing companies to succeed in today's unstable economic environment, it is necessary to restructure the main components of its activities: designing innovative product, production using modern reconfigurable manufacturing systems, a business model that takes into account the global strategy and management methods using modern management models and tools. The first three components are discussed in numerous publications, for example, (Koren, 2010 and is therefore not considered in the article. A large number of publications devoted to the methods and tools of production management, for example (Halevi, 2007. On the basis of what was said in the article discusses the possibility of the integration of only three methods have received in recent years, the most widely used, namely: Six Sigma method - SS (George et al., 2005 and supplements its-Design for six sigm? - DFSS (Taguchi, 2003; Lean production transformed with the development to the "Lean management" and further to the "Lean thinking" - Lean (Hirano et al., 2006; Theory of Constraints, developed E.Goldratt - TOC (Dettmer, 2001. The article investigates some aspects of this integration: applications in diverse fields, positive features, changes in management structure, etc.

  1. Recent evolutions of refrigerating machineries and heat pumps; Evolutions recentes des machines a froid et thermopompes

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 10 papers (or series of transparencies) concerning some recent developments about refrigerating machineries and heat pumps as used in space heating, air-conditioning and industrial refrigeration. Various aspects are developed: thermodynamic cycles, thermal performances, dimensioning, modeling, refrigerants substitution, design of flanged exchangers, compressors etc.. (J.S.)

  2. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  3. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  4. Physio-pathological roles of transglutaminase-catalyzed reactions

    Mariangela; Ricotta; Maura; Iannuzzi; Giulia; De; Vivo; Vittorio; Gentile

    2010-01-01

    Transglutaminases(TGs) are a large family of related and ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins.The main activity of these enzymes is the cross-linking of a glutaminyl residue of a protein/peptide substrate to a lysyl residue of a protein/peptide co-substrate.In addition to lysyl residues,other second nucleophilic co-substrates may include monoamines or polyamines(to form mono-or bi-substituted/crosslinked adducts) or-OH groups(to form ester linkages) .In the absence of co-substrates,the nucleophile may be water,resulting in the net deamidation of the glutaminyl residue.The TG enzymes are also capable of catalyzing other reactions important for cell viability.The distribution and the physiological roles of TG enzymes have been widely studied in numerous cell types and tissues and their roles in several diseases have begun to be identified."Tissue" TG(TG2) ,a member of the TG family of enzymes,has definitely been shown to be involved in the molecular mechanisms responsible for a very widespread human pathology:i.e.celiac disease(CD) .TG activity has alsobeen hypothesized to be directly involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for several other human diseases,including neurodegenerative diseases,which are often associated with CD.Neurodegenerative diseases,such as Alzheimer’s disease,Parkinson’s disease,supranuclear palsy,Huntington’s disease and other recently identified polyglutamine diseases,are characterized,in part,by aberrant cerebral TG activity and by increased cross-linked proteins in affected brains.In this review,we discuss the physio-pathological role of TG-catalyzed reactions,with particular interest in the molecular mechanisms that could involve these enzymes in the physio-pathological processes responsible for human neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Aspect-oriented programming with AspectJ

    Mario Pavlov; Daniela Gotseva

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the fundamental concepts of a complete AOP system. It discusses the AspectJ language specification and implementation. The article examines the use of the language, as well as its features and tooling support. It lays out a common crosscutting problem to illustrate the general syntax of the traditional AspectJ Language. The development tools of the AspectJ language are described and compared to popular Java development tools.

  6. Aspect-oriented programming with AspectJ

    Mario Pavlov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fundamental concepts of a complete AOP system. It discusses the AspectJ language specification and implementation. The article examines the use of the language, as well as its features and tooling support. It lays out a common crosscutting problem to illustrate the general syntax of the traditional AspectJ Language. The development tools of the AspectJ language are described and compared to popular Java development tools.

  7. Evolution of courseware development methodology : recent issues

    Moonen, Jef; Schoenmaker, Jan

    1992-01-01

    To improve the quality of courseware products and the efficiency of the courseware development process, a methodology based upon "courseware engineering", being a combination of instructional systems development and software engineering, has emerged over the last 10¿15 years. Recently, software engineering aspects have gained extra attention. It is unclear to what extent a courseware engineering emphasis has contributed to an improvement of the quality of the courseware products or to the eff...

  8. RECENT INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH IN CAPITAL STRUCTURE

    Nisiyama, Edelcio Koitiro; Nakamura, Wilson Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Capital Structure is still one of controversial themes in corporate finance, which allows many research activities both on the theories that have been widely discussed but also on the several interrelationships with other corporate aspects. The aim of this article was to review the most recent academic publication of researches involving capital structure of the firms. This study focuses on the last 3 years, from 2011 to 2013, and on the international scientific journals in Finance that pres...

  9. Survey of Recent Innovations in Aromatic Rice

    Napasintuwong, Orachos

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides situations of aromatic rice demand, and international standards. The history and recent developments of traditional and evolved aromatic rice varieties, namely Basmati rice and Jasmine rice, are reviewed. The emerging aromatic rice innovations from developed countries such as the U.S. and other Asian countries generate a threat to these traditional aromatic rice producers such as India, Pakistan, and Thailand. Under WTO Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights...

  10. Differential equations and applications recent advances

    2014-01-01

    Differential Equations and Applications : Recent Advances focus on the latest developments in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems, Neural Networks, Fluid Dynamics, Fractional Differential Systems, Mathematical Modelling and Qualitative Theory. Different aspects such as Existence, Stability, Controllability, Viscosity and Numerical Analysis for different systems have been discussed in this book. This book will be of great interest and use to researchers in Applied Mathematics, Engineering and Mathematical Physics.

  11. Ethical aspects of surrogacy.

    Walters, W A

    1989-08-01

    Ethical issues related to surrogacy are explored and an argument made for its ethical approval in circumstances where the particularities of the case warrant this approach to reproduction. Despite recent and impending legislation to prohibit commercial surrogacy in some States of Australia, although data are difficult to obtain, unofficial and anecdotal reports from medical practitioners specializing in the management of infertility throughout the country indicate an increasing number of requests for surrogacy and increasing referral of infertile couples to the USA for commercial surrogacy arrangements. PMID:2619681

  12. Modern aspects of electrochemistry

    Bockris, J O'M; Conway, B E

    1998-01-01

    This is the latest volume of the series praised by JACS for its ""high standards,"" and by Chemistry and Industry for rendering a ""valuable service."" Experts from academic and industrial laboratories worldwide present: -- Experimental results from the last decade of interfacial studies -- A surprising quantum mechanical treatment of electrode processes -- Recent work in molecular dynamic simulations, which confirms some earlier modelistic approaches and also breaks new ground -- An in-depth look at underpotential deposition on single crystal metals, and -- The practical matter of automated c

  13. Recent CDF results

    Gomez, Gervasio; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2007-11-01

    As of November of 2007, the CDF detector has recorded approximately 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data. This contribution describes some of the most recent and most relevant results from the CDF collaboration in all areas of its wide physics program, as well as some insights into the Tevatron reach for Higgs searches within the next few years.

  14. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    This article is the 'Industry Briefs' portion of Nuexco's March 1991 'Recent Developments' section. Specific items discussed include: (1) a joint fuels venture between Nuexco and Energy Fuels, (2) bids for two nuclear units in Czechoslovakia, (3) plans for nuclear power in China, (4) uranium mining in Queensland, (5) marketing of nuclear power technology by India, and (6) uranium production in Australia

  15. Hydrophilic Carotenoids: Recent Progress

    Attila Agócs; József Deli; Veronika Nagy; Magdolna Háda

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids are substantially hydrophobic antioxidants. Hydrophobicity is this context is rather a disadvantage, because their utilization in medicine as antioxidants or in food chemistry as colorants would require some water dispersibility for their effective uptake or use in many other ways. In the past 15 years several attempts were made to synthetize partially hydrophilic carotenoids. This review compiles the recently synthetized hydrophilic carotenoid derivatives.

  16. Recent Tax Law Changes.

    Lukaszewski, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Describes provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 as they influence business and personal taxes. Also explains a recent ruling, the IRS Revenue Procedure 96-31, which will benefit businesses which did not claim all the depreciation expenses they were entitled to over the years. (KB)

  17. Recent progress in Biophysics

    Recent progress in biophysics is reviewed, and three examples of the use of physical techniques and ideas in biological research are given. The first one deals with the oxygen transporting protein-hemoglobin, the second one with photosynthesis, and the third one with image formation, using nuclear magnetic resonance. (Author)

  18. An Interactive Session on Nutritional Pathologies for Health Professional Students

    Joshua DeSipio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have emphasized the need to improve the nutrition training of health professionals, which will help them to provide optimal patient care. Nutrition-based interactive sessions may serve as an efficient approach to instigate an interest in nutrition among the students. Here we report the reception and effectiveness of a nutrition-pathology based interactive activity that we designed and implemented in the gastroenterology course given to the second year students at our medical school. The activity involved team work, individual accountability and peer-teaching. Nutrition pathology case stems (Kwashiorkor, vitamin B-12 deficiency, zinc deficiency and zinc-induced copper deficiency were posted on the course website for the students to read before the session. At the start of the session, all the groups (each made up of four members took a pre-quiz. Each student was then given an information sheet describing one case. Each group discussed the four cases with students acting as the “teacher” for the case assigned to them. A post-quiz was administered to the groups to assess acquisition of knowledge as well as in-depth thinking about the nutrition aspects discussed. The efficacy of the session measured by pre (39% questions correctly answered in total and post-quizzes (96% questions correctly answered in total and the overwhelmingly positive student feedback indicated that the session was highly effective. Ninety-five percent of students thought that the session demonstrated the clinical relevance of nutrition, while 98% students found the peer teaching to be engaging.

  19. Pathological study of experimental infection with Enterococcus faecalis in quails

    M. G. Al-hamdany

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried to isolate and identificate of Enterococcus. faecalis from small intestine and cecum of quails by culturing on differential and selective media. The concentration of E. faecalis suspension was fixed for experimental infection. Quails divided randomly into four groups, the first group considered as control group, the other groups injected with 0.5 ml of bacterial suspension as following: second group 1X108 CFU, the third group injected with 1X109 CFU, and the forth group injected with 1X1010 CFU. The clinical signs and pathological changes of heart, liver and kidney were observed at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after infection. The results showed identification of E. faecalis after culturing and isolation of it. The gross lesions represented by opacity of pericardium, heart hypertrophy and liver infarction, histopathological lesions include beginning of endocarditis, severe fatty changes with localized recent thrombus and severe necrosis in liver, and cell swelling of epithelium lining renal tubules and apoptosis in kidney. The histopathological changes were more severe at 3 and 7 days post infection. This study concludes that quails have a strong defense and immune mechanism despite the appearance of pathological changes with high concentrations of bacterial suspension which cause death in other animals such as mice and rats, also E.faecalis possesses the ability to induce apoptosis.

  20. Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting?

    Waschbisch Anne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The investigation of central nervous system vascular changes in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS is a time-honored concept. Yet, recent reports on changes in venous cerebrospinal outflow, the advent of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques and the investigation of immunomodulatory properties of several vascular mediators on the molecular level have added new excitement to hypotheses centering around vascular pathology as determining factor in the pathophysiology of MS. Here we critically review the concept of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in MS patients and describe new imaging techniques including perfusion weighted imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging and diffusion weighted imaging which reveal central nervous system hypoperfusion, perivascular iron deposition and diffuse structural changes in the MS brain. On a molecular basis, vascular mediators represent interesting targets connecting vascular pathology with immunomodulation. In summary, the relation of venous changes to the pathophysiology of MS may not be as simple as initially described and it certainly seems awkward to think of the complex disease MS solely as result of a simple venous outflow obstruction. Yet, the investigation of new vascular concepts as one variable in the pathophysiology of the autoimmune attack seems very worthwhile and may add to a better understanding of this devastating disorder.

  1. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  2. Incidental bony pathology when reporting trauma orthopantomograms

    Macanovic, M., E-mail: mladenmaca@gmail.co [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Gangidi, S.; Porter, G.; Brown, S.; Courtney, D. [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Porter, J. [Community Dental Service, Plymouth Primary Care Trust, Plymouth, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions.

  3. Fetal MRI of pathological brain development

    Because of the superior tissue contrast, high spatial resolution, and multiplanar capabilities, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict fetal brain pathologies with high accuracy. Pathological fetal brain development may result from malformations or acquired conditions. Differentiation of these etiologies is important with respect to managing the actual pregnancy or counseling future pregnancies. As a widened ventricular system is a common hallmark of both maldevelopment and acquired conditions, it may cause problems in the differential diagnosis. Fetal MRI can provide detailed morphological information, which allows refinement of the diagnosis of ventricular enlargement in a large number of cases. Systematic work-up of morphological details that may be recognized on MR images provides an approach for achieving a correct diagnosis in cases of ventricle enlargement. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of orbital and visual pathway pathology

    This is one of the first books to deal with imaging of pathology of the entire visual system. It is divided into two parts, general and special. In the general part, the most important basics of modern imaging methods are discussed, but with less emphasis on the physical background than in purely neuro-/radiological textbooks. Chapters are devoted to the meticulous presentation of imaging anatomy of the orbit and intracranial visual pathway. The latest knowledge on the indication, technique, and results of functional MR imaging is presented. Visual system impairment in the pediatric age group is also discussed. The special part of the book provides detailed descriptions of the symptoms and clinical and imaging findings in individual patients with orbital and intracranial pathologies. This book is specifically designed to be of value not only to neuroradiologists but also to ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, oto-/rhino-laryngologists, and neurologists who require more detailed information on these special diseases. (orig.)

  5. Public hospital pathology--at what cost?

    White, G H; Pascoe, P J

    1994-01-01

    Public hospital laboratories have in the past fended off financial scrutiny and accountability on the grounds of their complexity and lack of compelling need. However, the cost of providing diagnostic laboratory services has now come under intense scrutiny because of budget reductions and options for private sector competition. Costing of pathology services is not difficult, but their organisation and outputs do have unique features that need to be understood and defined to ensure that the costing model used provides robust data that accurately reflects how resources are consumed. The cost data generated for diagnostic services can then be compared to the various benchmarks widely used for activity-based funding, such as the Commonwealth Medical Benefits Schedule and the pathology component of the AN-DRG Service Weights System, while the requirement and funding for other activities can be rationally determined. PMID:10140592

  6. Imaging of orbital and visual pathway pathology

    Mueller-Forell, W.S. (ed.) [Medical School Univ. of Mainz (Germany). Inst. of Neuroradiology

    2006-07-01

    This is one of the first books to deal with imaging of pathology of the entire visual system. It is divided into two parts, general and special. In the general part, the most important basics of modern imaging methods are discussed, but with less emphasis on the physical background than in purely neuro-/radiological textbooks. Chapters are devoted to the meticulous presentation of imaging anatomy of the orbit and intracranial visual pathway. The latest knowledge on the indication, technique, and results of functional MR imaging is presented. Visual system impairment in the pediatric age group is also discussed. The special part of the book provides detailed descriptions of the symptoms and clinical and imaging findings in individual patients with orbital and intracranial pathologies. This book is specifically designed to be of value not only to neuroradiologists but also to ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, oto-/rhino-laryngologists, and neurologists who require more detailed information on these special diseases. (orig.)

  7. Incidental bony pathology when reporting trauma orthopantomograms

    Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions.

  8. MRI and pathology in persistent postherniotomy pain

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Jensen, Karl-Erik; Fiirgaard, Bente;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain impairs everyday life in 5% to 10% of patients. MRI can potentially be useful in the investigation of pathogenic mechanisms and guide surgeons in mesh removal and neurectomy. No study has investigated interobserver agreement or MRI-specific findings in...... persistent postherniotomy pain. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-two patients with persistent postherniotomy pain > 1 year after uni- or bilateral groin hernia repair and 6 pain-free postherniotomy controls were MRI scanned, resulting in a total of 32 painful groins, 15 pain-free operated groins, and 29 pain......-free unoperated groins scanned. Two blinded observers separately assessed groins using a predefined list of possible MRI pathology and anatomic landmarks. Primary outcomes included interobserver agreement assessed by calculating kappa-coefficients. Secondary outcomes included frequency of MRI pathology in painful...

  9. Neurofibrillary pathology and aluminum in Alzheimer's disease

    Shin, R. W.; Lee, V. M. Y; Trojanowski, J Q

    1995-01-01

    Since the first reports of aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration in experimental animals, extensive studies have been performed to clarify the role played by aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional evidence implicating aluminum in AD includes elevated levels of aluminum in the AD brain, epidemiological data linking aluminum exposure to AD, and interactions between aluminum and protein components in the pathological lesions o...

  10. Pathological tau disrupts ongoing network activity

    Menkes-Caspi, Noa; Yamin, Hagar G; Kellner, Vered; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Cohen, Dana; Stern, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Pathological tau leads to dementia and neurodegeneration in tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. It has been shown to disrupt cellular and synaptic functions, yet its effects on the function of the intact neocortical network remain unknown. Using in vivo intracellular and extracellular recordings, we measured ongoing activity of neocortical pyramidal cells during various arousal states in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy, prior to significant cell death, when only a fraction of the...

  11. Web-based pathology practice examination usage

    Klatt, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: General and subject specific practice examinations for students in health sciences studying pathology were placed onto a free public internet web site entitled web path and were accessed four clicks from the home web site menu. Subjects and Methods: Multiple choice questions were coded into. html files with JavaScript functions for web browser viewing in a timed format. A Perl programming language script with common gateway interface for web page forms scored examinations and placed ...

  12. Cutaneous vasculitides: Clinico-pathological correlation

    Gupta Suruchi; Handa Sanjeev; Kanwar Amrinder; Radotra Bishan; Minz Ranjana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous vasculitis presents as a mosaic of clinical and histological findings. Its pathogenic mechanisms and clinical manifestations are varied. Aims: To study the epidemiological spectrum of cutaneous vasculitides as seen in a dermatologic clinic and to determine the clinico-pathological correlation. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on 50 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed as cutaneous vasculitis in the dermatology outdoor; irrespective of age, sex and duration...

  13. PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF IRANIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Jalal Haghighat Monfared; Nika Vatankhah

    2013-01-01

    Although textile industry lies upon a long antecedent in Iran, it suffers these days from a critical circumstance.The reasons, from which the existing problems of textile industry originate, must be recognized otherwise, there would be no possibility to find applicable solutions. Crisis discussion in this part is not new; this industry needs to be refashioned in many domains. In this way, pathological study of textile industry emerges as a vital investigational responsibility by which all sys...

  14. Sacral arcuate lines: Anatomy and pathologic conditions

    The sacrum is one of the most commonly radiographed bones of the human body as part of abdominal and pelvic radiologic examinations. This paper describes the radiologic anatomy of the sacral arcuate lines and presents a systematic approach to identifying pathologic conditions, for example, primary and metastatic malignancies, traumatic and osteoporotic fractures, vascular erosions from aneurysms, changes from neural tumors, and changes following radiation therapy

  15. Clearance of pathological antibodies using biomimetic nanoparticles

    Copp, Jonathan A.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    The selective depletion of disease-causing antibodies using nanoparticles offers a new model in the management of type II immune hypersensitivity reactions. The demonstration of pathophysiologically inspired nanoengineering serves as a valuable prototype for additional therapeutic improvements with the goal of minimizing therapy-related adverse effects. Through the use of cell membrane-cloaked nanoparticles, nanoscale decoys with strong affinity to pathological antibodies can be administered ...

  16. Pathologic-HRCT correlation of pneumoconiosis

    To evaluate the ability of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to detect pneumoconiotic changes, HRCT findings were correlated with pathologic features of 14 inflation-fixed postmortem lungs. The most common pathological feature in all the lungs was irregular peribronchiolar and interlobular fibrosis. This corresponded to an area of hazy increased density or reticular density on HRCT. Although the reticular density on HRCT became coarser with the progression of fibrosis. HRCT failed to detect mild fibrosis. Subpleural curvilinear line, as seen on HRCT in 5 lungs, corresponded to band-like zone of fibrosis containing bronchioles or zone of collapsed alveoli with fibrotic thickening. A subpleural band-like zone of organized pneumonia was recognized in 2 cases. Subpleural patchy density was seen on HRCT in 8 cases, pathologically corresponding to fibrosis in 5, and localized edema, organized pneumonia, and atelectasis without fibrosis in the other one each. Overall, HRCT was capable of detecting nodules in 71% (182/256); however, it failed to show nodules smaller than 1.5 mm in 63% (52/83). Enlarged air space at the periphery of the nodules was seen on HRCT in 78% (122/156). A total of 12 lesions of progressive massive fibrosis were found in 5 lungs. An irregular border, as seen on HRCT in all lesions, was pathologically based on the fibrosis extending into the surrounding alveoli and partially confluencing pneumoconiotic micronodules. Patent residual bronchi, spared from destructive fibrotic change, were seen as strand-like air density on HRCT in 4 of 6 lesions. Focal emphysema, found in 9 lungs, appeared as non-peripheral, small low-attenuation area with a central dot on HRCT. The detectable size on HRCT was 2.0 mm. Emphysema comlicated by pneumonia was seen as honeycomb appearance on HRCT. Thus, HRCT proved to be useful in detecting and quantifying various pneumoconiotic changes of the lung. (N.K.)

  17. Protein folding pathology in domestic animals*

    Gruys, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7–10 nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross...

  18. FEATURES ENDOCRINE PATHOLOGY AMONG STUDENTS OF TOMSK

    P. R. Goldayeva; O. A. Pavlenko

    2015-01-01

    Socio-hygienic assessment of the health of students inTomskfor the period from 2007 to 2009 helped identify negative trends in the incidence of endocrine disorders that require improved technology organization providing medical and preventive care. The results of the analysis of the effect of risk factors on the development of the endocrine pathology among students possible to determine the need for and develop a system of sanitary measures, the implementation of which helps reduce the risk o...

  19. Sonography of pathological changes in the hand

    Dębek, Anna; Czyrny, Zbigniew; Nowicki, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Everyday medical practice shows that most common problems within the hand result from overload, injuries and degeneration. Dorsal side pathologies such as de Quervain's and Wartenberg's disease, intersection syndrome or degenerative lesions of carpometa-carpal joint of the thumb discussed in the paper can be accurately diagnosed and differentiated by means of ultrasound examination. Ultrasound is similarly powerful in detection and grading of traumatic lesions involving extensor tendons and t...

  20. Immunologic aspects of osteoporosis.

    Ershler, W B; Harman, S M; Keller, E T

    1997-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity in older people. There are a large number of risk factors for the development of osteoporosis. However, these risk factors eventually must mediate their effects through modulation of bone remodeling. A variety of compounds including hormones and nutrients modulate bone remodeling. In addition to these well-characterized substances, the immune system plays a role in bone remodeling through pro-inflammatory cytokines. Specifically, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-11, interferon-g are known to influence osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Recently, the cytokine IL-6 has joined ranks with these cytokines as a bone reactive agent. IL-6 has been shown to increase with age and menopause. Additionally, murine models suggest that IL-6 plays a central role in bone resorption. Finally, in vitro studies demonstrate that IL-6 induces osteoclast activity. In this review, we will discuss the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in the context of aging and IL-6. PMID:9463782

  1. Biofuel technologies. Recent developments

    Gupta, Vijai Kumar [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry; MITS Univ., Rajasthan (India). Dept. of Science; Tuohy, Maria G. (eds.) [National Univ. of Ireland Galway (Ireland). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Of interest to both experienced researchers and beginners in the field. Biofuels are considered to be the main potential replacement for fossil fuels in the near future. In this book international experts present recent advances in biofuel research and related technologies. Topics include biomethane and biobutanol production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, biomass pre-treatment, enzyme hydrolysis, genetic manipulation of microbial cells and their application in the biofuels industry, bioreactor systems, and economical processing technologies for biofuel residues. The chapters provide concise information to help understand the technology-related implications of biofuels development. Moreover, recent updates on biofuel feedstocks, biofuel types, associated co- and byproducts and their applications are highlighted. The book addresses the needs of postgraduate researchers and scientists across diverse disciplines and industrial sectors in which biofuel technologies and related research and experimentation are pursued.

  2. Aspectizing JavaScript Security

    Marchand de Kerchove, Florent; Noyé, Jacques; Südholt, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In this position paper we argue that aspects are well-suited to describe and implement a range of strategies to make secure JavaScript-based applications. To this end, we review major categories of approaches to make client-side applications secure and discuss uses of aspects that exist for some of them. We also propose aspect-based techniques for the categories that have not yet been studied. We give examples of applications where aspects are useful as a general means to flexibly express and...

  3. Metabolic Shifts during Aging and Pathology

    Ma, Yina; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a very special organ in the body and has a high requirement for metabolism due to its constant workload. As a consequence, to provide a consistent and sufficient energy a high steady-state demand of metabolism is required by the heart. When delicately balanced mechanisms are changed by physiological or pathophysiological conditions, the whole system’s homeostasis will be altered to a new balance, which contributes to the pathologic process. So it is no wonder that almost every heart disease is related to metabolic shift. Furthermore, aging is also found to be related to the reduction in mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an energy sensor to detect intracellular ATP/AMP ratio and plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress. During different pathology (like myocardial ischemia and hypertension), the activation of cardiac AMPK appears to be essential for repairing cardiomyocyte’s function by accelerating ATP generation, attenuating ATP depletion, and protecting the myocardium against cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In this overview, we will talk about the normal heart’s metabolism, how metabolic shifts during aging and different pathologies, and how AMPK regulates metabolic changes during these conditions. PMID:25880509

  4. MRI and pathologic correlation of cardiac myxomas

    Objective: To investigate the MRI features of cardiac myxoma by correlated with its pathological findings. Methods: MRI features of 22 cases of pathologically confirmed cardiac myxomas were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 22 cases, 21 are solitary, 12 located in left atrium, 6 located in right atrium, 2 located in left ventricle and 1 located in fight ventricle. The other one occupied multiple chambers. MRI: 19 are heterogeneous and 3 are homogeneous. Cine-MRI: 18 attach to the endocardium with a pedunculated stalk and 4 are sessile and with a broad attachment. Thirteen cases had secondary valve insufficience or stenosis. Nine have compromised cardiac function. Nineteen cases demonstrated mild to moderate heterogeneous enhancement after Gd-DTPA administration and 3 case showed no enhancement. Four cases had gadolinium first-pass perfusion study and showed a slow and continuous increasing time-intensity, lower than normal myocardium. The pedicles and wall showed delay enhancement. Pathologic findings: 21 are oval and lobular configuration, 1 is grape-like. Ten cases had fresh hemorrhage and 5 had chronic hemorrhage. Fourteen had necrosis, 2 had cystic change and 4 had calcification. Blood vessels or inflammatory cells could be detected in 19 cases. Conclusions: MRI can evaluate the size, location, morphology, especially the vascularity, histologic features and cardiac function of cardiac myxomas. (authors)

  5. Capturing clinically significant eating pathology in adolescence

    Rasmus Isomaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Several large-scale studies on adolescent mental health have used questionnaire items derived from DSM-IV criteria to assess eating disorders. The aim of the present brief report was to analyse the capacity of self-reported eating disorder symptoms to capture clinically significant eating disorders. Methods: All pupils in the ninth grade (N = 606, response rate 98.2%, mean age = 15.4 of comprehensive school in a defined area were invited to participate in the study. Adolescents who reported some form of eating pathology (n = 126 were invited to an interview (RAB. Results: Anorexia based on the self-report resulted in a positive predictive value of 60.0% for lifetime and 20% for current eating disorder, when compared to the results in the RAB. No case of BN was detected by the RAB, but self-reported BN symptoms were predictive of both EDNOS and subclinical eating pathology. Conclusions: Self-reported eating disorder symptoms seem to be relatively good predictors of broadly defined eating pathology, but may result in overestimation of clinical conditions.

  6. Clinical predictive factors of pathologic tumor response

    Choi, Chi Hwan; Kim, Won Dong; Lee, Sang Jeon; Park, Woo Yoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictive factors for tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer. The study involved 51 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery between January 2005 and February 2012. Radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis at a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions, followed by a boost of 5.4 Gy in 3 fractions to the primary tumor with 5 fractions per week. Three different chemotherapy regimens were used. Tumor responses to preoperative CRT were assessed in terms of tumor downstaging and pathologic complete response (ypCR). Statistical analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with pathologic tumor response. Tumor downstaging was observed in 28 patients (54.9%), whereas ypCR was observed in 6 patients (11.8%). Multivariate analysis found that predictors of downstaging was pretreatment relative lymphocyte count (p = 0.023) and that none of clinical factors was significantly associated with ypCR. Pretreatment relative lymphocyte count (%) has a significant impact on the pathologic tumor response (tumor downstaging) after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer. Enhancement of lymphocyte-mediated immune reactions may improve the effect of preoperative CRT for rectal cancer.

  7. Pathology of cloaca anomalies with case correlation.

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    During the fourth week of human embryo development, a transient common channel known as a cloaca is formed from which three cavities with three external orifices arises. Cloaca anomalies occur when there is failure of separation of the rectum, vagina, and urethra channel resulting in a single drain into the perineum. In our previous institutional studies, Runck et al. compared human and mouse cloaca development and found early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca deranged hedgehog and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Also, our group reported the embryological correlation of the epithelial and stromal histology found in step sections of the common channel in 14 cloaca malformations in humans. In this review, we present the pathology of a 4-year-old female with a cloaca and VACTERL complex, and summarize our current knowledge of cloaca pathology. Furthermore, we suggest that careful pathological examination of cloaca specimens in conjunction with surgical orientation may result in a better understanding of the etiology of this condition. PMID:26969228

  8. Clinical pathology services: remapping our strategic itinerary.

    Blanckaert, Norbert

    2010-07-01

    Both technological advances and economic drivers have led to major changes in clinical laboratories across the world, with vastly improved testing productivity. However, the production process capability advances have far outpaced the clinical pathologists' success in assuring optimal test utilization and interpretation. While productivity of 'commodity' testing increases, our healthcare value productivity decreases. Such developments constitute a serious threat to our clinical pathology specialty, not only because pathologists may lose direct control of the commodity testing production activities, but also because the present evolution exposes a failure of our core clinical activities, the pathologist's knowledge processes that translate 'commodity' results into medical outcomes optimization. At a time when a revolution in health care organization is inescapable in the years ahead, clinical pathology must proceed from a merely reactive strategy (to fulfill the 'more with less' demands) to a proactive strategy where we build excellence and visibility in knowledge services on a strong foothold of operational excellence. Based on a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats analysis, we argue that clinical pathology should safeguard and expand its healthcare value productivity by assuming leadership in building integrated laboratory services networks. We also suggest that the core knowledge processes deserve a system approach, for example, by applying a risk-based quality management system. PMID:20491600

  9. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. PMID:26864891

  10. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies

    Aage R. Møller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain.

  11. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies.

    Møller, Aage R

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. PMID:26977153

  12. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested. PMID:23123885

  13. Recent Advances in Voltammetry

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G.; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electr...

  14. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.

    2016-04-14

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  15. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    This article is the 'Industry Briefs' portion of Nuexco's July 1992 'Recent Developments' section. Specific items mentioned include: (1) the merger of Entergy and Gulf States Utilities, (2) restart of the Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, (3) development of the 7th and 8th nuclear units in Taiwan, (4) purchase of interest in Rio Algom, Ltd, and (5) acquisition of the Italian firm AGIP by a Canadian company

  16. Recent results from KTEV

    Bellantoni, L.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    The implications of the published KTeV K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} result for interpreting recent {Sigma}{sup +} {yields} p{mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} results are discussed. The status of the KTeV {Xi}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}{nu} analysis is given. The KTeV |V{sub us}| result is also given.

  17. Recent Nanofiber Technologies

    Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2011-01-01

    This article is a perspective that includes a brief introduction to nanofiber production methods, their potential applications, and three review articles in the field of nanofibers. Although the full range of applications that best exploit these new developments are yet to be developed, the emerging innovative applications of nanofibers in biomedical, sensor, electronic, and other areas will likely be enabled or enhanced by these recent advances in several key techniques. Three review article...

  18. Palau; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent economic developments in Palau, covering the first five years of the Compact of Free Association (Compact) with the United States. The paper analyzes the economic growth, prices, wages, and employment. The study assesses the public finances and overall developments, which include revenues and grants, expenditure, local governments, trust funds, and nonfinancial public enterprises. The paper provides a detailed study of the financial and external sectors,...

  19. Recent applications of SUPERFISH

    The program, SUPERFISH, obtains the frequencies and fields for azimuthally symmetric TM or TE modes in azimuthally symmetric cavities. The r-z plane is covered by a triangular mesh and the resulting difference equations for the field component H/sub phi/(TM) or E/sub phi/(TE) at the vertices of the mesh solved by direct matrix inversion. In the present paper, we describe a number of recent modifications of SUPERFISH

  20. Recent applications of SUPERFISH

    Gluckstern, R. L.; Neri, F.

    1988-12-01

    The program, SUPERFISH, obtains the frequencies and fields for azimuthally symmetric TM or TE modes in azimuthally symmetric cavities. The r-z plane is covered by a triangular mesh and the resulting difference equations for the field component Hφ(TM) or Eφ(TE) at the vertices of the mesh solved by direct matrix inversion. In the present paper, we describe a number of recent modifications of SUPERFISH. (AIP)