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1

Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520

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Pathology Case Study: Recent Onset Seizures  

Science.gov (United States)

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 12-year-old boy presents with a history of headaches, âÂÂand a recent onset of right-sided seizures followed by the loss of consciousnessâÂÂ. Visitors are shown CT scan images of the patientâÂÂs brain, along with microscopic images. The official diagnosis found in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Biernat, Wojciech; Liberski, P. P.; Zakrzewski, Krzysztof

2009-05-12

3

Recent aspects of vasculitis and future direction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vasculitis is pathologically identified as specific cellular inflammation, vessel destruction, and tissue necrosis. Current classifications of vasculitis such as the Chapel Hill Classification (CHCC) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines are not sufficiently adequate for clinicians to diagnose vasculitis. The biomarkers that are currently in clinical use such as PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA, only help in diagnosing small vessel vasculitis and their sensitivity and specificity are not sufficient. However, recent developments related to the pathogenesis and etiopathogenesis of vasculitis have the potential to contribute to new and improved biomarkers. The determination of diverse roles of ANCA and synergistic effects of infection, genetic, environmental factors and drugs on pathogenesis is quite important. The demonstration of a new autoantibody directed to hLAMP-2 and the resemblance to some microbial structures, in addition to the determination of the possible roles of hepatitis B and C on vasculitis are important findings. These hints may lead to new biomarker developments, providing a better method to diagnose vasculitis. The evidence on T cell immunity as circulatory and lesional will likely contribute to the development of new drugs for vasculitis. PMID:21921363

Aras, Gülfidan

2011-01-01

4

Recent advance in the pathology of lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in most advanced countries. Anti-smoking campaign has been started, but it will take at least 20 years until the peak of the lung cancer death arrives. Developments of novel gene-targeting drugs, such as gefitinib, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, and a screening method using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) facilitated the advancement of pathological research of lung cancer, and important information closely related to the diagnosis and therapy of lung cancer has been gathered recently. This review article concentrates, of them, on four topics, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, microinvasive bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, abnormalities in epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and micropapillary adenocarcinoma. (author)

5

Serrated polyposis syndrome: Molecular, pathological and clinical aspects  

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Full Text Available Hyperplastic polyps have traditionally been considered not to have malignant potential. New pathological classification of serrated polyps and recent discoveries about the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis have revolutionized the concepts and revitalized the research in this area. Until recently, it has been thought that most colorectal cancers arise from conventional adenomas via the traditional tumor suppressor pathway initiated by a mutation of the APC gene, but it has been found that this pathway accounts for only approximately 70%-80% of colorectal cancer (CRC cases. The majority of the remaining colorectal cancer cases follow an alternative pathway leading to CpG island methylator phenotype carcinoma with BRAF mutation and with or without microsatellite instability. The mechanism of carcinomas arising from this alternative pathway seems to begin with an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene. Serrated polyposis syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by multiple and/or large serrated polyps of the colon. Clinical characteristics, etiology and relationship of serrated polyposis syndrome to CRC have not been clarified yet. Patients with this syndrome show a high risk of CRC and both sporadic and hereditary cases have been described. Clinical criteria have been used for diagnosis and frequent colonoscopy surveillance should be performed in order to prevent colorectal cancer. In this review, we try to gather new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of serrated polyps in order to understand their possible clinical implications and to make an approach to the management of this syndrome.

Carla Guarinos

2012-01-01

6

Pathology is a critical aspect of preclinical aging studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental design for mouse aging studies has historically involved lifespan, but it is now clear that survival data without pathology data limit the information that can be obtained on aging animals. This limitation becomes more serious when interventions of any sort are implemented. Pathology gives an insight into the health of an animal by revealing lesions not readily observable in the live animal. As such, it is a snapshot of disease conditions at the time of death. Therefore, a long-term goal is to establish pathology information as an essential component of studies involving health span and lifespan of aging animals. Given that pathology assessment is essential to help define the progression of lesions associated with aging, the real challenge is including it in aging studies because there is currently a lack of specialized expertise and resources. An increase in the level and scope of pathology assessment of tissues from old mice involved in aging studies is needed. A focus on the correlation of pathology data with longitudinal and cross-sectional lifespan data and health span physiology data can be established by enhancing standard histologic assessment of lesions observed in tissues from old mice. An environment for the development and integration of pathology data into aging studies of mice is needed to encourage more pathologists and other scientists to specialize in pathology of aging, and establish relevant standards to compare with other species including humans. Such results will have an important positive impact on aging studies because of the significant empowerment on data analyses and interpretation.

Warren Ladiges

2013-08-01

7

Recent advances in the diagnostic pathology of salivary carcinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review concentrates on the most important developments since the WHO classification of 2005. In particular, the identification of specific translocations is revolutionising the way salivary tumours are considered and will have a major impact on future diagnostic practice. This is true so far in four malignancies: mammary analogue secretory, mucoepidermoid, adenoid cystic and hyalinising clear cell carcinomas. In each, the gene rearrangement is found in 80 % or more of cases. Two 2014 publications have added further possible candidates with molecular abnormalities to the list (cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and minor salivary glands and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma), but these findings have yet to be confirmed by other investigators. The advances in molecular pathology have also allowed re-evaluation of the morphology; for example, it is now realised that the histological spectrum of hyalinising clear cell carcinoma includes intracellular mucin in over half of cases, as well as tumours with only scanty clear cells. In a separate development, it is now proposed that salivary duct carcinoma can be subdivided along molecular lines, in ways analogous to breast cancer, suggesting new therapeutic prospects in an otherwise highly aggressive malignancy. PMID:25172327

Simpson, Roderick H W; Skálová, Alena; Di Palma, Silvana; Leivo, Ilmo

2014-10-01

8

Selected aspects of recent work in heterotic string phenomenology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I will briefly review some aspects of recent work in heterotic string and M-theory as applied to string phenomenology. Emphasis will be placed on describing the strengths and weaknesses of this type of string construction as related to both model building and moduli stabilization. (author)

9

[Syphilis. Part 1: Introduction, pathology and clinical aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany more than 3,500 people become infected with syphilis annually. As elsewhere in Western Europe there is a low level endemicity with a concentration among population subgroups with high rates of partner exchange, such as men who have sex with other men. In Germany after initially reduced numbers of cases, the incidence rate has increased after the turn of the millennium. In 2011 the incidence reached 4.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest incidence since the introduction of the Infection Protection Act of 2001. Syphilis, like other sexually transmitted infections and diseases with its manifold clinical manifestations and complex diagnostics, is a large global problem for public health systems. The recent resurgence of syphilis presents a challenge for all physicians but particularly for dermatologists and venereologists because the skin and adjacent mucous membranes are initially affected. Rapid diagnosis, differential diagnosis, consequent treatment and monitoring can cure the disease. Prevention of misdiagnosis is essential otherwise severe, sometimes fatal cardiovascular complications, neurosyphilis and transfer to unborn and newborn children can occur. The synergy of syphilis and sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of special importance. Syphilis together with genital herpes and other sexually transmitted genital and oral ulcers is an important pacemaker for HIV. PMID:24150827

Gross, G; Flaig, B; Rode, S

2013-10-01

10

Recent aspects of thyroglobulin in physiology and pathology; Aspects recents de la thyroglobuline en physiologie et pathologie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thyroglobulin (tg), strongly concentrated in the colloid, through a recycling to the colloid or by transcytosis to the blood stream, (function attributed to an unidentified N -Acetylglucosamine ) is linked to megalin to avoid lysosomal pathway and is delivered by a transepithelial transport (transcytosis). The promoter of this human thyroglobulin is tightly dependent on TTF-1 factor (thyroid-specific transcription factor) and Pax 8. Human recombinant TSH can increase serum baseline levels of thyroglobulin in a study from 25 to 30,000 ng/ml reflecting in part the heterogeneity of the population studied. The 131 Iodide Scan diagnosis and the measurement of serum thyroglobulin are the follow-up cornerstone that offer the opportunity in the detection of recurrence or ongoing cancer in early stage. Until now the thyroglobulin has been used in the same time than nuclear imaging. The Fluorine-18-fluoro deoxyglucose tomography positron emission plays a supplementary role in the localization of thyroid cancer recurrence sites. A control after increased post therapeutic thyroglobulin triggers a 131 Iodide scan and nuclear magnetic resonance study. In the follow-up of thyroidectomized patients with ablative radio-iodide, it is reasonable to treat patients that have an progressive increase of thyroglobulin levels but also to continue tight surveillance in those that have thyroglobulin concentrations that decrease or are stable. Fluorine-18 fluoro deoxyglucose positron emission tomography is useful in the cases with negative 131 Iodide scan and increase thyroglobulin levels. But this method has limits to find minimal disease. It is noteworthy that increased level of thyroglobulin is observed in iodine deficiency with 28.9% of world population concerned with goiter and 2% (11.2 million) with cretinism or 43 millions with mental retardation. Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies affect all the continuum of the clinical phenotype of autoimmune thyroid diseases suggesting a common pathophysiological mechanism. In the detection of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis in elderly positive findings concerning anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyro-peroxidase show a higher sensitivity in radioimmunology (76%) comparatively to hemagglutination tests (44%) (p < 0,05). Some epitopes in C terminal region of thyroglobulin are associated with Graves' disease. A group of autoantibodies directed to this thyroglobulin region is associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy and can be involved in the development of the disease. A main gene products antithyroid antibodies. This gene is localized on chromosome 2q33 and could be likely 4 CTLA gene. Immunohistochemistry by thyroglobulin allows to authenticate thyroid tissue features. It is necessary to avoid delay of appropriate diagnosis of thyroid occult papillary cancer. (author)

Hassane Sidibe, E. [Centre Medical Marc Sankale - Fann, Dakar (Senegal); Dangou, J.M. [Laboratoire Anatomo-Pathologie, FMPO - UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Mbodj, M. [Laboratoire de Biophysique, FMPO - UCAD, Dakar (Senegal)

2004-06-01

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Feline panleukopenia virus revisited : molecular characteristics and pathological lesions associated with three recent isolates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The low incidence of clinical signs or pathological lesions compatible with feline panleukopenia in cats has created the perception among practitioners that the disease has disappeared since the emergence of canine parvovirus type 2 in the late 1970s.Three parvoviruses that were recently isolated from a domestic cat and 2 cheetahs in cell culture or detected by means of the polymerase chain reaction were shown to be typical feline parvoviruses. Phylogenetic comparison with other FPV isolates did not reveal a particular African cluster.

M. Van Vuuren

2012-07-01

12

pathologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information transmission within the visual system is highly organized with the ultimate goal of accomplishing higher-order, complex visuo-spatial and object identity processing. Perception is dependent on the intactness of the entire system and damage at each stage – in the eye itself, the visual pathways, or within cortical processing - might result in perception disturbance. Herein we will review several examples of lesions along the visual system, from the retina, via the optic nerve and chiasm and through the occipital cortex. We will address their clinical manifestation and their cortical substrate. The latter will be studied via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, enabling cortical and white matter mapping of the human brain. In contrast to traditional signal recording, these procedures enable simultaneous evaluation of the entire brain network engaged when subjects undertake a particular task or evaluate the entirety of associated white matter pathways. These examples provided will highlight the importance of using advanced imaging methods to better understand visual pathologies. We will argue that clinical manifestation cannot always be explained solely by structural damage and a functional view is required to understand the clinical symptom. In such cases we recommend using advanced imaging methods to better understand the neurological basis of visual phenomena.

NoaRaz

2014-08-01

13

[Genetic and molecular aspects of obesity: recent data].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a disease responsible for many serious complications. The sharp rise in the prevalence of obesity in many countries is supplying a powerful drive to basic and clinical research. Several genes responsible for monogenic murine obesity have recently been identified. One of these genes encodes the OB protein, or leptine, which is secreted by fat tissue and inhibits appetite by means of an effect on the hypothalamus. In humans, obese subjects carrying a mutation of this gene or of the leptine receptor have been identified. Several other genes implicated in human obesity have been mapped to chromosomes 1, 11, 18, and 20. Several transcription factors that control fat cell differentiation have been identified, such as C/ERB alpha, beta, and delta; ADD1/SREBP1, and PPAR gamma 2. It has been established that fat tissue can secrete many factors, including TNF alpha, CETP, IGF beta, TGF beta, PGE2, and LPA. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are recently characterized proteins capable of uncoupling respiration and contributing to energy expenditures. The hypothalamic neuropeptides and their receptors are a focus of active research. About ten of these neuropeptides have been identified. PMID:10674263

Ricquier, D

1999-12-01

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Recent aspects of the thermodynamics of polymer solutions (  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work examines different approaches to the thermodynamics of polymer solutions set in their historical context. First of all, the Flory-Huggins network model is described and its deficiencies are pointed out. Then attention is drawn briefly to the statistical mechanics of polymer solutions as introduced by Prigogine in 1957, and these mechanics are shown to be a qualitative advance compared with the network theory, but nonetheless do not quantitatively predict the properties of such solutions. It is then shown that the concept of free volume, enabling some quantities to be treated in a simplified way, also serves to provide a quite natural explanation for the existence of a second phase separation temperature when the temperature is raised, i.e., a property that differentiates polymer solutions from simple liquid mixtures. In the final part, brief mention is made of recent research by the Paris School which has been treating polymer solutions by similarity to magnetic transitions. (35 refs.)

Dayantis, J.

1977-09-01

15

Seasonal aspects of the recent pause in surface warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors involved in the recent pause in the rise of global mean temperatures are examined seasonally. For 1999 to 2012, the hiatus in surface warming is mainly evident in the central and eastern Pacific. It is manifested as strong anomalous easterly trade winds, distinctive sea-level pressure patterns, and large rainfall anomalies in the Pacific, which resemble the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These features are accompanied by upper tropospheric teleconnection wave patterns that extend throughout the Pacific, to polar regions, and into the Atlantic. The extratropical features are particularly strong during winter. By using an idealized heating to force a comprehensive atmospheric model, the large negative anomalous latent heating associated with the observed deficit in central tropical Pacific rainfall is shown to be mainly responsible for the global quasi-stationary waves in the upper troposphere. The wave patterns in turn created persistent regional climate anomalies, increasing the odds of cold winters in Europe. Hence, tropical Pacific forcing of the atmosphere such as that associated with a negative phase of the PDO produces many of the pronounced atmospheric circulation anomalies observed globally during the hiatus.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Branstator, Grant; Phillips, Adam S.

2014-10-01

16

Recent aspects of nitration: New preparative methods and mechanistic studies (A Review)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New preparative methods of electrophilic nitration and transfer nitration are reviewed, including reactions relating to the ambident reactivity of the nitronium ion. Recent aspects of the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution are discussed.

Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.; Lammertsma, Koop

1982-01-01

17

Recent Research on the Acquisition of Aspect: An Embarrassment of Riches?  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys recent research on the first and second language acquisition of temporal and aspectual properties of natural languages. Three recently published books are discussed in the context of the primacy or aspect hypothesis and the prototype, the connectionist, and the discourse explanations for the attested acquisition sequences. (Author/VWL)

Slabakova, Roumyana

2002-01-01

18

Physiological and pathological aspects of Abeta in iron homeostasis via 5'UTR in the APP mRNA and the therapeutic use of iron-chelators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have highlighted the pathological involvement of iron accumulation and iron-related oxidative stress (OS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iron was further demonstrated to modulate expression of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor holo-protein (APP) by a mechanism similar to that of regulation of ferritin-L and -H mRNA translation through an iron-responsive element (IRE) in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs). Here, we discuss two aspects of the link between iron and AD, in relation to the recently discovered IRE in the 5'UTR of APP mRNA. The first is the physiological aspect: a compensatory neuroprotective response of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) in reducing iron-induced neurotoxicity. Thus, given that Abeta possesses iron chelation sites, it is hypothesized that OS-induced intracellular iron may stimulate APP holo-protein translation (via the APP 5'UTR) and subsequently the generation of its cleavage product, Abeta, as a compensatory response that eventually reduces OS. The second is the pathological aspect: iron chelating compounds target the APP 5'UTR and possess the capacity to reduce APP translation, and subsequently Abeta levels, and thus represent molecules with high potential in the development of drugs for the treatment of AD. PMID:19090990

Avramovich-Tirosh, Yael; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Weinreb, Orly; Youdim, Moussa B H

2008-01-01

19

Physiological and pathological aspects of A? in iron homeostasis via 5'UTR in the APP mRNA and the therapeutic use of iron-chelators  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have highlighted the pathological involvement of iron accumulation and iron-related oxidative stress (OS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iron was further demonstrated to modulate expression of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor holo-protein (APP) by a mechanism similar to that of regulation of ferritin-L and -H mRNA translation through an iron-responsive element (IRE) in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs). Here, we discuss two aspects of the link between iron and AD, in relation to the recently discovered IRE in the 5'UTR of APP mRNA. The first is the physiological aspect: a compensatory neuroprotective response of amyloid-? protein (A?) in reducing iron-induced neurotoxicity. Thus, given that A? possesses iron chelation sites, it is hypothesized that OS-induced intracellular iron may stimulate APP holo-protein translation (via the APP 5'UTR) and subsequently the generation of its cleavage product, A?, as a compensatory response that eventually reduces OS. The second is the pathological aspect: iron chelating compounds target the APP 5'UTR and possess the capacity to reduce APP translation, and subsequently A? levels, and thus represent molecules with high potential in the development of drugs for the treatment of AD. PMID:19090990

Avramovich-Tirosh, Yael; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Weinreb, Orly; Youdim, Moussa BH

2008-01-01

20

Melanocyte colonization and pigmentation of breast carcinoma : pathological and clinical aspects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction. Melanocyte colonization of breast carcinoma by nonneoplastic melanocytes of epidermal origin is a rare and serious condition first described in 1977. We report on the exceptional clinical and pathological features of this migration phenomenon in a 74-year-old patient. Discussion. The pathogenesis by which melanocyte migration takes place is not known, but a breached basement membrane is considered essential. Conclusion. Histological examination and additional staining of skin are essential to differentiate breast cancer melanosis from malignant melanoma.

Mele, Marco; Laurberg, Tinne

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis as a rare pathologic aspect of chronic active pelvic inflammatory disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) is a rare form of chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes. A 41-year old woman with a history of secondary infertility for 2 years is presented. The patient underwent bilateral salpingooopherectomy with presumptive diagnosis of adnexal mass with cystic component. Intraoperative pathology consultation was done. The diagnosis of bilateral XGS associated with chronic active follicular salpingitis was made. XGS is reported to be caused by an unsuccesfully...

Yener Nese; Ilter Erdin; Midi Ahmet

2011-01-01

22

Recent Conceptual Consequences of Loop Quantum Gravity. Part I Foundational Aspects  

CERN Document Server

Conceptual consequences of recent results in loop quantum gravity are collected and discussed here in view of their implications for a modern philosophy of science which is mainly understood as one that totalizes scientific insight so as to eventually achieve a consistent model of what may be called fundamental heuristics on an onto-epistemic background which is part of recently proposed transcendental materialism. This enterprise is being understood as a serious attempt of answering recent appeals to philosophy so as to provide a conceptual foundation for what is going on in modern physics, and of bridging the obvious gap between physics and philosophy. This present first part of the paper deals with foundational aspects of this enterprise, a second part will deal with its holistic aspects.

Zimmermann, R E

2001-01-01

23

Ocular system involvement in the course of human trichinellosis. Pathological and diagnostic aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathomechanism of lesions in the course of trichinellosis was discussed, representing a sum of immunopathologicaI, pathomorphological and biochemical phenomena. Particular attention was devoted to clinical pathology of the visual organ, which prevails at the acute stage of trichinellosis. In evaluation of clinical signs/symptoms manifested in the visual organ traits of its anatomic, morphological structure, function of the eyeball muscles and eyeball vascular system were taken into account. Ocular lesions in the course of trichinellosis reflect in principle angiomyositis due to immunopathology resulting from migration of Trichinella larvae to many organs and to structures of visual system. PMID:25119365

Koci?cki, Jaros?aw; Czaplicka, Ewa; Koci?cka, Wanda

2014-09-01

24

Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis as a rare pathologic aspect of chronic active pelvic inflammatory disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS is a rare form of chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes. A 41-year old woman with a history of secondary infertility for 2 years is presented. The patient underwent bilateral salpingooopherectomy with presumptive diagnosis of adnexal mass with cystic component. Intraoperative pathology consultation was done. The diagnosis of bilateral XGS associated with chronic active follicular salpingitis was made. XGS is reported to be caused by an unsuccesfully treated pelvic inflammatory disease. Its association with chronic active follicular salpingitis has not been previously reported. Chronic active follicular salpingitis with xanthogranulomatous inflammation might give the impression of a cystic adnexal mass with septations on preoperative pelvic computed tomography. Frozen sections are necessary to rule out malignancy as done in our case.

Yener Nese

2011-01-01

25

Morpho-structural aspects concerning the healthy liver comparative to the pathological one  

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Full Text Available The paper analyzes the microscopic modifications of the liver, on a batch of dead patients,suffering from hepato-cellular affections, all from the Districtual Hospital of Botosani, between September-November 2008. The patological aspects of the liver, in its every form, are observed especially in men which are big alcohol consumers. The normal structure of the liver is obviously transforming in hepatic diseases like alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, liver cancer and hydatid cyst.

Gianina Comanescu

2009-03-01

26

On Linguistic and Interactive Aspects of Infant-Adult Communication in a Pathological Perspective  

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This is a preliminary report of a study of some linguistic and interactive aspects available in an adult-child dyad where the child is partially hearing impaired, during the ages 8 - 20 months. The investigation involves a male child, born with Hemifacial Microsomia. Audio and video recordings are used to collect data on child vocalization and parent-child interaction. Eye-tracking is used to measure eye movements when presented with audio-visual stimuli. SECDI forms are applied to observe th...

Bjursa?ter, Ulla; Lacerda, Francisco; Sundberg, Ulla

2005-01-01

27

Peculiarities of a Penial Hemodynamics in Patients with a Cerebrovascular Pathology (New Aspects  

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Full Text Available Aim of investigation is assessment of the hemodynamic disturbance influence in patients with a cerebrovascular pathology on the erectile functions.Materials and methods. 171 patients with a dyscirculatory encephalopathy, 96 — with initial manifestations of a cerebral circulation insufficiency, 92 — with consequences of ischemic insult were examined with a method of ultrasonic doplerography with a spectral analysis.Results. The arterial inflow disturbances in patients with a dyscirculatory encephalopathy were revealed in a half of cases, however they were faintly expressed, and a functional possibility of cavernous bodies is conserved in majority of cases. A venous hemodynamics disturbance in a penis in patients with the cerebrovascular diseases is revealed in more than a quarter of humans with ischemic insult and in 8.7% of humans with a dyscirculatory encephalopathy. The critical disturbances of a venous hemodynamics in a penis are not revealed in patients with initial manifestations of a cerebral circulation disturbance.A participation of erectile dysfunction in a pathogenesis at the vascular factor cerebrovascular diseases is confirmed, and moreover both arterial and venous systems of a penis circulation are affected, frequently in combination with each other.

V.V. Klochai

2010-05-01

28

The epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: insights into physiological and pathological aspects of oral tissues  

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Full Text Available In the human biological system, the individual cells divide and form tissues and organs. These tissues are hetero-cellular. Basically any tissue consists of an epithelium and the connective tissue. The latter contains mainly mesenchymally-derived tissues with a diversified cell population. The cell continues to grow and differentiate in a pre-programmed manner using a messenger system. The epithelium and the mesenchymal portion of each tissue have two different origins and perform specific functions, but there is a well-defined interaction mechanism, which mediates between them. Epithelial mesenchymal interactions (EMIs are part of this mechanism, which can be regarded as a biological conversation between epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations involved in the cellular differentiation of one or both cell populations. EMIs represent a process that is essential for cell growth, cell differentiation and cell multiplication. EMIs are associated with normal physiological processes in the oral cavity, such as odontogenesis, dentino-enamel junction formation, salivary gland development, palatogenesis, and also pathological processes, such as oral cancer. This paper focuses the role EMIs in odontogenesis, salivary gland development, palatogenesis and oral cancer.

Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh

2014-03-01

29

Cisto mesentérico: aspectos clínicos e anátomopatológicos / Mesenteric cyst: clinical and pathological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Discutir aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo-patológicos e terapêuticos de cistos mesentéricos atendidos em hospitais do Estado de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal, consistindo de um levantamento de uma série de casos de cistos mesentéricos, nos arqu [...] ivos do Laboratório de Patologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe no período de 1995 a 2007. Revisaram-se os prontuários dos pacientes para coleta de dados: gênero, idade, quadro clínico, exames complementares e abordagem terapêutica. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 18 casos de cistos mesentéricos. O gênero predominante foi o feminino (72,2%). A média de idade dos pacientes ao diagnóstico foi de 30,48 anos. Os sintomas mais freqüentes foram dor e massa abdominal. A ultra-sonografia de abdome, realizada em todos os pacientes, não foi conclusiva em metade dos casos. Tomografia computadorizada de abdome com contraste foi realizada em seis casos, sendo a tumoração cística bem evidenciada em todos estes. Quanto ao tipo histopatológico foram encontrados oito linfangiomas, oito cistos mesoteliais, um cisto hemorrágico em organização e um cisto mucinoso. O tratamento cirúrgico foi empregado em todos os casos. Hemorragia intracística foi a principal complicação apresentada, ocorrendo em três casos. CONCLUSÃO: Os cistos mesentéricos apresentaram-se clinicamente com sintomas inespecíficos e pouco sintomáticos. Quanto ao diagnóstico, a tomografia computadorizada mostrou ser mais efetiva que a ultrassonografia. Linfangiomas e mesoteliomas foram encontrados em proporções iguais. A ressecção completa do cisto foi o tratamento de eleição e não houve óbitos no pós-operatório. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic and therapeutic characteristics of the mesenteric cysts in hospitals of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: Mesenteric cysts were assessed by a non-interventional cross-sectional study from the archives of the Pathology Laboratory of Federal Universit [...] y of Sergipe between 1995 and 2007. The charts of the patients were reviewed in order to find out: gender, age, clinical findings, complementary exams and therapeutic approach. RESULTS: Eighteen cases of mesenteric cysts were found. Females were more affected (72.2%). Mean of age of the patients was 30.46. More frequent symptoms were pain and abdominal mass. Ultrasonography of abdomen, performed in all patients, was not conclusive in half of the cases. CTscan of abdomen with contrast was performed in six cases, being cystic tumor well identified in all of them. Regarding histopathology, 6 lymphangiomas, 8 mesotheliomas, 1 hemorrhagic cyst in organization and 1 mucinous cyst were found. Surgical treatment was performed in all cases. Intracystic bleeding was the main complication in 3 cases. CONCLUSION: The mesenteric cysts presented clinically with unspecific symptoms. CTscan was more effective than ultrasonography for the diagnosis. Lymphangiomas and mesothelioma had been found in equal ratios. The complete ressection of the cyst was the treatment of election. There were no deaths in postoperative period.

Wagner Barreto de, Santana; Wendell Luiz Santos, Poderoso; José Antonio Barreto, Alves; Valdinaldo Aragão de, Melo; Celso de, Barros; Ricardo, Fakhouri.

2010-08-01

30

Clinical, endocrinological and pathological aspects of beta-HCG-positive seminoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important aspects of the clinical findings, endocrinology and course of the disease in 14 patients with the histological diagnosis of pure seminoma of the tests and positive serum beta-HCG levels are presented. In addition to routine investigations, immunohistochemical examination of the formalin-fixed specimen by the immunoperoxidase technique was also carried out. Serum alpha-feto-protein levels remained normal in all 14 patients. There was no correlation between serum beta-HCG level and tumour stage. The longest period of observation was 76 months and the shortest 8 months. Patients with no evidence of metastatic diasease (5 patients, N0M0) or patients with low-stage disease (5 patients, N1 or N2M0) respond very well to radiotherapy. 4 patients (N3-N4M0) with large retroperitoneal metastases or distant lymph node metastases underwent different combinations of treatment. (Author)

31

Recent findings on the role of white matter pathology in bipolar disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience difficulties in information processing and in the cognitive control of emotions. Mood-congruent biases, which parallel illness episodes, find a neural correlate in abnormal reactivity to stimuli in specific brain regions, and in disrupted functional connectivity among brain areas pertaining to corticolimbic circuitries. It is suggested that a reduced integrity of white matter tracts could underpin dysfunctions in networks implicated in the generation and control of affect. Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging techniques found that (1) independent of drug treatment, patients with BD show widespread signs of disrupted white matter microstructure, suggesting significant demyelination/dysmyelination without axonal loss, and (2) effective long-term treatment with lithium is associated with increased axial connectivity, proportional to the duration of treatment. These findings suggest that changes of white matter microstructure in specific brain networks could parallel disrupted neural connectivity during illness episodes in BD and that these changes might play a major role in the mechanistic explanation of the biological underpinnings of BD psychopathology. PMID:25377606

Benedetti, Francesco; Bollettini, Irene

2014-01-01

32

Aspects of gametogenesis and radiation pathology in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen); gametogenesis, pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads. Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and autoradiographical methods, including investigation of living male germinal cells, are used. The gross anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems is simple as compared to other insect species. In newly hatched larvae the gonads contain on an average 13 germinal cells. Gonads in larvae which are less than 7 days old cannot be distinguished as being male or female. This distinction becomes possible after the apical cell and the apical somatic tissue respectively is formed in the young gonad. Spermatogenesis is treated in a number of paragraphs dealing with the description and identification of germinal and somatic cell types, the ontogenetic development of the testis, the dynamics of spermatogenesis and aspects comparative spermatogenesis. A proper identification of the testicular cell types is considered to be imperative to any correct experimental approach of spermatogenesis. Morphological descriptions of the various germinal and somatic cell types are given accordingly. Comparison of mainly morphological features of male germinal cell types in a number of insect species, including H. antiqua, indicates possibilities for comparative research of spermatogenesis in various insect species. This could provide a basis for comparative radiobiological or other experimental investigations on insect spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis share a number of features, which suggests a certain similarity of the processes involved

33

Identifying aspects of Ambient Intelligence through a review of recent developments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has already been realized by the scientific and technical community that a new form of technology is going to lead the future technological developments. This technology will be more human-centric and will be more and more “hidden” within everyday-life objects. It will be smarter, personalized, pervasive and ubiquitous. This technology includes what is called Ambient Intelligence (AmI). In this paper, we identify the main aspects of AmI through a review of the recent developments that ...

Maria Charalampidou; Spyridon Mouroutsos; George Pavlidis

2012-01-01

34

Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to communicate. The second work is a radioanatomic study of one of the structures of the inner ear - the bony canal for the cochlear nerve. It involves measurements of the dimensions of the canal on 117 silicone rubber casts of the temporal bone (from a unique collection of casts at Uppsala temporal bone laboratory) and on 50 clinical CT-studies (100 ears). The purpose was to show the normal variation, which is of use in the appraisal of congenital temporal bone malformations on CT. Based on our results we propose that if the canal is less than 1.4 mm, as measured on CT, the possibility of cochlear nerve abnormality should be considered. This is of interest since aplasia of the cochlear nerve is a contraindication to cochlear implantation. If the canal is wider than 3.0 mm, then other anomalies may coexist, with the risk of CSF gusher when a cochleostomy or stape-dectomy is performed

35

The thalamus and multiple sclerosis: modern views on pathologic, imaging, and clinical aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paired thalamic nuclei are gray matter (GM) structures on both sides of the third ventricle that play major roles in cortical activation, relaying sensory information to the higher cortical centers that influence cognition. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the human CNS that affects both the white matter (WM) and GM. A number of clinical observations as well as recent neuropathologic and neuroimaging studies have clearly demonstrated extensive involvement of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and neocortex in patients with MS. Modern MRI techniques permit visualization of GM lesions and measurement of atrophy. These contemporary methods have fundamentally altered our understanding of the pathophysiologic nature of MS. Evidence confirms the contention that GM injury can be detected in the earliest phases of MS, and that iron deposition and atrophy of deep gray nuclei are closely related to the magnitude of inflammation. Extensive involvement of GM, and particularly of the thalamus, is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations including cognitive decline, motor deficits, fatigue, painful syndromes, and ocular motility disturbances in patients with MS. In this review, we characterize the neuropathologic, neuroimaging, and clinical features of thalamic involvement in MS. Further, we underscore the contention that neuropathologic and neuroimaging correlative investigations of thalamic derangements in MS may elucidate not heretofore considered pathobiological underpinnings germane to understanding the ontogeny, magnitude, and progression of the disease process. PMID:23296131

Minagar, Alireza; Barnett, Michael H; Benedict, Ralph H B; Pelletier, Daniel; Pirko, Istvan; Sahraian, Mohamad Ali; Frohman, Elliott; Zivadinov, Robert

2013-01-01

36

Abordaje subcraneal: Consideraciones técnicas y aplicaciones en patología traumática craneofacial / Subcranial approach: Technical aspects and application in craneofacial traumatic pathology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La elección del abordaje más adecuado a la base craneal en cada caso es esencial para la obtención de resultados quirúrgicos globales satisfactorios. Inicialmente dependerá de la localización anatómica exacta de la lesión dentro de la base craneal y de su extensión tridimensional, así [...] como de la naturaleza de la misma. Las opciones posibles deben ser depuradas finalmente en función del status global del paciente, planificación reconstructiva y experiencia del equipo quirúrgico. El abordaje subcraneal es una opción terapéutica segura en el tratamiento de la patología traumática frontal. Permite el manejo adecuado del seno frontal y su obliteración si es precisa, favoreciendo el seguimiento radiológico del mismo. Objetivos. Validar el abordaje subcraneal como vía adecuada de acceso en patología traumática de la base craneal anterior. Revisión de nuestra serie clínica. Valoración de aspectos técnicos quirúrgicos. Análisis de complicaciones. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 50 pacientes intervenidos desde Enero de 2004 hasta Diciembre 2009 por el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial y Servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid) mediante abordaje subcraneal. 34 pacientes presentaban traumatismos craneofaciales o secuelas postraumáticas y 16 pacientes presentaban patología oncológica. Se enumeran los casos oncológicos como base de experiencia para la descripción de los aspectos técnicos. La casuística descrita se refiere a la patología traumática y sus secuelas. Los principales parámetros analizados fueron la técnica quirúrgica incluyendo el material de relleno para la obliteración del seno frontal, patología traumática asociada, estancia hospitalaria y tasa de complicaciones. Resultados. No existió mortalidad intra-postoperatoria inmediata. La edad varía entre los 15-76 años siendo 22 varones y 12 mujeres. Se describe el tipo de fracturas frontales asociadas. El material de relleno empleado en la obliteración frontal fue hueso de calota. El 29% de los pacientes con patología traumática o secuelas presentaron morbilidad precoz-tardía. La estancia media hospitalaria fue de 13 días. Conclusiones. El abordaje subcraneal a la base craneal anterior es una técnica versátil y razonable en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la patología de dicha región anatómica. Aporta una exposición excelente de la cavidad nasal, órbitas y celdillas etmoidales-seno esfenoidal, permitiendo un amplio acceso a la fosa anterior con mínima retracción de los lóbulos frontales. Abstract in english Introduction. Suitable approach to anterior cranial base is mandatory to get global satisfactory surgical out-comes. In the beginning it depends on the exactly anatomical position into the cranial fossa and tridimensional spread. Surgical approach implies the evaluation of the patient status, recons [...] tructive options and surgical team experience. Subcranial approach is a safe surgical option in the treatment of frontal traumatic pathology. It allows adequate management of frontal sinus and its obliteration with easy radiologic follow-up. Objectives. To analyse subcranial approach as a treatment option in traumatic pathology of the anterior cranial base and to present our review of subcranial approach. Valuation of surgical technical aspects. and related complications. Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 50 patients operated (subcranial approach) from January 2004 to December 2009 by Maxillofacial and Neurosurgery Department, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid. 34 patients presented craniofacial trauma or postraumatic sequela and 16 patients presented craniofacial tumours. Oncological cases offers experience to discuss surgical aspects. Results are related to traumatic pathology and sequela. Main items review were surgical technique including materials used for frontal sinus obliteration, associated traumatic pathology, hospital stay and complication r

I., Zubillaga-Rodríguez; M.I., Falguera-Uceda; G., Sánchez-Aniceto; J.J., Montalvo-Moreno; R., Díez-Lobato.

37

Abordaje subcraneal: Consideraciones técnicas y aplicaciones en patología traumática craneofacial / Subcranial approach: Technical aspects and application in craneofacial traumatic pathology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La elección del abordaje más adecuado a la base craneal en cada caso es esencial para la obtención de resultados quirúrgicos globales satisfactorios. Inicialmente dependerá de la localización anatómica exacta de la lesión dentro de la base craneal y de su extensión tridimensional, así [...] como de la naturaleza de la misma. Las opciones posibles deben ser depuradas finalmente en función del status global del paciente, planificación reconstructiva y experiencia del equipo quirúrgico. El abordaje subcraneal es una opción terapéutica segura en el tratamiento de la patología traumática frontal. Permite el manejo adecuado del seno frontal y su obliteración si es precisa, favoreciendo el seguimiento radiológico del mismo. Objetivos. Validar el abordaje subcraneal como vía adecuada de acceso en patología traumática de la base craneal anterior. Revisión de nuestra serie clínica. Valoración de aspectos técnicos quirúrgicos. Análisis de complicaciones. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 50 pacientes intervenidos desde Enero de 2004 hasta Diciembre 2009 por el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial y Servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid) mediante abordaje subcraneal. 34 pacientes presentaban traumatismos craneofaciales o secuelas postraumáticas y 16 pacientes presentaban patología oncológica. Se enumeran los casos oncológicos como base de experiencia para la descripción de los aspectos técnicos. La casuística descrita se refiere a la patología traumática y sus secuelas. Los principales parámetros analizados fueron la técnica quirúrgica incluyendo el material de relleno para la obliteración del seno frontal, patología traumática asociada, estancia hospitalaria y tasa de complicaciones. Resultados. No existió mortalidad intra-postoperatoria inmediata. La edad varía entre los 15-76 años siendo 22 varones y 12 mujeres. Se describe el tipo de fracturas frontales asociadas. El material de relleno empleado en la obliteración frontal fue hueso de calota. El 29% de los pacientes con patología traumática o secuelas presentaron morbilidad precoz-tardía. La estancia media hospitalaria fue de 13 días. Conclusiones. El abordaje subcraneal a la base craneal anterior es una técnica versátil y razonable en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la patología de dicha región anatómica. Aporta una exposición excelente de la cavidad nasal, órbitas y celdillas etmoidales-seno esfenoidal, permitiendo un amplio acceso a la fosa anterior con mínima retracción de los lóbulos frontales. Abstract in english Introduction. Suitable approach to anterior cranial base is mandatory to get global satisfactory surgical out-comes. In the beginning it depends on the exactly anatomical position into the cranial fossa and tridimensional spread. Surgical approach implies the evaluation of the patient status, recons [...] tructive options and surgical team experience. Subcranial approach is a safe surgical option in the treatment of frontal traumatic pathology. It allows adequate management of frontal sinus and its obliteration with easy radiologic follow-up. Objectives. To analyse subcranial approach as a treatment option in traumatic pathology of the anterior cranial base and to present our review of subcranial approach. Valuation of surgical technical aspects. and related complications. Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 50 patients operated (subcranial approach) from January 2004 to December 2009 by Maxillofacial and Neurosurgery Department, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid. 34 patients presented craniofacial trauma or postraumatic sequela and 16 patients presented craniofacial tumours. Oncological cases offers experience to discuss surgical aspects. Results are related to traumatic pathology and sequela. Main items review were surgical technique including materials used for frontal sinus obliteration, associated traumatic pathology, hospital stay and complication r

I., Zubillaga-Rodríguez; M.I., Falguera-Uceda; G., Sánchez-Aniceto; J.J., Montalvo-Moreno; R., Díez-Lobato.

2010-12-01

38

The urea transporter family (SLC14): physiological, pathological and structural aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urea transporters (UTs) belonging to the solute carrier 14 (SLC14) family comprise two genes with a total of eight isoforms in mammals, UT-A1 to -A6 encoded by SLC14A2 and UT-B1 to -B2 encoded by SLC14A1. Recent efforts have been directed toward understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of UTs using transgenic mouse models and heterologous expression systems, leading to important new insights. Urea uptake by UT-A1 and UT-A3 in the kidney inner medullary collecting duct and by UT-B1 in the descending vasa recta for the countercurrent exchange system are chiefly responsible for medullary urea accumulation in the urinary concentration process. Vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone, regulates UT-A isoforms via the phosphorylation and trafficking of the glycosylated transporters to the plasma membrane that occurs to maintain equilibrium with the exocytosis and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathways. UT-B isoforms are also important in several cellular functions, including urea nitrogen salvaging in the colon, nitric oxide pathway modulation in the hippocampus, and the normal cardiac conduction system. In addition, genomic linkage studies have revealed potential additional roles for SLC14A1 and SLC14A2 in hypertension and bladder carcinogenesis. The precise role of UT-A2 and presence of the urea recycling pathway in normal kidney are issues to be further explored. This review provides an update of these advances and their implications for our current understanding of the SLC14 UTs. PMID:23506873

Shayakul, Chairat; Clémençon, Benjamin; Hediger, Matthias A

2013-01-01

39

Experimental infection with Rangelia vitalii in dogs: acute phase, parasitemia, biological cycle, clinical-pathological aspects and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently we conducted the molecular characterization of Rangelia vitalii, a protozoan with high pathogenicity for young dogs in southern Brazil. To date, the descriptions of the disease have been restricted to natural infection cases. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the parasitemia, biological cycles and clinical-pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with R. vitalii in the acute phase of disease, and also aimed to test a therapeutic protocol based on the diminazene aceturate. For this study, we used 12 young dogs (females), separated into two groups. Group A was composed of healthy dogs, not-infected (n=5), and Group B consisted of animals infected with R. vitalii (n=7). After infection, the animals were monitored by blood smear examinations, which showed intra-erythrocytic forms of the parasite 5 days post-infection (PI). Parasitemia increased progressively in these animals and had the highest peak of circulating parasites between 9 and 11 days PI. Subsequently, the parasitemia reduced and the protozoan was seen inside the leukocytes in days 17, 19 and 21 PI. The most prominent clinical signs observed at the 20 day PI of experiment were lethargy, fever and anorexia. We observed a decrease of hematocrit of infected animals compared with not-infected dogs, featuring a moderate anemia. Pathological evaluation of one dog in Group B at day 21 PI revealed splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and hemorrhages at necropsy. Histological examination showed only follicular hyperplasia in the spleen and lymph nodes, and the etiologic agent in the vascular endothelium. At 21 days PI, it was performed the treatment of dogs in Group B (n=6) with a single dose of diminazene aceturate, which showed a curative efficacy of 100% in cleaning R. vitalii from blood of infected dogs. PMID:21570966

Da Silva, Aleksandro S; França, Raqueli T; Costa, Marcio M; Paim, Carlos B; Paim, Francine C; Dornelles, Guilherme L; Soares, João F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Monteiro, Silvia G; Lopes, Sonia T A

2011-08-01

40

Lasercom for interplanetary missions: recent European activities, future possibilities, and synergy aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

Science return and high bandwidth communications are key issues to support the foreseen endeavors on spaceflights to the Moon and beyond. For a given mass, power consumption and volume, laser communications can offer an increase in telemetry bandwidth over classical RF technology allowing for a variety of new options, like more raw scientific data being sent back to Earth where data processing can be performed on ground. Recent European activities in the field of laser communications investigated mission scenarios for deep space and within the Earth's sphere of influence. Various link topologies have been investigated, involving Lissajous orbits at Libration points of the Earth-Sun and the Moon- Earth system, and also Martian orbiters. Different types of lasercom terminal concepts have been investigated, either operating fully autonomously or being attached to dedicated telecom orbiter spacecraft. Enhanced pulse position modulation formats were tested together with tailored FEC and interleaver technology in inter-island test campaigns using ESA's optical ground station on Tenerife. The paper summarizes the findings from all activities, highlights the potential and describes synergy aspects of involved technologies, all in view using lasercom as part of an integrated RF-optical TT&C subsystem to support enhanced science return.

Dreischer, T.; Arnold, F.; Kudielka, K.; Tissot, Y.; Weigel, T.

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

Recent advances into understanding some aspects of the structure and function of mammalian and avian lungs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent findings are reported about certain aspects of the structure and function of the mammalian and avian lungs that include (a) the architecture of the air capillaries (ACs) and the blood capillaries (BCs); (b) the pulmonary blood capillary circulatory dynamics; (c) the adaptive molecular, cellular, biochemical, compositional, and developmental characteristics of the surfactant system; (d) the mechanisms of the translocation of fine and ultrafine particles across the airway epithelial barrier; and (e) the particle-cell interactions in the pulmonary airways. In the lung of the Muscovy duck Cairina moschata, at least, the ACs are rotund structures that are interconnected by narrow cylindrical sections, while the BCs comprise segments that are almost as long as they are wide. In contrast to the mammalian pulmonary BCs, which are highly compliant, those of birds practically behave like rigid tubes. Diving pressure has been a very powerful directional selection force that has influenced phenotypic changes in surfactant composition and function in lungs of marine mammals. After nanosized particulates are deposited on the respiratory tract of healthy human subjects, some reach organs such as the brain with potentially serious health implications. Finally, in the mammalian lung, dendritic cells of the pulmonary airways are powerful agents in engulfing deposited particles, and in birds, macrophages and erythrocytes are ardent phagocytizing cellular agents. The morphology of the lung that allows it to perform different functions-including gas exchange, ventilation of the lung by being compliant, defense, and secretion of important pharmacological factors-is reflected in its "compromise design." PMID:20687843

Maina, J N; West, J B; Orgeig, S; Foot, N J; Daniels, C B; Kiama, S G; Gehr, P; Mühlfeld, C; Blank, F; Müller, L; Lehmann, A; Brandenberger, C; Rothen-Rutishauser, B

2010-01-01

42

Some Theoretical Aspects for Elastic Wave Modeling in a Recently Developed Spectral Element Method  

Science.gov (United States)

A spectral element method has been recently developed for solving elastodynamic problems. The numerical solutions are obtained by using the weak formulation of the elastodynamic equation for heterogeneous media and by the Galerkin approach applied to a partition, in small subdomains, of the original physical domain under investigation. In the present work some mathematical aspects of the method and of the associated algorithm implementation are systematically investigated. Two kinds of orthogonal basis functions, constructed with Legendre and Chebyshev polynomials, and their related Gauss-Lobbatto collocation points, used in reference element quadrature, are introduced. The related analytical integration formulas are obtained. The standard error estimations and expansion convergence are discussed. In order to improve the computation accuracy and efficiency, an element-by-element pre-conditioned conjugate gradient linear solver in the space domain and a staggered predictor/multi-corrector algorithm in the time integration are used for strong heterogeneous elastic media. As a consequence neither the global matrices, nor the effective force vector is assembled. When analytical formula are used for the element quadrature, there is even no need for forming element matrix in order to further save memory without loosing much in computational efficiency. The element-by-element algorithm uses an optimal tensor product scheme which makes spectral element methods much more efficient than finite-element methods from the point of view of both memory storage and computational time requirements. This work is divided into two parts. The second part will give the algorithm implementation, numerical accuracy and efficiency analyses, and then the modelling example comparison of the proposed spectral element method with a conventional finite-element method and a staggered pseudo-spectral method that is to be reported in the other work.

Wang, X. M.; Seriani, G.; Lin, W. J.

2006-10-01

43

Aspects récents de la thermodynamique des solutions de polymères Recent Aspects of the Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On examine dans cet article différentes approches de la thermodynamique des solutions de polymères placées dans leur contexte historique. On rappelle d'abord le modèle du réseau de Flory-Huggins et on en souligne les déficiences. On traite ensuite brièvement de la mécanique statistique des solutions de polymères introduite par Prigogine en 1957 et on montre qu'elle constitue un progrès qualitatif par rapport à la théorie du réseau, mais qu'elle ne prévoit cependant pas de manière quantitative les propriétés de ces solutions. On montre ensuite que le concept de volume libre, qui permet un traitement simplifié de certaines quantités, permet également d'expliquer tout naturellement l'existence d'une deuxième température de séparation en phase lorsque l'on élève la température, propriété qui différencie les solutions de polymères des mélanges de liquidés simples. Enfin, dans une dernière partie, on mentionne brièvement les travaux récents de l'École de Paris, qui traite les solutions de polymères par analogie avec les transitions magnétiques. This article examines différent approaches ta the thermodynamics of polymer solutions set in their historical context. First of all, the Flory-Huggins network model is described and ifs deficiencies are pointed out. Then attention is briefly drawn to the statistical mechanics of polymer solutions as introduced by Prigogine in 1957, and this mechanics is shown to be a qualitative advance compared with the network theory, but it nonetheless does not quantitatively predict the properties of such solutions. It is then shown that the concept of free volume, enabling some quantifies to be treated in a simplified way, also serves to provide a quite natural explanation for the existence of a second phase separation temperature when the temperature is raised, i. e. a property that differentiates polymer solutions from simple liquid mixtures. In the final part, brief mention is made of recent research by the Paris School which has been treating polymer solutions by similarity ta magnetic transitions.

Dayantis J.

2006-11-01

44

Short-term and long-term aspects of recent HDR containment tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HDR Safety program has entered Phase II of containment research with a continuation of experiments. Results reported include: (1) short-term containment loading aspects (investigating the influence of various local flow patterns inside the break subcompartment upon the resulting pressure differentials between the break subcompartment and its neighboring subcompartments); (2) long-term containment loading aspects (investigating containment response for a large break water blowdown); (3) three-dimensional break subcompartment simulation with COBRA-NC (a fully three-dimensional transient calculation of the thermohydraulic phenomena in the break subcompartment immediately after blowdown initiation); and (4) fire research experiments at HDR

45

Mature bone necrosis: from recent pathophysiological aspect to a new therapeutic action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoradionecrosis is a severe radiotherapy (RT) injury by healing failure, late effect and spontaneously irreversible by tissue death. Histologically, it consists in a pagetoid mosaic that combines a defective osteogenesis with an osteoclastic osteolysis and more marginally an osteolytic osteolysis, turned to account to fibroblastic and collagenic fibrosis. Several pathogenic hypotheses favor sometimes a vascular hypoxic hypotheses, sometimes a fibro-atrophic hypothesis Various events start up or favour ORN as traumatisms (dental extraction, surgery,...) or bacterial infection on fistula. In clinic, adult mature bone concerned is the mandible after head and neck RT by septic ORN, and the hip after pelvic RT by aseptic ORN. For each, epidemiology, clinic and therapeutic aspects are developed. Usual therapeutic attitudes consisted in restriction of unfavorable associated events (dental extraction, infection, RT dose, chemotherapy,...) and devitalized tissue removal. Physiopathological therapeutic innovative aspects are proposed to struggle against radiation-induced fibrosis associated and to limit bone destruction. (authors)

46

Recent Conceptual Consequences of Loop Quantum Gravity. Part II Holistic Aspects  

CERN Document Server

Based on the foundational aspects which have been discussed as consequences of ongoing research on loop quantum gravity in the first part of this paper, the holistic aspects of the latter are discussed in this second part, aiming at a consistent and systematic approach to eventually model a hierarchically ordered architecture of the world which is encompassing all of what there actually is. The idea is to clarify the explicit relationship between physics and philosophy on the one hand, and philosophy and the sciences in general, on the other. It is shown that the ontological determination of worldliness is practically identical with its epistemological determination so that the (scientific) activity of modelling and representing the world can be visualized itself as a (worldly) mode of being.

Zimmermann, R E

2001-01-01

47

Well-established and more recent aspects of combined therapy of gynaecological tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The question of superiority concerning operative or radiation therapy should not make us forget that the combined therapy of gynaecologic carcinomas was proven to be good. The differing therapy results are due to the problems of classifying the phases, the ages of the patients, the histology, and, not less important, the radiation sensibility of gynaecologic tumours. The psychological and psychosomatic aspects of treating gynaecologic tumours are discussed. (APR)

48

Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent Earthquakes, and Consequential Mudflows and Landslides, held in Moscow, October 1989. The annexes to the document provide information on the participants, the work programme and the resolution adopted at each of the seminars. Refs, figs and tabs

49

Recent food irradiation studies in Japan. In relation to wholesomeness aspects and detection methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wholesomeness studies relevant to eliminate the fear of consumers to eat irradiated foods and the development of their detection methods useful for administrative control or the choice of consumers have become increasingly important for the commercialization of food irradiation. In recent years, some remarkable progress in these studies has been made also in Japan. The irradiation treatment of foods was investigated on the introduction of radioactivity in foods, the change of food components, the induction of mutagenicity and microbial toxin production. The harmful effect was not found. As the detection methods for irradiated foods, impedance measuring technique, germination test, viscosity-measuring method and ESR spectrometry and the determination of H2 or CO level retained in irradiated foods have been developed. Also the dose rate dependence of the response of cellulose triacetate and radiochromic film dosimeters is reported. On the effect of radiation to various foods, investigations were carried out. (K.I.)

50

Plant adaptogens. III. Earlier and more recent aspects and concepts on their mode of action.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulus-response coupling systems responsible for defence and adaptation of organism to stressors are multi-target and very complicated pharmacological systems, including the neuroendocrine (stress) and immune system. The mode of action of adaptogens is basically associated with the stress-system (neuroendocrine-immune complex) and can be directed on the various targets of the system involved in regulation (activation and inhibition) of stimulus-response coupling. However, clinical studies performed according to the most modern standards are quite limited. On the other hand there is an extensive amount of clinical experience and also established use in self care etc. These aspects are planned to be dealt within a subsequent article which will be devoted to the application in three areas: self care, adjuvants in medicine and curative action in some diseases. At this stage, nevertheless, it seems possible to define some most important "stress-markers" for evaluation of efficiency of adaptogens in experimental and clinical pharmacological studies. They can be both activating (catecholamines, LT-s, cytokines, NO, etc.--"switch on" system--which activates energetic and other resources of the organism), and deactivating (corticosteroids and PGE2-endogenous mediators of cellular communications, which protect cells and whole organism from overreacting to the activating messengers--"switch off" system) stress-messengers. The balance between the activities of the "switch on" and "switch off" systems reflects the well being of the organism. It could be established on different levels of the homeostasis (heterostasis) with different levels of the sensitivity to stressors (Figure 8). The response of stress system--"reactivity" is different at the various levels of heterostasis and depends on adaptation--capacity of the organism (or a cell) to protect itself. In the process of adaptation to stressor's effects the basal levels mediators of switch on (e.g. NO) and switch of (e.g. cortisol) systems are increasing but their balance (the ratio) does not change. In other words, adaptogens increase the capacity of stress system to respond to external signals at the higher level of the equilibrium of activating and deactivating mediators of stress response. Consequently, plant adaptogens can be defined as "smooth" pro-stressors which reduce reactivity of host defense systems and decrease damaging effects of various stressors due to increased basal level of mediators involved in the stress-response. In further studies of adaptogens it seems important to find correlation between adaptogenic activity (a decrease in the "reactivity" of the organism--the basal level of activating and deactivating messengers: ILs, LTB4, NO, PGE2, cortisol, but not their ratio) and their therapeutic efficiency (symptomatic evaluation). PMID:10589450

Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Wagner, H

1999-10-01

51

ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposit: Global aspects and recent developments in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is concluded that most of known ISL-amenable uranium deposits are attributed to roll sub-type, a minority to basal-channel sub-type, and a few to tabular in case that redistribution of U occurred. Such a classification and related explanation are beneficial to exploration in China. However, there exist significant differences between deposits in Central Asia and those in Wyoming in aspects of tectonic background, scale and shape of host sandbodies, and attitude of ore bodies though all are attributed to the same roll sub-type. Similar situation is presented for deposits of basal channel sub-type. So, it is proposed to establish deposit model and model series, providing guidelines for exploration. Four model series and eleven models have been tentatively formulated, including: 1) Central Asia-South Texas series (Chu Sarysu-Syr Darya, Central Kyzylkum, Yili and South Texas models) where hosts are large-scale tabular sandbodies, usually developed on the slope parallel to the long axis of the basin and ore bodies have a 'C' shape with convex surfaces perpendicular to the long axis of the basin; 2) Wyoming series (Shirley-Wind River-Powder River and Great Divide models) where hosts are moderate/small sandbodies forming a wide ribbon, deposited in compressive for e-land basins while ore bodies occur on both margins of ribbon-shaped sandbodies with the convex surfaces directed outwards; 3) Grants series (Grants-primary and Grants re-distributed models) where host sandstonre-distributed models) where host sandstones were deposited as channel fill within a large-scale humid alluvial fan, containing plenty of organic matter, and ore bodies are mostly tabular in shape, transformed locally into roll form; and 4) Siberia-Bohemia series (West Siberia, Trans-baikal-West Yunnan and North Bohemia models) where U concentrations occur in, on, and/or adjacent to detrital plant debris within the channel sandstone, filling incised valley. Besides, recognition criteria are briefly explained. On the other hand, the sandstone-type uranium metallogenetic prospect of China is discussed with special attention to the Northwest Territory of China that could be considered as the east extension of a giant uranium super-province, stretching from Central Asia eastwards. The territory includes four domains and thirteen sub-domains different in uranium endowment. Meanwhile, the features of six selected deposits/mineralized areas are described in brief, including the Kujie'ertai, roll sub-type, hosted in tabular sand-bodies (J1-2sh); the Shihongtan, roll sub-type, hosted in ribbon-shaped sand-bodies (J2x); the Dongsheng, tabular sub-type with local U redistribution, hosted in ribbon-shaped sand-bodies (J2z); the Nuheting, tabular sub-type, hosted in ribbon-shaped sand-bodies (K2e); the Bayantala, basal channel sub-type of Mesozoic (K1bs) age; and the Chenzishan, basal channel sub-type of Cenozoic (N2m age). Finally, it is emphasized that China, especially the Northwest Territory of China, remains highly perspective, having only minor exploration in the past. (author)

52

P53 Overexpression in Bladder Urothelial Neoplasms: New Aspect of World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable differences in P53 expression between papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP and varying grades of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Ten biopsy specimens of the patients with PUNLMP, 20 of the patients with papillary low-grade TCC, 20 of those with invasive high-grade TCC, and 10 of healthy individuals were stained for P53 protein by immunohitochemical methods. Histological grading was performed according to the World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology consensus classification of urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Results: Nuclear P53 protein in invasive high-grade TCC was slightly more frequent than that in noninvasive low-grade papillary TCC (P = .35. Ten percent of specimens with PUNLMP had nuclear P53 accumulation, while in low-grade and high-grade TCCs, 75% and 85% of the specimens were positive for P53 protein accumulation (P P53 was nil in all normal transitional epithelium specimens. Conclusion: Overexpression of P53 in papillary low-grade TCC and invasive high-grade TCC, while lacking of expression in PUNLMP indicates that mutations of P53 gene are not usually associated with the development of urothelial neoplasms and they may play a crucial role only in progression of PUNLMP to low-grade TCC.

Hassan Ahmadnia

2007-02-01

53

Aspectos patológicos, imunológicos e propriedades moleculares do TT vírus / Pathological and immunological aspects and molecular properties of TT virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O TT vírus (TTV) foi primeiramente descrito no Japão, em 1997, por T. Nishizawa, no soro de pacientes com hepatite, pós-transfusão, não-A-G. Tem sido intensivamente investigado, desde então, como uma possível adição à lista dos vírus indutores de hepatite. O TTV é um vírus DNA não-envelopado, de fit [...] a simples. Uma considerável variabilidade genética tem sido demonstrada por parte do TTV, o que tem levado pesquisadores a agrupar isolados do vírus em inúmeros genótipos e subtipos. No entanto a significância clínica da infecção por TTV permanece desconhecida. Ele é freqüentemente detectado em fluidos corporais e seu componente mais bem elucidado atualmente é o genoma. Conhecimentos relacionados ao TTV têm aumentado constantemente, porém vários aspectos fundamentais permanecem obscuros. Esta revisão apresenta algumas das propriedades moleculares do TT vírus. Abstract in english TT virus (TTV) was first reported in Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in sera from non-A to non-G post-transfusion hepatitis patients. It has been intensively investigated, ever since, as a possible addition to the list of hepatitis-inducing viruses. The TTV is an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus [...] . Considerable genetic variability of TTV has been demonstrated and has led investigators to group its isolates into numerous genotypes and subtypes. However, the clinical significance of TTV infection remains unknown. It is frequently detected in the serum and in other body fluids of humans. The component of TTV currently best understood is its genome. Knowledge related to TTV has increased rapidly, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This review shows some of the molecular properties of TT virus.

Maria Angelica Ehara, Watanabe; Helen Cristina, Miranda; Karen Brajão de, Oliveira; Carlos Eduardo Coral de, Oliveira; Fabrine Sales Massafera, Tristão; Leila Maria, Duarte; Ligiane de Lourdes, Silva; Andréia Corrêa, Corte; Flávia Alessandra, Guarnier; Mari Sumigawa, Kaminami.

2005-08-01

54

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da intoxicação por aceturato de diminazeno em cães / Epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of diminazene aceturate toxicosis in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da intoxicação espontânea por aceturato de diminazeno foram estudados em 10 cães. Em todos os casos, os cães afetados demonstraram sinais de síndrome tálamo-cortical, principalmente alteração do nível de consciência, tetraparesia, rigidez ex [...] tensora e crise convulsiva. Em alguns casos, os cães acometidos apresentaram sinais de síndrome cerebelar, como tremores musculares generalizados de alta frequência e baixa amplitude, e/ou de síndrome vestibular, como ataxia, inclinação de cabeça e quedas. Esses sinais ocorreram entre 24 e 48 horas após o uso do fármaco injetável por via intramuscular e se mantiveram até a morte ou eutanásia dos cães (entre 1 e 7 dias). Tais sinais clínicos refletiam encefalomalacia hemorrágica focal simétrica, que afetava a medula oblonga, a ponte, a medular do cerebelo, o tálamo, o mesencéfalo, os pedúnculos cerebelares e os núcleos da base. Esse artigo: 1) descreve e discute essa forma de intoxicação medicamentosa tão pouco citada na literatura internacional e desconhecida da maior parte dos clínicos e patologistas veterinários brasileiros, 2) estabelece critérios clínicos e anatomopatológicos para o seu diagnóstico e, principalmente, 3) atenta para os riscos da utilização desse princípio ativo na terapêutica canina. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of diminazene aceturate (DA) spontaneous toxicosis were evaluated in 10 dogs. All affected dogs developed signs of thalamic-cortical syndrome, characterized mainly by neurological changes in the conscience levels, tetraparesis, extensor stiffne [...] ss, and seizures. In some cases there was also evidence of cerebellar syndrome, characterized by generalized muscle tremors (high-frequency and low-amplitude) and/or vestibular syndrome, characterized by or ataxia, head tilt, and falling. These clinical signs occurred between 24 and 48 hours following intramuscular administration of DA and persisted until spontaneous death or euthanasia occurred between 1 and 7 days after the onset of clinical signs. The mentioned clinical signs reflected lesions that consisted of focal symmetrical hemorrhagic encephalomalacia affecting medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellar medulla, thalamus, midbrain, cerebellar peduncles, and basal nuclei. This article (1) describes and discusses DA toxicosis in dogs, a poorly-described clinical entity that is unknown by most clinicians and pathologists in Brazil; (2) establishes the clinical and pathological criteria for the diagnosis of DA toxicosis in dogs; and (3) calls up the attention for the risks of using DA in dogs in clinical settings.

Mariana M., Flores; Paula R., Pereira; Alexandre, Mazzanti; Glaucia D., Kommers; Rafael A., Fighera.

55

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da intoxicação por aceturato de diminazeno em cães / Epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of diminazene aceturate toxicosis in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da intoxicação espontânea por aceturato de diminazeno foram estudados em 10 cães. Em todos os casos, os cães afetados demonstraram sinais de síndrome tálamo-cortical, principalmente alteração do nível de consciência, tetraparesia, rigidez ex [...] tensora e crise convulsiva. Em alguns casos, os cães acometidos apresentaram sinais de síndrome cerebelar, como tremores musculares generalizados de alta frequência e baixa amplitude, e/ou de síndrome vestibular, como ataxia, inclinação de cabeça e quedas. Esses sinais ocorreram entre 24 e 48 horas após o uso do fármaco injetável por via intramuscular e se mantiveram até a morte ou eutanásia dos cães (entre 1 e 7 dias). Tais sinais clínicos refletiam encefalomalacia hemorrágica focal simétrica, que afetava a medula oblonga, a ponte, a medular do cerebelo, o tálamo, o mesencéfalo, os pedúnculos cerebelares e os núcleos da base. Esse artigo: 1) descreve e discute essa forma de intoxicação medicamentosa tão pouco citada na literatura internacional e desconhecida da maior parte dos clínicos e patologistas veterinários brasileiros, 2) estabelece critérios clínicos e anatomopatológicos para o seu diagnóstico e, principalmente, 3) atenta para os riscos da utilização desse princípio ativo na terapêutica canina. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of diminazene aceturate (DA) spontaneous toxicosis were evaluated in 10 dogs. All affected dogs developed signs of thalamic-cortical syndrome, characterized mainly by neurological changes in the conscience levels, tetraparesis, extensor stiffne [...] ss, and seizures. In some cases there was also evidence of cerebellar syndrome, characterized by generalized muscle tremors (high-frequency and low-amplitude) and/or vestibular syndrome, characterized by or ataxia, head tilt, and falling. These clinical signs occurred between 24 and 48 hours following intramuscular administration of DA and persisted until spontaneous death or euthanasia occurred between 1 and 7 days after the onset of clinical signs. The mentioned clinical signs reflected lesions that consisted of focal symmetrical hemorrhagic encephalomalacia affecting medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellar medulla, thalamus, midbrain, cerebellar peduncles, and basal nuclei. This article (1) describes and discusses DA toxicosis in dogs, a poorly-described clinical entity that is unknown by most clinicians and pathologists in Brazil; (2) establishes the clinical and pathological criteria for the diagnosis of DA toxicosis in dogs; and (3) calls up the attention for the risks of using DA in dogs in clinical settings.

Mariana M., Flores; Paula R., Pereira; Alexandre, Mazzanti; Glaucia D., Kommers; Rafael A., Fighera.

2014-07-01

56

[Pathological gambling in adolescence].  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's juveniles are the first generation to be raised in an environment where gambling is very accessible and socially acceptable. The recent legalization of Internet gambling has increased this accessibility. With 28,8 millions of gamblers in France in 2010, many believe that gambling is an innocent leisure activity. The first results of the national survey on the prevalence of gambling practices conducted in France show that in 2010, 1.3% of the population had a gambling problem. Also, despite the prohibition of gambling to minors, the mean age of onset of gambling behavior in the world is 11.5 years. Gambling (even non-problematic) in adolescence is associated with poor school performance, criminal behavior and family conflict. Recreational gambling shares with pathological gambling high rates of psychiatric comorbidities in adults, and risk behaviors among adolescents. Similarly, international studies show prevalence of problem gambling 2 to 4 times higher among adolescents than among adult, 3.5% to 8% of adolescents between 12 and 17 are pathological gamblers. The validity of the screening instruments and the frequency of spontaneous recovery in adulthood are discussed to explain the high prevalence in adolescence. This article proposes a focus on the practice of gambling in adolescence and its characteristics when the practice becomes pathological. We discuss the epidemiological, diagnostic, etiologic and therapeutic aspects of this problem. Three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems are identified: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors) like Internet with the recent legalization of gambling online, and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling in youth seems to be conditioned by the interaction of a person and a gambling activity, in a particular context. This conceptual model is based on the well-known theory of Olivenstein on toxicomania, which was proposed in the seventies. In France, very few is known about problem gambling in this age and its implications in terms of treatment, prevention and research. There is little in the way of specific treatments for adolescent pathological gamblers so we briefly reviewed possibilities and limits. We discuss the importance to develop prevention, in particular to delay the initiation, and the necessity of research to develop screening instruments and news studies to have a better knowledge of this population. PMID:22239967

Caillon, J; Grall-Bronnec, M; Bouju, G; Lagadec, M; Vénisse, J-L

2012-02-01

57

Consensus Paper: Pathological Role of the Cerebellum in Autism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar ...

Fatemi, S. Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L.; Blaha, Charles D.; Blatt, Gene J.; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R.; Dickson, Price E.; Estes, Annette M.; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H.; Kemper, Thomas L.; King, Bryan H.

2012-01-01

58

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro / Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Ri [...] o de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano. Abstract in english Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eigh [...] t cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were proeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with mico

Elise M, Yamasaki; Carlos H, Tokarnia; Alexandre, Galvão; Marcos J.P, Gomes; José A.B, Chies; Tiago Degani, Veit; Ana Paula, Aragão; Marilene F, Brito.

59

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano.Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eight cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were proeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with micobactin and on IS900 PCR. After the adoption of control measures, as slaughter of cows with clini

Elise M Yamasaki

2010-11-01

60

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro / Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Ri [...] o de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano. Abstract in english Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eigh [...] t cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were proeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with mico

Elise M, Yamasaki; Carlos H, Tokarnia; Alexandre, Galvão; Marcos J.P, Gomes; José A.B, Chies; Tiago Degani, Veit; Ana Paula, Aragão; Marilene F, Brito.

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

Competency-Based Pathology Residency Training Program: Hacettepe University Experience  

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Full Text Available Objective: Pathology residency training in the 21st century is being intensively discussed in order to revise the goals and methods of the program. Based on these discussions, a competency-based pathology residency training program was conducted at the Hacettepe University Pathology Department in 2002. We performed a survey in order to obtain more comprehensive data on the perceptions of strenghts and weaknesses of our competency-based pathology residency training program.Material and Method: A questionnaire consisting of 45 questions focused on microscopical and gross examination, intraoperative consultation, autopsy, cytopathology, molecular pathology and laboratory management, was completed by 5 pathology residents and 5 recent graduates.Results: Results from our survey suggested that the residents and recent graduates were generally confident in several aspects of pathology, but major deficiencies were noted in laboratory management and molecular diagnostic skills.Conclusion: The results of this survey will provide input for future pathology training programs in our department so that we will be able to train pathologists that are competent in pathology practice and prepared for the changing role of pathologists in patient care management in 21th century.

Figen SÖYLEMEZO?LU

2009-06-01

62

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Gurltia paralysans em gatos / Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of Gurltia paralysans infection in cats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos 20 anos, uma doença neurológica desconhecida acometeu populações de gatos da Região da Campanha do RS e tornou-se um desafio diagnóstico para os veterinários locais. Os gatos afetados desenvolviam inicialmente paralisia da cauda, seguida de paraparesia progressiva nos membros pélvicos, a [...] lteração da marcha, posição plantígrada e ataxia proprioceptiva. Após longos períodos de evolução clínica (12-24 meses), quando se tornavam marcadamente paraparéticos e começavam a apresentar escaras de decúbito, eram sacrificados pelos proprietários. Na necropsia, demonstravam graus variados de atrofia dos músculos pélvicos e algum grau de avermelhamento das meninges entre T10 e L7, devido à presença de miríades de pequenos vasos sanguíneos, uma típica lesão varicosa, semelhante a um hamartoma vascular. Histologicamente, tais lesões consistiam de distensão do espaço subaracnóideo por vasos sanguíneos dilatados e tortuosos, repletos de sangue e, ocasionalmente, de trombos, que ocluíam parcial ou totalmente seus lúmens. Essas varizes venulares eram aleatoriamente circundadas por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso ou linfocítico com pequenos focos de eosinófilos maduros. No lúmen das vênulas varicosas havia secções transversais e longitudinais de parasitos. Com base na morfologia desses parasitos, em sua localização anatômica (vasos sanguíneos meníngeos) e na espécie afetada (gato), o nematódeo foi identificado como Gurltia paralysans. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar em detalhes os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos dessa intrigante mielopatia de gatos e estabelecer definitivamente seu diagnóstico definitivo: paraplegia crural parasitária felina, uma doença descoberta no Chile, na década de 1930, e agora, pela primeira vez, descrita no Brasil. Abstract in english In the last 20 years, an unknown neurological disease affected cat populations in the Western Border Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The onset of the disease was characterized by tail paralysis, followed by progressive paraparesis in the pelvic limbs, difficulty in ambulation and p [...] roprioceptive ataxia. After long prolonged clinical courses (12-24 months), when then affected cats became severely paraparetic and start to develop pressure sores do to decubitus, they were destroyed by the owners. At necropsy there were variable degrees of skeletal muscle atrophy of the pelvic muscles and some degree of reddening of the meninges at the level of T10-L7, due to the presence of a myriad of small blood vessels, as a typical varicose lesion that resembled a vascular hamartoma. Histologically, such lesions consisted of distension of the subarachnoid space due to a collection of dilated, blood-filled, tortuous blood vessels the lumina of which were occasionally partially or completely occluded by thrombi. Those varices were randomly surrounded by a lymphocytic or granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate with small foci of mature eosinophils. In the lumina of these varicose venules cross and longitudinal sections of nematode parasites could be observed. Based on the morphology of these parasites, in their anatomical localization (meningeal blood vessels) and in the species (cat) affected the nematode was identified as Gurltia paralysans. This paper describes detailed aspects of the epidemiology, clinical disease and pathology of this intriguing feline myelopathy and the definitive diagnosis of the condition: Feline crural parasitic paraplegia, a disease first described in Chile in the 1930's and now, for the first time, in Brazil.

Monique, Togni; Welden, Panziera; Tatiana M., Souza; José C., Oliveira Filho; Alexandre, Mazzanti; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

63

Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011) / Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2%) e hemorragia (75,5%), principalmente no pulmão (56,6%). Alterações [...] macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6%) e renais (50,9%) foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente), acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4%) e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%). Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%). Hepatomegalia (11,3%), nefromegalia (9,4%) e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8%) foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53), as lesões encontradas (98,1%) foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2%) e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8%) e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%), com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42), as lesões encontradas (97,6%) eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%), colestase intra-canalicular (33,3%) e necrose hepática (31%). Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%). Na histologia do pulmão (n=28), hemorragia (85,7%) e edema (57,1%) alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7%) e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9%) também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil) não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia. Abstract in english The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2%) and hemorrhage (75.5%), mainly in the lungs (56.6%). Gross hepatic (56.6%) and ren [...] al (50.9%) changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%), accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4%) and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%). Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%). Enlarged livers (11.3%), and kidneys (9.4%), and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8%) were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53), the encountered lesions (98.1%) were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2%) and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8%) and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%), with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42), the encountered lesions (97.6%) consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%), intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3%) and hepatocellular necrosis (31%). Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were

Camila, Tochetto; Mariana M., Flores; Glaucia D., Kommers; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

2012-05-01

64

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Gurltia paralysans em gatos Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of Gurltia paralysans infection in cats  

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Full Text Available Nos últimos 20 anos, uma doença neurológica desconhecida acometeu populações de gatos da Região da Campanha do RS e tornou-se um desafio diagnóstico para os veterinários locais. Os gatos afetados desenvolviam inicialmente paralisia da cauda, seguida de paraparesia progressiva nos membros pélvicos, alteração da marcha, posição plantígrada e ataxia proprioceptiva. Após longos períodos de evolução clínica (12-24 meses, quando se tornavam marcadamente paraparéticos e começavam a apresentar escaras de decúbito, eram sacrificados pelos proprietários. Na necropsia, demonstravam graus variados de atrofia dos músculos pélvicos e algum grau de avermelhamento das meninges entre T10 e L7, devido à presença de miríades de pequenos vasos sanguíneos, uma típica lesão varicosa, semelhante a um hamartoma vascular. Histologicamente, tais lesões consistiam de distensão do espaço subaracnóideo por vasos sanguíneos dilatados e tortuosos, repletos de sangue e, ocasionalmente, de trombos, que ocluíam parcial ou totalmente seus lúmens. Essas varizes venulares eram aleatoriamente circundadas por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso ou linfocítico com pequenos focos de eosinófilos maduros. No lúmen das vênulas varicosas havia secções transversais e longitudinais de parasitos. Com base na morfologia desses parasitos, em sua localização anatômica (vasos sanguíneos meníngeos e na espécie afetada (gato, o nematódeo foi identificado como Gurltia paralysans. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar em detalhes os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos dessa intrigante mielopatia de gatos e estabelecer definitivamente seu diagnóstico definitivo: paraplegia crural parasitária felina, uma doença descoberta no Chile, na década de 1930, e agora, pela primeira vez, descrita no Brasil.In the last 20 years, an unknown neurological disease affected cat populations in the Western Border Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The onset of the disease was characterized by tail paralysis, followed by progressive paraparesis in the pelvic limbs, difficulty in ambulation and proprioceptive ataxia. After long prolonged clinical courses (12-24 months, when then affected cats became severely paraparetic and start to develop pressure sores do to decubitus, they were destroyed by the owners. At necropsy there were variable degrees of skeletal muscle atrophy of the pelvic muscles and some degree of reddening of the meninges at the level of T10-L7, due to the presence of a myriad of small blood vessels, as a typical varicose lesion that resembled a vascular hamartoma. Histologically, such lesions consisted of distension of the subarachnoid space due to a collection of dilated, blood-filled, tortuous blood vessels the lumina of which were occasionally partially or completely occluded by thrombi. Those varices were randomly surrounded by a lymphocytic or granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate with small foci of mature eosinophils. In the lumina of these varicose venules cross and longitudinal sections of nematode parasites could be observed. Based on the morphology of these parasites, in their anatomical localization (meningeal blood vessels and in the species (cat affected the nematode was identified as Gurltia paralysans. This paper describes detailed aspects of the epidemiology, clinical disease and pathology of this intriguing feline myelopathy and the definitive diagnosis of the condition: Feline crural parasitic paraplegia, a disease first described in Chile in the 1930's and now, for the first time, in Brazil.

Monique Togni

2013-03-01

65

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Gurltia paralysans em gatos / Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of Gurltia paralysans infection in cats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos 20 anos, uma doença neurológica desconhecida acometeu populações de gatos da Região da Campanha do RS e tornou-se um desafio diagnóstico para os veterinários locais. Os gatos afetados desenvolviam inicialmente paralisia da cauda, seguida de paraparesia progressiva nos membros pélvicos, a [...] lteração da marcha, posição plantígrada e ataxia proprioceptiva. Após longos períodos de evolução clínica (12-24 meses), quando se tornavam marcadamente paraparéticos e começavam a apresentar escaras de decúbito, eram sacrificados pelos proprietários. Na necropsia, demonstravam graus variados de atrofia dos músculos pélvicos e algum grau de avermelhamento das meninges entre T10 e L7, devido à presença de miríades de pequenos vasos sanguíneos, uma típica lesão varicosa, semelhante a um hamartoma vascular. Histologicamente, tais lesões consistiam de distensão do espaço subaracnóideo por vasos sanguíneos dilatados e tortuosos, repletos de sangue e, ocasionalmente, de trombos, que ocluíam parcial ou totalmente seus lúmens. Essas varizes venulares eram aleatoriamente circundadas por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso ou linfocítico com pequenos focos de eosinófilos maduros. No lúmen das vênulas varicosas havia secções transversais e longitudinais de parasitos. Com base na morfologia desses parasitos, em sua localização anatômica (vasos sanguíneos meníngeos) e na espécie afetada (gato), o nematódeo foi identificado como Gurltia paralysans. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar em detalhes os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos dessa intrigante mielopatia de gatos e estabelecer definitivamente seu diagnóstico definitivo: paraplegia crural parasitária felina, uma doença descoberta no Chile, na década de 1930, e agora, pela primeira vez, descrita no Brasil. Abstract in english In the last 20 years, an unknown neurological disease affected cat populations in the Western Border Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The onset of the disease was characterized by tail paralysis, followed by progressive paraparesis in the pelvic limbs, difficulty in ambulation and p [...] roprioceptive ataxia. After long prolonged clinical courses (12-24 months), when then affected cats became severely paraparetic and start to develop pressure sores do to decubitus, they were destroyed by the owners. At necropsy there were variable degrees of skeletal muscle atrophy of the pelvic muscles and some degree of reddening of the meninges at the level of T10-L7, due to the presence of a myriad of small blood vessels, as a typical varicose lesion that resembled a vascular hamartoma. Histologically, such lesions consisted of distension of the subarachnoid space due to a collection of dilated, blood-filled, tortuous blood vessels the lumina of which were occasionally partially or completely occluded by thrombi. Those varices were randomly surrounded by a lymphocytic or granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate with small foci of mature eosinophils. In the lumina of these varicose venules cross and longitudinal sections of nematode parasites could be observed. Based on the morphology of these parasites, in their anatomical localization (meningeal blood vessels) and in the species (cat) affected the nematode was identified as Gurltia paralysans. This paper describes detailed aspects of the epidemiology, clinical disease and pathology of this intriguing feline myelopathy and the definitive diagnosis of the condition: Feline crural parasitic paraplegia, a disease first described in Chile in the 1930's and now, for the first time, in Brazil.

Monique, Togni; Welden, Panziera; Tatiana M., Souza; José C., Oliveira Filho; Alexandre, Mazzanti; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

2013-03-01

66

Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011) / Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2%) e hemorragia (75,5%), principalmente no pulmão (56,6%). Alterações [...] macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6%) e renais (50,9%) foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente), acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4%) e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%). Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%). Hepatomegalia (11,3%), nefromegalia (9,4%) e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8%) foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53), as lesões encontradas (98,1%) foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2%) e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8%) e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%), com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42), as lesões encontradas (97,6%) eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%), colestase intra-canalicular (33,3%) e necrose hepática (31%). Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%). Na histologia do pulmão (n=28), hemorragia (85,7%) e edema (57,1%) alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7%) e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9%) também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil) não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia. Abstract in english The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2%) and hemorrhage (75.5%), mainly in the lungs (56.6%). Gross hepatic (56.6%) and ren [...] al (50.9%) changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%), accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4%) and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%). Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%). Enlarged livers (11.3%), and kidneys (9.4%), and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8%) were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53), the encountered lesions (98.1%) were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2%) and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8%) and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%), with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42), the encountered lesions (97.6%) consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%), intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3%) and hepatocellular necrosis (31%). Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were

Camila, Tochetto; Mariana M., Flores; Glaucia D., Kommers; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

67

Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012) / Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40), cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente), visto que na população total de [...] cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063) essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respectivamente). Na necropsia (n=40), os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5%) e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%), e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%), pulmão (60%), fígado (52,5%), peritônio (42,5%), rim (37,5%), encéfalo (30%), pleura (25%) e coração (22,5%). Hemoperitônio (42,5%) e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5%) foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25), os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%), de baixo grau (64%) e com estroma escasso (84%), mas frequentemente (68%) havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28%) e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12%) foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24), utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s) e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s) e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma. Abstract in english Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Out of the studied cases (n=40), aged dogs (72.2% of the cases) and dogs of German shepherd breed (20% of the cases) were clearly more frequently affected since in t [...] he total population of necropsied dogs in the same period (n=7,063) this age group and breed were comparatively less represented (respectively 14.6% e 10.1% of the cases). At necropsy (n=40) most tumors (92.5%) occurred as nodules and less frequently as masses (37.5%), affecting mainly the spleen (62.5%), lung (60%), liver (52.5%), peritoneum (42.5%), kidney (37.5%), brain (30%), pleura (25%), and heart (22.5%). Hemoperitoneum (42.5% of the cases) and resultant anemia (22.5% of the cases) were also observed. On histological examination (n=25), most hemangiosarcomas (84%), were, in general, well differentiated, of low grade (64%) and possessed a scant stroma (84%), although frequently (68%) focal areas with cells displaying some degree of atypia were seen. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and thrombosis were observed in all cases, however extramedullary hematopoiesis (28%) and benign angiomatous proliferation (12%) were less common findings. In all cases submitted to immunohistochemistry staining (n=24) the tumor cells displayed a finely granular positive staining when using anti-factor von Willebrand. Regarding anatomical classification, 55% of the hemangiosarcomas were considered as multicentric, 30% as primary tumors with one or more metastasis and 15% were solitary tumors. This paper discusses these results an suggests, based on the combination of affected organs, a scheme for setting apart primary hemangiosarcoma with metastasis from multicentric hemangiosarcoma, aiming to uniformize communication between pathologists regarding this tumor.

Mariana M., Flores; Welden, Panziera; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

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Chiral Lewis acid catalysts in diels-Alder cycloadditions: mechanistic aspects and synthetic applications of recent systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo resume os avanços mais recentes na utilização de ácidos de Lewis quirais como catalisadores na reação de cicloadição de Diels-Alder. Catalisadores quirais de alumínio, boro, titânio, cobre, lantanídeos, magnésio e metais de transição são criticamente revisados. Estudos estruturais dos co [...] mplexos formados entre ácidos de Lewis e compostos carbonílicos assim como aplicações sintéticas dos sistemas mais recentes são especificamente discutidos. Abstract in english This review summarizes the recent progress which has been made in the use of chiral Lewis Acid catalysts in Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions. Chiral catalysts containing aluminum, boron, titanium, copper, lanthanides, magnesium and transition-metals are critically reviewed. Structural studies on [...] Lewis acid carbonyl complexes and synthetic applications of recent systems are specifically discussed.

Luiz C, Dias.

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Pathological gambling in women: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980. Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews of the past 10 years on clinical (sociodemographic, course and progression, psychiatric comorbidities, genetics, and personality and epidemiological aspects of female gamblers. Other relevant articles were also selected from reference lists. It is concluded that the current literature indicates some common characteristics in female and male gamblers, but it also indicates the possibility that each gender may carry etiopathogenic differences that when better understood should lead to improved treatment and prevention strategies.

Martins Silvia Saboia

2002-01-01

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Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011 Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011  

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Full Text Available Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2% e hemorragia (75,5%, principalmente no pulmão (56,6%. Alterações macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6% e renais (50,9% foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente, acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4% e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%. Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%. Hepatomegalia (11,3%, nefromegalia (9,4% e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8% foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53, as lesões encontradas (98,1% foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2% e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8% e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%, com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42, as lesões encontradas (97,6% eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%, colestase intra-canalicular (33,3% e necrose hepática (31%. Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%. Na histologia do pulmão (n=28, hemorragia (85,7% e edema (57,1% alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7% e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9% também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia.The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2% and hemorrhage (75.5%, mainly in the lungs (56.6%. Gross hepatic (56.6% and renal (50.9% changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%, accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4% and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%. Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%. Enlarged livers (11.3%, and kidneys (9.4%, and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8% were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53, the encountered lesions (98.1% were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2% and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8% and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%, with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42, the encountered lesions (97.6% consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%, intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3% and hepatocellular necrosis (31%. Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were observed in several cases (42.8%. In the histopathology of the lung (n=28, alveolar hemorrhage (85.7% and edema (57.1% were rather frequent lesi

Camila Tochetto

2012-05-01

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Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos do linfoma em bovinos: 128 casos (1965-2013) / Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of lymphoma in cattle: 128 cases (1965-2013)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Por meio de um estudo retrospectivo, os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de 128 casos de linfoma bovino são descritos. Dos protocolos que informavam o sexo (n=111), 84,7% correspondiam a fêmeas e 15,3% a machos. Dos protocolos em que constava a raça (n=108), a mais prevalente [...] foi a holandesa (63%). Em relação à idade (n=107), houve uma variação entre um e 14 anos. A maioria dos bovinos era adulta (89,7%) e a maior concentração dos casos ocorreu ao redor de 5-8 anos (57,9%). Em relação aos sinais clínicos (n=89), linfadenomegalia foi o achado mais frequentemente observado (74,1%). Outros sinais clínicos, principalmente aqueles relacionados com os sistemas respiratório (dispneia, estertoração pulmonar e taquipneia), cardiovascular (taquicardia, edema subcutâneo e pulso venoso positivo), digestório (atonia ruminal, timpanismo e diarreia) e nervoso (paresia dos membros pélvicos e andar cambaleante), foram pouco prevalentes. Na necropsia (n=125), 71,2% dos bovinos apresentavam aumento de volume dos linfonodos; essa linfadenomegalia foi classificada como localizada em 89,6% dos casos e generalizada em 10,3% dos casos. Dos protocolos que informavam os linfonodos acometidos (n=58), a distribuição foi a seguinte: mesentéricos (51,7%), mediastínicos (37,9%), pré-escapulares (29,3%), ilíacos internos (27,6%), inguinais superficiais (25,8%) e traqueobrônquicos (18,9%). Além dos linfonodos, outros órgãos comumente afetados pelo linfoma neste estudo incluíram: coração (40%), fígado (15,2%), rim (14,4%), abomaso (12,8%), útero (11,2%), intestino (10,4%) e pulmão (7,2%). A presença de massas tumorais no canal vertebral foi observada em poucos casos (3,2%). Com base na epidemiologia e na localização das lesões, a maioria dos casos (96%) foi classificada como linfoma enzoótico e o restante (4%) como linfoma esporádico. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo irão auxiliar clínicos de grandes animais e patologistas veterinários na suspeita e no diagnóstico definitivo do linfoma na espécie bovina. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of 128 cases of bovine lymphoma are described in this study. Out of the cases were the gender was informed (n=111), 84.7% of affected animals were females and 15.3% were males. Out of the cases were breed was informed (n=108), 63% of affected an [...] imals were Holstein cows. The age of affected cows (n=107) varied from 1 to 14 years (57.9%), with most animals being adults (89.7%) with 5 to 8 years of age (57.9%). The most common clinical sign (n=89) was lymphadenomegaly (74.1%). Other clinical signs associated with the respiratory system (dyspnea, pulmonary stridor, and tachypnea), cardiovascular system (tachycardia, subcutaneous edema, and positive venous pulse), digestive system (ruminal atony, bloat, and diarrhea), and nervous system (pelvic limb paresis and staggering pace) were less prevalent. Gross findings (n=125) included enlargement of lymph nodes in 71.2% of the cases; this finding was classified as localized in 89.6% of the cases and generalized in 10.3% of the cases. Out of the cases where the affected lymph nodes were identified (n=58) the distribution of the lymphadenomegaly was the following: mesenteric (51.7%), mediastinal (37.9%), prescapular (29.3%), internal iliac (27.6%), superficial inguinal (25.8%), and tracheobronchial (18.9%). Other commonly affected organs included heart (40%), liver (15.2%), kidney (14.4%), abomasum (12.8%), uterus (11.2%), intestine (10.4%), and lung (7.2%). Tumor masses within the vertebral canal were observed in a few cases (3.2%). Based on the epidemiology and localization of the lesions, the majority of the cases (96%) in this study were classified as enzootic lymphoma (96%) and the remainder of the cases (4%) as sporadic lymphoma. The results herein presented will serve as a guide to large animal practitioners and veterinary pathologists and will help in the confirmati

Welden, Panziera; Ronaldo M., Bianchi; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Paula R., Pereira; Renata D., Mazaro; Claudio S.L., Barros; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz F., Irigoyen; Rafael A., Fighera.

2014-09-01

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[Current clinical aspects of obsessive disorders].  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical approach to obsessional troubles has barely evolved since the symptoms were first referenced throughout the 19th century. Recent developments in active therapeutics have led to studies on large series of patients. Thus, the various clinical and evolutive aspects, the borderline forms and associated pathologies (other anxiety troubles, depression and mental anorexy) have been delineated. PMID:2209484

Lempérière, T; Rondepierre, C

1990-01-01

73

Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

74

Aspectos recentes da patogênese e diagnóstico da pleuropneumonia suína Current aspects of pathogenesis and diagnosis of porcine pleuropneumonia  

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Full Text Available A pleuropneumonia suína, causada por Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, é uma doença caracterizada pela apresentação fibrino-hemorrágica com pleurite adesiva. A enfermidade está presente em todos os países produtores de suínos, sendo responsável por prejuízos econômicos elevados. No Brasil e no mundo, diversos grupos vêm conduzindo estudos na busca por um melhor entendimento da doença e de sua epidemiologia. Avanços importantes foram obtidos, entre os quais a caracterização dos fatores de virulência, implicados na apresentação clínica da enfermidade; e a aplicação de novos métodos de diagnóstico. A difusão das técnicas de biologia molecular como ferramenta diagnóstica em Medicina Veterinária tem contribuindo para a identificação de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Nesta revisão, são abordados os aspectos mais recentes sobre a patogênese e o diagnóstico deste importante patógeno.Porcine pleuropneumonia is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for substantial losses worldwide to the pig industry. The disease is characterized by fibrinous pleuritis with hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in the lungs, and pleural adhesions. Specific and precise methods for the identification of this pathogen are still required. In the present article we review the pathogenesis, as the traditional and the recently developed molecular methods employed for the identification and characterization of A. pleuropneumoniae.

Clarissa Silveira Luiz Vaz

2004-04-01

75

Aspectos recentes da patogênese e diagnóstico da pleuropneumonia suína / Current aspects of pathogenesis and diagnosis of porcine pleuropneumonia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pleuropneumonia suína, causada por Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, é uma doença caracterizada pela apresentação fibrino-hemorrágica com pleurite adesiva. A enfermidade está presente em todos os países produtores de suínos, sendo responsável por prejuízos econômicos elevados. No Brasil e no mundo, [...] diversos grupos vêm conduzindo estudos na busca por um melhor entendimento da doença e de sua epidemiologia. Avanços importantes foram obtidos, entre os quais a caracterização dos fatores de virulência, implicados na apresentação clínica da enfermidade; e a aplicação de novos métodos de diagnóstico. A difusão das técnicas de biologia molecular como ferramenta diagnóstica em Medicina Veterinária tem contribuindo para a identificação de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Nesta revisão, são abordados os aspectos mais recentes sobre a patogênese e o diagnóstico deste importante patógeno. Abstract in english Porcine pleuropneumonia is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for substantial losses worldwide to the pig industry. The disease is characterized by fibrinous pleuritis with hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in the lungs, and ple [...] ural adhesions. Specific and precise methods for the identification of this pathogen are still required. In the present article we review the pathogenesis, as the traditional and the recently developed molecular methods employed for the identification and characterization of A. pleuropneumoniae.

Clarissa Silveira Luiz, Vaz; Sérgio Ceroni da, Silva.

76

Recent experiments at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to study the laser driven compression of CH shell targets and the effects of increasing aspect ratio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent experiments to study the laser driven compression of CH shell targets and the effects of increasing aspect ratio using x-ray shadowgraphy techniques are described. This work has been carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory's Central Laser Facility with 12 beam, 0.53 ?m, 1.0 ns irradiation. X-ray shadowgraphy techniques have been used with a frame time of approx. 100 ps and spatial resolution of 5 to 10 ?m to obtain density profiles for the compressed targets. A systematic study of 150-200 ?m targets with aspect ratios from approx. 7 to approx. 20 has been performed. The x-ray shadowgraphy techniques used are described, results in the form of x-radiographs presented and a discussion of preliminary results given. (author)

77

New Aspects of Correlation of Free Radical Oxidation and the Severity of Pathological Process in Congenital Dislocated Hip and Degenerative Dystrophic Diseases of Hip Joint in Children  

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The aim of the investigation is to prove the correlation of free radical processes and the state of anti-oxidant system, and the severity of pathological process in children with congenital dislocated hip.Materials and Methods. There were examined 143 patients with congenital dislocated hip aged from 4 to 17 years, they were divided into three groups: the 1st group (n=39) — children with noncomplicated disease, the 2nd group (n=47) — children with coxarthrosis, the 3rd group (n=32) — ch...

Strelkova, I. G.; Musikhina, I. V.; Bogosian, ?. B.; Sidorkin, V. G.; Starikova, ?. ?.; Sidorkina, ?. N.; Kusnetsova, V. L.

2012-01-01

78

Aspectos genéticos e imunopatogênicos da doença celíaca: visão atual Genetics and immunopathogenics aspects of the celiac disease: a recent vision  

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Full Text Available RACIONAL: A doença celíaca ou enteropatia por sensibilidade ao glúten, é uma forte condição hereditária. Embora a associação genética da doença celíaca com os haplótipos HLA-DQ2 e DQ8 seja conhecida há muito tempo, outros genes HLA e não-HLA também são importantes no desenvolvimento da afecção. A doença celíaca resulta de um efeito combinado de produtos de diferentes genes funcionantes normalmente. A lesão intestinal é imunologicamente mediada e múltiplos mecanismos efetores são responsáveis pela sua expressão. A interação entre fatores genéticos, imunológicos e ambientais explicam o amplo espectro de alterações clínicas, histológicas e sorológicas observadas nos diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento da doença, ressaltando a natureza poligênica da mesma. CONCLUSÃO: Os avanços recentes na compreensão da imunopatogenia, genética e diagnóstico da doença celíaca têm permitido que rígidos conceitos e critérios pré-estabelecidos sejam revistos e adequados às novas evidências, visando melhor diagnóstico e orientação para pacientes celíacos e familiares.BACKGROUND: Celiac disease, or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a strongly inherited condition. Although the genetic association of CD with the DQ2 and DQ8 HLA haplotypes has been known for long, others HLA and non-HLA genes are also important in the development of the disease. Celiac disease results of the combined effect of different normally functioning genes' products. The tissue damage in celiac disease is immunologically mediated and several effector mechanisms are responsible for the disease expression. The interplay between genetic, immunological and environmental factors explains the large spectrum of clinical, histological and serological alterations observed in the different stages of the disease development, pointing out to the polygenic nature of celiac disease. CONCLUSION: The recent advances in the understanding of the immunopathogenesis, genetics and diagnoses of celiac disease have allowed the revision of strict concepts and previous criteria and their adequation to the new evidences, aiming a better diagnostic and orientation to celiac patients and relatives.

Shirley Ramos da Rosa Utiyama

2004-06-01

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Aspectos más recientes en relación con la diabetes mellitus tipo MODY / Most recent aspects about type MODY diabetes mellitus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: la mejor comprensión fisiopatológica de la diabetes mellitus permite identificar diferentes tipos, entre ellos una variante monogénica denominada por sus siglas en inglés MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young). Objetivos: describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos, diagnóst [...] icos y terapéuticos de los diferentes subtipos MODY. Desarrollo: los pacientes con diabetes tipo MODY presentan un comportamiento similar a la diabetes mellitus del adulto. Se caracteriza por una alteración genética autosómica dominante inherente y primaria a un defecto en la secreción de insulina. Hasta el momento actual se aceptan 9 subtipos de MODY. Los subtipos 1, 3, 4, 5 y 6 afectan a genes que codifican a factores nucleares de trascripción, y el subtipo 2 al gen que codifica a la enzima glucoquinasa. Se caracterizan clínicamente por cuadros que oscilan entre hiperglucemias permanentes, leves o moderadas, con buen pronóstico clínico, y pocas complicaciones, hasta cuadros de hiperglucemias mantenidas acompañadas de complicaciones crónicas precoces y graves. Conclusiones: las personas que padecen diabetes tipo MODY no son tan infrecuentes como se piensa. La correcta y temprana identificación de la enfermedad permitirá una acción terapéutica más racional y adecuada para brindar la posibilidad de mejor calidad de vida de estas personas. Abstract in english Background: a better physiopathological understanding of diabetes mellitus allows identifying its different types such as a monogenic variant called MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young). Objectives: to describe the physiopathological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the differ [...] ent subtypes in MODY diabetes. Development: the patients with MODY diabetes behave similarly to those suffering diabetes mellitus in adults. It is characterized by inherited dominant autosomal genetic alteration which is primary to a defect in insulin secretion. Up to the present, 9 subtypes are accepted. The subtypes 1,3,4,5 and 6 affect gens coding for nuclear transcriptional factors whereas subtype 2 affects the gen coding for glycokinase enzyme. From the clinical viewpoint, they are characterized by conditions ranging from permanent, slight or moderate hyperglycemias, with good clinical prognosis and low complications, to sustained hyperglycemias accompanied by early chronic and serious complications. Conclusions: the people suffering MODY diabetes are not as uncommon as one might think. The correct and early detection will allow taking quick, adequate and more rational therapeutic actions to provide the patients with a better quality of life.

Ana Ibis, Conesa González; Teresa Margarita, González Calero.

2012-08-01

80

Aspectos más recientes en relación con la diabetes mellitus tipo MODY / Most recent aspects about type MODY diabetes mellitus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: la mejor comprensión fisiopatológica de la diabetes mellitus permite identificar diferentes tipos, entre ellos una variante monogénica denominada por sus siglas en inglés MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young). Objetivos: describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos, diagnóst [...] icos y terapéuticos de los diferentes subtipos MODY. Desarrollo: los pacientes con diabetes tipo MODY presentan un comportamiento similar a la diabetes mellitus del adulto. Se caracteriza por una alteración genética autosómica dominante inherente y primaria a un defecto en la secreción de insulina. Hasta el momento actual se aceptan 9 subtipos de MODY. Los subtipos 1, 3, 4, 5 y 6 afectan a genes que codifican a factores nucleares de trascripción, y el subtipo 2 al gen que codifica a la enzima glucoquinasa. Se caracterizan clínicamente por cuadros que oscilan entre hiperglucemias permanentes, leves o moderadas, con buen pronóstico clínico, y pocas complicaciones, hasta cuadros de hiperglucemias mantenidas acompañadas de complicaciones crónicas precoces y graves. Conclusiones: las personas que padecen diabetes tipo MODY no son tan infrecuentes como se piensa. La correcta y temprana identificación de la enfermedad permitirá una acción terapéutica más racional y adecuada para brindar la posibilidad de mejor calidad de vida de estas personas. Abstract in english Background: a better physiopathological understanding of diabetes mellitus allows identifying its different types such as a monogenic variant called MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young). Objectives: to describe the physiopathological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the differ [...] ent subtypes in MODY diabetes. Development: the patients with MODY diabetes behave similarly to those suffering diabetes mellitus in adults. It is characterized by inherited dominant autosomal genetic alteration which is primary to a defect in insulin secretion. Up to the present, 9 subtypes are accepted. The subtypes 1,3,4,5 and 6 affect gens coding for nuclear transcriptional factors whereas subtype 2 affects the gen coding for glycokinase enzyme. From the clinical viewpoint, they are characterized by conditions ranging from permanent, slight or moderate hyperglycemias, with good clinical prognosis and low complications, to sustained hyperglycemias accompanied by early chronic and serious complications. Conclusions: the people suffering MODY diabetes are not as uncommon as one might think. The correct and early detection will allow taking quick, adequate and more rational therapeutic actions to provide the patients with a better quality of life.

Ana Ibis, Conesa González; Teresa Margarita, González Calero.

 
 
 
 
81

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Recent aspect, a change from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron beam and a new protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1968, One-hundred seventy three patients with glioblastoma (n=81), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumor (n=32) were treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a combination of thermal neutron and BSH in 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MuITR n=98, KUR n=28, JRR-2 n=33). Out of 101 patients with glioma treated by BNCT under the recent protocol, 33 (10 glioblastoma, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, 9 low grade astrocytoma) patients lived or have lived longer than 3 years. Nine of these 33 lived or have lived longer than 10 years. According to the retrospective analysis, the important factors related to the clinical results were tumor dose radiation dose and maximum radiation dose in thermal brain cortex. The result was not satisfied as it was expected. Then, we decided to introduce mixed beams which contain thermal neutron and epithermal neutron beams. KUR was reconstructed in 1996 and developed to be available to use mixed beams. Following the shutdown of the JRR-2, JRR-4 was renewed for medical use in 1998. Both reactors have capacity to yield thermal neutron beam, epithermal neutron beam and mixed beams. The development of the neutron source lead us to make a new protocol. (author)

82

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Recent aspect, a change from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron beam and a new protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1968, One-hundred seventy three patients with glioblastoma (n=81), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumor (n=32) were treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a combination of thermal neutron and BSH in 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MuITR n=98, KUR n=28, JRR-2 n=33). Out of 101 patients with glioma treated by BNCT under the recent protocol, 33 (10 glioblastoma, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, 9 low grade astrocytoma) patients lived or have lived longer than 3 years. Nine of these 33 lived or have lived longer than 10 years. According to the retrospective analysis, the important factors related to the clinical results were tumor dose radiation dose and maximum radiation dose in thermal brain cortex. The result was not satisfied as it was expected. Then, we decided to introduce mixed beams which contain thermal neutron and epithermal neutron beams. KUR was reconstructed in 1996 and developed to be available to use mixed beams. Following the shutdown of the JRR-2, JRR-4 was renewed for medical use in 1998. Both reactors have capacity to yield thermal neutron beam, epithermal neutron beam and mixed beams. The development of the neutron source lead us to make a new protocol. (author)

Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Dept. of Neurosurgery National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentsuji, Kagawa (Japan)

1999-08-01

83

Pathology Education: SY17-1 INNOVATIVE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE TEACHING OF PATHOLOGY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent trainee pathologists showed a tendency to do better at identifying entities rather than the handling of cases that required a more global pathological interpretation. The examination of gross specimens and microscopy is fundamental to viewing, exploring and understanding pathological processes. Our department harnessed technological advances to improve the teaching and learning of pathology by incorporating the use of Aperio ScanScope web-based digital pathology, to provide greater access by undergraduate students to gross examination and microscopy. This digital imaging system was used for the demonstration of histology slides and images of gross specimens and to provide on-line access to students, combining it with the use of interactive multimedia, made accessible through Moodle, for the development of on-line quizzes. These case-based exercises presented students with short clinical vignettes, with visual demonstration of pertinent pathologic features linked to the Aperio system, followed by a series of questions designed to cover the important teaching points for each disease entity. At the post-graduate level, a participation forum on the Moodle platform was used to encourage on-line interactive discussion. These teaching approaches have enabled us to expand interactive learning experience beyond the classroom setting and to integrate multidisciplinary aspects in the learning of pathology. PMID:25188132

Khoo, Ui Soon

2014-10-01

84

Aspectos emocionales en la infertilidad: una revisión de la literatura reciente Emotional Aspects in Infertility: a Review of Recent Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se entiende por infertilidad la imposibilidad de una pareja de lograr un embarazo, después de un año de vida sexual activa, sin uso de anticonceptivos. En Chile afecta al 15% de las parejas en edad fértil. La etiología es variada, a veces desconocida (20%. Se ha evaluado el impacto que tiene en la pareja el diagnóstico de infertilidad. Es descrito como una crisis vital, a la cual contribuyen muchos factores, y se traduce en un gran desgaste emocional, por su carácter cíclico. Se repite una y otra vez la vivencia de esperanza (al inicio del ciclo y fracaso (cuando llega la menstruación. Impacta el elevado costo económico del tratamiento, el sometimiento a procesos quirúrgicos y la invasión a la privacidad sexual. En parejas infértiles se han encontrado sentimientos de inadecuación, desesperación, pena, envidia y celos hacia la mujer embarazada, miedo, pérdida de la libido, disfunción eréctil, inestabilidad emocional, pérdida de la autoestima, culpa, depresión e ideación suicida. Se han descrito trastornos psicosomáticos, represión de las reacciones emocionales, deseo frenético de adoptar un hijo rápidamente o incorporarse a algún programa de fertilización asistida. Luego del fracaso terapéutico, desenlace habitual (70%, el 50% de las parejas presenta alguna alteración psicológica importante. Los autores revisan la literatura reciente sobre el tema y subrayan la necesidad de la participación activa de los profesionales de la salud mental junto a los equipos de medicina reproductivaInfertility is defined as a couple's inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. This problem affects 15% of couples of fertile age in Chile. The impact of infertility on the couple is assessed, and it is described as an emotionally debilitating life crisis due to multiple factors. It is characterized by a cyclical pattern in which the experience of hope (at the beginning of the cycle is recurrently followed by the experience of failure (when menses begin. The high financial burden of treatment, the need to undergo surgical procedures, and the invasion of sexual intimacy are additional sources of stress. Infertile couples may suffer feelings of inadequacy, despair, sorrow, envy and jealousy towards pregnant women, fear, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, emotional instability, loss of self-esteem, guilt, depression, and suicidal ideation. Psychosomatic disorders, the repression of emotional reactions, and frantic desires to quickly adopt a child or to join a program of assisted reproduction are described. Following therapeutic failure, which is the most common outcome (70%, fifty percent of couples show some significant psychological distress. The authors review recent literature on the subject and underscore the need for mental health professionals to collaborate with infertility specialists in these cases

Estela Palacios

2000-04-01

85

Aspectos emocionales en la infertilidad: una revisión de la literatura reciente / Emotional Aspects in Infertility: a Review of Recent Literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se entiende por infertilidad la imposibilidad de una pareja de lograr un embarazo, después de un año de vida sexual activa, sin uso de anticonceptivos. En Chile afecta al 15% de las parejas en edad fértil. La etiología es variada, a veces desconocida (20%). Se ha evaluado el impacto que tiene en la [...] pareja el diagnóstico de infertilidad. Es descrito como una crisis vital, a la cual contribuyen muchos factores, y se traduce en un gran desgaste emocional, por su carácter cíclico. Se repite una y otra vez la vivencia de esperanza (al inicio del ciclo) y fracaso (cuando llega la menstruación). Impacta el elevado costo económico del tratamiento, el sometimiento a procesos quirúrgicos y la invasión a la privacidad sexual. En parejas infértiles se han encontrado sentimientos de inadecuación, desesperación, pena, envidia y celos hacia la mujer embarazada, miedo, pérdida de la libido, disfunción eréctil, inestabilidad emocional, pérdida de la autoestima, culpa, depresión e ideación suicida. Se han descrito trastornos psicosomáticos, represión de las reacciones emocionales, deseo frenético de adoptar un hijo rápidamente o incorporarse a algún programa de fertilización asistida. Luego del fracaso terapéutico, desenlace habitual (70%), el 50% de las parejas presenta alguna alteración psicológica importante. Los autores revisan la literatura reciente sobre el tema y subrayan la necesidad de la participación activa de los profesionales de la salud mental junto a los equipos de medicina reproductiva Abstract in english Infertility is defined as a couple's inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. This problem affects 15% of couples of fertile age in Chile. The impact of infertility on the couple is assessed, and it is described as an emotionally debilitating life crisis due to multi [...] ple factors. It is characterized by a cyclical pattern in which the experience of hope (at the beginning of the cycle) is recurrently followed by the experience of failure (when menses begin). The high financial burden of treatment, the need to undergo surgical procedures, and the invasion of sexual intimacy are additional sources of stress. Infertile couples may suffer feelings of inadequacy, despair, sorrow, envy and jealousy towards pregnant women, fear, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, emotional instability, loss of self-esteem, guilt, depression, and suicidal ideation. Psychosomatic disorders, the repression of emotional reactions, and frantic desires to quickly adopt a child or to join a program of assisted reproduction are described. Following therapeutic failure, which is the most common outcome (70%), fifty percent of couples show some significant psychological distress. The authors review recent literature on the subject and underscore the need for mental health professionals to collaborate with infertility specialists in these cases

Estela, Palacios; Enrique, Jadresic.

2000-04-01

86

Aspectos emocionales en la infertilidad: una revisión de la literatura reciente / Emotional Aspects in Infertility: a Review of Recent Literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se entiende por infertilidad la imposibilidad de una pareja de lograr un embarazo, después de un año de vida sexual activa, sin uso de anticonceptivos. En Chile afecta al 15% de las parejas en edad fértil. La etiología es variada, a veces desconocida (20%). Se ha evaluado el impacto que tiene en la [...] pareja el diagnóstico de infertilidad. Es descrito como una crisis vital, a la cual contribuyen muchos factores, y se traduce en un gran desgaste emocional, por su carácter cíclico. Se repite una y otra vez la vivencia de esperanza (al inicio del ciclo) y fracaso (cuando llega la menstruación). Impacta el elevado costo económico del tratamiento, el sometimiento a procesos quirúrgicos y la invasión a la privacidad sexual. En parejas infértiles se han encontrado sentimientos de inadecuación, desesperación, pena, envidia y celos hacia la mujer embarazada, miedo, pérdida de la libido, disfunción eréctil, inestabilidad emocional, pérdida de la autoestima, culpa, depresión e ideación suicida. Se han descrito trastornos psicosomáticos, represión de las reacciones emocionales, deseo frenético de adoptar un hijo rápidamente o incorporarse a algún programa de fertilización asistida. Luego del fracaso terapéutico, desenlace habitual (70%), el 50% de las parejas presenta alguna alteración psicológica importante. Los autores revisan la literatura reciente sobre el tema y subrayan la necesidad de la participación activa de los profesionales de la salud mental junto a los equipos de medicina reproductiva Abstract in english Infertility is defined as a couple's inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. This problem affects 15% of couples of fertile age in Chile. The impact of infertility on the couple is assessed, and it is described as an emotionally debilitating life crisis due to multi [...] ple factors. It is characterized by a cyclical pattern in which the experience of hope (at the beginning of the cycle) is recurrently followed by the experience of failure (when menses begin). The high financial burden of treatment, the need to undergo surgical procedures, and the invasion of sexual intimacy are additional sources of stress. Infertile couples may suffer feelings of inadequacy, despair, sorrow, envy and jealousy towards pregnant women, fear, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, emotional instability, loss of self-esteem, guilt, depression, and suicidal ideation. Psychosomatic disorders, the repression of emotional reactions, and frantic desires to quickly adopt a child or to join a program of assisted reproduction are described. Following therapeutic failure, which is the most common outcome (70%), fifty percent of couples show some significant psychological distress. The authors review recent literature on the subject and underscore the need for mental health professionals to collaborate with infertility specialists in these cases

Estela, Palacios; Enrique, Jadresic.

87

Diagnosis, Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.

2009-12-26

88

Oral pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706

Niemiec, Brook A

2008-05-01

89

Ligamento suspensório da articulação metacarpo/metatarso falangianas nos eqüinos: aspectos evolutivos, anatômicos, histofisiológicos e das afecções Suspensory ligament of equine metacarpus/metatarsus falangeal joint: evolutive anatomical, histophysiological aspects and pathologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta revisão reúne e discute aspectos anatômicos, histofisiológicos e afecções do ligamento suspensório (LS da articulação metacarpo/metatarso falangiana dos eqüinos. Considerou-se a importância desses aspectos para subsidiar o diagnóstico e o tratamento de afecções no LS, visto que freqüentemente animais portadores dessas doenças permanecem em atividades sob efeito de tratamentos paliativos que, apesar de proporcionarem alívio álgico, quase sempre não garantem a cura definitiva e, por conseguinte, não garantem o bem-estar absoluto do animal.This review discusses anatomical, histophysiological and pathological aspects of the suspensory ligament (SL of metacarpal/metatarsal joint in the horse. This knowledge is important to aid in diagnosing and treating the SL diseases in the athlete horses, considering that affected animals remain on training activities under palliative treatments that insure pain relieve, but do not guarantee fully and definitively welfare of the horses.

Silke Verena Schwarzbach

2008-08-01

90

Ligamento suspensório da articulação metacarpo/metatarso falangianas nos eqüinos: aspectos evolutivos, anatômicos, histofisiológicos e das afecções / Suspensory ligament of equine metacarpus/metatarsus falangeal joint: evolutive anatomical, histophysiological aspects and pathologies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta revisão reúne e discute aspectos anatômicos, histofisiológicos e afecções do ligamento suspensório (LS) da articulação metacarpo/metatarso falangiana dos eqüinos. Considerou-se a importância desses aspectos para subsidiar o diagnóstico e o tratamento de afecções no LS, visto que freqüentemente [...] animais portadores dessas doenças permanecem em atividades sob efeito de tratamentos paliativos que, apesar de proporcionarem alívio álgico, quase sempre não garantem a cura definitiva e, por conseguinte, não garantem o bem-estar absoluto do animal. Abstract in english This review discusses anatomical, histophysiological and pathological aspects of the suspensory ligament (SL) of metacarpal/metatarsal joint in the horse. This knowledge is important to aid in diagnosing and treating the SL diseases in the athlete horses, considering that affected animals remain on [...] training activities under palliative treatments that insure pain relieve, but do not guarantee fully and definitively welfare of the horses.

Silke Verena, Schwarzbach; Geane Maciel, Pagliosa; Marcela Peixoto, Roscoe; Geraldo Eleno Silveira, Alves.

91

Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology." PMID:24705882

Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

2014-10-01

92

Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de neurônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma.

B.D.C. Martins

2013-04-01

93

Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog / Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de ne [...] urônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma. Abstract in english A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with uppe [...] r motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

B.D.C., Martins; B.B.J., Torres; A.A.M., Rodriguez; C.O., Gamba; G.D., Cassali; G.E., Lavalle; G.D.C., Martins; E.G., Melo.

2013-04-01

94

Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog / Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de ne [...] urônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma. Abstract in english A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with uppe [...] r motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

B.D.C., Martins; B.B.J., Torres; A.A.M., Rodriguez; C.O., Gamba; G.D., Cassali; G.E., Lavalle; G.D.C., Martins; E.G., Melo.

95

RECOGNITION, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL PATHOLOGIES IN AXEL HONNETH'S RECENT WRITINGS / Reconocimiento, justicia y patologías sociales en los trabajos recientes de Axel Honneth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este ensayo discute el último libro de Axel Honneth sobre la cosificación (Verdinglichung, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005) y su relación con la teoría del reconocimiento avanzada por el mismo autor. El ensayo examina críticamente la nueva hipótesis de Honneth sobre las raíces existenciales del reconocimi [...] ento, y hace una comparación entre dos conceptos clave de la teorí crítica, la cosificación y la alienación, para argumentar la superioridad teórica de esteúltimo concepto Abstract in english The paper discusses Axel Honneth's recent book on Reification and its relation to Honneth's theory of recognition. It critically examines Honneth's hypothesis concerning the existential roots of recognition, and compares two classical concepts of social critique, Reification and alienation, in order [...] to argue for the superiority of the latter over the former

STÉPHANE, HABER.

96

'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry (N-rays, polywater) as well as the recent case of cold fusion in electrochemistry involved research practices not clearly distinguishable from those in (revolutionary) science. The concept of 'pat...

Bauer, Henry H.

2002-01-01

97

Aspectos clínico-patológicos do envenenamento botrópico experimental em equinos / Clinical and pathological aspects of the experimental poisoning by Bothrops snakes in horses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em equinos, inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni e Bothropoides neuwiedi, com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para o diagnóstico do envenenamento pela picada dessas. [...] Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a seis equinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,5 e 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0,8 e 1,6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0,205mg/kg (B. moojeni) e 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). Todos os equinos, menos os que receberam o veneno de B. jararacussu, morreram Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se entre 8min e 2h10min após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou, nos quatro casos de êxito letal, de 24h41min a 70h41min, e nos dois equinos que se recuperaram foi de 16 dias. O quadro clínico, independente do tipo de veneno e das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, arrastar da pinça do membro inoculado no solo, inquietação, apatia, diminuição da resposta aos estímulos externos, mucosas pálidas e hemorragias. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram anemia normocítica normocrômica com progressiva diminuição no número de hemácias, da hemoglobina e do hematócrito, e leucocitose por neutrofilia. Houve aumento de alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, dehidrogenase láctica, ureia e glicose, bem como aumento do tempo de ativação da protrombina e do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada. Os achados de necropsia foram extensas hemorragias no tecido subcutâneo, com presença de sangue não coagulado e em boa parte associadas a edema (edema hemorrágico), que se estendia desde o local da inoculação até as regiões cervical, torácica, escapular e membro. Na periferia das áreas hemorrágicas havia predominantemente edema gelatinoso. Havia ainda presença de grande quantidade de líquido sanguinolento nas cavidades torácica, pericárdica e abdominal. Não foram encontradas alterações histológicas significativas. Abstract in english The clinical and pathological alterations in horses, experimentally inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni and Bothropoides neuwiedi poisons, were studied with the purpose to supply subsidies for the diagnosis of the poisoning. The liofilized poisons were dilut [...] ed in 1ml of physiologic solution and subcutaneously administered to six horses, at doses of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0.8 and 1.6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0.205mg/kg (B. moojeni) and 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). All horses, less those that received the poison of B. jararacussu, died The clinical signs began between 8min and 2h10min after the inoculation. The clinical course varied, in the four cases of lethal exit, from 24h41min to 70h41min, and was 16 days in the two horses that recovered,. The clinical picture, independent of the poison type and doses, was characterized by tumefaction at the site of inoculation, dragging on the ground with the hooves of the inoculated leg, inquietude, apathy, decrease of reaction to external stimuli, pale mucous membranes and hemorrhages. Laboratory exams revealed normocytic normochrômic anemia with progressive decrease in the number of erythrocytes, of hemoglobin and of the hematocrit, and leucocytosis due to neutrophilia. There was increase of alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, lactic dehydrogenase, ureia and glucose, as well increase of the time of activation of protrombin and partial tromboplastina. At postmortem examination, the main findings were extensive hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissue, with the presence of non-coagulated blood, to a large degree associataed with edema (hemorragic edema), which extended from the inoculation site of the venom to the cervical, thoraxic and scapular region, and to the leg. In the periphery of the hemorragic areas existed gelatinous edema. There were great amounts of sanguinary liquid in the thoracic, p

Melina Garcia de, Sousa; Carlos Hubinger, Tokarnia; Marilene de Farias, Brito; Alessandra Belo, Reis; Carlos Magno, Oliveira; Nayra Fernanda, Freitas; Cairo Henrique, Oliveira; José Diomedes, Barbosa.

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Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

Westphal, James R.

2008-01-01

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Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em equinos / Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental crotalic envenoming in horses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Descrevem-se os quadros clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de equinos inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus na antiga nomenclatura), com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios que favoreçam a compreensão desse tipo de acidente ofídico e [...] m equinos. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1ml de solução salina a 0,9% e inoculado por via subcutânea em cinco equinos, nas doses de 0,12mg/kg (um animal), 0,066mg/kg (dois animais) e 0,03mg/kg (dois animais). O veneno causou a morte do equino que recebeu a dose de 0,12mg/kg e de um dos dois que receberam a dose de 0,066mg/kg, com evolução de 27h27min e 52h29min, respectivamente. O segundo animal que recebeu a dose de 0,066mg/kg também adoeceu, mas recuperou-se após 12 dias da inoculação. A dose de 0,03mg/kg determinou quadros não fatais do envenenamento, com período de evolução que variou entre 6 e 10 dias. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por considerável aumento de volume no local de inoculação (escápula) que se estendeu por todo o membro, apatia e cabeça baixa, alterações locomotoras evidenciadas pelo arrastar das pinças no solo, decúbito e dificuldade para levantar, redução dos reflexos auricular, palatal, do lábio superior e de ameaça, e aumento das frequências cardíaca e respiratória. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram leucocitose por neutrofilia e linfocitose em apenas dois animais. Houve aumento das enzimas creatina quinase (CK), dehidrogenase láctica (DHL) e da ureia, e também redução nos níveis séricos de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) aumentou nos equinos que morreram. Os achados de necropsia foram edema do tecido subcutâneo em todo o membro em que foi aplicado o veneno, sufusões no epicárdio dos ventrículos cardíacos esquerdo e direito, e bexiga com áreas hemorrágicas em grande parte da mucosa. Ao exame histopatológico observaram-se fígado com moderada vacuolização difusa, afetando mais a zona intermediária do lóbulo hepático, leve dilatação dos sinusoides hepáticos em algumas áreas e rim com leve dilatação dos túbulos uriníferos, principalmente no córtex. Abstract in english The clinic-pathological picture and laboratory findings in horses experimentally inoculated with the venom of Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus, according to the former nomenclature) are described. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of this type [...] of snake accident in horses. The lyophilized venom was diluted into 1ml of a 0.9% saline solution and was inoculated subcutaneously into five horses, at the doses of 0.12mg/kg (one horse), 0.066mg/kg (two horses) and 0.03mg/kg (two horses). The venom caused death of the horse that had received 0.12mg/kg, and of one horse of the two that had received the dose of 0.066mg/kg. The clinical course varied from 27h27min to 52h29min. The second horse inoculated with 0.066mg/kg recovered within 12 days after inoculation. The dose of 0.03mg/kg had a course of 6 to 10 days, but did not cause fatal envenomation. The clinical picture in the horses was characterized by swelling of the inoculation site (shoulder) that spread to the whole leg, by apathy and lowered head, locomotory alterations shown by dragging of the hoves on the ground, decubitus and difficulty to get up, reduction of auricular, palatal, upperlip and threat reflexes, and increase of heart and breathing frequency. The laboratory examination revealed leukocytosis and lymphocytosis in two horses. There was increase of the creatine-kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (DHL) and urea, and reduction in the seric levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The activated partial tromboplastina time (TTPA) increased in the horses that died. Postmortem findings were edema of the subcutaneous tissue of the whole leg into which the venom was inoculated, suffusions in the epicard of left and right he

Cinthia Távora A., Lopes; Carlos Hubinger, Tokarnia; Marilene de Farias, Brito; Melina Garcia S. de, Sousa; Carlos Magno Chaves, Oliveira; Natália da Silva e, Silva; Danillo Henrique S., Lima; José Diomedes, Barbosa.

2012-09-01

100

Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are dr [...] iven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor.

M, Lawrie; A, Good.

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
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'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological  

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Full Text Available 'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry (N-rays, polywater as well as the recent case of cold fusion in electrochemistry involved research practices not clearly distinguishable from those in (revolutionary science. The concept of 'pathological science' was put forth nearly half a century ago in a seminar and lacks justification in contemporary understanding of science studies (history, philosophy, and sociology of science. It is time to abandon the phrase.

Henry H. Bauer

2002-04-01

102

Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio  

Science.gov (United States)

In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

103

Plant Pathology Career Center  

Science.gov (United States)

From the American Phytopathological Society (APS), this Careers & Placement website is open to both members and non-members. The site allows job seekers and employers to view available job openings and candidates; post a resume or vita for free; and post a job opening (fee required). Job seekers can also sign up for free, bi-monthly email notifications regarding recent job openings. In addition, the APS Careers website connects to a list of hyperlinked plant pathology programs at universities across the country, and to a downloadable brochure about careers in plant pathology.

104

Labyrinthine pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in detecting intralabyrinthine pathology. Enhancement of the membranous labyrinth was shown in 4 patients with labyrinthine schwannoma, 2 with suppurative labyrinthitis, 3 with autoimmune hearing loss (rheumatoid arthritis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome), and 2 with carcinoma of the ear invading the labyrinth. Slight partial labyrinthine enhancement was noticed in 2 of 5 patients with syphilitic hearing loss, one of 3 with viral labyrinthitis, one of 3 with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, and none of 2 with active otosclerosis. Except for a questionable enhancement within the cochlea in one case, MR failed to demonstrate any labyrinthine enhancement in 3 patients with classic features of Meniere disease. Labyrinthine involvement detectable at MR is noteworthy, and we recommend enhanced MR imaging when there is clinical evidence of intralabyrinthine pathology

105

Orbital pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This overview of orbital pathology deals with different kinds of tumors, inflammatory, vascular, and traumatic diseases, which may involve the orbit. Depending on the respective orbital compartment of the globe, the intrakonal, extrakonal and optic nerve the most important and most frequent lesions are presented with their specific clinical symptoms. Their specific presentation on CT- and MR-imaging is discussed in detail, including the most important differential diagnosis.

Mueller-Forell, W. E-mail: mueller-forell@neuroradio.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Pitz, S

2004-02-01

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Patología forense y neurología asociada de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos: Estudio práctico / Forensic pathology and associated neurology of head injury: Practical aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se reúnen en este trabajo de forma sucinta los conocimientos más útiles en la resolución forense de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE) letales. El estudio está orientado hacia la identificación macroscópica, la causalidad y los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones, con apoyo iconográfico. [...] Se hace especial hincapié en la valoración de las fracturas craneales, las hemorragias subaracnoideas por lesión de la arteria vertebral, el edema y la hiperemia cerebral postraumáticos, así como algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la autopsia de los fallecidos por trauma cefálico, incluida la retención y fijación del encéfalo. Algunos de estos conocimientos son antiguos y aunque olvidados o desconocidos por muchos han resistido el paso del tiempo, manteniendo plena vigencia. Igualmente se incluyen las características clínicas esenciales de cada trastorno, los nuevos avances en el diagnóstico neuropatológico de los TCE, en su fisiopatología y sus sospechadas relaciones con la posterior aparición de enfermedad degenerativa tipo Alzheimer y las alteraciones genómicas que predisponen a una evolución fatal de TCE ligeros o moderados. Abstract in english This review summarizes in a brief format the most useful tips in the forensic evaluation of fatal head trauma. This study is aimed at the macroscopic evaluation, causality and production mechanisms of the lesions, with image-based support. Skull fractures, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to lesion of th [...] e vertebral artery, posttraumatic cerebral edema and hyperaemia as well as basic recommendations to carry out the autopsy procedure (including the retention and fixation of the brain) in bodies with a lethal traumatic brain injury (TBI) will be analyzed. Some of this knowledge has been developed a long time ago, and although sometimes forgotten, their meaning is still fully patent. This study also points out the essential clinical characteristics of each condition and recent advances in the neuropathological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its physiopathology. Finally, the suspected relationship of head injuries with the late development of degenerative disorders (Alzheimer-like); as well as new insights relating genomics and fatal evolution of mild to moderate TBIs are included.

J.L., Palomo Rando; V., Ramos Medina; I., Palomo Gómez; A., López Calvo; I.M., Santos Amaya.

2008-04-01

107

Patología forense y neurología asociada de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos: Estudio práctico / Forensic pathology and associated neurology of head injury: Practical aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se reúnen en este trabajo de forma sucinta los conocimientos más útiles en la resolución forense de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE) letales. El estudio está orientado hacia la identificación macroscópica, la causalidad y los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones, con apoyo iconográfico. [...] Se hace especial hincapié en la valoración de las fracturas craneales, las hemorragias subaracnoideas por lesión de la arteria vertebral, el edema y la hiperemia cerebral postraumáticos, así como algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la autopsia de los fallecidos por trauma cefálico, incluida la retención y fijación del encéfalo. Algunos de estos conocimientos son antiguos y aunque olvidados o desconocidos por muchos han resistido el paso del tiempo, manteniendo plena vigencia. Igualmente se incluyen las características clínicas esenciales de cada trastorno, los nuevos avances en el diagnóstico neuropatológico de los TCE, en su fisiopatología y sus sospechadas relaciones con la posterior aparición de enfermedad degenerativa tipo Alzheimer y las alteraciones genómicas que predisponen a una evolución fatal de TCE ligeros o moderados. Abstract in english This review summarizes in a brief format the most useful tips in the forensic evaluation of fatal head trauma. This study is aimed at the macroscopic evaluation, causality and production mechanisms of the lesions, with image-based support. Skull fractures, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to lesion of th [...] e vertebral artery, posttraumatic cerebral edema and hyperaemia as well as basic recommendations to carry out the autopsy procedure (including the retention and fixation of the brain) in bodies with a lethal traumatic brain injury (TBI) will be analyzed. Some of this knowledge has been developed a long time ago, and although sometimes forgotten, their meaning is still fully patent. This study also points out the essential clinical characteristics of each condition and recent advances in the neuropathological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its physiopathology. Finally, the suspected relationship of head injuries with the late development of degenerative disorders (Alzheimer-like); as well as new insights relating genomics and fatal evolution of mild to moderate TBIs are included.

J.L., Palomo Rando; V., Ramos Medina; I., Palomo Gómez; A., López Calvo; I.M., Santos Amaya.

108

Patología forense y neurología asociada de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos: Estudio práctico Forensic pathology and associated neurology of head injury: Practical aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se reúnen en este trabajo de forma sucinta los conocimientos más útiles en la resolución forense de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE letales. El estudio está orientado hacia la identificación macroscópica, la causalidad y los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones, con apoyo iconográfico. Se hace especial hincapié en la valoración de las fracturas craneales, las hemorragias subaracnoideas por lesión de la arteria vertebral, el edema y la hiperemia cerebral postraumáticos, así como algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la autopsia de los fallecidos por trauma cefálico, incluida la retención y fijación del encéfalo. Algunos de estos conocimientos son antiguos y aunque olvidados o desconocidos por muchos han resistido el paso del tiempo, manteniendo plena vigencia. Igualmente se incluyen las características clínicas esenciales de cada trastorno, los nuevos avances en el diagnóstico neuropatológico de los TCE, en su fisiopatología y sus sospechadas relaciones con la posterior aparición de enfermedad degenerativa tipo Alzheimer y las alteraciones genómicas que predisponen a una evolución fatal de TCE ligeros o moderados.This review summarizes in a brief format the most useful tips in the forensic evaluation of fatal head trauma. This study is aimed at the macroscopic evaluation, causality and production mechanisms of the lesions, with image-based support. Skull fractures, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to lesion of the vertebral artery, posttraumatic cerebral edema and hyperaemia as well as basic recommendations to carry out the autopsy procedure (including the retention and fixation of the brain in bodies with a lethal traumatic brain injury (TBI will be analyzed. Some of this knowledge has been developed a long time ago, and although sometimes forgotten, their meaning is still fully patent. This study also points out the essential clinical characteristics of each condition and recent advances in the neuropathological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI and its physiopathology. Finally, the suspected relationship of head injuries with the late development of degenerative disorders (Alzheimer-like; as well as new insights relating genomics and fatal evolution of mild to moderate TBIs are included.

J.L. Palomo Rando

2008-04-01

109

Priorities in seed pathology research  

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Full Text Available Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of seedborne pathogens that might go undetected using more conventional means. These types of research will be fundamental in guaranteeing seed health quality standards and achieving phytosanitary requirements throughout the world in the new millennium.

Nameth S.T.

1998-01-01

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Comparative molecular developmental aspects of the mammalian- and the avian lungs, and the insectan tracheal system by branching morphogenesis: recent advances and future directions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Gas exchangers fundamentally form by branching morphogenesis (BM, a mechanistically profoundly complex process which derives from coherent expression and regulation of multiple genes that direct cell-to-cell interactions, differentiation, and movements by signaling of various molecular morphogenetic cues at specific times and particular places in the developing organ. Coordinated expression of growth-instructing factors determines sizes and sites where bifurcation occurs, by how much a part elongates before it divides, and the angle at which branching occurs. BM is essentially induced by dualities of factors where through feedback- or feed forward loops agonists/antagonists are activated or repressed. The intricate transactions between the development orchestrating molecular factors determine the ultimate phenotype. From the primeval time when the transformation of unicellular organisms to multicellular ones occurred by systematic accretion of cells, BM has been perpetually conserved. Canonical signalling, transcriptional pathways, and other instructive molecular factors are commonly employed within and across species, tissues, and stages of development. While much still remain to be elucidated and some of what has been reported corroborated and reconciled with rest of existing data, notable progress has in recent times been made in understanding the mechanism of BM. By identifying and characterizing the morphogenetic drivers, and markers and their regulatory dynamics, the elemental underpinnings of BM have been more precisely explained. Broadening these insights will allow more effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions of developmental abnormalities and pathologies in pre- and postnatal lungs. Conservation of the molecular factors which are involved in the development of the lung (and other branched organs is a classic example of nature’s astuteness in economically utilizing finite resources. Once purposefully formed, well-tested and tried ways and means are adopted, preserved, and widely used to engineer the most optimal phenotypes. The material and time costs of developing utterly new instruments and routines with every drastic biological change (e.g. adaptation and speciation are circumvented. This should assure the best possible structures and therefore functions, ensuring survival and evolutionary success.

Maina John N

2012-08-01

111

The personality of pathological gamblers: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review summarizes studies of pathological gambling and personality. Meta-analyses were conducted on 44 studies that reported personality traits of pathological gamblers (N = 2134) and nonpathological gambling control groups (N = 5321). Effect size estimates were calculated for 128 comparisons and organized according to the factors associated with two integrative accounts of personality. Four of the meta-analyses examined traits that have previously been found to load on the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, and Sensation Seeking aspects of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam 2001). Substantial effects were found for traits associated with Negative Urgency (Cohen's d =.99) and Low Premeditation (d =.84), but not for Low Perseverance or Sensation Seeking. A second set of meta-analyses examined broad domains of personality that have previously been found to load on Negative Affect, Positive Affect, Disagreeable Disinhibition, and Unconscientious Disinhibition (Markon, Krueger, & Watson, 2005). Substantial effects were found for Unconscientious Disinhibition (d =.79), Negative Affect (d =.50), and Disagreeable Disinhibition (d =.50), but not Positive Affect. It was concluded that these individual personality characteristics may be important in the etiology of pathological gambling. The personality profile implicated in the etiology of pathological gambling is similar to that found in a recent meta-analysis of substance use disorders (Kotov, Gamez, Schmidt, & Watson, 2010). These results suggest that pathological gambling may be part of a broad cluster of externalizing psychopathology, and also call into question the current classification of pathological gambling as an Impulse Control Disorder in the DSM-IV. PMID:21802620

Maclaren, Vance V; Fugelsang, Johnathan A; Harrigan, Kevin A; Dixon, Michael J

2011-08-01

112

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6 em gatos Epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6 in cats  

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Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6 foram estudados em 10 gatos que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos diferem daqueles previamente descritos na literatura nos seguintes aspectos: 1 a doença ocorreu na forma de um modelo bimodal relacionado à idade dos gatos afetados, em que 50% tinham 1-3 anos de idade e 50% tinham 10 anos de idade ou mais; 2 quase todos os gatos afetados (87,5% demonstravam policromasia, possivelmente decorrente de eritropoese extramedular; 3 em todos os casos havia múltiplos focos de células hematopoéticas, principalmente eritropoeticas, em múltiplos órgãos, que incluíam baço (85,7%, linfonodos (71,4%, fígado (57,1% e rim (28,6%; 4 em alguns casos (28,6% esses focos podiam ser vistos macroscopicamente, na forma de metástases, mas sempre diferiam histologicamente da medula óssea quanto à proporção dos precursores eritroides envolvidos; 5 em pelo menos um caso ocorreu um continuum patologicum até outra forma de LMA (LMA M4, um fenômeno denominado "infidelidade de linhagem". Esse artigo discute essas diferenças e reforça os critérios fundamentais para se estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo dessa que é a forma mais importante de leucemia em gatos na nossa região.The epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6 were studied in 10 cats that died from this condition. The results obtained in the present study differ from those previously described in the literature regarding the following aspects: 1 The disease occurred as a bimodal model related to the age of affected cats, in which 50% were1-3-years-old and 50% were 10 years-old or above; 2 almost all affected cats (87.5% displayed polychromasia, possible resulting from extramedullar erythropoiesis; 3 in all cases there were multiple foci of hematopoietic cells, mainly erythropoietic, in multiple organs including spleen (85.7%, lymph nodes (71.4%, liver (57.1%, and kidney (28.6%; 4 in some cases (28.6% these foci could be observed on gross examination as metastasis, but they always histologically differ from bone marrow in regard to the proportion of erythroid precursors involved; 5 at least in one case a continuum patologicum occurred with the condition evolving to another form of LMA (LMA M4, a phenomenon coined as "lineage infidelity". This paper discuss these differences and stresses the fundamental criteria to establish a definitive diagnosis of this condition, which is the most import form of leukemia in cats from our region.

Camila Tochetto

2011-07-01

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Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6) em gatos / Epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6) in cats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6) foram estudados em 10 gatos que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos diferem daqueles previamente descritos na literatura nos seguintes aspectos: 1) a doença ocorr [...] eu na forma de um modelo bimodal relacionado à idade dos gatos afetados, em que 50% tinham 1-3 anos de idade e 50% tinham 10 anos de idade ou mais; 2) quase todos os gatos afetados (87,5%) demonstravam policromasia, possivelmente decorrente de eritropoese extramedular; 3) em todos os casos havia múltiplos focos de células hematopoéticas, principalmente eritropoeticas, em múltiplos órgãos, que incluíam baço (85,7%), linfonodos (71,4%), fígado (57,1%) e rim (28,6%); 4) em alguns casos (28,6%) esses focos podiam ser vistos macroscopicamente, na forma de metástases, mas sempre diferiam histologicamente da medula óssea quanto à proporção dos precursores eritroides envolvidos; 5) em pelo menos um caso ocorreu um continuum patologicum até outra forma de LMA (LMA M4), um fenômeno denominado "infidelidade de linhagem". Esse artigo discute essas diferenças e reforça os critérios fundamentais para se estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo dessa que é a forma mais importante de leucemia em gatos na nossa região. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6) were studied in 10 cats that died from this condition. The results obtained in the present study differ from those previously described in the literature regarding the following aspects: 1) Th [...] e disease occurred as a bimodal model related to the age of affected cats, in which 50% were1-3-years-old and 50% were 10 years-old or above; 2) almost all affected cats (87.5%) displayed polychromasia, possible resulting from extramedullar erythropoiesis; 3) in all cases there were multiple foci of hematopoietic cells, mainly erythropoietic, in multiple organs including spleen (85.7%), lymph nodes (71.4%), liver (57.1%), and kidney (28.6%); 4) in some cases (28.6%) these foci could be observed on gross examination as metastasis, but they always histologically differ from bone marrow in regard to the proportion of erythroid precursors involved; 5) at least in one case a continuum patologicum occurred with the condition evolving to another form of LMA (LMA M4), a phenomenon coined as "lineage infidelity". This paper discuss these differences and stresses the fundamental criteria to establish a definitive diagnosis of this condition, which is the most import form of leukemia in cats from our region.

Camila, Tochetto; Tatiana M., Souza; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

114

Mature bone necrosis: from recent pathophysiological aspect to a new therapeutic action; Radionecrose de l'os mature: connaissance physiopathologique recente motrice d'une therapeutique medicale innovante  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteoradionecrosis is a severe radiotherapy (RT) injury by healing failure, late effect and spontaneously irreversible by tissue death. Histologically, it consists in a pagetoid mosaic that combines a defective osteogenesis with an osteoclastic osteolysis and more marginally an osteolytic osteolysis, turned to account to fibroblastic and collagenic fibrosis. Several pathogenic hypotheses favor sometimes a vascular hypoxic hypotheses, sometimes a fibro-atrophic hypothesis Various events start up or favour ORN as traumatisms (dental extraction, surgery,...) or bacterial infection on fistula. In clinic, adult mature bone concerned is the mandible after head and neck RT by septic ORN, and the hip after pelvic RT by aseptic ORN. For each, epidemiology, clinic and therapeutic aspects are developed. Usual therapeutic attitudes consisted in restriction of unfavorable associated events (dental extraction, infection, RT dose, chemotherapy,...) and devitalized tissue removal. Physiopathological therapeutic innovative aspects are proposed to struggle against radiation-induced fibrosis associated and to limit bone destruction. (authors)

Delanian, S. [Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France); Lefaix, J.L. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DRR, 91 (France)

2002-02-01

115

[Internet use and pathological internet engagement in a sample of college students].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies indicate multiple consequences of pathologically excessive internet use. This study investigated the correlate of internet usage, with pathological internet engagement. Participants were 514 college students from the University of Athens who completed a questionnaire covering various aspects of internet use, Young's Internet Addiction Test, scales investigating online gambling addiction and cybersexual addiction and scales investigating suicidal ideation and the use of psychoactive substances. We found that the daily Internet use (b=0,38, t=10,38, pinternet (b=0,20, t=5,11, pinternet engagement. Subjects at risk for developing pathological internet engagement had significantly higher levels of online gambling addiction, cybersexual addiction, suicidal ideation and alcohol abuse, compared with other groups. Pathological internet engagement, particularly in young people, is a new psychopathological parameter that should be incorporated in the diagnostic and therapeutic horizon of mental health professionals. PMID:21971197

Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O

2011-01-01

116

[Pathology of urogenital schistosomiasis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors submit the case history of their patient presenting with chronic cystitis, consequence of an infestation with the fluke Schistosoma haematobium. They also present the most frequent morphological forms of urogenital schistosomiasis, its complications and the possibilities of pathological differential diagnosis, based on literary data (including information from electronic data bases) on the pathomorphology and, more particularly, the histopathology of urogenital schistosomiasis. Among the general histopathological changes we see lesions that correspond to an active chronic infection with a chiefly granulomatous reaction. Calcification, pseudotumorous polypoid formations, ulcerations, obliterating fibrous lesions, epithelial transformations such as hyperplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia follow later. These changes are followed at the various sites by diverse clinical and morphological complications-posthaemorrhagic anaemia, adhesions, serious obstructions of urogenital openings and its consequences and, finally, an increased risk of pavement-cell carcinoma of the bladder. For all the above-mentioned reasons we should include the possibility of urogenital schistosomiasis into the large group of clinical and pathological aspects of differential diagnosis, when considering the etiology and treatment of inflammatory and tumorous lesions of the urogenital tract. PMID:16958018

Zampachová, Víta

2006-08-01

117

Miocardite crônica em um cão naturalmente infectado com Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: aspectos clínicos e patológicos / Chronic myocarditis in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: clinical and pathological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença infecciosa crônica frequentemente fatal causada pela Leishmania infantum chagasi nas Américas. A enfermidade pode acometer vários órgãos, determinando diferentes manifestações clínicas. Contudo o envolvimento do coração raramente tem sido reportado em cães i [...] nfectados por Leishmania sp. Dessa forma, descreve-se um caso de miocardite crônica com repercussões clínicas e patológicas em um cão naturalmente infectado por Leishmania infantum chagasi. A positividade para Leishmaniose Visceral foi determinada pela presença de anticorpos antiLeishmania sp. nos testes sorológicos (RIFI, ELISA e DPP) e confirmada por visualização de formas amastigotas de Leishmania sp. em punção aspirativa do linfonodo poplíteo. O exame cardiovascular revelou alterações radiográficas, eletrocardiográficas, na pressão arterial e nos biomarcardores cardíacos. Após eutanásia, amostras de tecido cardíaco foram avaliadas histologicamente e submetidas à imunomarcação, onde foi observado infiltrado mononuclear (plasmo-histiolinfocitário), com presença de estruturas arredondadas de coloracão marrom-amareladas (imunomarcadas), indicando formas amastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi no miocárdio. Os aspectos etiopatogênicos da leishmaniose visceral sobre o miocárdio neste caso podem estar relacionados tanto à presença do parasita quanto à resposta "reacional inespecífica" do tecido à agressão do parasita no organismo. Todavia ainda não se sabem se as cepas de Leishmania infantum chagasi da região semiárida paraibana apresentam algum tropismo por tecido cardíaco ou se induzem a reação imunológica cruzada, com implicações clínicas. Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic, often fatal infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. The disease can affect many organs and may express different clinical forms. However, the involvement of the heart has rarely been reported in dogs infected by Leishmania s [...] p. Thus, we describe a case of chronic myocarditis with clinical and pathological effects in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Positivity for Visceral Leishmaniasis was determined by the presence of anti-Leishmania sp. in serological tests (IFAT, ELISA and DPP) and confirmed by visualization of amastigote forms of the parasite in the popliteal lymph node aspiration samples. The cardiovascular clinical examination showed changes in the radiographic, ECG, blood pressure and heart biomarkers. After euthanasia, heart tissue samples were histologically examined and underwent our immunohistochemistry assessment, where mononuclear infiltrate was observed (plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages) with the presence of rounded brownish-yellow (immunomarked) cells, indicating amastigotes of Leishmania infantum chagasi within the myocardium. The etiopathogenic aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in the myocardium in this case may be related either to the presence of the parasite or the "nonspecific reactive" response of the tissue attributable to the aggression of the parasite in the body. However, it is not known if the strains of Leishmania infantum chagasi found in the semi-arid of Paraíba have some tropism for cardiac tissue or if they induce immunological cross-reaction with clinical implications.

R.S., Mendes; T.A., Gurjão; L.M., Oliveira; V.L., Santana; W.L., Tafuri; J.R.S., Santos; A.F.M., Dantas; A.P., Souza.

2014-02-01

118

Miocardite crônica em um cão naturalmente infectado com Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: aspectos clínicos e patológicos / Chronic myocarditis in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: clinical and pathological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença infecciosa crônica frequentemente fatal causada pela Leishmania infantum chagasi nas Américas. A enfermidade pode acometer vários órgãos, determinando diferentes manifestações clínicas. Contudo o envolvimento do coração raramente tem sido reportado em cães i [...] nfectados por Leishmania sp. Dessa forma, descreve-se um caso de miocardite crônica com repercussões clínicas e patológicas em um cão naturalmente infectado por Leishmania infantum chagasi. A positividade para Leishmaniose Visceral foi determinada pela presença de anticorpos antiLeishmania sp. nos testes sorológicos (RIFI, ELISA e DPP) e confirmada por visualização de formas amastigotas de Leishmania sp. em punção aspirativa do linfonodo poplíteo. O exame cardiovascular revelou alterações radiográficas, eletrocardiográficas, na pressão arterial e nos biomarcardores cardíacos. Após eutanásia, amostras de tecido cardíaco foram avaliadas histologicamente e submetidas à imunomarcação, onde foi observado infiltrado mononuclear (plasmo-histiolinfocitário), com presença de estruturas arredondadas de coloracão marrom-amareladas (imunomarcadas), indicando formas amastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi no miocárdio. Os aspectos etiopatogênicos da leishmaniose visceral sobre o miocárdio neste caso podem estar relacionados tanto à presença do parasita quanto à resposta "reacional inespecífica" do tecido à agressão do parasita no organismo. Todavia ainda não se sabem se as cepas de Leishmania infantum chagasi da região semiárida paraibana apresentam algum tropismo por tecido cardíaco ou se induzem a reação imunológica cruzada, com implicações clínicas. Abstract in english Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic, often fatal infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. The disease can affect many organs and may express different clinical forms. However, the involvement of the heart has rarely been reported in dogs infected by Leishmania s [...] p. Thus, we describe a case of chronic myocarditis with clinical and pathological effects in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Positivity for Visceral Leishmaniasis was determined by the presence of anti-Leishmania sp. in serological tests (IFAT, ELISA and DPP) and confirmed by visualization of amastigote forms of the parasite in the popliteal lymph node aspiration samples. The cardiovascular clinical examination showed changes in the radiographic, ECG, blood pressure and heart biomarkers. After euthanasia, heart tissue samples were histologically examined and underwent our immunohistochemistry assessment, where mononuclear infiltrate was observed (plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages) with the presence of rounded brownish-yellow (immunomarked) cells, indicating amastigotes of Leishmania infantum chagasi within the myocardium. The etiopathogenic aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in the myocardium in this case may be related either to the presence of the parasite or the "nonspecific reactive" response of the tissue attributable to the aggression of the parasite in the body. However, it is not known if the strains of Leishmania infantum chagasi found in the semi-arid of Paraíba have some tropism for cardiac tissue or if they induce immunological cross-reaction with clinical implications.

R.S., Mendes; T.A., Gurjão; L.M., Oliveira; V.L., Santana; W.L., Tafuri; J.R.S., Santos; A.F.M., Dantas; A.P., Souza.

119

Non-pathology: the bedrock of pathology.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pathology, also called morbid anatomy, is macroscopically, microscopically, and molecularly so manifest an array of phenomena that it has compelled medical men to closely link it up with disease, dis-ease, and death. But there is more than meets the eye of the morbid anatomists, microscopists, and the molecular biologists. The obvious science of pathology is governed by numerous abstract, subtle, non-pathological factors. A pathological phenomenon is subservient to cosmic noumenon. Such a sea-change allows a newer perspective that cures modern medicine of many of its dogmas and provides epistemologically valid directions to research methodologies on the one hand and clinical practices on the other.

Kothari M

2000-04-01

120

Recent Advances in Geriatric Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ageing is a natural process. In the words of Seneca;“Old age is an incurable disease”, but more recently,Sir James Sterling Ross commented: “You do not healold age. You protect it; you promote it; you extendit” [1]. These are in fact the basic principles ofpreventive medicine. Old age should be regarded as anormal, inevitable biological phenomenon. The studyof the physical and psychological changes which areincident to old age is called gerontology. The care ofthe aged is called clinical gerontology or geriatrics.Another aspect of gerontology is social gerontology which was born on the one hand out of the instincts of humanitarian and social attitudes and on the other out of the problems set by the increasing number of old people[2]. Experimental gerontology is concerned withresearch into the basic biological problems of ageing, into its physiology, biochemistry, pathology and psychology.

N.A. Ansari

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Terapia fotodinâmica: aspectos farmacológicos, aplicações e avanços recentes no desenvolvimento de medicamentos Photodynamic therapy: pharmacological aspects, applications and news from medications development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Photodynamic Therapy (PDT is a clinical procedure, which utilize a photosensitive compound and light. This is a new modality of treatment for cancer, aged related macular degenerescence (AMD, psoriasis, arthritis, arterial restenosis, etc which exhibits efficiency, less traumatic effects, low recovery time and few co-lateral effects. The first officially approved drug for PDT by the Food and Drug Administration (EUA is Photofrinâ, which is applied for cancer. A new generation drug for PDT, Visudyneâ was recently approved to treat AMD; its photoactive compound is BPDMA, a benzoporphyrin mono-acid derivative (chlorin-type molecule. A concise history, technical information and some drugs for PDT are reported.

Fernanda Ibanez Simplicio

2002-09-01

122

Ln3+-doped nanoparticles for upconversion and magnetic resonance imaging: some critical notes on recent progress and some aspects to be considered  

Science.gov (United States)

In this feature article we will critically discuss the synthesis and characterisation aspects of Ln3+-doped nanoparticles (NPs) that show upconversion, upon 980 nm excitation. Upconversion is a non-linear process that converts two or more low-energy photons, often near-infrared photons, into one of higher energy, e.g. blue and 800 nm from Tm3+ and green and red from Er3+ or Ho3+. Nearly all researchers use the absorption of 980 nm light by Yb3+ as the sensitiser for the co-doped emissive Ln3+ ions. The focus will be on LnF3 and MLnF4 (M = alkali metal) as the host matrix, because most progress has been made with these. In particular we will argue that a detailed understanding of how the dopant ions and the host Ln3+ ions are distributed (in the core) and how (doped) shell growth occurs is not well understood. Moreover, their use as optical and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents will be discussed. We will argue that deep-tissue imaging beyond 600 ?m with retention of optical resolution, i.e. to see fine structure such as blood capillaries in brain tissues, has not yet been achieved. Three key parameters have been identified as impediments: (i) the low absorption efficiency of the Yb3+ sensitiser, (ii) the low quantum yield of upconversion, and (iii) the long-lived excited states. On the other hand, there are very encouraging results that suggest that these nanoparticles could be developed into very potent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents.

van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.; Dong, Cunhai; Johnson, Noah J. J.; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham

2012-11-01

123

Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

Marsot-Dupuch, K. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Vignaud, J. [Val de Grace, Hopital d`Instruction du Service de Sante des Armees, 75 - Paris (France); Mehdi, M. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Pharaboz, C. [Hopital Begin, Hopital d`Instruction des Armees, 94 - Saint-Mande (France); Meyer, B. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service d`ORL, 75 - Paris (France)

1996-10-01

124

Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

125

Terapia fotodinâmica: aspectos farmacológicos, aplicações e avanços recentes no desenvolvimento de medicamentos / Photodynamic therapy: pharmacological aspects, applications and news from medications development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a clinical procedure, which utilize a photosensitive compound and light. This is a new modality of treatment for cancer, aged related macular degenerescence (AMD), psoriasis, arthritis, arterial restenosis, etc which exhibits efficiency, less traumatic effects, low reco [...] very time and few co-lateral effects. The first officially approved drug for PDT by the Food and Drug Administration (EUA) is Photofrinâ, which is applied for cancer. A new generation drug for PDT, Visudyneâ was recently approved to treat AMD; its photoactive compound is BPDMA, a benzoporphyrin mono-acid derivative (chlorin-type molecule). A concise history, technical information and some drugs for PDT are reported.

Fernanda Ibanez, Simplicio; Florângela, Maionchi; Noboru, Hioka.

126

Frontier in Pathology: SY24-1 DIGITAL PATHOLOGY 101 (FRONTIERS OF PATHOLOGY).  

Science.gov (United States)

This symposium will provide participants with a broad introductory overview of the field of digital pathology (DP), including: 1) Applications, benefits and limitations of DP. 2) DP technology issues (primarily whole slide imaging). 3) Regulatory, workflow and financial considerations. 4) Hands-on session focused on basic digital slide viewing using a variety of digital slides if possible.We will also cover the recently updated guidelines from the American Telemedicine Association on Telepathology, with particular reference to their impact on use of digital pathology. PMID:25188072

Hassell, Lewis Allen; Soenksen, Dirk; Stratman, Curtis; Chlipala, Elizabeth; Pantanowitz, Liron

2014-10-01

127

Avaliações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais da intoxicação experimental por monofluoroacetato de sódio em ovinos / Clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by sodium monofluoroacetate in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a administração de doses únicas e de frações diárias da dose letal de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MF) a ovinos induzem a clássica degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar (DHV) dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais observada no rim de bovinos intoxicados por pla [...] ntas brasileiras que causam "morte súbita" (PBCMS). MF foi administrado, por via oral, em doses únicas de 0,5 e 1,0mg/kg, cada dose para dois ovinos, e em doses subletais repetidas diariamente de 0,1mg/kg/dia, por quatro dias, e 0,2mg/kg/dia por seis dias, cada dose para um ovino. Todos os ovinos que receberam MF morreram, exceto um que recebeu 0,5mg/kg e não mostrou sintomas. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 3min a 33h5min. Clinicamente os animais apresentaram taquicardia, respiração abdominal, tremores musculares, ligeira perda de equilíbrio, por vezes cambaleavam, deitavam e apoiavam a cabeça no flanco. Na fase final, os ovinos caíam em decúbito lateral, esticavam os membros, faziam movimentos de pedalagem, apresentavam opistótono e morriam. O exame ecocardiográfico evidenciou dilatação cardíaca e redução da fração de encurtamento sistólico. A análise dos níveis séricos de uréia e creatinina revelou moderada a acentuada azotemia. MF provocou "morte súbita" em todos os ovinos que mostraram sintomas. À necropsia verificaram-se aurículas e veias jugulares, cavas, ázigos e pulmonares moderadamente ingurgitadas e, em alguns animais, edema pulmonar. O exame histopatológico revelou, em todos os ovinos, leve a acentuada DHV das células epiteliais dos túbulos contornados distais, associada à picnose nuclear. Adicionalmente, verificaram-se discreta vacuolização e, por vezes, necrose de coagulação de hepatócitos. Não encontramos referências a esse tipo peculiar de lesão, exceto das descrições sobre lesões renais associadas à ingestão de PBCMS e de recentes estudos em bovinos intoxicados com MF. Este trabalho demonstra, em ovinos, que tanto doses letais únicas quanto subdoses diárias de MF induzem a DHV dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais associada à picnose nuclear. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify if the ingestion of single doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MF) and daily fractions of 1/2.5 and 1/5 of the lethal dose causes the same lesion as the one observed in the kidney of cattle poisoned by Brazilian sudden death causing plants (BSDCP). MF was adm [...] inistered orally in single doses of 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg to four sheep, and repeated daily doses of 0.1 and 0.2mg/kg to two others. Death occurred in five of six animals. The course of poisoning lasted from 3min to 33h5min. Clinically the animals presented palpitation, abdominal breathing, slight balance loss with sometimes swaying gait, they laid down and placed the head on their flank. In the "dramatic phase", all the sheep fell into lateral decubitus, stretched out the legs, made peddling movements, presented opistotonus, and died. The electrocardiographical examination showed heart dilatation and reduction of the systolic shortening fraction. Laboratory hematological exams revealed increased urea and creatinine. MF caused the clinical and pathological symptoms of "sudden death". At postmortem examination, heart auricles and jugular, cava, azygos and pulmonary veins of all animals were moderately engorged, and in some sheep, pulmonary edema was observed. Histopathology revealed hydropic-vacuolar degeneration (HVD) of the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted kidney tubules associated with nuclear picnosis in all the sheep. Vacuolation and less often necrosis of liver cells was seen in some cases. No references to that peculiar type of lesion could be found in the literature, except the description of kidney lesions in animals associated with the ingestion of BSDCP, and recent studies of MF poisoning in cattle. The present study demonstrated in sheep that single lethal doses or repeated dos

Tiago C., Peixoto; Vivian A., Nogueira; Cleide D., Coelho; Cristiano C.P., Veiga; Paulo V., Peixoto; Marilene F., Brito.

128

[Psychosocial aspects in osteoporosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density which results in an increase in bone fracture. Its etiology is still unknown. Several risks factors have been described: increase in coffee intake, decrease in calcium intake, a sedentary lifestyle, a decrease in estrogen secretion and genetic factors. It has been recently shown that mood disorders, such as Major Depression associated with high levels of cortisone, constitute a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology considers an integrated human being, a biopsychosocial unit permanently related to his environment, overcoming the cause - effect relationship. Taking into account this point of view we studied the psychoaffective and psychodynamic aspects in patients with osteoporosis. Several disorders have been found, an increase in anxiety indexes, depression, alexithymia, a larger number of early traumatic life events, a decrease in the support network and lower quality of life. Consequently, this pathology should be dealt with within an interdisciplinary framework. It is equally important to detect osteoporosis at an early stage in patients showing mood disorders. PMID:14654873

Zonis De Zukerfeld, Raquel; Ingratta, Ricardo; Sanchez Negrete, Gabriela; Matusevich, Alberto; Intebi, Carlos

129

Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos / Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la pat [...] ología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una p Abstract in english Introduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabita [...] nts, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical accessibility of the rehabilitation services, residence in a rural or urban milieu, and between the different health areas. Methods. We study all the processes of temporary disability due to pathology of the locomotor system in Health Areas I and III of Navarra in 1997 and 1998, taking different variables into account. We make a descriptive study of the pathologies, counting the working days lost. We calculate the annual incidence of sick leave because of pathologies. We compare average duration with other variables. Results. These represent 221,054 lost working days per year. Low back pain and sprained ankles are the most frequent processes. We find an increase in the incidence of temporary disability due to low back pain and lumbar/sciatica in the basic rural areas of the middle region. There are no statistically significant differences with a p

E., Sáinz de Murieta; J., Fernández Baraibar; I., Pascual; A., Mena; A., Martínez-Zubiri; M.J., Condón.

2005-04-01

130

Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects  

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Full Text Available Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la patología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una pIntroduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabitants, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical accessibility of the rehabilitation services, residence in a rural or urban milieu, and between the different health areas. Methods. We study all the processes of temporary disability due to pathology of the locomotor system in Health Areas I and III of Navarra in 1997 and 1998, taking different variables into account. We make a descriptive study of the pathologies, counting the working days lost. We calculate the annual incidence of sick leave because of pathologies. We compare average duration with other variables. Results. These represent 221,054 lost working days per year. Low back pain and sprained ankles are the most frequent processes. We find an increase in the incidence of temporary disability due to low back pain and lumbar/sciatica in the basic rural areas of the middle region. There are no statistically significant differences with a p<0.05 in the duration of temporary disability according to Health Area, rural or urban milieu or geographical accessibility to the Rehabilitation Services. A statistically significant fall can be observed in the first year of operation of a temporary disability management program.

E. Sáinz de Murieta

2005-04-01

131

Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos / Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la pat [...] ología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una p Abstract in english Introduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabita [...] nts, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical accessibility of the rehabilitation services, residence in a rural or urban milieu, and between the different health areas. Methods. We study all the processes of temporary disability due to pathology of the locomotor system in Health Areas I and III of Navarra in 1997 and 1998, taking different variables into account. We make a descriptive study of the pathologies, counting the working days lost. We calculate the annual incidence of sick leave because of pathologies. We compare average duration with other variables. Results. These represent 221,054 lost working days per year. Low back pain and sprained ankles are the most frequent processes. We find an increase in the incidence of temporary disability due to low back pain and lumbar/sciatica in the basic rural areas of the middle region. There are no statistically significant differences with a p

E., Sáinz de Murieta; J., Fernández Baraibar; I., Pascual; A., Mena; A., Martínez-Zubiri; M.J., Condón.

132

Efecto terapéutico de las estatinas en patología degenerativa del SNC: comentario sobre una publicación experimental reciente Therapeutic use of Statins in degenerative pathology of the CNS: a commentary of a recent experimental paper  

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Full Text Available Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins reduce the risk of coronary pathology; they are well tolerated and have few adverse effects. During the last years mounting evidence suggest that statins could be also useful for several autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. Proposed mechanisms include effects on plasma lipoproteins, endothelial function, atheroma reduction, thrombosis and inflammation. The realization that brain ischemia produces inflammation of the brain opens a new field for discovery of novel therapeutic agents for stroke. Here, I comment on a paper from Chen et al. ("Statins induce angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis after stroke", Ann Neurol 2003; 53: 743-751 that proposed that atorvastatin and simvastatin reduced tissue damage and enhanced functional outcome when administered to rats 1 day after experimental stroke. Animals treated with statins showed increases in vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and increase in synaptophysin. Although the authors concluded that atorvastatin induced brain plasticity and had neurorestorative activity, I think that significant additional experiments are required in order to sustain some of the mechanisms proposed by them. However, evidence on the effect of statins on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and other inflammatory disease is also discussed here, because they cast light on alternative mechanisms that could be responsible for the better outcome of stroke animals treated with statins. Inflammation is attractive in therapeutic terms, considering its rapid initiation, its progression for several hours after stroke and its enormous contribution to brain damage

Rommy von Bernhardi

2003-10-01

133

Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed. PMID:22870841

Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

2012-05-01

134

Forms of pathologization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many studies estimate that around half of the population in Western countries will suffer from a mental disorder sometime in their life. Approximately a quarter of the population will develop an anxiety disorder and a similar number will suffer from depression. A tenth will develop a personality disorder, and similar figures are found for many other mental disorders. These figures are striking, but are hard to interpret. This presentation argues in favour of the pathologization thesis, which claims that it cannot be argued in a straightforward manner that we are simply more ill and disordered than before, perhaps due to the malaises of modernity. Instead, we have learned to think and talk about human problems in new ways, viz. ways that involve pathologization. Pathologization, however, is not a unitary phenomenon, and the presentation gives an overview of four types of pathologization, which are called stigmatizing pathologization, self pathologization, risk pathologization and de-pathologization. It is argued that we need a variety of ways of understanding the complex phenomenon of pathologization and that previous critical frameworks (e.g. as promoted by the anti-psychiatry movement) are often overly simplistic.

Brinkmann, Svend

135

Efecto terapéutico de las estatinas en patología degenerativa del SNC: comentario sobre una publicación experimental reciente / Therapeutic use of Statins in degenerative pathology of the CNS: a commentary of a recent experimental paper  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins reduce the risk of coronary pathology; they are well tolerated and have few adverse effects. During the last years mounting evidence suggest that statins could be also useful for several autoimm [...] une and neurodegenerative diseases. Proposed mechanisms include effects on plasma lipoproteins, endothelial function, atheroma reduction, thrombosis and inflammation. The realization that brain ischemia produces inflammation of the brain opens a new field for discovery of novel therapeutic agents for stroke. Here, I comment on a paper from Chen et al. ("Statins induce angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis after stroke", Ann Neurol 2003; 53: 743-751) that proposed that atorvastatin and simvastatin reduced tissue damage and enhanced functional outcome when administered to rats 1 day after experimental stroke. Animals treated with statins showed increases in vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and increase in synaptophysin. Although the authors concluded that atorvastatin induced brain plasticity and had neurorestorative activity, I think that significant additional experiments are required in order to sustain some of the mechanisms proposed by them. However, evidence on the effect of statins on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and other inflammatory disease is also discussed here, because they cast light on alternative mechanisms that could be responsible for the better outcome of stroke animals treated with statins. Inflammation is attractive in therapeutic terms, considering its rapid initiation, its progression for several hours after stroke and its enormous contribution to brain damage

Rommy, von Bernhardi.

2003-10-01

136

Efecto terapéutico de las estatinas en patología degenerativa del SNC: comentario sobre una publicación experimental reciente / Therapeutic use of Statins in degenerative pathology of the CNS: a commentary of a recent experimental paper  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins reduce the risk of coronary pathology; they are well tolerated and have few adverse effects. During the last years mounting evidence suggest that statins could be also useful for several autoimm [...] une and neurodegenerative diseases. Proposed mechanisms include effects on plasma lipoproteins, endothelial function, atheroma reduction, thrombosis and inflammation. The realization that brain ischemia produces inflammation of the brain opens a new field for discovery of novel therapeutic agents for stroke. Here, I comment on a paper from Chen et al. ("Statins induce angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis after stroke", Ann Neurol 2003; 53: 743-751) that proposed that atorvastatin and simvastatin reduced tissue damage and enhanced functional outcome when administered to rats 1 day after experimental stroke. Animals treated with statins showed increases in vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and increase in synaptophysin. Although the authors concluded that atorvastatin induced brain plasticity and had neurorestorative activity, I think that significant additional experiments are required in order to sustain some of the mechanisms proposed by them. However, evidence on the effect of statins on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and other inflammatory disease is also discussed here, because they cast light on alternative mechanisms that could be responsible for the better outcome of stroke animals treated with statins. Inflammation is attractive in therapeutic terms, considering its rapid initiation, its progression for several hours after stroke and its enormous contribution to brain damage

Rommy, von Bernhardi.

137

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus domesticus) infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 / Clinical and pathological aspects in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected experimentally with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 sporulated oocysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo, sinais clínicos e alterações patológicas foram avaliados por 30 dias em frangos de corte, linhagem Cobb, machos, com dez dias de idade, infectados com Eimeria acervulina. Foram utilizados 192 animais distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo A inoculado com 1x10(6) oocistos esporulados; gr [...] upo B inoculado com 1x10(5) oocistos esporulados; grupo C inoculado com água destilada. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, diarréia e apatia. As alterações patológicas macroscópicas observadas foram: enterite, hiperemia seguido de congestão intestinal, excesso de exsudato mucoso no lúmen do intestino delgado, palidez e desidratação muscular, alto acúmulo de bile na vesícula biliar e deposição de gordura hepática. A atrofia de vilosidades e alta presença de células inflamatórias foram as alterações microscópicas observadas no epitélio intestinal. Na análise histopatológica do fígado observaram-se infiltrados inflamatórios e deposição de gordura. Os resultados demonstraram que frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com E. acervulina apresentam progressivas lesões intestinais de intensidade variável e que essas anormalidades são as principais causas de redução no desenvolvimento da ave. Abstract in english In the present study, clinical signs and pathological changes were evaluated during 30 days in broilers, lineage Cobb, males, with ten days old, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Were used 192 animals distributed in 3 groups: group A inoculated with 1x10(6) sporulated oocysts; group B inoculated wit [...] h 1x10(5) sporulated oocysts; group C inoculated with distilled water. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, diarrhea and apathy. The pathological macroscopic changes observed were: enteritis, hyperemia with subsequent intestinal congestion, high concentration of mucus exudates in the lumen of the small intestine, pale and dehydration muscle, gall bladder full of liquid and deposition of hepatic fat. The villous atrophy and high presence of inflammatory cells were the microscopic changes observed in the gut epithelium. In histopathologic analysis of liver observed inflammatory cells infiltrated and fat deposition. The results demonstrate that broilers experimentally infected with E. acervulina presented progressive intestinal lesions of variable intensity and that these abnormalities are the main cause of reduction of bird performance.

Fagner Luiz da C., Freitas; Katyane de S., Almeida; Adjair A. do, Nascimento; José H., Tebaldi; Rosangela Z., Machado; Celio R., Machado.

138

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus domesticus infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 Clinical and pathological aspects in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus infected experimentally with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 sporulated oocysts  

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Full Text Available No presente estudo, sinais clínicos e alterações patológicas foram avaliados por 30 dias em frangos de corte, linhagem Cobb, machos, com dez dias de idade, infectados com Eimeria acervulina. Foram utilizados 192 animais distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo A inoculado com 1x10(6 oocistos esporulados; grupo B inoculado com 1x10(5 oocistos esporulados; grupo C inoculado com água destilada. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, diarréia e apatia. As alterações patológicas macroscópicas observadas foram: enterite, hiperemia seguido de congestão intestinal, excesso de exsudato mucoso no lúmen do intestino delgado, palidez e desidratação muscular, alto acúmulo de bile na vesícula biliar e deposição de gordura hepática. A atrofia de vilosidades e alta presença de células inflamatórias foram as alterações microscópicas observadas no epitélio intestinal. Na análise histopatológica do fígado observaram-se infiltrados inflamatórios e deposição de gordura. Os resultados demonstraram que frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com E. acervulina apresentam progressivas lesões intestinais de intensidade variável e que essas anormalidades são as principais causas de redução no desenvolvimento da ave.In the present study, clinical signs and pathological changes were evaluated during 30 days in broilers, lineage Cobb, males, with ten days old, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Were used 192 animals distributed in 3 groups: group A inoculated with 1x10(6 sporulated oocysts; group B inoculated with 1x10(5 sporulated oocysts; group C inoculated with distilled water. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, diarrhea and apathy. The pathological macroscopic changes observed were: enteritis, hyperemia with subsequent intestinal congestion, high concentration of mucus exudates in the lumen of the small intestine, pale and dehydration muscle, gall bladder full of liquid and deposition of hepatic fat. The villous atrophy and high presence of inflammatory cells were the microscopic changes observed in the gut epithelium. In histopathologic analysis of liver observed inflammatory cells infiltrated and fat deposition. The results demonstrate that broilers experimentally infected with E. acervulina presented progressive intestinal lesions of variable intensity and that these abnormalities are the main cause of reduction of bird performance.

Fagner Luiz da C. Freitas

2008-03-01

139

Infestação simultânea por Cytodites nudus e Laminosioptes cysticola e seus aspectos patológicos em galinhas de subsistência / Simultaneous infestation by Cytodites nudus and Laminosioptes cysticola and their pathological aspects in free-range chicken  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Cytodites nudus e Laminosioptes cysticola são ácaros cuja ocorrência é pouco relatada e cuja infestação simultânea nunca foi descrita na literatura científica brasileira. C. nudus é conhecido como ácaro dos sacos aéreos e pode provocar sinais respiratórios, pneumonia e emagrecimento, quando presente [...] em grande número no hospedeiro. L. cysticola parasita o tecido conjuntivo de galiformes e provoca a formação de pequenos nódulos subcutâneos calcificados, que podem ser confundidos com nódulos de tuberculose aviária. No presente trabalho, são discutidos os aspectos patológicos das lesões causadas pelos ácaros C. nudus e L. cysticola e a caracterização morfológica desses parasitas. Abstract in english The occurrence of Cytodites nudus and Laminosioptes cysticola mites is rare and there is no report of this simultaneous infestation in Brazilian scientific literature. C. nudus is known as the air sacs mite and may cause respiratory signs as well as pneumonia and weight loss when present in large nu [...] mbers in the host. L. cysticola is found in connective tissue of galliforms and causes formation of small calcified subcutaneous nodules that can be confused with the characteristic nodules found in avian tuberculosis. In this paper are discussed the pathological findings of lesions caused by C. nudus and L. cysticola and their morphological characterization.

Juliana Inês, Herpich; Karen Apellanis, Borges; Marco Aurélio de Oliveira, Cesco; Thales Quedi, Furian; Francielli Cordeiro, Zimermann; Luiz Cesar Bello, Fallavena; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Hamilton Luiz de Souza, Moraes.

2012-05-01

140

Infestação simultânea por Cytodites nudus e Laminosioptes cysticola e seus aspectos patológicos em galinhas de subsistência / Simultaneous infestation by Cytodites nudus and Laminosioptes cysticola and their pathological aspects in free-range chicken  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Cytodites nudus e Laminosioptes cysticola são ácaros cuja ocorrência é pouco relatada e cuja infestação simultânea nunca foi descrita na literatura científica brasileira. C. nudus é conhecido como ácaro dos sacos aéreos e pode provocar sinais respiratórios, pneumonia e emagrecimento, quando presente [...] em grande número no hospedeiro. L. cysticola parasita o tecido conjuntivo de galiformes e provoca a formação de pequenos nódulos subcutâneos calcificados, que podem ser confundidos com nódulos de tuberculose aviária. No presente trabalho, são discutidos os aspectos patológicos das lesões causadas pelos ácaros C. nudus e L. cysticola e a caracterização morfológica desses parasitas. Abstract in english The occurrence of Cytodites nudus and Laminosioptes cysticola mites is rare and there is no report of this simultaneous infestation in Brazilian scientific literature. C. nudus is known as the air sacs mite and may cause respiratory signs as well as pneumonia and weight loss when present in large nu [...] mbers in the host. L. cysticola is found in connective tissue of galliforms and causes formation of small calcified subcutaneous nodules that can be confused with the characteristic nodules found in avian tuberculosis. In this paper are discussed the pathological findings of lesions caused by C. nudus and L. cysticola and their morphological characterization.

Juliana Inês, Herpich; Karen Apellanis, Borges; Marco Aurélio de Oliveira, Cesco; Thales Quedi, Furian; Francielli Cordeiro, Zimermann; Luiz Cesar Bello, Fallavena; Carlos Tadeu Pippi, Salle; Hamilton Luiz de Souza, Moraes.

 
 
 
 
141

[The pathology department].  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of the Laboratory of Pathology at Erasmus Hospital is directly related to the morphological diagnosis integration in the medico-surgical organization of the Hospital. Such integration is based on the creation of links between the Laboratory of Pathology and the clinical departments and necessitates permanent adaptations to new complementary technology. Immunohistochemical methods were gradually included in the surgical morphological diagnosis. Currently, new markers from molecular biology are needed to obtain accurate pathological diagnosis. We observe an increasing hyperspecialization of the morphological classification with complete integration of such biological markers leading to the necessity of carrying out collegial diagnosis. The development of the telepathology technology permits international collegial diagnosis. According to its central position the Laboratory of Pathology plays an important part in the development of the clinical and fundamental research. The research subjects of the Laboratory of Pathology concern diagnostic and prognostic evaluation in colic cancers, sarcomas, brain tumors and HPV related tumors endometriosis. PMID:12584903

Salmon, I; Nagy, N; Noël, J C; Remmelink, M

2002-01-01

142

Multidetector CT appearances of splanchnic arterial pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technology have enabled the production of high-resolution diagnostic images of the visceral vessels. The potential of MDCT in relation to splanchnic artery pathology is still being realized, but it already provides a credible quick, non-invasive, low-dose alternative to digital subtraction angiography. A variety of categories of splanchnic artery pathology are demonstrated, including stenosis and occlusion (due to extrinsic compression, mural thrombus, and atherosclerosis), aneurysms, dissection, and haemorrhage.

Grierson, C. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cathgrierson@doctors.org.uk; Uthappa, M.C. [Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury (United Kingdom); Uberoi, R. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Warakaulle, D. [Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury (United Kingdom)

2007-08-15

143

Dusting off another shelf: further comments on classic gynecologic pathology books of yesteryear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected outstanding books from the older literature on gynecologic pathology are reviewed with emphasis on drawing attention to the abundant helpful information and often outstanding illustrations that are worthy of review by present-day pathologists. This represents a follow up to a previous similar essay that appeared in Volume 19:67-84, 2000. The first three books cover general gynecological pathology: Gynecological Pathology by Carl Abel; Gynecological and Obstetrical Pathology by Robert T. Frank; and Haines and Taylor's Gynaecological Pathology by Magnus Haines and Claud W. Taylor. Each of them emphasizes the time-honored problem of mimicry of malignancy by diverse benign lesions or even aspects of normal histology. Awareness of the clinical background and cooperation between the clinician and pathologist are emphasized. The other three books considered are all devoted largely or exclusively to the ovary: Ovarian Tumors by Hans Selye, Ovarian Neoplasms, Morphology, and Classification by Karel Motlik, and Special Tumors of Ovary and Testis and Related Extragonadal Lesions by Gunnar Teilum. The book of Selye has a truly remarkable encyclopedic coverage of the older literature, the references being so comprehensive that they are presented in a separate volume. A number of aspects of the histopathology of ovarian tumors that have been emphasized in recent years are noted in Selye's book. Dr. Motlik's book presents a very high quality consideration of the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors. Teilum's book contains a masterful account of the histopathology of germ cell tumors emphasizing a neoplasm with which his name will always be associated, the yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor). Numerous beautiful and refreshingly large illustrations are provided, and Dr. Teilum's interest in comparative pathology is evident in the pages, his linking of the famous Schiller-Duval bodies with the endodermal sinuses of the rat placenta, being the most notable example. PMID:15626924

Young, Robert H

2005-01-01

144

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical and pathological aspects of Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats in Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos [...] , S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose pelo estudo histoquímico por lectinas. Os vacúolos nas células de Purkinje reagiram fortemente com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris e Triticum vulgaris succinilado. O padrão obtido neste estudo é similar ao encontrado em intoxicação por plantas que apresentam swainsoniana como princípio tóxico. Abstract in english This report includes the clinical and pathological studies of a lysosomal storage disease which spontaneously occurred in three flocs of goats e after consumption of Sida carpinifolia, the predominant plant in the paddocks where the animals were grazing. In the outbreaks a total of 25 out of 51 anim [...] als were affected. Post-mortem examination was performed on 11 goats. The disease was experimentally induced by dosing goats with Sida carpinifolia. The plant was administered in natura or dried to 3 animals. No clinical or pathological changes were observed in one goat dosed with Sida rhombifolia ad libidum during 40 days. Clinical signs of the poisoning were ataxia, hypermetria, muscle tremors in the head and neck and disorders of deglutition. The clinical signs were exacerbated by movement. After the surviving animals had been moved to other pastures and stopped eating the plant, clinical signs were still observed during 24 months. At necropsy, no significant gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions included various degrees of vacuolization in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells. Similar lesions were observed in the acinar pancreatic cells, hepatocytes, proximal convoluted tubular cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and macrophages of lymph nodes. In the surviving animals, mild neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed, and few cells were eosinophilic and shrunken. In these cases neurons, especially Purkinje cells, had disappeared. Through the histochemical study of the cerebellar sections, the lysosomal storage disease was characterized as an alpha-mannosidosis. The vacuoles within the Purkinje cells strongly r

Edson M., Colodel; David, Driemeier; Alexandre P., Loretti; Eduardo J., Gimeno; Sandra D., Traverso; Anderson L., Seitz; Priscila, Zlotowski.

145

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul Clinical and pathological aspects of Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats in Rio Grande do Sul  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos, S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose pelo estudo histoquímico por lectinas. Os vacúolos nas células de Purkinje reagiram fortemente com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris e Triticum vulgaris succinilado. O padrão obtido neste estudo é similar ao encontrado em intoxicação por plantas que apresentam swainsoniana como princípio tóxico.This report includes the clinical and pathological studies of a lysosomal storage disease which spontaneously occurred in three flocs of goats e after consumption of Sida carpinifolia, the predominant plant in the paddocks where the animals were grazing. In the outbreaks a total of 25 out of 51 animals were affected. Post-mortem examination was performed on 11 goats. The disease was experimentally induced by dosing goats with Sida carpinifolia. The plant was administered in natura or dried to 3 animals. No clinical or pathological changes were observed in one goat dosed with Sida rhombifolia ad libidum during 40 days. Clinical signs of the poisoning were ataxia, hypermetria, muscle tremors in the head and neck and disorders of deglutition. The clinical signs were exacerbated by movement. After the surviving animals had been moved to other pastures and stopped eating the plant, clinical signs were still observed during 24 months. At necropsy, no significant gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions included various degrees of vacuolization in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells. Similar lesions were observed in the acinar pancreatic cells, hepatocytes, proximal convoluted tubular cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and macrophages of lymph nodes. In the surviving animals, mild neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed, and few cells were eosinophilic and shrunken. In these cases neurons, especially Purkinje cells, had disappeared. Through the histochemical study of the cerebellar sections, the lysosomal storage disease was characterized as an alpha-mannosidosis. The vacuoles within the Purkinje cells strongly reacted with lectins of Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris and succinylated Triticum vul

Edson M. Colodel

2002-04-01

146

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em bovinos afetados por raiva com especial referência ao mapeamento do antígeno rábico por imuno-histoquímica / Clinical and pathological aspects in cattle affected by rabies with special reference to the rabies antigen mapping by immunohistochemistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu achados clínicos e patológicos de 15 bovinos afetados por raiva. Em treze dos quinze casos, raiva foi confirmada por imunofluorescência direta. Bovinos entre 4 meses e 8 anos foram afetados. O curso clínico variou de três a sete dias. A forma paralítica foi a mais f [...] requente e incluiu incoordenação, paresia e paralisia dos membros pélvicos, decúbito, movimentos de pedalagem e morte. Os principais achados histopatológicos foram meningoencefalite linfoplasmocitária associada com corpúsculos de Negri em 86,6% dos casos. Todos os casos foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para raiva, cujas reações foram mais evidentes no tronco encefálico, incluindo bulbo, ponte e mesencéfalo, além de gânglio trigêmeo. A imuno-histoquímica demonstrou o vírus da raiva em axônios, dendritos e pericário de neurônios, como agregados de grânulos ou em formações arredondadas associadas com números variáveis de corpúsculos de inclusão virais nos neurônios. Houve também marcação nos neurônios de Purkinje e de seus processos na camada molecular, nos núcleos do tronco encefálico e camada profunda do córtex telencefálico. A imuno-histoquímica pode ser importante ferramenta diagnóstica no diagnóstico da raiva, especialmente em situações nas quais não é possível manter refrigeração adequada das amostras e em casos com meningoencefalite não-supurativa e ausência de corpúsculos de inclusão. Abstract in english This retrospective study included clinical and pathological findings from 15 cattle affected by rabies. Thirteen of the 15 cases were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Cattle between 4 months and 8 years of age were affected. Clinical course ranged from 3 to 7 days. Paralytical form was the mo [...] st common clinical picture and included incoordination, paresis, and paralysis of the pelvic members, besides recumbence, paddling, and death. The main histopathological findings were lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis associated with characteristic Negri bodies in 86.6% of the cases. All cases showed anti-rabies immunostaining, which were most prominent in the brainstem including medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, besides trigeminal ganglion. Positive labeling was present within axons, dendrites, and perikarya of neurons as aggregates of granules or round formations associated with varying numbers of inclusion bodies. Immunostaining was also observed in the Purkinje neurons and their processes in the molecular layer, in the neurons of of the brainstem, and deep layer of the telencephalic cortex. Immunohistochemistry may be an important auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of rabies, especially in circumstances in which refrigeration cannot be adequately maintained, and in cases characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with absence of inclusion bodies.

Pedro M.O., Pedroso; Edson M., Colodel; Caroline A., Pescador; Laura P., Arruda; David, Driemeier.

147

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em bovinos afetados por raiva com especial referência ao mapeamento do antígeno rábico por imuno-histoquímica / Clinical and pathological aspects in cattle affected by rabies with special reference to the rabies antigen mapping by immunohistochemistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu achados clínicos e patológicos de 15 bovinos afetados por raiva. Em treze dos quinze casos, raiva foi confirmada por imunofluorescência direta. Bovinos entre 4 meses e 8 anos foram afetados. O curso clínico variou de três a sete dias. A forma paralítica foi a mais f [...] requente e incluiu incoordenação, paresia e paralisia dos membros pélvicos, decúbito, movimentos de pedalagem e morte. Os principais achados histopatológicos foram meningoencefalite linfoplasmocitária associada com corpúsculos de Negri em 86,6% dos casos. Todos os casos foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para raiva, cujas reações foram mais evidentes no tronco encefálico, incluindo bulbo, ponte e mesencéfalo, além de gânglio trigêmeo. A imuno-histoquímica demonstrou o vírus da raiva em axônios, dendritos e pericário de neurônios, como agregados de grânulos ou em formações arredondadas associadas com números variáveis de corpúsculos de inclusão virais nos neurônios. Houve também marcação nos neurônios de Purkinje e de seus processos na camada molecular, nos núcleos do tronco encefálico e camada profunda do córtex telencefálico. A imuno-histoquímica pode ser importante ferramenta diagnóstica no diagnóstico da raiva, especialmente em situações nas quais não é possível manter refrigeração adequada das amostras e em casos com meningoencefalite não-supurativa e ausência de corpúsculos de inclusão. Abstract in english This retrospective study included clinical and pathological findings from 15 cattle affected by rabies. Thirteen of the 15 cases were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Cattle between 4 months and 8 years of age were affected. Clinical course ranged from 3 to 7 days. Paralytical form was the mo [...] st common clinical picture and included incoordination, paresis, and paralysis of the pelvic members, besides recumbence, paddling, and death. The main histopathological findings were lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis associated with characteristic Negri bodies in 86.6% of the cases. All cases showed anti-rabies immunostaining, which were most prominent in the brainstem including medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, besides trigeminal ganglion. Positive labeling was present within axons, dendrites, and perikarya of neurons as aggregates of granules or round formations associated with varying numbers of inclusion bodies. Immunostaining was also observed in the Purkinje neurons and their processes in the molecular layer, in the neurons of of the brainstem, and deep layer of the telencephalic cortex. Immunohistochemistry may be an important auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of rabies, especially in circumstances in which refrigeration cannot be adequately maintained, and in cases characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with absence of inclusion bodies.

Pedro M.O., Pedroso; Edson M., Colodel; Caroline A., Pescador; Laura P., Arruda; David, Driemeier.

2009-11-01

148

Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy  

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Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

AlessiaFornoni

2014-07-01

149

Alexithymia and pathological gambling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between alexithymia and gambling in a community sample of pathological gamblers. Pathological, problem and non-problem gamblers were recruited from the community via advertisements and completed an assessment of their gambling behavior and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Alexithymia was higher among male pathological gamblers who identified slot machines, cards, and lotteries as their primary gambling problem. High alexithymics scored higher on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual symptoms related to poor self-regulation, communication, and problem-solving skills. Although a correlational study, the evidence suggests that further investigation of the clinical significance of alexithymia in individuals with severe gambling pathology is indicated. PMID:20155587

Toneatto, Tony; Lecce, Julia; Bagby, Michael

2009-07-01

150

Envenenamento experimental por Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu em ovinos: aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais / Experimental poisoning by Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in sheep: clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em ovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu, no intuito de fornecer subsídios que possam facilitar o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial dessa co [...] ndição. Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a quatro ovinos por via subcutânea. Três ovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,5mg/kg (B. jararaca), recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 7 minutos e 1 hora. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 9 minutos a 21 horas 59 minutos. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento e de preenchimento capilar aumentados, taquicardia, dispnéia, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram acentuada anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, acentuada redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito diminuído em dois animais, além de acentuado aumento de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática em todos os animais. À necropsia, os principais achados no local da inoculação e tecidos adjacentes eram extensas hemorragias no animal que recebeu o veneno de B. jararaca e edema e acentuado edema pulmonar agudo para os dois animais envenenados por B. jararacussu. Além de hemorragia e edema a principal alteração histopatológica verificada foi necrose das fibras musculares e de vasos, no local de inoculação e adjacências. A necrose tubular renal foi atribuída ao quadro de choque. Nos ovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído predominantemente por sangue (B. jararaca) e por edema (B. jararacussu). Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to establish the clinic-pathological and laboratory changes in sheep inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu venom to provide subsidies for the differential diagnosis of snake bites. The liofilized venoms were diluted in 1 ml saline and administra [...] ted subcutaneously to four sheep. Three of the animals died, and the one that received 0.5mg/kg (B. jararaca venom) recovered. First symptoms were observed from 7 minutes to 1 hour after inoculation, and the clinical course varied from 7 hours and 9 minutes to 21 hours and 59 minutes. The symptoms, independent of the dosage, were swelling of the inoculation site, increased bleeding time and capillary filling, tachycardia, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes and diminished reaction to external stimuli. Laboratory tests revealed pronounced normocytic and normochromic anemia, trombocytopenia, slight reduction of fibrogen and total plasmatic protein, in two animals diminished hematocrit, besides pronounced increase of creatinaquinase and lactic dehydrogenase. At necropsy, the main findings at the inoculation site and adjacent tissues were extensive hemorrhages in the sheep inoculated with jararaca venom, and predominantly edema in the two animals inoculated with jararacussu venom. In two sheep which received jararacussu venom, acute pulmonary edema was observed. Hemorrhage and edema as the main histopathological changes, besides necrosis of muscle fibers and vessels at the inoculation site and adjacent tissue was observed. The renal tubular necrosis was attributed to shock. The volume increase at the inoculation site and surroundings was mainly due to hemorrhage (B. jararaca) or edema (B. jararacussu).

Ana Paula, Aragão; Carlos H., Tokarnia; Flávio A.S., Graça; Ticiana N., França; Cleide D., Coelho; Saulo A., Caldas; Paulo V., Peixoto.

151

Intoxicação por sal em suínos: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos e breve revisão de literatura / Salt poisoning in swine: epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects and brief review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Intoxicação por sal ocorre comumente em suínos por ingestão excessiva de cloreto de sódio ou por privação de água por um período de tempo, seguido de um livre acesso a água abundante. O objetivo deste trabalho é agregar dados de casos de intoxicação por sal, diagnosticados, compilar dados já existen [...] tes na literatura e caracterizar as principais alterações clínicas e patológicas observadas. Foram revisados cinco surtos, sendo que um deles foi minuciosamente acompanhado. Em três deles a ingestão de cloreto de sódio foi determinada. Os sinais clínicos eram basicamente convulsões, com intensos tremores musculares e desenvolvimento de opistótono. Os animais permaneciam em decúbito lateral, fazendo movimentos de pedalagem. Alguns andavam em círculos. Dosagens de sódio em fragmentos de músculo e de fígado, no soro, líquor e humor aquoso revelaram concentrações aumentadas do íon. A quantidade de eosinófilos circulantes foi baixa caracterizando grande recrutamento dessas células para o encéfalo. Em todos os surtos foi observada infiltração de eosinófilos nas leptomeninges e no espaço de Virchow-Robin do córtex cerebral. Necrose cortical laminar foi observada mais detalhadamente em um dos surtos onde os suínos estavam doentes há seis dias. A combinação dessas duas lesões caracteriza a doença. Todas as alterações observadas podem ser explicadas pela provável patogenia da doença em que as elevadas concentrações de sódio causam edema cerebral que leva ao aumento da pressão intracraniana e decréscimo da perfusão para o cérebro causando isquemia difusa e necrose neuronal, com consequente malacia. Abstract in english Salt poisoning occurs commonly in pigs by excessive intake of sodium chloride or by a period water deprivation for followed by free access to water. The objective of this work is to aggregate data from cases of salt poisoning, combining existing data in the literature and describe the main clinical [...] and pathological features observed. We reviewed five outbreaks, one of which was carefully monitored. In three of them the intake of sodium chloride had been determined. Clinical signs were basically seizures with the lateral decubitus with paddling movements. Circling was observed in some cases. Sodium determination in muscle of and liver fragments, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor showed increased concentrations of this ion. There was eosinopenia characterizing increased recruitment eosinophils from the circulation into the brain. In all outbreaks eosinophil infiltration was observed in the meninges and the Virchow-Robin space of the cerebral cortex. Cortical laminar necrosis was more pronounced in the brain of pigs from one of the outbreaks in which animals were sick for six days. The combination of these two lesions characterizes the disease. The changes observed result from high concentrations of sodium in the brain causing cause edema that leads to increased intracranial pressure and decreased perfusion to the brain tissue causing diffuse ischemia and neuronal necrosis, with consequent malacia.

Juliana S., Brum; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Ricardo B., Lucena; Claudio S.L., Barros.

2013-07-01

152

Intoxicação por sal em suínos: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos e breve revisão de literatura / Salt poisoning in swine: epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects and brief review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Intoxicação por sal ocorre comumente em suínos por ingestão excessiva de cloreto de sódio ou por privação de água por um período de tempo, seguido de um livre acesso a água abundante. O objetivo deste trabalho é agregar dados de casos de intoxicação por sal, diagnosticados, compilar dados já existen [...] tes na literatura e caracterizar as principais alterações clínicas e patológicas observadas. Foram revisados cinco surtos, sendo que um deles foi minuciosamente acompanhado. Em três deles a ingestão de cloreto de sódio foi determinada. Os sinais clínicos eram basicamente convulsões, com intensos tremores musculares e desenvolvimento de opistótono. Os animais permaneciam em decúbito lateral, fazendo movimentos de pedalagem. Alguns andavam em círculos. Dosagens de sódio em fragmentos de músculo e de fígado, no soro, líquor e humor aquoso revelaram concentrações aumentadas do íon. A quantidade de eosinófilos circulantes foi baixa caracterizando grande recrutamento dessas células para o encéfalo. Em todos os surtos foi observada infiltração de eosinófilos nas leptomeninges e no espaço de Virchow-Robin do córtex cerebral. Necrose cortical laminar foi observada mais detalhadamente em um dos surtos onde os suínos estavam doentes há seis dias. A combinação dessas duas lesões caracteriza a doença. Todas as alterações observadas podem ser explicadas pela provável patogenia da doença em que as elevadas concentrações de sódio causam edema cerebral que leva ao aumento da pressão intracraniana e decréscimo da perfusão para o cérebro causando isquemia difusa e necrose neuronal, com consequente malacia. Abstract in english Salt poisoning occurs commonly in pigs by excessive intake of sodium chloride or by a period water deprivation for followed by free access to water. The objective of this work is to aggregate data from cases of salt poisoning, combining existing data in the literature and describe the main clinical [...] and pathological features observed. We reviewed five outbreaks, one of which was carefully monitored. In three of them the intake of sodium chloride had been determined. Clinical signs were basically seizures with the lateral decubitus with paddling movements. Circling was observed in some cases. Sodium determination in muscle of and liver fragments, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor showed increased concentrations of this ion. There was eosinopenia characterizing increased recruitment eosinophils from the circulation into the brain. In all outbreaks eosinophil infiltration was observed in the meninges and the Virchow-Robin space of the cerebral cortex. Cortical laminar necrosis was more pronounced in the brain of pigs from one of the outbreaks in which animals were sick for six days. The combination of these two lesions characterizes the disease. The changes observed result from high concentrations of sodium in the brain causing cause edema that leads to increased intracranial pressure and decreased perfusion to the brain tissue causing diffuse ischemia and neuronal necrosis, with consequent malacia.

Juliana S., Brum; Glauco J.N., Galiza; Ricardo B., Lucena; Claudio S.L., Barros.

153

Kaposi's Sarcoma: clinical and pathological aspects in patients seen at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil / Sarcoma de Kaposi: achados clínico-patológicos nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: O Sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia de origem endotelial, dividida em quatro formas clínicas: clássica (homens idosos de origem judaica e mediterrânea), epidêmica (associada ao HIV), endêmica (negros africanos) e iatrogênica (relacionada à imunossupressão). A infecção pelo herpes vírus huma [...] no tipo 8 (HHV-8) é necessária, mas insuficiente para que todas as formas possam ocorrer. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e características histopatológicas das lesões dos pacientes com Sarcoma de Kaposi consultados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória - ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, realizado pela análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com Sarcoma de Kaposi, durante janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 2009, no Serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: Dos 15 pacientes estudados, houve maioria do sexo masculino (93,3%) e predomínio da raça branca (60%). A forma epidêmica foi a mais freqüente (80%), seguida pela clássica (20%). Não foram observadas as formas: endêmica e iatrogênica. A revisão das lâminas das biópsias cutâneas foi feita nos 15 casos, e demonstrou derme com proliferação de células fusiformes, extravasamento de hemácias e fendas vasculares em torno de vasos maiores, com aspecto clássico de "vasos em torno de vasos". CONCLUSÕES: O número de casos de Sarcoma de Kaposi foi linear ao longo do estudo, especialmente da forma epidêmica. Por outro lado, a incidência e a prevalência da AIDS no Espírito Santo foram crescentes. Portanto, considerando-se a relação entre o sarcoma de Kaposi e a AIDS houve decréscimo do primeiro, mais acentuado após a era HAART. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of endothelial origin that is divided into four distinct types according to the clinical characteristics and the affected population: Classic (in elder men of Jewish or Mediterranean origin); Epidemic (in patients affected by AIDS); Endemic (in black Africa [...] n men) and Iatrogenic (in patients under immunosuppressive regimens). Human herpesvirus 8 infection is essential but not sufficient for the sarcoma development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic -Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital - Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória - ES. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study based on clinical charts of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic from 1986 to 2009. RESULTS: The majority of the 15 cases were male patients (93,3%) and white (60%). Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma occurred in 80%, and the Classic form in 20%, with no cases in the Endemic or Iatrogenic groups. All the histopatho logical exams of the cutaneous lesions were reviewed and a proliferation of fusiform cells, extravasated erythrocytes and vascular rifts among the largest vessels, assuming the "vessels in vessels" typical aspect, were seen. CONCLUSION: The number of cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma was linear throughout the years of the study, especially of the epidemic form, although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS increased in the state of Espírito Santo. Therefore, if we consider the relation between KS and AIDS, a decreasing line of Kaposi's sarcoma could be seen, especially after the introduction of HAART.

Ricardo Montibeler, Tiussi; Antonio Luiz de Oliveira, Caus; Lucia Martins, Diniz; Elton Almeida, Lucas.

154

Kaposi's Sarcoma: clinical and pathological aspects in patients seen at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil / Sarcoma de Kaposi: achados clínico-patológicos nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: O Sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia de origem endotelial, dividida em quatro formas clínicas: clássica (homens idosos de origem judaica e mediterrânea), epidêmica (associada ao HIV), endêmica (negros africanos) e iatrogênica (relacionada à imunossupressão). A infecção pelo herpes vírus huma [...] no tipo 8 (HHV-8) é necessária, mas insuficiente para que todas as formas possam ocorrer. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e características histopatológicas das lesões dos pacientes com Sarcoma de Kaposi consultados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória - ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, realizado pela análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com Sarcoma de Kaposi, durante janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 2009, no Serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: Dos 15 pacientes estudados, houve maioria do sexo masculino (93,3%) e predomínio da raça branca (60%). A forma epidêmica foi a mais freqüente (80%), seguida pela clássica (20%). Não foram observadas as formas: endêmica e iatrogênica. A revisão das lâminas das biópsias cutâneas foi feita nos 15 casos, e demonstrou derme com proliferação de células fusiformes, extravasamento de hemácias e fendas vasculares em torno de vasos maiores, com aspecto clássico de "vasos em torno de vasos". CONCLUSÕES: O número de casos de Sarcoma de Kaposi foi linear ao longo do estudo, especialmente da forma epidêmica. Por outro lado, a incidência e a prevalência da AIDS no Espírito Santo foram crescentes. Portanto, considerando-se a relação entre o sarcoma de Kaposi e a AIDS houve decréscimo do primeiro, mais acentuado após a era HAART. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of endothelial origin that is divided into four distinct types according to the clinical characteristics and the affected population: Classic (in elder men of Jewish or Mediterranean origin); Epidemic (in patients affected by AIDS); Endemic (in black Africa [...] n men) and Iatrogenic (in patients under immunosuppressive regimens). Human herpesvirus 8 infection is essential but not sufficient for the sarcoma development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic -Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital - Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória - ES. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study based on clinical charts of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic from 1986 to 2009. RESULTS: The majority of the 15 cases were male patients (93,3%) and white (60%). Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma occurred in 80%, and the Classic form in 20%, with no cases in the Endemic or Iatrogenic groups. All the histopatho logical exams of the cutaneous lesions were reviewed and a proliferation of fusiform cells, extravasated erythrocytes and vascular rifts among the largest vessels, assuming the "vessels in vessels" typical aspect, were seen. CONCLUSION: The number of cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma was linear throughout the years of the study, especially of the epidemic form, although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS increased in the state of Espírito Santo. Therefore, if we consider the relation between KS and AIDS, a decreasing line of Kaposi's sarcoma could be seen, especially after the introduction of HAART.

Ricardo Montibeler, Tiussi; Antonio Luiz de Oliveira, Caus; Lucia Martins, Diniz; Elton Almeida, Lucas.

2012-04-01

155

Kaposi's Sarcoma: clinical and pathological aspects in patients seen at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil Sarcoma de Kaposi: achados clínico-patológicos nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of endothelial origin that is divided into four distinct types according to the clinical characteristics and the affected population: Classic (in elder men of Jewish or Mediterranean origin; Epidemic (in patients affected by AIDS; Endemic (in black African men and Iatrogenic (in patients under immunosuppressive regimens. Human herpesvirus 8 infection is essential but not sufficient for the sarcoma development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic -Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital - Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória - ES. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study based on clinical charts of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic from 1986 to 2009. RESULTS: The majority of the 15 cases were male patients (93,3% and white (60%. Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma occurred in 80%, and the Classic form in 20%, with no cases in the Endemic or Iatrogenic groups. All the histopatho logical exams of the cutaneous lesions were reviewed and a proliferation of fusiform cells, extravasated erythrocytes and vascular rifts among the largest vessels, assuming the "vessels in vessels" typical aspect, were seen. CONCLUSION: The number of cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma was linear throughout the years of the study, especially of the epidemic form, although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS increased in the state of Espírito Santo. Therefore, if we consider the relation between KS and AIDS, a decreasing line of Kaposi's sarcoma could be seen, especially after the introduction of HAART.FUNDAMENTOS: O Sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia de origem endotelial, dividida em quatro formas clínicas: clássica (homens idosos de origem judaica e mediterrânea, epidêmica (associada ao HIV, endêmica (negros africanos e iatrogênica (relacionada à imunossupressão. A infecção pelo herpes vírus humano tipo 8 (HHV-8 é necessária, mas insuficiente para que todas as formas possam ocorrer. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e características histopatológicas das lesões dos pacientes com Sarcoma de Kaposi consultados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória - ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, realizado pela análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com Sarcoma de Kaposi, durante janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 2009, no Serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: Dos 15 pacientes estudados, houve maioria do sexo masculino (93,3% e predomínio da raça branca (60%. A forma epidêmica foi a mais freqüente (80%, seguida pela clássica (20%. Não foram observadas as formas: endêmica e iatrogênica. A revisão das lâminas das biópsias cutâneas foi feita nos 15 casos, e demonstrou derme com proliferação de células fusiformes, extravasamento de hemácias e fendas vasculares em torno de vasos maiores, com aspecto clássico de "vasos em torno de vasos". CONCLUSÕES: O número de casos de Sarcoma de Kaposi foi linear ao longo do estudo, especialmente da forma epidêmica. Por outro lado, a incidência e a prevalência da AIDS no Espírito Santo foram crescentes. Portanto, considerando-se a relação entre o sarcoma de Kaposi e a AIDS houve decréscimo do primeiro, mais acentuado após a era HAART.

Ricardo Montibeler Tiussi

2012-04-01

156

[Pathological gambling--what do we know?].  

Science.gov (United States)

According to epidemiological studies, there are 103?000-290?000 people in Germany afflicted by pathological gambling. In many cases the disorder remains hidden for a long time with only a few of the problematic or pathological gamblers seeking help in the professional helping network. Focussing on the relevant results for Germany, this review summarizes the recent research concerning "pathological gambling". The main topics are diagnosis, nosological status, epidemiology, gender-related differences and common screening instruments. Furthermore, the increasing probability for the development of pathological gambling upon existing other psychiatric disorders, e.?g. personality disorder, mood and anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders or ADHD, is discussed as well as the current approaches in treatment. PMID:20687011

Gisela Buchner, Ursula; Wodarz, Norbert

2011-08-01

157

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento experimental por Bothrops alternatus em bovinos Clinic and pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by Bothrops alternatus venom in cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e os achados laboratoriais em bovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothrops alternatus, no intuito de fornecer subsídios para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial, bem como esclarecer pontos obscuros da literatura pertinente. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrado a cinco bovinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,0625, 0,125 e 0,25 mg/kg e a dois outros, por via intramuscular, nas doses de 0,25 e 0,45 mg/kg. Seis bovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,0625mg/kg, por via subcutânea, recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 25 minutos a 5 horas 30 minutos após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 18 minutos a 66 horas 12 minutos. Um animal recuperou-se após 92 horas. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume (hemorragia/hematoma no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento aumentado, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. O exame laboratorial revelou progressiva anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito e hemoglobina diminuídos, além de leve aumento dos níveis de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática. Á necropsia, havia, a partir do local da inoculação, extensos hematomas e áreas de hemorragia no tecido celular subcutâneo dos animais que receberam o veneno por via subcutânea; nos animais inoculados por via intramuscular, adicionalmente, havia hemorragia intramuscular. O endocárdio esquerdo apresentava extensas hemorragias e verificaram-se petéquias na serosa do rúmen e do omaso e na mucosa do abomaso e da vesícula biliar. Em cinco animais, o cólon, reto e região perirrenal estavam envoltos por coágulos de sangue. Ao exame histológico observou-se, além do quadro hemorragíparo, necrose muscular coagulativa, acompanhada de hemorragia, no entorno do local da inoculação nos animais que receberam o veneno por via intramuscular; essa lesão era discreta nos músculos próximos ao local de inoculação subcutânea. Nos bovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído por sangue e não edema. Não foram observadas mioglobinúria, nem lesões macro ou microscópicas significativas nos rins. Este estudo indica que exemplares de B. alternatus, caso inoculem todo seu veneno, poderiam levar bovinos adultos à morte. Por outro lado, pelo fato de ofídios serem capazes de regular a quantidade de veneno inoculada e, possivelmente, não considerarem bovinos como presa potencial, é provável que o número de acidentes nessa espécie seja pequeno, o que está de acordo com o observado na maioria dos centros diagnóstico anátomo-patológico no país.The aim of this study was to determine the clinical-pathological alterations and laboratory findings in cattle inoculated with Bothrops alternatus venom, with the intention of providing information for the establishment of diagnosis and differential diagnosis procedures, as well as to elucidate some obscurities observed in the pertinent literature. The lyophilized venom was diluted in 1 ml of physiologic solution. It was administered to 5 bovines by the subcutaneous route at doses of 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25mg/kg body weight, and to 2 bovines by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.25 e 0.45mg/kg. Six bovines died and the only animal that survived, who had subcutaneously received the venom at a dose of 0.0625mg/kg, recovered. The first clinical signs were observed from 25min to 5h30min after the inoculation. The clinical evolution time varied from 7 hours 18 minutes to 92 hours. Regardless of the dose, the clinical picture was characterized by swelling (hemorrhage/hematoma at the site of inoculation, increase in bleeding time and capillary refill time, paleness of mucous membranes and apathy. The laboratory exams revealed progressive normocytic normochromic anemia, thromboc

Saulo A. Caldas

2008-06-01

158

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento experimental por Bothrops alternatus em bovinos / Clinic and pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by Bothrops alternatus venom in cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e os achados laboratoriais em bovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothrops alternatus, no intuito de fornecer subsídios para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial, bem como esclarecer pontos obscuros [...] da literatura pertinente. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrado a cinco bovinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,0625, 0,125 e 0,25 mg/kg e a dois outros, por via intramuscular, nas doses de 0,25 e 0,45 mg/kg. Seis bovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,0625mg/kg, por via subcutânea, recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 25 minutos a 5 horas 30 minutos após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 18 minutos a 66 horas 12 minutos. Um animal recuperou-se após 92 horas. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume (hemorragia/hematoma) no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento aumentado, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. O exame laboratorial revelou progressiva anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito e hemoglobina diminuídos, além de leve aumento dos níveis de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática. Á necropsia, havia, a partir do local da inoculação, extensos hematomas e áreas de hemorragia no tecido celular subcutâneo dos animais que receberam o veneno por via subcutânea; nos animais inoculados por via intramuscular, adicionalmente, havia hemorragia intramuscular. O endocárdio esquerdo apresentava extensas hemorragias e verificaram-se petéquias na serosa do rúmen e do omaso e na mucosa do abomaso e da vesícula biliar. Em cinco animais, o cólon, reto e região perirrenal estavam envoltos por coágulos de sangue. Ao exame histológico observou-se, além do quadro hemorragíparo, necrose muscular coagulativa, acompanhada de hemorragia, no entorno do local da inoculação nos animais que receberam o veneno por via intramuscular; essa lesão era discreta nos músculos próximos ao local de inoculação subcutânea. Nos bovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído por sangue e não edema. Não foram observadas mioglobinúria, nem lesões macro ou microscópicas significativas nos rins. Este estudo indica que exemplares de B. alternatus, caso inoculem todo seu veneno, poderiam levar bovinos adultos à morte. Por outro lado, pelo fato de ofídios serem capazes de regular a quantidade de veneno inoculada e, possivelmente, não considerarem bovinos como presa potencial, é provável que o número de acidentes nessa espécie seja pequeno, o que está de acordo com o observado na maioria dos centros diagnóstico anátomo-patológico no país. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the clinical-pathological alterations and laboratory findings in cattle inoculated with Bothrops alternatus venom, with the intention of providing information for the establishment of diagnosis and differential diagnosis procedures, as well as to elucidate some [...] obscurities observed in the pertinent literature. The lyophilized venom was diluted in 1 ml of physiologic solution. It was administered to 5 bovines by the subcutaneous route at doses of 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25mg/kg body weight, and to 2 bovines by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.25 e 0.45mg/kg. Six bovines died and the only animal that survived, who had subcutaneously received the venom at a dose of 0.0625mg/kg, recovered. The first clinical signs were observed from 25min to 5h30min after the inoculation. The clinical evolution time varied from 7 hours 18 minutes to 92 hours. Regardless of the dose, the clinical picture was characterized by swelling (hemorrhage/hematoma) at the site of inoculation, increase in bleeding time and capillary refill time, paleness of mucous membranes

Saulo A., Caldas; Carlos H., Tokarnia; Ticiana N., França; Marilene F., Brito; Flávio A.S., Graça; Cleide D., Coelho; Paulo V., Peixoto.

2008-06-01

159

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento experimental por Bothrops alternatus em bovinos / Clinic and pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by Bothrops alternatus venom in cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e os achados laboratoriais em bovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothrops alternatus, no intuito de fornecer subsídios para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial, bem como esclarecer pontos obscuros [...] da literatura pertinente. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrado a cinco bovinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,0625, 0,125 e 0,25 mg/kg e a dois outros, por via intramuscular, nas doses de 0,25 e 0,45 mg/kg. Seis bovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,0625mg/kg, por via subcutânea, recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 25 minutos a 5 horas 30 minutos após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 18 minutos a 66 horas 12 minutos. Um animal recuperou-se após 92 horas. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume (hemorragia/hematoma) no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento aumentado, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. O exame laboratorial revelou progressiva anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito e hemoglobina diminuídos, além de leve aumento dos níveis de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática. Á necropsia, havia, a partir do local da inoculação, extensos hematomas e áreas de hemorragia no tecido celular subcutâneo dos animais que receberam o veneno por via subcutânea; nos animais inoculados por via intramuscular, adicionalmente, havia hemorragia intramuscular. O endocárdio esquerdo apresentava extensas hemorragias e verificaram-se petéquias na serosa do rúmen e do omaso e na mucosa do abomaso e da vesícula biliar. Em cinco animais, o cólon, reto e região perirrenal estavam envoltos por coágulos de sangue. Ao exame histológico observou-se, além do quadro hemorragíparo, necrose muscular coagulativa, acompanhada de hemorragia, no entorno do local da inoculação nos animais que receberam o veneno por via intramuscular; essa lesão era discreta nos músculos próximos ao local de inoculação subcutânea. Nos bovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído por sangue e não edema. Não foram observadas mioglobinúria, nem lesões macro ou microscópicas significativas nos rins. Este estudo indica que exemplares de B. alternatus, caso inoculem todo seu veneno, poderiam levar bovinos adultos à morte. Por outro lado, pelo fato de ofídios serem capazes de regular a quantidade de veneno inoculada e, possivelmente, não considerarem bovinos como presa potencial, é provável que o número de acidentes nessa espécie seja pequeno, o que está de acordo com o observado na maioria dos centros diagnóstico anátomo-patológico no país. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the clinical-pathological alterations and laboratory findings in cattle inoculated with Bothrops alternatus venom, with the intention of providing information for the establishment of diagnosis and differential diagnosis procedures, as well as to elucidate some [...] obscurities observed in the pertinent literature. The lyophilized venom was diluted in 1 ml of physiologic solution. It was administered to 5 bovines by the subcutaneous route at doses of 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25mg/kg body weight, and to 2 bovines by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.25 e 0.45mg/kg. Six bovines died and the only animal that survived, who had subcutaneously received the venom at a dose of 0.0625mg/kg, recovered. The first clinical signs were observed from 25min to 5h30min after the inoculation. The clinical evolution time varied from 7 hours 18 minutes to 92 hours. Regardless of the dose, the clinical picture was characterized by swelling (hemorrhage/hematoma) at the site of inoculation, increase in bleeding time and capillary refill time, paleness of mucous membranes

Saulo A., Caldas; Carlos H., Tokarnia; Ticiana N., França; Marilene F., Brito; Flávio A.S., Graça; Cleide D., Coelho; Paulo V., Peixoto.

160

Eponyms in forensic pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks. PMID:22477239

Ne?as, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms is medication that binds to dopamine receptors in the brain, i.e., dopamine agonists [1]. Unfortunately, for some PD patients a very serious side effect to this specific kind of treatment is developing PG. PG is an Impulse Control Disorder characterized by recurrent maladaptive behavior associated with personal, relational, and financial consequenses [2].   Since 2000, numerous reports have described PD patients who develop PG due to treatment with dopamine agonists [3-11]. The objective of the present project is to explain the pathogenesis of this particular complication to the treatment of PD patients. The aims are twofold, both driven by the main hypothesis that PD patients who develop PG secondary to treatment with dopamine agonists have a decreased sensitivity towards dopamine and hence an increased demand for dopamine. The neurophysiological subproject 1 uses PET imaging to determine changes of dopamine occupancy in the striatum in baseline and gambling situations. We will test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism release more dopamine during gambling than PD patients without PG, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls. The behavioral subproject 2 uses a slot machine to test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism have exacerbated gambling behavior compared to PD patients without PD, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls.     References: 1.            Siegel, A. & Sapru, H.N. (2006). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. USA. 2.            DSM-IV-TR. (1994). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. xxvii, 886. 3.            Seedat, S. et Al. (2000). Case Reports in Depression and Anxiety, vol. 11. 4.            Gschwandtner, U., et Al. (2001). Clinical Neuropharmacology, vol. 24 (3). 5.            Driver-Dunckley, E. et Al. (2003). Neurology, vol. 61. 6.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2004). Neurol Sci. 7.            Dodd, M.L. et Al. (2005). Arch Neurol, vol. 62. 8.            Larner, A.J. (2006). Letters to the editors. Movement Disorders, vol. 21 (10). 9.            Grosset, K.A. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 10.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 11.            Wong, S.H. et al. (2007). Letters to the editors, Movement Disorders, vol. 22 (4).    

Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob

162

Pathology Education: SY17-1 PRESERVING PATHOLOGY IN AN INTEGRATED CURRICULUM IN THE UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

The delivery of pathology teaching has changed considerably recently with more curricular integration and the use of modern educational approaches including problem-based learning methods. In the UK, this has led to a low profile for pathology in many medical schools, allied with a reduction in the numbers of academic pathologists. Pathology is at the very core of clinical practice and bridges the interface between basic science and clinical management. In this changing environment pathology must be preserved as a vital component in undergraduate education. Pathologists must engage fully with the design and implementation of curricula. In integrated curricula basic science is frontloaded in earlier years, so that the principles of inflammation and repair, vascular pathology and neoplasia must be incorporated then. Assessment drives learning so pathologists should contribute assessment items. In clinical years, the pivotal role of pathology in patient management should be highlighted and involvement in Objective Standardised Clinical Examinations keeps pathology in students' minds. Most programmes offer student selected components; the opportunity for students to spend time in both clinical and basic science laboratories should not be missed. In non-graduate entry medical schools, an intercalated degree including a research project is a useful way to promote academic pathology. PMID:25188134

McMahon, Raymond

2014-10-01

163

Hygrothermal behavior, building pathology and durability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behavior. Presents a new durability approach for historical and old buildings. Reviews the current state of knowledge. The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.

Peixoto de Freitas V.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q. (eds.) [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Building Physics Lab.

2013-03-01

164

Transplant Pathology Case  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathology is a complex field, and persons who might be new to the field might appreciate a bit of assistance. Medical educators might also need a hand as they begin to teach others in the field, and this particular case study offered by the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Pathology will be most useful in that regard. In this case, users will be exposed to slides, explanations, and relevant illustrations of a patient who was diagnosed with hepatitis C. Additionally, visitors can read descriptions of each microscope slide and look over the final diagnosis report.

165

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.; Lyons, Valerie

2009-09-16

166

Recent applications of X-ray microanalysis in muscle pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray microanalysis of single muscle fibres visualized in the scanning- and scanning-transmission mode of electron microscopy has been applied to human muscle biopsies to quantify changes of intracellular elements in different muscle disorders. To detect elements representing diffusible ions, cryofixation and cryosectioning was performed and analyses were conducted on freeze-dried cryosections 6?m thick. Changes in the concentration of elements were found to differentiate certain muscular disorders. A large increase in sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl), and a decrease in potassium (K) was typical of myotubular myopathy, while a moderate increase in Na and Cl was found in central core disease and nemaline myopathy

167

Pathological Gambling Subtypes  

Science.gov (United States)

Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

2009-01-01

168

TC pathological Neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

169

Imaging of Cerebrovascular Pathology in Animal Models of Alzheimer`s Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-? (A? deposition as well as A? transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of A? on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature.

Nicolau Beckmann

2014-03-01

170

Thoracic wall ultrasonography - normal and pathological findings. Pictorial essay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasonography represents an efficient diagnosis method for thoracic pathology evaluation. The diseases of the pleura and thoracic wall receive the greatest benefit from the ultrasound examination. Establishing the cause of an acute thoracic pain or assessing a palpable tumor may easily benefit from essential data provided by ultrasonography. Afterwards it is possible to use a complementary imaging method or to perform US guided interventional procedures. This pictorial presents the ultrasonographic aspects of thoracic wall pathology, considering also differential diagnosis issues. PMID:21894294

Chira, Romeo; Chira, Alexandra; Mircea, Petru Adrian

2011-09-01

171

[Pathological aspects of water transport in the collecting ducts].  

Science.gov (United States)

In a normal adult subject, 12 liters of tubular urine with an osmolality of 100 mmol/kg exit per 24 hours from the loop of Henle. The antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin increases the water permeability of the renal collecting ducts and induces the reabsorption of 11 liters of water: the final urinary osmolality is 1200 mmol/kg for a urinary flow rate of 1 litre per 24 hours. In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus the urine cannot be concentrated maximally. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is secondary to either mutations in the AVPR2 gene (Xq28) that codes for the vasopressin antidiuretic (V2) receptor or to mutations in the AQP2 gene (12q13) that codes for the vasopressin dependent water channel. AVPR2 mutations are numerous and diverse: 72 different putative disease causing mutations in the AVPR2 gene have been reported in 102 unrelated families with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. AQP2 mutations are rare. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus could also be secondary to lithium or demeclocycline administration and to hypokaliemia. Some of these conditions are inducing, experimentally, a downregulation of aquaporin II. We encourage physicians who follow families with hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus to recommend molecular genetic analysis because early diagnosis and treatment of infants can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with episodes of dehydration. PMID:9019668

Bichet, D G

1996-01-01

172

[Algorithm of clinical aspects and pathology of endometrial carcinoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

The carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common malignancy seen in the female pelvic genital organs. Important risk factors are age and unopposed estrogen (both endogenous and exogenous). In comparison, the association of antiestrogens (e.g., tamoxifen) and endometrial cancer is rather small, as yet. Fortunately, survival is high because the majority of patients have in common the presence of a low grade, low stage carcinoma of the endometroid type which gives rise to vaginal bleeding and forces the patients to attend the gynecologist. Special screening studies (e.g. vaginal sonography) to evaluate the endometrium are not indicated in the asymptomatic patient without risk factors. Tumor type, grading, and--most importantly--the depth of myoinvasion and the extent of extrauterine disease are the prognostic indicators that allow differential treatment, and help to identify patients at high risk vs. low risk for recurrent disease. Investigations of growth fraction, ploidy, steroid receptors, K-ras or p53 may be a supplement for dissecting special subgroups, but do not influence the clinical regimen, as yet. Most patients with stage I cancer are cured by surgery alone. Patients successfully treated for endometrial cancer should enjoy the benefits of estrogen replacement therapy, since they do not bear a risk of increased recurrence of their disease. Radiation therapy will be given to patients with incomplete resection of pelvic disease and/or extensive lymphonodal involvement, especially paraaortal lymph node metastasis. As yet, there is no rationale for an adjuvant hormone-(gestagen-) or chemotherapy. An exception, however, is the (mostly palliative) treatment of recurrent disease. PMID:10091234

Löning, T; Reusch, U; Thomssen, C

1999-01-01

173

[The intercapital metatarsal space. Anatomical and pathological aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

The metatarsal intercapital space is located in the forefoot, between two metatarsal heads and above the transverse inter-metatarsal ligament. The 2nd space is the narrowest, the 1st is the widest and the 3rd is the most mobile. It contains a connective tissue bursa which facilitates the sliding of the metatarsal heads. The existence of this bursa was confirmed in two cases of rheumatoid arthritis (at operation). As the bursa hypertrophies, it gradually extends beyond its normal site towards the dorsal or plantar region of the foot. The metatarsal intercapital space, like the metatarso-phalangeal joint, warrants thorough clinical investigation. PMID:6612197

Claustre, J; Bonnel, F; Constans, J P; Simon, L

1983-05-01

174

[Czech eponyms in pathology].  

Science.gov (United States)

The 24th European Congress of Pathology taking place in Prague is an opportunity to remind our society of the Czech names appearing as eponyms in pathological terminology: Karel Rokitanský - R. protuberance in dermoid cyst; R. thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis; Mayer - R. - Küster - Hauser - Winckel syndrome (congenital malformation of the vagina and uterus); Václav Treitz - T. duodenal ligament; T. retroperitoneal hernia; T. uremic colitis; Vilém Dušan Lambl - L. excrescences of heart valves; Lamblia (Giardia) intestinalis, and also the foundation of urological cytology; Stanislav Provázek - Prowazek - Halberstädter bodies (trachoma), Rickettsia Prowazeki (typhus fever); Josef Van?k - V. tumor (gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp), and also discovery of the etiology of pneumocystic pneumonia; Otto Jírovec - Pneumocystis Jiroveci; Blahoslav Bedná? - B. tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans). PMID:23432077

Steiner, Ivo

2013-01-01

175

Pathology Case Study: Sepsis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a 74 year old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, inferior wall myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. He was admitted for a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft. The case study provides both gross and microscopic descriptions along with pertinent laboratory studies in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Callahan, Debra L.

2009-10-08

176

Feline oral pathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main pathologies of the oral cavity are of utmost importance, not only by the number of exposed individuals, but also by the consequences which stems. With the development of this work, we intend to conduct a brief approach to the same, since, specifically affecting domestic felines. Feline Lymphoplasmatic Gingivostomatitis (GELF), the Feline Odontoclastic Reabsorption Lesions (LROF) Complex and gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis, have been studied, some of which are considered an enigma i...

Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simo?es, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

2013-01-01

177

Pathological gambling in Missouri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Riverboat casinos were introduced in 1994, and there are now eleven gambling venues in Missouri, in addition to the lottery. Gambling is monitored by the Missouri Gaming Commission which was established to supervise gambling operations in the state, and minimize criminal involvement. The Commission also operates programs for problem gamblers that are described. Pathological gambling has become a major problem in Missouri and elsewhere, and its characteristics and clinical management are reviewed herein. PMID:17133745

Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha

2006-01-01

178

Pathology of glomerular lipidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glomerular lipid deposition is sometimes associated with a particular kind of lipid metabolism disturbance. Ultrastructural analyses using electron microscopy often indicate a disease-specific aspect of intraglomerular lipid distribution. PMID:24129560

Sato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Emiko; Kisu, Kiyomi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Saito, Takao

2014-04-01

179

Undergraduate Pathology Education: Meeting the Challenge Ahead  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In India, undergraduate medical education has remained more or less static and for last so many decades no effective development has been done. Therefore this study is done for restructuring it and to meet the challenges faced thereby. Material and methods: Depending on the problems faced during undergraduate pathology teaching, questions were prepared and sent to pathology teachers of Odisha. In few aspects, suggestions were also asked for modification of the present system of medical curriculum including the problem of factual or information overload on students. Results: 18 questions were prepared and asked to 96 pathology teachers. The opinions mostly were to introduce small group teaching or problem based learning (PBL and multidisciplinary integrated teaching. The opinion of students of 3rd and 4th MBBS were also taken into consideration for taking the decisions of modification. Conclusion: Efforts should be taken to bring the desired changes in undergraduate pathology education to produce need based human resources for health care in society.

Raghumani Mohanty

2012-03-01

180

Patología molecular: Aplicaciones de la biología molecular en anatomía patológica Molecular pathology: Applications of molecular biological techniques in pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid development of molecular biology techniques as well as recent progress in the understanding of genetic and molecular basis of human diseases have had enormous impact in the practice of clinical pathology. Since new diagnostic (molecular tools are now available, the concept of Molecular Pathology is emerging. Molecular Pathology is defined by the use of molecular biology techniques and the type of specimens that are involved in its practice, basically ARN and ADN, extracted from cytological and tissue specimens. Although most methods used in molecular pathology and their applications are still under investigation and clinical validation they have great potential in several areas of pathological diagnosis, particularly on infectious and neoplastic diseases. Introduction of these techniques in pathology laboratories in our country should significantly enhance the diagnostic and research skills in the field (Rev Méd Chile 2001: 791-804.

Ignacio I Wistuba O

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Pathology of lymphatic filariasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing and adult worms of the humanlymphatic filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti,Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori are located mainly inthe lymphatic system and occasionally in aberrant siteslike subcutaneous and conjunctival cysts. Lymphaticpathology ranging from dilatation of lymphatic channelsand lymphangiectasia are detected on ultrasonography inapparently healthy, amicrofilaraemic, but filarial antigenpositive individuals in endemic areas. Microfilariae aredistributed in various organs and may be associatedwith immune mediated pathology at these sites; tropicalpulmonary eosinophilia is characterized by intenseimmune mediated destruction of microfilariae in thelung parenchyma. In the spleen and other sites, nodulargranulomatous lesions can occur where microfilariaeare trapped and destroyed. The finding of Wolbachiaendosymbionts in all stages of lymphatic filarial parasiteshas provided new insight on the adverse reactionsassociated with anti-filarial chemotherapy. Inflammatorymolecules mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS-likemolecules released from endosymbionts on death of theparasites are largely responsible for the adverse reactionsencountered during anti-filarial chemotherapy. Prenataltolerance or sensitization to parasite derived moleculescan immune-modulate and contribute to both pathologyand susceptibility/resistance to infection. Pathologicalresponses thus depend not only on exposure tofilarial antigens/infection, but also on host-parasiteendosymbiontfactors and to intervention with antifilarialtreatment. Treatment induced or host mediateddeath of parasites are associated with various grades ofinflammatory response, in which eosinophils and LPSfrom endosymbionts play prominent roles, leadingto death of the parasite, granulomatous formation,organization and fibrosis.The non-human primate (Presbytis spp. model ofBrugia malayi developed for the tertiary screeningof anti-filarial compounds has provided uniqueopportunities for the longitudinal study of the pathologyassociated with lymphatic filariasis. The pathology in thisnon-human primate model closely follows that seen in human lymphatic filarial infections and correlates withclinical evidence of lymphatic pathology as detectedwith ultrasonography. These studies also show thatsuccessful treatment as detected by loss of motility andcalcification of worms on ultrasonography is associatedwith reversal of early dilatations of lymphatic channels.

Joon-Wah Mak

2012-07-01

182

Skeletal muscle pathology in Huntington's disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein (HTT). The neurological symptoms, that involve motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, are caused by neurodegeneration that is particularly widespread in the basal ganglia and cereberal cortex. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and in recent years it has become apparent that HD patients experience a wide array of peripheral organ dysfunction including severe metabolic phenotype, weight loss, HD-related cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle wasting. Although skeletal muscles pathology became a hallmark of HD, the mechanisms underlying muscular atrophy in this disorder are unknown. Skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of body mass and are highly adaptive to physiological and pathological conditions that may result in muscle hypertrophy (due to increased mechanical load) or atrophy (inactivity, chronic disease states). The atrophy is caused by degeneration of myofibers and their replacement by fibrotic tissue is the major pathological feature in many genetic muscle disorders. Under normal physiological conditions the muscle function is orchestrated by a network of intrinsic hypertrophic and atrophic signals linked to the functional properties of the motor units that are likely to be imbalanced in HD. In this article, we highlight the emerging field of research with particular focus on the recent studies of the skeletal muscle pathology and the identification of new disease-modifying treatments.

Zielonka, Daniel; Piotrowska, Izabela; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T.; Mielcarek, Michal

2014-01-01

183

Patología puerperal / Puerperal pathology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El puerperio es el periodo desde el final del parto hasta la aparición de la primera menstruación. Las posibles patologías acontecidas en este tiempo son la causa más frecuente de mortalidad materna incluso en nuestro medio. La patología de la lactancia incluye el fallo de lactancia, grietas en el p [...] ezón, ingurgitación mamaria y mastitis puerperal. La infección puerperal es una complicación obstétrica frecuente aunque las pautas de profilaxis han disminuido mucho la incidencia de esta patología. La patología vascular del puerperio incluye cuadros de gravedad importante, representando una de las principales causas de mortalidad materna. Se incluye la trombosis venosa profunda y el tromboembolismo pulmonar como la complicación más grave de la primera. No parece que la patología psiquiátrica sea más frecuente en el puerperio que en otra época de la vida, pero sí que se describen los cuadros relacionados con este periodo, como son el «blues», la depresión puerperal y la psicosis puerperal. Por último, otros cuadros poco frecuentes, pero que pueden constituir una emergencia médica en el puerperio son el síndrome de Sheehan, la miocardiopatía periparto y la tiroiditis postparto. Abstract in english The puerperium is the period from the end of labour to the appearance of the first menstruation. The possible pathologies that can occur in this period of time are the most frequent cause of maternal mortality even in our setting. The pathology of lactation includes failure of breastfeeding, cracks [...] in the nipple, mammary ingurgitation and puerperal mastitis. Puerperal infection is a frequent obstetric complication although clinical guidelines for prophylaxis have considerably reduced its incidence. The vascular pathology of the puerperium includes clinical features of great seriousness, representing one of the main causes of maternal mortality. These include deep vein thrombosis, of which pulmonary thromboembolism is the most serious complication. It does not appear that a psychiatric pathology is more frequent in the puerperium than in other periods of life, but the clinical features related to this period are described, such as «blues», puerperal depression and puerperal psychosis. Finally, other clinical features which although infrequent can constitute a medical emergency in the puerperium are: Sheehan`s syndrome, peripartum cardiomyopathy and postpartum thyroids.

B., Bezares; O., Sanz; I., Jiménez.

184

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest & Shade Tree Pathology is a site created by Jim Worrall, a former professor at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The major focus of this resource is the study of tree diseases, "their causes (etiology), factors that affect their spread (epidemiology), ecological and economic impacts, and management." The site is divided into four sections: "Main Topics" such as fungi, root diseases and wilts; "General Topics," which includes quizzes, references, and links to other forest health sites; "Disease Profiles," which includes information on specific diseases like chestnut blight and armillaria root disease; and "Disease Notes," which contains news and updates on specific diseases.

2008-02-01

185

Patología puerperal Puerperal pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El puerperio es el periodo desde el final del parto hasta la aparición de la primera menstruación. Las posibles patologías acontecidas en este tiempo son la causa más frecuente de mortalidad materna incluso en nuestro medio. La patología de la lactancia incluye el fallo de lactancia, grietas en el pezón, ingurgitación mamaria y mastitis puerperal. La infección puerperal es una complicación obstétrica frecuente aunque las pautas de profilaxis han disminuido mucho la incidencia de esta patología. La patología vascular del puerperio incluye cuadros de gravedad importante, representando una de las principales causas de mortalidad materna. Se incluye la trombosis venosa profunda y el tromboembolismo pulmonar como la complicación más grave de la primera. No parece que la patología psiquiátrica sea más frecuente en el puerperio que en otra época de la vida, pero sí que se describen los cuadros relacionados con este periodo, como son el «blues», la depresión puerperal y la psicosis puerperal. Por último, otros cuadros poco frecuentes, pero que pueden constituir una emergencia médica en el puerperio son el síndrome de Sheehan, la miocardiopatía periparto y la tiroiditis postparto.The puerperium is the period from the end of labour to the appearance of the first menstruation. The possible pathologies that can occur in this period of time are the most frequent cause of maternal mortality even in our setting. The pathology of lactation includes failure of breastfeeding, cracks in the nipple, mammary ingurgitation and puerperal mastitis. Puerperal infection is a frequent obstetric complication although clinical guidelines for prophylaxis have considerably reduced its incidence. The vascular pathology of the puerperium includes clinical features of great seriousness, representing one of the main causes of maternal mortality. These include deep vein thrombosis, of which pulmonary thromboembolism is the most serious complication. It does not appear that a psychiatric pathology is more frequent in the puerperium than in other periods of life, but the clinical features related to this period are described, such as «blues», puerperal depression and puerperal psychosis. Finally, other clinical features which although infrequent can constitute a medical emergency in the puerperium are: Sheehan`s syndrome, peripartum cardiomyopathy and postpartum thyroids.

B. Bezares

2009-01-01

186

Recent Progress in Nuclear Astrophysics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The manuscript reviews progress achieved in recent years in various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear aspects of supernova collapse and explosion, neutrino-induced reactions and their possible role in the supernova mechanism and nucleosynthesis, explosive hydrogen burning in binary systems, and finally the observation of $\\gamma$-rays from supernova remnants.

Langanke, K.

1999-01-01

187

CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF OVINE HEPATIC PHOTOSENSITIZATION OUTBREAK BY Brachiaria decumbens (Gramineae INGESTION AT MATO GROSSO STATE ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E PATOLÓGICOS DE UM SURTO DE FOTOSSENSIBILIZAÇÃO HEPATÓGENA EM OVINOS PELA INGESTÃO DE Brachiaria decumbens (Gramineae NO MUNICÍPIO DE CUIABÁ, MATO GROSSO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Photosensitization occurs in everyplace domestic animals are farmed along the world. Several studies are uncertain about Pithomyces chartarum involvement and its relationships with Brachiaria decumbens pasture in liver disease. This article describes clinical and pathological aspects observed at photosensitisation outbreak at Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Samples of liver, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes were collected after eleven sheep deaths and had sent to microscopic examination. Gall bladder epithelial cells proliferation, presence or absence of bile stasis, hepatic degeneration, cellular necrosis focus and multinucleated cell’s focus were found. The results appoints to closed relationship between hepatic and renal lesions and Brachiaria decumbens ingestion by sheep’s.

KEY WORDS: Brachiaria spp, hepatic lesions, ovine. Fotossensibilização ocorre na maioria das áreas de criação de animais domésticos do mundo. Vários estudos questionam o envolvimento do fungo Pithomyces chartarum e sua relação com a gramínea Brachiaria decumbens na patogenia de lesões hepáticas. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever os aspectos clínicos e patológicos observados num surto de fotossensibilização hepatógena ocorrido no município de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, vindo a óbito ovinos mantidos exclusivamente em pasto de B. decumbens. Coletaram-se fragmentos de vários órgãos, tais como fígado, baço, rins e linfonodos para o processamento de secções histológicas que serviram de base para o estudo das lesões. Observaram-se proliferação de células epiteliais de ductos biliares, presença de bilestase, tumefação de hepatócitos, focos de lise de células e de células multinucleadas. Nos rins foram identificados túbulos contorcidos com sinais de lesões degenerativas. Os achados indicam que essas alterações hepáticas e renais podem ser relacionadas com a ingestão de Brachiaria decumbens.

PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Brachiaria spp, lesões hepáticas, ovinos.

Liriane Baratella-Evêncio

2008-12-01

188

Recent Trends in African History.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamism of Africa's role in world history, recent work in African economic history, the role of women, and the African colonial period are discussed. Various aspects of this history can be integrated easily into existing social studies courses. (RM)

Sullivan, Jo

1982-01-01

189

Pathological classification of brain tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the last international classification published by World Health Organization. The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was done on 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defining malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. The histopathology, also consisting of findings with prognostic or predictive relevance, plays a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. The recent progresses on radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnosis improved the characterization of brain tumors. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumor subtypes varying in biological and clinical behavior. To investigate new therapeutic approaches is important to study the molecular pathways that lead the processes of proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, anaplastic transformation. Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the O-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas. The prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on synthesis of clinical, pathological and biological data: histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological pictures, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumor location, "performance status"). PMID:22617234

Pollo, B

2012-04-01

190

Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism. PMID:23480073

De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R

2013-01-01

191

The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent fi...

Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

2011-01-01

192

Pulp and periapical pathologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pulp undergoes inflammatory or degenerative reactions when submitted to an aggressive factor. These depend on the type, frequency and intensity of the irritant as well as the patient’s immune response. If the aggressive agent is not removed, the pulp will either show calcifications or result in necrosis. This latter would occur when a pulp alteration is present and not treated. Pulp necrosis is the complete cessation of the tissue’s metabolic processes. If it is not removed, the bacterial and the tissue decomposition’s toxic products ill injure the periapical tissues, resulting in periapical alterations. The dentist must know the histological, clinical and radiographic features of these pathologies to recognize them and indicate the best treatment option.

Denise Piotto Leonardi

2011-10-01

193

Pathology Case Study: Epilepsy  

Science.gov (United States)

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 27-year-old female presents with a history of seizures. A detailed patient history along with gross and microscopic images of the patientâÂÂs brain are included in this case study. The official diagnosis found in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

French, Jacqueline A.; Mcgarvey, Michael; Mourelatos, Zissimos; Wells, Gregg

2008-12-29

194

Coronarography in pathologic morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of many years experience of the authors and data in world literature on post mortal coronarography during the most important general pathological processes in heart have been generalized in the monograph. Problems of radioanatomy of coronary artery were considered and data on use of postmortal coronarography in terms of correlation together with selective in-life coronarography are given. Much place takes the description of main coronarography semiotics of obstructive atherosclerosis injuries of the heart coronal system, compensation and decompensation processes of broken coronary circulation. Results of coronarography investigations in geronitogenesis as well as in sudden death are presented. Electrocardiographic-coronarographic and pathomorphologic parallels, clinical-anatomical diagnostical symptomocomplex - syndrom of menocoronary ''robbing'' are elucidated in detail. Technology of different techniques of postmortal coronarography in order to investigate macro-, microhemocirculation heart bed are described in detail as well as techniques of coronarogramm analysis which permits to use the monograph as a manual

195

The Role of Personality Pathology in Depression Treatment Outcome with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Depressed patients with comorbid personality pathology may fare worse in treatment for depression than those without this additional pathology, and comorbid personality pathology may be associated with superior response in one form of treatment relative to another, though recent findings have been mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effect…

Levenson, Jessica C.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Fournier, Jay C.; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

196

Recent developments in biodosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews recent developments in biodosimetry (1989-1993), and presents a comparative study of the existing techniques and their future prospects. The report summarizes the sensitivity, reproducibility, limiting dose, dose-rate, energy, linear energy transfer (LET) responses, sources of variability and uncertainty, and other practical aspects of each bio-indicator. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach are evaluated on the basis of a set of common criteria for particular applications. (author). 155 refs., 15 tabs

197

Clinical surgical and pathological characterization of nodular thyroid disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nodular thyroid disease is a worrisome endocrine problem due to its association with cancer. To characterize patients hospitalized with this condition according to clinical surgical and pathological aspects, as well as to determine the effectiveness of the cytology by fine-needle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis

198

The feto-placental endothelium in pregnancy pathologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the aspects of endothelial and vascular dysfunction in the feto-placental vasculature occurring in pregnancy pathologies. This endothelium is continuous with the fetal circulation. Its function and potential dysfunction in pathologies will have a profound impact on fetal development. Gestational diabetes mellitus represents one of these pathologies, in which its associated metabolic derangements will alter feto-placental endothelial functions. These, in turn, may result in functional changes of the placenta, which may entail impaired fetal development. By contrast, changes in the feto-placental vasculature observed in cases of fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia may be causative (fetal growth restriction) or secondary (preeclampsia) for the pathology. PMID:22717877

Wadsack, Christian; Desoye, Gernot; Hiden, Ursula

2012-05-01

199

[Psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the peculiarities of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling were investigated. The authors were based both on the data of many foreign scientists and on their own one. Our data on 77 cases of pathological gambling were collected based on interviews of Lithuanian psychiatrists and psychotherapists about their patients with gambling addiction in period from 1991 to 2001. The data that we publish and analyze allows us to make conclusions that pathological gambling can reveal together with very wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders, but more often with alcoholism and depression. The mechanism of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling is very complex. PMID:14515045

Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkevici?te, Regina; Burba, Benjaminas

2003-01-01

200

Clinical Pathology - A Diagnostic Aid?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clinical pathology is now an essential component of high quality clinical care. Pathology tests are important to reaching a diagnosis in 85% of hospital patients. Indeed in some areas including oncology, infection and transplantation medicine diagnosis and optimum treatment cannot be delivered without histopathological investigation. Pathology testing is a core component of early cancer detection through screening for breast, bowel, cervix and prostate cancers. In the last twenty years pathology has moved from a useful diagnostic aid to a clinical essential.

Prof Stuart Fleming

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of five calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a farm of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pel [...] o BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secreções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação. Abstract in english Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for different syndromes that affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. This study analyzed the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of persistent infection by BVDV in five animals of a farm located in the cou [...] nty of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The clinical signs included growth impairment, nasal and ocular discharge and, in two animals, congenital cataract. The main gross lesions observed at the necropsy were enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and in one case, pododermatitis and crusted lesions on nasal planum and periocular region. Microscopic findings were characterized mostly by mononuclear infiltrate in the lamina propria, primarily in the small intestine and lymphoid depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in follicular centers of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Viral antigens were more frequently demonstrated in epidermal keratinocytes, epithelium of hair follicles and dendritic cells of the dermis of the ears and skin, histiocytes and lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thyroid follicular cells, in the cytoplasm of neurons and to a lesser extent, in glial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Viral isolation from blood samples and organs confirmed the presence of non-cytopathic BVDV. Moreover, viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of the5' non-translated region of the viral genome allowed the classification of the sample as BVDV type 2b. The present study strengthens the need to investigate and to characterize BVD outbreaks and to describe its different clinic-pathological presentations.

Adriana S, Santos; Nadia A.B, Antoniassi; Fabiana M, Boabaid; Ana P.G, Bitencourt; Laura L, Almeida; Cláudio W, Canal; Eduardo Furtado, Flores; David, Driemeier.

2011-10-01

202

Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul / Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of five calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a farm of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pel [...] o BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secreções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação. Abstract in english Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for different syndromes that affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. This study analyzed the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of persistent infection by BVDV in five animals of a farm located in the cou [...] nty of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The clinical signs included growth impairment, nasal and ocular discharge and, in two animals, congenital cataract. The main gross lesions observed at the necropsy were enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and in one case, pododermatitis and crusted lesions on nasal planum and periocular region. Microscopic findings were characterized mostly by mononuclear infiltrate in the lamina propria, primarily in the small intestine and lymphoid depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in follicular centers of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Viral antigens were more frequently demonstrated in epidermal keratinocytes, epithelium of hair follicles and dendritic cells of the dermis of the ears and skin, histiocytes and lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thyroid follicular cells, in the cytoplasm of neurons and to a lesser extent, in glial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Viral isolation from blood samples and organs confirmed the presence of non-cytopathic BVDV. Moreover, viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of the5' non-translated region of the viral genome allowed the classification of the sample as BVDV type 2b. The present study strengthens the need to investigate and to characterize BVD outbreaks and to describe its different clinic-pathological presentations.

Adriana S, Santos; Nadia A.B, Antoniassi; Fabiana M, Boabaid; Ana P.G, Bitencourt; Laura L, Almeida; Cláudio W, Canal; Eduardo Furtado, Flores; David, Driemeier.

203

Manifestação clínico-patológica de infecção natural pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV em bovinos de criação extensiva no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Clinic-pathological aspects in the natural infection of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRVS in extensive management of cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available São descritas as manifestações clínicas, patológicas, microbiológicos e sorológicos da enfermidade natural causada pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV em uma criação extensiva de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul. Clinicamente havia tosse crônica e dispnéia intensa frente a exercícios físicos mínimos em dois animais. Os dois foram sacrificados e necropsiados. As alterações macroscópicas eram pulmonares com enfisema alveolar disseminado, focos de atelectasia e espessamento dos septos interlobulares. A imunofluorescência para BRSV em corte de pulmão congelado foi positiva em ambos os casos, sendo negativa para Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3, Diarréia Vírica Bovina (BVDV e Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (BHV. Foi isolado BRSV em cultivo celular de MDBK a partir de um dos animais necropsiados. Nenhuma associação foi detectada através de elisa para detecção de antígeno LPS gênero específico de Chlamydia psittaci no tecido pulmonar. O exame histopatológico evidenciou células sinciciais, enfisema crônico, hipertrofia da camada muscular peribronquiolar e metaplasia escamosa do epitélio bronquial e bronquiolar. O exame sorológico para BRSV evidenciou 79% de soropositivos em uma primeira amostragem na qual havia animais jovens e alguns com tosse. O segundo exame sorológico 6 meses após, proveniente de animais de diferentes faixas etárias, resultou em 17,3% de soropositivos. Este é o primeiro relato de doença causada por BRSV no Brasil.The clinical aspects as well as the pathology, microbiology and serology of a natural Bovine Respiratory Syncytial (BRSV infection of bovine in a herd of 600 beef cattle kept under extensive management in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are described. Clinically two animals had chronic cough and severe dyspnea when forced to mild physical exercise. These two animals were euthanatized and post-morten examination was performed. The macroscopic changes were of pulmonary origin, such as disseminated alveolar emphysema, focal atelectasis and marked interlobular septal thickening. The fluorescent antibody test on lung cryostat sections was positive to BRSV for both animals, and it was negative to PI-3 virus, BVDV and BHV. The BRSV was isolated from the lung of one of the animals on MDBK, and was also identified by fluorescent antibody test. No association with Chlamydia psittaci was found by ELISA performed on lung tissues. The histopathology showed syncytial cells, chronic emphysema, peribronchiolar muscle layer hypertrophy and squamous metaplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. The serology to detect antibodies to BRSV resulted in 79% of positives from the first specimen collection. In this group of young animals some of them had a cough. The second samples collected 6 months later were from animals of different age groups resulting in 17.3% of positives. This is the first report on clinical BRSV infection in Brazil.

David Driemeier

1997-04-01

204

Rotator cuff pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2*-weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

205

Recent Workshops  

CERN Multimedia

Since the previous edition of ATLAS e-news, the NIKHEF Institute in Amsterdam has hosted not just one but two workshops related to ATLAS TDAQ activities. The first in October was dedicated to the Detector Control System (DCS). Just three institutes, CERN, NIKHEF and St Petersburg, provide the effort for the central DCS services, but each ATLAS sub-detector provides effort for their own controls. Some 30 people attended, including representatives for all of the ATLAS sub-detectors, representatives of the institutes working on the central services and the project leader of JCOP, which brings together common aspects of detector controls across the LHC experiments. During the three-day workshop the common components were discussed, and each sub-detector described their experiences and plans for their future systems. Whilst many of the components to be used are standard commercial components, a key custom item for ATLAS is the ELMB (Embedded Local Monitor Board). Prototypes for this have now been extensively test...

Wickens, F. J.

206

Topical aspects of radiation protection. Regulatory guides for radiological protection - effective radiation burden, dose concepts - radiation accidents, delayed radiation injuries - recent data on the radon problem - incorporation data measured in nuclear medical personnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The twelve papers of this seminar focus on topics such as the new European Directives and regulatory guides on radiological protection in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy (effective in the EU, Germany, Switzerland, Austria), and recent investigations into the radiation exposure induced by X-ray examinations and diagnostic nuclear medicine. as well as by radon radiation levels. (HP)

207

Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling. PMID:23423730

Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

2014-06-01

208

Renal Pathology: SC23-2 RENAL TRANSPLANT PATHOLOGY: REVIEW AND UPDATE.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renal transplant pathology forms an integral part of medical kidney diseases requiring a biopsy for diagnosis, prognosis and/or appropriate therapy. Often, multiple transplant biopsies are performed to monitor a disease process or efficacy of therapy. This short course will review and update all aspects of renal transplant pathology. Renal transplant biopsies of major diagnoses will be presented and used as a spring board for discussion of the subject area. Emphasis will be placed on new knowledge of disease classification, practical diagnostic approach, and novel pathogenetic mechanisms. Scanned light microscopic slides, immunofluorescent images, electron microscopic images and clinical summaries will be available on line for pre-meeting review. The covered topics include updated Banff Classification, acute T cell-mediated rejection, acute antibody-mediated rejection, chronic antibody-mediated rejection, transplant glomerulopathy, recurrent diseases, de novo diseases, BK virus nephropathy and other infections. PMID:25188165

Gaber, Lilian; Seshan, Surya; Truong, Luan

2014-10-01

209

Pathology Case Study: Post Transfusion Hemolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old female with a 20 year history of systemic lupus erythematosis with a history of deep venous thrombosis and a recent myocardial infarct. Visitors are given patient history and admission data along with data results from the resulting transfusion reaction investigation. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Hari, Raj

2009-03-24

210

Molecular biologic techniques in ophthalmic pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and nucleic acid hybridization assays are recently introduced molecular techniques that allow for the identification of extremely small quantities of specific nucleic acids. These techniques have significant advantages over more conventional laboratory techniques, but also have some limitations. They are bound to have tremendous potential in diagnostic ophthalmic pathology and also in investigative pathology for deciphering the pathophysiology of ocular diseases. Despite their increased sensitivity and specificity, the results will still have to be co-related with clinical findings for maximum impact. For an ophthalmologist to derive maximum benefit, knowledge of these techniques, and their advantages, and limitations is essential. This article describes the basic concepts of molecular biology and the techniques of PCR, nucleic acid hybridization, and immunohistochemistry.

Rajeev Buddi

1998-01-01

211

The complex pathology of trinucleotide repeats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences has now been shown to be the underlying cause of at least ten human disorders. Unifying features among these diseases include the unstable behavior of the triplet repeat during germline transmission when the length of the repeat exceeds a critical value. However, the trinucleotide repeat disorders can be divided into two distinct groups. Type I disorders involve the expansion of CAG repeats, which encode an expanded polyglutamine, inserted into the open-reading frame of a gene that is usually quite broadly expressed. Recently, mouse models for type I disorders have been developed and the basis of pathology is under study, both in these models and through biochemical and cell biological approaches. The type II disorders involve repeat expansions in noncoding regions of genes. The mechanisms by which these repeat expansions lead to pathology may be quite diverse. PMID:9159084

Reddy, P S; Housman, D E

1997-06-01

212

Aspects of Color Superconductivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I discuss some aspects of recent developments in color superconductivity in high density quark matter. I calculate the Cooper pair gap and the critical points at high density, where magnetic gluons are not screened. The ground state of high density QCD with three light flavors is shown to be a color-flavor locking state, which can be mapped into the low-density hadronic phase. The meson mass at the CFL superconductor is also calculated. The CFL color superconductor is bosoni...

Hong, Deog Ki

2001-01-01

213

Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment – A critical update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Despite recent suggestions for staging and grading CVLs in specific brain areas, no validated neuropathological criteria are currently available for VaD and mixed dementia. Further clinico-pathological studies and harmonization of neuropathological procedures are needed to validate the diagostic criteria for VaD and mixed dementia in order to clarify the impact of CVLs and other coexistent pathologies on cognitive impairment as a basis for further successful therapeutic options.

KurtA.Jellinger

2013-04-01

214

Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands

215

Pathological processes affecting exercise capacity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exercise capacity and physical activity status are well-known predictors of general mortality and especially cardiovascular mortality. Pathological processes which may affect exercise capacity may be of cardiovascular, pulmonary, hematologic, myogenic and neuropsychogenic origin. Whatever the reason, reduced exercise capacity impairs quality of life and increases tendency of individual to secondary diseases. These pathologies, alone or together, limit exercise capacity resulting in dyspneoea, pain and fatigue by causing defects in processes involved in oxygen and carbondioxide gases. In this review, pathological processes that impact exercise capacity will be discussed in a systematic manner and uncommon application areas of exercise tests will be mentioned.

Gökhan Metin

2007-02-01

216

Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author)

217

Recent recordings  

CERN Multimedia

The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project is happy to announce the publication of a number of recent web lectures, including the full Plenary Session from the ATLAS Overview Week, held at CERN in October. Archives from that event are located here and directly on the Indico agenda. Click on the pictures below to access more information. Latest NewsAs announced in the Collaborative Tool Workshop, held on Tuesday of the Overview Week, future events in the Michigan Archives will be available for viewing with a Flash Player plug-in (right image above), as well as the usual Real Player plug-in. This additional option, made possible by our usage of the Lecture Object and standard formats for storing all media and metadata, allows the viewer to choose her/his preferred environment. As always, viewing of the lectures is supported on all major platforms and browsers and there is also the option to download lectures for remote viewing with limited or no network bandwidth.ATLAS 2007 ArchivesAdditional...

Steven Goldfarb

218

Physiological and pathological brain hyperthermia.  

Science.gov (United States)

While brain temperature is usually considered a stable, tightly regulated parameter, recent animal research revealed relatively large and rapid brain temperature fluctuations (approximately 3 degrees C) during various forms of naturally occurring physiological and behavioral activities. This work demonstrates that physiological brain hyperthermia has an intra-brain origin, resulting from enhanced neural metabolism and increased intra-brain heat production, and discusses its possible mechanisms and functional consequences. This work also shows that brain hyperthermia may also be induced by various drugs of abuse. While each individual drug (i.e., heroin, cocaine, meth-amphetamine, MDMA) has its own, dose-dependent effects on brain and body temperatures, these effects are strongly modulated by the individual's activity state and environmental conditions, showing dramatic alterations during the development of drug-taking behavior. While brain temperatures may also increase due to environmental overheating and diminished heat dissipation from the brain, adverse environmental conditions and physiological activation strongly potentiate thermal effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs, resulting in dangerous brain overheating. Since hyperthermia exacerbates drug-induced toxicity and is destructive to neural cells and brain functions, use of these drugs under conditions that restrict heat loss may pose a significant health risk, resulting in both acute life-threatening complications and chronic destructive CNS changes. We argue that brain temperature is an important physiological parameter, affecting various neural functions, and show the potential of brain temperature monitoring for studying alterations in metabolic neural activity under physiological and pathological conditions. Finally, we discuss brain temperature as a factor affecting various neuronal and neurochemical evaluations made in different animal preparations (in vitro slices, general anesthesia, awake, freely moving conditions) and consider a possible contribution of temperature fluctuations to behavior-related and drug-induced alterations in neuronal and neurochemical parameters. PMID:17645922

Kiyatkin, Eugene A

2007-01-01

219

Meckel on developmental pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Before Schleiden and Schwann, Darwin and Mendel there passed briefly a towering giant, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), now glimpsed only fleetingly and obscurely through the mist of time and former controversies, who can nowadays easily and clearly be identified as the father of a "pre-modern" developmental biology. At his beginning this prodigiously gifted physician-scholar had, as one would say nowadays, an unfair advantage, his cradle having been rocked, as it were, by the preparators in his father's and grandfather's huge collection of normal and abnormal anatomical "specimens" in the home in which he was born and raised including his father's own skeleton (with two anatomical anomalies!). Initially reluctant to follow in the steps of his illustrious anatomist/physician grandfather and father, he nevertheless early demonstrated extraordinary gifts in anatomy and zootomy. Napoleon's conquest of his homeland notwithstanding, Meckel spent at least 2 extremely fruitful years in Paris, under the tutelage of Cuvier, but also in close contact with Geoffroy St. Hilaire (Etienne), Lamarck, and von Humboldt. He not only translated Cuvier's Leçons d'anatomie comparée into German but also greatly enriched this pivotal treatise with observations of embryonic and malformed fetuses and animals only of passing interest to his mentor. In his numerous publications, Meckel was the first to relate abnormal to normal development, define anomalies of incomplete differentiation (vestigia), but, most importantly, to relate those malformations known in humans to those that are normal adult developmental states in "lower" animals (atavisms). Thus, Meckel's three-fold parallelism of the scala naturae, normal ontogeny, and the malformations in humans and animals makes him a recapitulationist par excellence, however, without ever venturing into a fully articulated and explicit theory of descent. Today Meckel is remembered solely as the discoverer of the syndrome and cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction. PMID:16353245

Opitz, John M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

2006-01-15

220

Development of pathology in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i T?bbiye-i Adliye-i ?âhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “T?phane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i T?bbiye-i Adliyei ?âhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “?stanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and ?stanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in ?stanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in ?stanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

Gökhan GED?KO?LU

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Stroop performance in pathological gamblers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathological gambling is a relatively prevalent psychiatric disorder that typically leads to severe family, social, legal, and occupational problems and is associated with a high rate of suicide attempts. Understanding the neurobiological basis of pathological gambling is a current focus of research, and emerging data have demonstrated that pathological gamblers may have impaired decision-making because of an inability to inhibit irrelevant information. In this study, we examined pathological gamblers by using the Stroop Color-Word Test, a neurocognitive task used to assess interference control. The "reverse" variant of the Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to a cohort of medication-free pathological gamblers (n=62) and a cohort of age-matched controls (n=83). In the reverse variant of the Stroop task, subjects are asked to read the meaning of the word rather than name the ink color. The reverse Stroop task was chosen because it highly discriminates ability to inhibit interference in a population of psychiatric patients. In our study, performance on the reverse Stroop task in the pathological gamblers was significantly slower and less accurate than in the healthy subjects. A new finding in our study was that for pathological gamblers, the average reaction time in the neutral condition (where the color names are displayed in black letters) was slower than the average reaction time in the incongruent condition (where the meaning of the color name and the color of the printed letters are different). This controlled study extends previous findings by showing that performance on the Stroop task is impaired in a sample of medication-free pathological gamblers. PMID:16626810

Kertzman, Semion; Lowengrub, Katherine; Aizer, Anat; Nahum, Zeev Ben; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N

2006-05-30

222

Isotopes and radiation in plant pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although ionizing radiations were first applied to phytopathological problems 50 years ago, it is only in recent years that this work has come into its own. Plant diseases are often complex since they may involve interactions between the host, the vector and its pathogen. These pathogens range from viral bodies, through unicellular organisms, to well-organized living entities such as nematodes. Each member of these interactions is amenable to investigation by radiobiological techniques. The collection of papers forming this Report is based on papers originally presented at an IAEA panel by experts on the application of radiation and radioisotopes in plant pathology. Refs, figs and tabs

223

Manifestação clínico-patológica de infecção natural pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em bovinos de criação extensiva no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Clinic-pathological aspects in the natural infection of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRVS) in extensive management of cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São descritas as manifestações clínicas, patológicas, microbiológicos e sorológicos da enfermidade natural causada pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em uma criação extensiva de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul. Clinicamente havia tosse crônica e dispnéia intensa frente a exercício [...] s físicos mínimos em dois animais. Os dois foram sacrificados e necropsiados. As alterações macroscópicas eram pulmonares com enfisema alveolar disseminado, focos de atelectasia e espessamento dos septos interlobulares. A imunofluorescência para BRSV em corte de pulmão congelado foi positiva em ambos os casos, sendo negativa para Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), Diarréia Vírica Bovina (BVDV) e Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (BHV). Foi isolado BRSV em cultivo celular de MDBK a partir de um dos animais necropsiados. Nenhuma associação foi detectada através de elisa para detecção de antígeno LPS gênero específico de Chlamydia psittaci no tecido pulmonar. O exame histopatológico evidenciou células sinciciais, enfisema crônico, hipertrofia da camada muscular peribronquiolar e metaplasia escamosa do epitélio bronquial e bronquiolar. O exame sorológico para BRSV evidenciou 79% de soropositivos em uma primeira amostragem na qual havia animais jovens e alguns com tosse. O segundo exame sorológico 6 meses após, proveniente de animais de diferentes faixas etárias, resultou em 17,3% de soropositivos. Este é o primeiro relato de doença causada por BRSV no Brasil. Abstract in english The clinical aspects as well as the pathology, microbiology and serology of a natural Bovine Respiratory Syncytial (BRSV) infection of bovine in a herd of 600 beef cattle kept under extensive management in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are described. Clinically two animals had chronic coug [...] h and severe dyspnea when forced to mild physical exercise. These two animals were euthanatized and post-morten examination was performed. The macroscopic changes were of pulmonary origin, such as disseminated alveolar emphysema, focal atelectasis and marked interlobular septal thickening. The fluorescent antibody test on lung cryostat sections was positive to BRSV for both animals, and it was negative to PI-3 virus, BVDV and BHV. The BRSV was isolated from the lung of one of the animals on MDBK, and was also identified by fluorescent antibody test. No association with Chlamydia psittaci was found by ELISA performed on lung tissues. The histopathology showed syncytial cells, chronic emphysema, peribronchiolar muscle layer hypertrophy and squamous metaplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. The serology to detect antibodies to BRSV resulted in 79% of positives from the first specimen collection. In this group of young animals some of them had a cough. The second samples collected 6 months later were from animals of different age groups resulting in 17.3% of positives. This is the first report on clinical BRSV infection in Brazil.

David, Driemeier; Marcos José Pereira, Gomes; Valéria, Moojen; Clarice Weiss, Arns; Guilherme, Vogg; Luciano, Kessler; Ubirajara Maciel da, Costa.

1997-04-01

224

Pharmacotherapy of pathological gambling: review of new treatment modalities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathological gambling is classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition as an impulse-control disorder. In the International Classification of Diseases of the WHO, pathological gambling is coded under the heading of 'Habit and Impulse Disorders'. Pathological gambling is a chronic, progressive disorder, which has a prevalence of 1-3.4% among western civilizations. The enormous personal and social consequences of this disorder include a high rate of suicide attempts, job loss, marital and family problems, legal problems, and criminal behavior. Recent studies have demonstrated that pathological gambling patients respond well to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mood stabilizers and opioid antagonists. These findings support the idea that pathological gambling and other disorders of impulse control may be conceptualized as part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders or addictive disorders. This article will discuss possible treatment strategies according to different behavior patterns in pathological gambling and also remind the physicians who intend to treat this disorder of the possible diagnosis of pathological gambling. PMID:17181431

Lowengrub, Katherine; Iancu, Iulian; Aizer, Anat; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N

2006-12-01

225

Is pathological gambling moderated by age?  

Science.gov (United States)

The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning. PMID:23494243

Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

2014-06-01

226

Biochemical pathology of lung damage produced by chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Damage to the lung may be caused by chemicals that gain access to the alveolar zone by inhalation or via the pulmonary circulation. Several agents toxic to the lung have recently been found to bind covalently to pulmonary macromolecules or to disrupt certain metabolic reactions. However, it has also been observed that extensive chemical lung injury is not necessarily preceded by a depression of pulmonary metabolic reactions. One possible explanation for this might be that biochemical changes due to cell death are often masked and/or compensated for by changes associated with lung tissue repair. Substantial cell proliferation as a response to toxic lung damage is a common phenomenon in lung pathology. This makes it necessary to develop models that permit analysis of the biochemical events triggering and accompanying cell growth in lung. We have recently examined some aspects of cell proliferation in mouse lung. Intraperitoneal injection of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) produces within 3-5 days extensive hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and general disorganization of the cellular components of the lung. Total lung weight and total DNA per lung almost double within this time and are accompanied by proportional increases in protein and lipids. RNA accumulates at a faster rate than DNA. The changes in lung composition are accompanied by dose-dependent increases in the in vivo incorporation of thymidine into DNA and of leucine into protein. The activities of several enzymes (thymidine kinase, DNA polymerase, uridine kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 5'-nucleotidase) increase substantially after BHT. Administration of BHT to mice seems to offer a convenient tool to study cell growth in the lungs of mice. PMID:1245236

Witschi, H; Côté, M G

1976-01-01

227

Hermann Lebert (1813-1878): a pioneer of diagnostic pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hermann Lebert (1813-1879) was a pioneer of diagnostic pathology and medical iconography. He was born in Breslau, then Prussia, and died in Nice (France). He lived in Switzerland as a general physician, in France as a pathologist, and eventually became the chairman for internal medicine in Zurich and Breslau, respectively. The significance of Hermann Lebert for medical posterity has three aspects: firstly, scientific linking of the French (Parisian) school and its distinctive clinical/practical orientation to the later clinical/pathological German school of Johann Lukas Schönlein, Johannes Müller, and Rudolf Virchow; secondly, his pioneering of the diagnostic use of the microscope in pathological anatomy; and finally, his remarkable book, Traité d'anatomie pathologique générale et spéciale, which has almost fallen into oblivion, being unknown to most contemporary workers. PMID:19688221

Pickel, Hellmuth; Reich, Olaf; Winter, Raimund; Young, Robert H

2009-09-01

228

Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease

229

Adolescence and Eating Pathologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007. The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002, cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schilder, 2002, nutrition and weight (Halmi, 2003.These factors can be divided into four main categories: ‘the cultural pressure to acquire a thin body; the change in the woman’s social role; the mythical character granted to eating disorders; the prejudice against obesity’ (Dalle Grave, 2007. So far, the literature on this subject, however wide, has provided no conclusive data with reference to related issues, such as psychiatric comorbidities(Blinder et al, 2007. In particular, this study focused on the aspectof control, a significant feature of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder too, (Couturier, 2004 and on body-image disperception, peculiar to eating disorders (Neumark-Sztainer, 2000. To investigate co-morbidity between eating disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a questionnaire including items of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Dalle Grave, Ghisi, Calugi, 2006 was administered to a sample of adolescent students. The results provide significant correlations between Calculation Compulsions and the BSQ Behaviours variable, between Current MiscellaneousCompulsions and Body Image, between Current Miscellaneous Compulsionsand Body Shape/Self Esteem. Therefore the study provides further evidence in support of co-morbidity.

Valeria Caggiano

2010-01-01

230

Dendritic spine pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the genetic architecture, cellular substrates, brain circuits and endophenotypic profiles of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence implicates spiny synapses as important substrates of pathogenesis in these disorders. Although synaptic perturbations are not the only alterations relevant for these diseases, understanding the molecular underpinnings of spine pathology may provide insight into their etiologies and may reveal new drug targets. Here we discuss recent neuropathological, genetic, molecular and animal model studies that implicate structural alterations at spiny synapses in the pathogenesis of major neurological disorders, focusing on ASD, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease as representatives of these categories across different ages of onset. We stress the importance of reverse translation, collaborative and multidisciplinary approaches, and the study of the spatio-temporal roles of disease molecules in the context of synaptic regulatory pathways and neuronal circuits that underlie disease endophenotypes. PMID:21346746

Penzes, Peter; Cahill, Michael E; Jones, Kelly A; VanLeeuwen, Jon-Eric; Woolfrey, Kevin M

2011-03-01

231

General Aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

Epothilone is a microbial product, and thus its history may be traced back to the discovery of the respective microbe, Sorangium cellulosum, a bacterium belonging to the taxonomic group of myxobacteria, which originally has been described by Roland Thaxter in 1892 (1). Today this group of organisms comprises around 40 species, one of which is Sorangium cellulosum. For a long time, myxobacteria were only known for their gliding motility and sophisticated life cycle, although it had been occasionally speculated that they might produce secondary metabolites like actinomycetes or bacilli (2). In 1975 Hans Reichenbach and his group at the German Centre for Biotechnology (GBF; now called the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research) set out to isolate strains of myxobacteria from soil samples collected all over the world, and to examine their secondary metabolism. In 1978, while work was already ongoing, I joined them and took over the chemistry part. In the same year the first structure of a myxobacterial metabolite, ambruticin, was published by a group from Warner-Lambert (3) making us very confident of being on the right track. Ambruticin had been isolated from a Sorangium cellulosum strain, and was identified as a unique cyclopropane polyketide structure exhibiting potentially useful antifungal properties. Ambruticin and its derivatives had been developed for medical application for some time, and recently gained new interest (4).

Höfle, Gerhard

232

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

233

Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Halpern, Melissa B.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-08-19

234

Pathology Case Study: Transfusion Reaction  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a young woman experienced vomiting, dizziness, headaches, and change of mental status due to conjunctival petechiae. Visitors are given the transfusion reaction investigation, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

Johnson, Douglas R.; Triulzi, Darrell

2008-09-02

235

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-22

236

Pathology Case Study: Maculopapular Rash  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Flynn, Kevin J.; Malone, Mark

2007-11-21

237

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Lu, Zhengbin; Schoedel, Karen

2009-04-17

238

Pathology Case Study: Pulmonary Hypertension  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 20-year-old man has a history of pulmonary hypertension. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Horn, Kevin D.

2007-08-16

239

Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Defrances, Marie C.; Lee, Robert E.

2008-05-14

240

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

Becich, Michael J.; Fowler, Jason C.

2008-04-28

 
 
 
 
241

Beyond loss of frataxin: the complex molecular pathology of Friedreich ataxia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the frataxin gene (FXN). Frataxin is an essential protein which localizes to the mitochondria and is required for the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and heme. Most individuals with FRDA are homozygous for trinucleotide GAA.TTC repeat expansions in intron 1 of FXN. The instability of these GAA.TTC repeats, the formation of non-B DNA GAA.TTC structures, and accompanying epigenetic changes lead to reduced FXN transcript and frataxin protein. This 'loss of frataxin' is considered the main driver of disease pathology with mitochondria-rich tissues such as the heart and the brain most affected. While our understanding of FRDA etiology has advanced in recent years, exactly how reduced frataxin leads to disease remains largely unknown. Most therapeutic strategies aim to increase frataxin, yet there are other underlying aspects of the molecular pathology that could impact disease progression and severity. These include RNA toxicity due to antisense RNAs, dysregulated splicing and microRNAs, and repeat-associated protein toxicity via RAN translation. Here we review the diverse array of molecular events that have been shown to influence clinical outcome in FRDA. We also examine additional pathogenic factors from other trinucleotide repeat diseases which could be potentially important in FRDA. PMID:24411698

Evans-Galea, Marguerite V; Lockhart, Paul J; Galea, Charles A; Hannan, Anthony J; Delatycki, Martin B

2014-01-01

242

Cardiac pathology in fatal electrocution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrocution is mostly unintentional and occurs in domestic environment or in form of an occupational hazard. Electrical burns sustained in domestic environment or otherwise are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes the pathological changes in the heart as observed in a case of fatal electrocution. PMID:24612995

Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash; Naik, Ramadas

2014-11-01

243

Roentgenological atlas of hand pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atlas deals with roentgenological diagnostics of hand pathology. Developmental defects, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant and benign bone tumours, tumours of soft tissues, degenerative dystrophical injuries, traumatic injuries, foreign bodies penetrating into hand tissues, inflamatory diseases etc. are illustrated. Roentgenological semiotics and differential diagnostics are described

244

Recent developments in XPS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is at a point in its history at which a state of technological maturity has been reached, progress continues to be made on a number of aspects of this important surface analysis technique. Recent advances have included improved control over the depth sensitivity of XPS analyses, enhancements in XPS detection and computer systems, and higher spatial resolution. Current progress and prospects for XPS were reviewed at the 1986 Eastern Analytical Symposium by Cedric J. Powell, chief of the surface science division at the National Bureau of Standards. Powell spoke at a session on Modern Methods of Thin Film and Surface Analysis that was chaired by Richard J. Colton of the Naval Research Laboratory

245

Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. METHODS: I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008-2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and o...

Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

2010-01-01

246

Most recent developments and optimisation aspects for FGD technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past 20 years there have been significant advances in the design and operation of FGD systems having been driven by differences in fuels and economic pressures. Fisia Babcock Environment GmbH (FBE) which has approximately 50,0000 MW of wet FGD systems in operation in Europe, Asia and North America is continuously taking care of optimising its FGD designs by means of innovative techniques and methods. This wide range of experience has resulted not only in the development of single and dual loop systems for the lime/limestone-gypsum process but also in the development of its own sea water scrubbing technology. A first reference plant in Bahrain corresponding to a capacity of 150 MW bituminous coal-fired has been in operation for more than a year showing a very satisfying performance. FBE's sea water process and first operational results gathered by the mentioned reference plant are presented within this plant. FBE decided to employ CFD (computer fluid dynamic) modeling to improve the design of new and existing wet FGD absorbers. The optimisation of the spray levels of a 200 MW absorber downstream a high sulphur lignite coal firing at Schkopau Power Station is shown within this paper. The effects on flow distribution due to optimal nozzle arrangement are discussed. The cost impact of new FGD systems applying these technologies are discussed. 2 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Schuettenhelm, W.; Braun, W.; Dreuscher, H. [Fisia Babcock Environment GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany)

2004-07-01

247

Psychiatric Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis and Recent Treatment Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic demyelinating disorder characterized by multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms related to multifocal lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS. MS disrupt the conductance of action potential by effecting myelin coats of the neurons. Thus, many neurological symptoms and consequently disability may occur. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms accompanies in the course of MS as primary or secondary reasons. Mood disorders; especially depression, psychiatric disorders, chronic fatigue and cognitive impairment decrease the patient’s quality of life. Clinical course become more complicated because of the neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms co-occurrence. Multipl behavioral and affective alterations may arise due to location and extension of the plaques. Illness perception and the coping strategies may also effect life quality and consequently the prognosis. The treatment of MS includes corticosteroids and the immunosuppressive agents which have various psychiatric side effects. So management of MS patients requires a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. The purpose of this rewiev is the evaluation of psychiatric disorders and symptoms due to MS and its treatment and also their possible effects on clinical process, prognosis, patient’s compatibility, life quality depending on the actual literature. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2008; 45 Supplement: 37-43

Aysu K. T?HAN

2008-05-01

248

SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breedingfocuses recent progress in our understanding of thegenetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book isdivided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I,Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advancesin molecular biology and laboratory procedures thathave been developed recently to manipulate DNA.Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomicsapproaches form as a powerful tool for investigatingthe molecular mechanisms of the...

Aleksandra Sudari?

2012-01-01

249

Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An increasing number of recent patents focused on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and digital consultation networks. Conclusion: In the last 2 decades, there have been an increasing number of patents granted and patent applications filed related to digital pathology. The number of these patents quadrupled during the last decade, and this trend is predicted to intensify based on the number of patent applications already published by the USPTO. PMID:25057430

Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Pantanowitz, Liron

2014-01-01

250

Female Pathological Gamblers--A Critical Review of the Clinical Findings  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent evidence indicates that more and more women gamble and develop gambling problems and pathological gambling (PG). Research has further indicated that female and male PGs differ in their clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to do a critical review of the literature concerning clinical characteristics of female pathological

Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Dahl, Alv A.

2009-01-01

251

The pathological expressions of Brunners gland hyperplasia into adenoma and hamartoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The terms Brunners gland adenoma and hamartoma are 2 pathological expressions of hyperplasia of these glands. We report 3 patients and review the recent literature to support our hypothesis of common pathology. Awareness of the existence and character of Brunners gland lesions will increase the possibility of their accurate diagnosis.

Fayek A. Al-Hilli

2003-11-01

252

Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

2008-01-01

253

Digital photography in anatomical pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and educational purposes, and can be stored on and disseminated by CD-ROM. Total slide digitisation is now a reality and will replace glass slides to a large extent. Three-dimensional images of gross specimens can be assembled and posted on websites for interactive educational programmes. There are also applications in research, allowing more objective and automated quantitation of a variety of morphological and immunohistological parameters. Early reports indicate that medical vision systems are a reality and can provide for automated computer-generated histopathological diagnosis and quality assurance.

Leong F

2004-01-01

254

Pathology of traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

Finnie, John W

2014-12-01

255

Pathology Case Study: Retroperitoneal Masses  

Science.gov (United States)

This site contains two case studies presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology: one in which a man was experiencing increased pain in his left flank over the course of three weeks, and the second one in which a women experiencing persistent right lower quadrant pain shows a retroperitoneal lesion on CT scan. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patients. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Dorvault, Christine; Fernandes, Shaila; Yousem, Sam

2007-10-29

256

Pathology Case Study: Respiratory Distress  

Science.gov (United States)

This cardiovascular pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 72-year-old female experiencing respiratory distress is the focus of this case. The patientâÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

2009-05-07

257

Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

258

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

Science.gov (United States)

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Chen, Lei; Kanbour, Anisa; Kessinger, Rovena L.

2008-12-15

259

Flow cytometry in clinical pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flow cytometry has had an impact upon all areas of clinical pathology and now, in the 21st century, it is truly coming of age. This study reviews the application of flow cytometry within clinical pathology with an emphasis upon haematology and immunology. The basic principles of flow cytometry are discussed, including the principles and considerations of the flow-cell and hydrodynamic focusing, detector layout and function, use of fluorochromes and multicolour flow cytometry (spectral overlap and colour compensation), alongside the strategies available for sample preparation, data acquisition and analysis, reporting of results, internal quality control, external quality assessment and flow sorting. The practice of flow cytometry is discussed, including the principles and pitfalls associated with leukocyte immunophenotyping for leukaemia and lymphoma diagnosis, immune deficiency, predicting and monitoring response to monoclonal antibody therapy, rare event detection and screening for genetic disease. Each section is illustrated with a case study. Future directions are also discussed. PMID:22028426

Virgo, Paul F; Gibbs, Graham J

2012-01-01

260

Synovial pathology: Magnetic resonance study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synovial membrane lines the inner surface of the entire joint capsule of the so-called synovial, or diarthrosis, joints. It also constitutes the lining synovial bursa and tendon sheaths. It is lubricated at all these sites by the synovial fluid secreted by the membrane itself. The identification of this structure is bases on the correct knowledge of its anatomical locations. Synovial membrane pathology includes lesions produced by tumors, inflammation, degeneration and trauma. In this report, we classify them as benign (cysts, chondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, inflammatory synovitis and hemangioma) or malignant (synovial sarcoma and hemangiosarcoma). Magnetic resonance (MR) constitutes a useful and reliable method for diagnosis synovial lesions, providing a means of determining their origin and identifying distinctive features of some types. We present our experience in 12 cases of synovial pathology studied by MR over the past year, all of which were confirmed by histopathological study. 13 refs

 
 
 
 
261

Pedal nail pathology: biomechanical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper treatment of pedal nail disorders requires a thorough understanding of the underlying etiology. As a class, biomechanical abnormalities constitute an important cause of pedal nail dystrophy. These biomechanical etiologies have been presented with regard to the three body planes. Treatments using biomechanical and orthopedic principles were explored, with an emphasis on counteracting abnormal dynamic and static forces. Additionally, sports that have a high correlation of nail pathologies have been discussed with prevention as the key element to treatment. PMID:2650843

Rzonca, E C; Lupo, P J

1989-04-01

262

Pathology Case Study: Visual Disturbances  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 49 year old woman has visual disturbances. Visitors are given the microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Bilbao, Juan M., 1938-; Horvath, Eva, Ph.D.; Kovacs, Kalman; Syro, Luis; Uribe, Humberto; Vidal, Sergio

2009-08-18

263

Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A? peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

Emmanuel Planel

2014-02-01

264

Intellectual property and regulation of molecular pathology tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Legal and regulatory issues have assumed heightened importance in molecular pathology. Patents on relationships between human gene variants and clinical phenotypes, as well as on the underlying gene sequences themselves, have been extremely controversial. However, recent Supreme Court decisions appear to have rendered invalid these classes of patents. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 have been the primary basis for laboratory oversight in the United States, whereas the Food and Drug Administration has been responsible for regulating in vitro test kits distributed in interstate commerce. However, the Food and Drug Administration has recently announced its intention to regulate laboratory-developed tests, raising concerns in the laboratory community. This article reviews recent developments impacting the legal status of gene patenting and oversight of molecular pathology testing in the United States. PMID:24445770

Klein, Roger D

2014-01-01

265

A review of novel optical imaging strategies of the stroke pathology and stem cell therapy in stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transplanted stem cells can induce and enhance functional recovery in experimental stroke. Invasive analysis has been extensively used to provide detailed cellular and molecular characterization of the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells. But post mortem analysis is not appropriate to reveal the time scale of the dynamic interplay between the cell graft, the ischemic lesion and the endogenous repair mechanisms. This review describes non-invasive imaging techniques which have been developed to provide complementary in vivo information. Recent advances were made in analyzing simultaneously different aspects of the cell graft (e.g. number of cells, viability state and cell fate, the ischemic lesion (e.g. blood brain barrier consistency, hypoxic and necrotic areas and the neuronal and vascular network. We focus on optical methods, which permit simple animal preparation, repetitive experimental conditions, relatively medium-cost instrumentation and are performed under mild anesthesia, thus nearly under physiological conditions. A selection of recent examples of optical intrinsic imaging, fluorescence imaging (FLI and bioluminescence imaging (BLI to characterize the stroke pathology and engrafted stem cells are discussed. Special attention is paid to novel optimal reporter genes/probes for genetic labeling and tracking of stem cells and appropriate transgenic animal models. Requirements, advantages and limitations of these imaging platforms are critically discussed and placed into the context of other non-invasive techniques, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET, which can be joined with optical imaging in multimodal approaches.

MarkusAswendt

2014-08-01

266

Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling  

Science.gov (United States)

Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

Lee, Bonnie K.

2009-01-01

267

The critical role of the pathologist in determining eligibility for active surveillance as a management option in patients with prostate cancer: consensus statement with recommendations supported by the college of american pathologists, international society of urological pathology, association of directors of anatomic and surgical pathology, the new zealand society of pathologists, and the prostate cancer foundation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context.-Prostate cancer remains a significant public health problem. Recent publications of randomized trials and the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations have drawn attention to overtreatment of localized, low-risk prostate cancer. Active surveillance, in which patients undergo regular visits with serum prostate-specific antigen tests and repeat prostate biopsies, rather than aggressive treatment with curative intent, may address overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer. It is apparent that a greater awareness of the critical role of pathologists in determining eligibility for active surveillance is needed. Objectives.-To review the state of current knowledge about the role of active surveillance in the management of prostate cancer and to provide a multidisciplinary report focusing on pathologic parameters important to the successful identification of patients likely to succeed with active surveillance, to determine the role of molecular tests in increasing the safety of active surveillance, and to provide future directions. Design.-Systematic review of literature on active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer, pathologic parameters important for appropriate stratification, and issues regarding interobserver reproducibility. Expert panels were created to delineate the fundamental questions confronting the clinical and pathologic aspects of management of men on active surveillance. Results.-Expert panelists identified pathologic parameters important for management and the related diagnostic and reporting issues. Consensus recommendations were generated where appropriate. Conclusions.-Active surveillance is an important management option for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Vital to this process is the critical role pathologic parameters have in identifying appropriate candidates for active surveillance. These findings need to be reproducible and consistently reported by surgical pathologists with accurate pathology reporting. PMID:25092589

Amin, Mahul B; Lin, Daniel W; Gore, John L; Srigley, John R; Samaratunga, Hema; Egevad, Lars; Rubin, Mark; Nacey, John; Carter, H Ballentine; Klotz, Laurence; Sandler, Howard; Zietman, Anthony L; Holden, Stuart; Montironi, Rodolfo; Humphrey, Peter A; Evans, Andrew J; Epstein, Jonathan I; Delahunt, Brett; McKenney, Jesse K; Berney, Dan; Wheeler, Thomas M; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; True, Lawrence; Knudsen, Beatrice; Hammond, M Elizabeth H

2014-10-01

268

Aspectos celulares da cicatrização / Cellular aspects of wound healing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processo cicatricial compreende uma sequência de eventos moleculares e celulares que interagem para que ocorra a restauração do tecido lesado. Desde o extravasamento de plasma, com a coagulação e agregação plaquetária até a reepitelização e remodelagem do tecido lesado o organismo age tentando res [...] taurar a funcionalidade tecidual. Assim, este trabalho abrange os diversos aspectos celulares envolvidos no processo cicatricial, bem como os principais medicamentos utilizados no tratamento de patologias relacionadas às deficiências na cicatrização. São abordados também, os aspectos econômicos referentes, sobretudo, às feridas crônicas de pés diabéticos. Abstract in english Wound healing is a dynamic interactive process that involves a sequence of molecular and cellular events. Recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have greatly expanded our understanding of the biological process involved in wound repair and tissue regeneration. From plasma extravasation, w [...] ith coagulation and platelet aggregation, to reepithelialization and remodeling of injured tissue, the organism acts by trying to restore functionality tissue. Thus, the present study encompasses several cellular aspects involved in the wound healing process, as well as the main drugs used in treating the pathology related to wound healing complications. Economic aspects are also addressed, mainly related to chronic wounds of diabetic feet.

Ricardo José de, Mendonça; Joaquim, Coutinho-Netto.

269

Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological gambling symptom severity using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The results showed that pathological gambling sufferers had significantly higher response frequency than non-problem gamblers, and that response frequency was significantly correlated with SOGS symptom severity among pathological gambling sufferers. Finally, binary logistic regression showed that response frequency accurately identified 21 (95.5%) pathological gambling sufferers and 18 (85.7%) non-problem gamblers. The correlation between response frequency and SOGS may suggest a stronger reinforcement of gambling behavior in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may have important implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling.

Linnet, Jakob; RØmer Thomsen, Kristine

2013-01-01

270

Recent advance in patient monitoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent advance in technology has developed a lot of new aspects of clinical monitoring. We can monitor sedation levels during anesthesia using various electroencephalographic (EEG) indices, while it is still not useful for anesthesia depth monitoring. Some attempts are made to monitor the changes in sympathetic nerve activity as one of the indicators of stress, pain/analgesia, or anesthesia. To know the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, heart rate or blood pressure variabil...

Nishiyama, Tomoki

2010-01-01

271

Actual problems of physical rehabilitation of students with spinal pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze integrative rehabilitation approaches to solving the problem of physical rehabilitation of students with spinal pathology. Material: analyzed more than 50 references. The analysis of the results of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation 67 students 19-20 years old with neurological manifestations of vertebral osteochondrosis of 1 degree. Results: actual problems of students with physical rehabilitation spinal pathology, analyzes the main aspects and rehabilitation approaches to solving these problems. Application integrative model of physical rehabilitation 20.7% increased its efficiency by general indicators of clinical research, valeology literacy, health and quality of life, stability of the results of rehabilitation. Conclusions: proven effective integrative rehabilitation system based on the integrated use of pedagogical, psychological treatment and physical rehabilitation in higher educational institutions.

Kotelevskiy V.I.

2014-02-01

272

CT of the normal and pathologic stapes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on CT in the pathologic stapes. The radiologic aspect of the stapes was analyzed in 287 patients with noncholesteatomatous chronic otitis media (n = 46), cholesteatoma (n = 162), malformations (n = 52), and otosclerosis (n = 27) by using axial and, occasionally, coronal sections. Two CT scanners (M1 and M2) that differ in spatial resolution were used. The radiologic and surgical results are presented. In chronic cholesteatomous otitis, we analyzed two populations, P1 and P2. In the P1 population, (n = 92), studied on the M1 unit, there was stapes destruction in 39% (n = 36), versus 38% (n = 27) in the P2 population (n = 70), studied on the M2 unit. In P1, the diagnostic sensitivity was 97% and specificity was 78%. In P2, the sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 95%. The specificity of P2 was greater than that of P1 because of the smaller number of false-positive diagnoses with the M2 unit. Equivalent results are obtained in the malformation (n = 29) and trauma (n = 16) cases. In stapedo-vestibular otosclerosis, studied only with M2, the sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 100%

273

[Retinoblastoma: recent advances].  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy of infancy with an incidence of 1/15,000 to 1/20,000 births. Sixty percent of retinoblastomas are unilateral, with a median age at diagnosis of two years, and in most cases are not hereditary. Retinoblastoma is bilateral in 40% of cases, with an earlier median age at diagnosis of one year. All bilateral and multifocal unilateral forms are hereditary and are part of a genetic cancer predisposition syndrome. All children with a bilateral or familial form, and 10 to 15% of children with an unilateral form, constitutionally carry an RB1 gene mutation. The two most frequent symptoms revealing retinoblastoma are leukocoria and strabismus. Diagnosis is made by fundoscopy, with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contributing both to diagnosis and assessment of the extension of the disease. Treatment of patients with retinoblastoma must take into account the various aspects of the disease (unilateral/bilateral, size, localization…), the risk to vision and the possible hereditary nature of the disease. The main prognostic aspects are still premature detection and adapted coverage by a multi-disciplinary specialized team. Enucleation is still often necessary in unilateral disease; the decision for adjuvant treatment is taken according to the histological risk factors. The most important recent therapeutic advances concern the conservative treatment which is proposed for at least one of the two eyes in most bilateral cases: laser alone or in combination with chemotherapy, cryotherapy or brachytherapy. Recently, the development of new conservative techniques of treatment, such as intra-arterial selective chemotherapy perfusion, aims at preserving visual function in these children and decreasing the number of enucleations and the need for external beam radiotherapy. The vital prognosis related to retinoblatoma is now excellent in industrialized countries, but long-term survival is still related to the development of secondary tumors, mainly secondary sarcoma. Retinoblastoma requires multi-disciplinary care as well as a long term specialized follow-up. Early counseling of patients and their family concerning the risk of transmission of the disease and the risk of development of secondary tumors is necessary. PMID:24793631

Jehanne, Mathilde; Brisse, Hervé; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lumbroso-le Rouic, Livia; Freneaux, Paul; Aerts, Isabelle

2014-04-01

274

Pathology Case Study: Gait Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman with a 20-year history of gait disorders and dizziness. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

2009-04-21

275

Pathology Case Study: Intrasellar Lesion  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 59-year-old woman with a three-year history of headache and fatigue is determined to have an intrasellar non contrast-enhancing lesion. Visitors are given the clinical history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Deckert, Martina; Hans, Volkmar H.; Kristof, Rudolf A.; Urbach, Horst

2009-03-04

276

Pathology Case Study: Cervical Lymphadenopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 17-year-old female has cervical lymphadenopathy. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Contis, Lydia C.; Persad, Rajendra; Swerdlow, Steven H.

2009-08-14

277

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Hypertension  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a clinical chemistry case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 57-year-old female has longstanding hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Visitors are given catheterization procedure data and retroperitoneal ultrasound findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-23

278

Radiographic correlation in orthopedic pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiographic correlation is an essential adjunct for the accurate diagnosis of orthopedic lesions, yet it is a skill neglected by pathologists. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate why performing this correlation is an essential part of the diagnostic process and not merely an interesting adjunct to the surgical pathology of orthopedic lesions. The relationships between x-rays and tissues are explored with an emphasis on bone and soft tissue composition and structure. In addition, the rudiments of complementary imaging studies and how to incorporate their data into diagnoses are examined. PMID:16096379

Klein, Michael J

2005-07-01

279

An appraisal of innovation in practical teaching in anatomic pathology - A students’ and teachers’ perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Traditional pathology teaching is teacher-centred with an emphasis on acquiring theoretical knowledge. We, at the Department of Pathology, KIMSU introduced a new practical teaching methodology-“active learning” with emphasis on clinico-pathological correlation-for II year M.B.B.S. students to make pathology learning easy, interactive and clinically relevant. Objective: To evaluate student and tutor perception of the new practical teaching approach introduced in the Department of Pathology, KIMSU for II year M.B.B.S. students by analyzing responses to Likert-scale based standardized questionnaires. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken in the Department of Pathology, KIMSU in January 2013 among a sample population of 120 students of II M.B.B.S. (2011 batch and 08 tutors (Pathology post-graduate residents who anonymously graded their approval/disapproval for 17 parameters on a structured Likert scale. Data collected was analysed and results recorded.Conclusion:The survey indicated that there were both encouraging aspects- namely, use of audio-visual aids and A4-sized photomicrographs of practical slides, pre-practical briefings, formation of smaller groups for practicals-which were appreciated; and others-namely, the materials/equipment used in teaching and time management during practicals - that need more efforts from both teachers and students to achieve the objective of learning pathology.

Jyotsna V. Wader

2014-01-01

280

Digital pathology in Europe: coordinating patient care and research efforts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH) is an initiative of the COST (European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) framework, supported by the Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7), of the European Union will be running from 2007 to 2011 and is aimed to coordinate research efforts to develop the most adequate technological framework for the management of multimedia electronic healthcare records (data and images) applied to Anatomic Pathology. Sixteen countries are participating in EURO-TELEPATH. Activities are organized in four Working Groups (WGs): WG1 - Pathology Business Modeling, WG2 - Informatics Standards in Pathology, WG3 - Images: Analysis, Processing, Retrieval and Management, and WG4 - Technology and Automation in Pathology. During the first year of work, the collaboration between software engineers, computer scientists, pathologists and other clinicians has been essential to detect three main areas of interest in digital pathology research: virtual microscopy scanning solutions, health informatics standards, and image processing and analysis. Research in these areas is essential to a correct approach to telepathology, including primary diagnosis, and secondary or teleconsultation services. Managing microscopic pathology images (virtual slides) is a challenge to existing information systems, mainly due to its large size, large number, and complex interpretation. Regarding interoperability, the integration of pathology reports and images into eHealth records is an essential objective that research groups should consider. Promoting participation in standards bodies (DICOM, IHE, HL7, IHTSDO) is an essential part of the project work. Understanding the business process of pathology departments in daily practice, including healthcare, education, research, and quality control activities, is the starting point to be sure that standardization efforts converge with user needs. Following a recent IHE proposal, coordination with public health services like national or regional tumor registries must also be supported. Virtual or digital slides are fostering the use of image processing and analysis in pathology not only for research purposes, but also in daily practice. Nowadays, further discussion is needed on the adequacy of current existing technical solutions, including for instance quality of images obtained by scanners, or the efficiency of image analysis applications. PMID:19745463

Garcia Rojo, Marcial; Punys, Vytenis; Slodkowska, Janina; Schrader, Thomas; Daniel, Christel; Blobel, Bernd

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

MicroRNA in ischemic stroke etiology and pathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small, noncoding, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key mediators of posttranscriptional gene silencing in both pathogenic and pathological aspects of ischemic stroke biology. In stroke etiology, miRNA have distinct expression patterns that modulate pathogenic processes including atherosclerosis (miR-21, miR-126), hyperlipidemia (miR-33, miR-125a-5p), hypertension (miR-155), and plaque rupture (miR-222, miR-210). Following focal cerebral ischemia, significant changes in the miRNA transcripto...

Rink, Cameron; Khanna, Savita

2011-01-01

282

Vascular regulation of adult neurogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neural stem cells in the mammalian adult brain continuously produce new neurons throughout life. Accumulating evidence in rodents suggests that various aspects of adult neurogenesis, including the genesis, migration, and maturation of new neurons, are regulated by factors derived from blood vessels and their microenvironment. Brain injury enhances both neurogenesis and angiogenesis, thereby promoting the cooperative regeneration of neurons and blood vessels. In this paper, we briefly review the mechanisms for the vascular regulation of adult neurogenesis in the ventricular-subventricular zone under physiological and pathological conditions, and discuss their clinical potential for brain regeneration strategies.

KazunobuSawamoto

2014-03-01

283

Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The human cellular prion protein (PrPC is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored membrane glycoprotein with two N-glycosylation sites at residues 181 and 197. This protein migrates in several bands by Western blot analysis (WB. Interestingly, PNGase F treatment of human brain homogenates prior to the WB, which is known to remove the N-glycosylations, unexpectedly gives rise to two dominant bands, which are now known as C-terminal (C1 and N-terminal (N1 fragments. This resembles the ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP in Alzheimer disease (AD, which can be physiologically processed by ?-, ?-, and ?-secretases. The processing of APP has been extensively studied, while the identity of the cellular proteases involved in the proteolysis of PrPC and their possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the neurotoxicity caused by prion proteins and the blockade of their normal proteolysis. For example, expression of non-cleavable PrPC mutants in transgenic mice generates neurotoxicity, even in the absence of infectious prions, suggesting that PrPC proteolysis is physiologically and pathologically important. As many mouse models of prion diseases have recently been developed and the knowledge about the proteases responsible for the PrPC proteolysis is accumulating, we examine the historical experimental evidence and highlight recent studies that shed new light on this issue.

Yutaka Kikuchi

2012-11-01

284

Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging and pathologic spectrum of appendiceal pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

While acute appendicitis is a common and important clinical problem, a variety of other disease processes can affect the appendix. Simple and perforated appendicitis, tip appendicitis, and stump appendicitis share a common clinical presentation including anorexia, right lower quadrant pain, and fever. By imaging, most cases of acute appendicitis exhibit luminal dilation, wall thickening, and periappendiceal inflammatory stranding. In tip appendicitis, these changes are isolated to the distal appendix, often with an obstructing appendicolith. Perforated appendicitis can exhibit mural discontinuity, periappendiceal abscess, and/or extraluminal appendicoliths. After appendectomy, the appendiceal remnant or "stump" can become inflamed, often necessitating repeat surgery. Inflammatory bowel disease can involve the terminal ileum, secondarily involving the appendix, or may primarily involve the appendix. Patient symptoms can be chronic in such cases, and mucosal hyperenhancement is a pronounced imaging feature. In asymptomatic patients without appendiceal inflammation, the appendix can be dilated by intraluminal material such as inspissated succus in cystic fibrosis or mucus from benign appendiceal mucocele. Finally, neoplasms such as typical appendiceal carcinoid tumor and mucinous adenocarcinoma can involve the appendix. Carcinoids are often small and incidentally discovered at pathologic examination, while malignant mucinous adenocarcinoma tends to present with advanced disease including pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cecal cancers can also obstruct the appendiceal lumen and cause acute appendicitis; an astute radiologist can recognize this prospectively and facilitate definitive resection (right hemicolectomy) at the time of surgery. Attention to mural features, cecal configuration, and periappendiceal inflammation is essential to the correct prospective diagnosis of complicated appendicitis and less common appendiceal pathologies. PMID:24414145

Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Maturen, Katherine E; Hammer, Suntrea G

2014-10-01

285

Optimizing the pathology workstation "cockpit": Challenges and solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 21(st) century has brought numerous changes to the clinical reading (i.e., image or virtual pathology slide interpretation) environment of pathologists and it will continue to change even more dramatically as information and communication technologies (ICTs) become more widespread in the integrated healthcare enterprise. The extent to which these changes impact the practicing pathologist differ as a function of the technology under consideration, but digital "virtual slides" and the viewing of images on computer monitors instead of glass slides through a microscope clearly represents a significant change in the way that pathologists extract information from these images and render diagnostic decisions. One of the major challenges facing pathologists in this new era is how to best optimize the pathology workstation, the reading environment and the new and varied types of information available in order to ensure efficient and accurate processing of this information. Although workstations can be stand-alone units with images imported via external storage devices, this scenario is becoming less common as pathology departments connect to information highways within their hospitals and to external sites. Picture Archiving and Communications systems are no longer confined to radiology departments but are serving the entire integrated healthcare enterprise, including pathology. In radiology, the workstation is often referred to as the "cockpit" with a "digital dashboard" and the reading room as the "control room." Although pathology has yet to "go digital" to the extent that radiology has, lessons derived from radiology reading "cockpits" can be quite valuable in setting up the digital pathology reading room. In this article, we describe the concept of the digital dashboard and provide some recent examples of informatics-based applications that have been shown to improve the workflow and quality in digital reading environments. PMID:21031008

Krupinski, Elizabeth A

2010-01-01

286

Pathological Gamblers Discount Probabilistic Rewards Less Steeply than Matched Controls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nineteen treatment-seeking men meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for pathological gambling and 19 demographically matched controls participated. Participants provided demographic information, information about their recent drug use and gambling activities, and biological samples (to confirm drug abstinence). They also completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and 2 questionnaires designed to separate...

Madden, Gregory J.; Petry, N. M.; Johnson, P.

2009-01-01

287

Pathology of Macular Foveoschisis Associated with Degenerative Myopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a clinicopathological paper on the histologic findings in myopia-associated macular foveoschisis. The findings on ophthalmic pathological study of a 73-year-old woman with high myopia are reviewed. Multiple retinoschisis cavities involving both the macula and retinal periphery were disclosed. Our paper offers tissue evidence and supports recent ocular coherence tomography reports of eyes with high myopia and associated macular foveoschisis.

Flynn, Harry W.; Chi-Chao Chan; Moshfeghi, Andrew A.; Rivers, Michael B.; Johnny Tang

2010-01-01

288

Pathology Case Study: Bilateral Pneumonia  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 75 year old woman "with a past medical history of significant for a 6 month history of cryoglobulinemia with vasculitis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cryptogenic cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, degenerative joint disease, and diverticulitis." Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, and microscopic findings (lung), including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Davie, James; Graur, Octavia; Sheaffer, John

2008-12-12

289

Radiologic Imaging of Diaphragmatic Pathologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We researched the images methods in the evaluation of diaphragmaticpathologies. The study was done with 30 patients (21 males, 9 females. Themedian age of the patients was 36.1 years (Range 1-74 years. Firstly,lateraly and posteroanterior chest X-Ray were done in all patients the otherradiological images were the Barium examination, ultrasonography,computerized tomography and magnetic rezonans imaging. We determineddiaphragmatic pseudotumour in 4 patients, congenital diaphragmatichernia in 6 patients, diaphragmatic paralysis in 2 patients, diaphragmaticelevation in 8 patients, hiatal hernia in 5 patients, and diaphragmaticrupture in 5 patients.Although radiological images were developed all, we believe that thediaphragmatic pathologies should be evaluated with both clinically andradiologically in all patients.

Hatice Öztürkmen Akay

2004-01-01

290

Pathology Case Study: Epileptic Seizures  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 43 year old man with a "seizure" of dizziness associated with difficulty in walking and performing simple movements. Visitors are provided with patient history along with neuroimaging and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

2008-12-10

291

Pathology Case Study: Lumbosacral Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology where a boy aged 2 years presented with a swelling beneath the skin of the lower back, incontinence, bilateral leg weakness and a history of bilateral hip dislocation at birth. The case study provides imaging studies and histopathology in order to allow the user the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Clicking on the final diagnosis link will provide users with a discussion of the actual diagnosis along with important learning points as well as a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to develop a diagnosis. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Ellison, David W.; Ibrahim, A. E.; Lang, D. A.; Myles, L.

2009-04-10

292

Pathology Case Study: Breast Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 54 year-old woman presented with a âÂÂleft breast nodule.â Visitors are given the patientâÂÂs history, mammogram image, and the results from a fine needle aspiration (including images), and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. Students can check their conclusions by clicking on the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section, which provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease.

Deal, Karen; Kanbour, Anisa; Nath, Manju E.

2009-08-31

293

Pathology Case Study: Dog Bites  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old male with a past medical history significant for lymphoma (in remission). The patient is a health care worker who presented to the emergency room because of a dog bite. Visitors are given a patient history and culture findings, including images. They are also given an opportunity to diagnose the patient before clicking on the "Final Diagnosis" section, which provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Iscoll, Eileen; Lourduraj, Leena T.; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-11-17

294

Pathology of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technological advances, improved ventilatory strategies and better nursing techniques, coupled with the use of prenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant, have resulted in the survival of smaller and more immature infants. Preterm infants likely to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are born during the canalicular phase of lung development at 24-26 weeks, a time when alveolar and distal vascular development commences. The histopathologic lesions of severe airway injury and alternating sites of overinflation and fibrosis in 'old' BPD have been replaced in 'new' BPD with the pathologic changes of large, simplified alveolar structures, a dysmorphic capillary configuration and variable interstitial cellularity and/or fibroproliferation. Airway and vascular lesions, when present, tend to occur in infants who over time develop more severe disease. The alveolar and capillary hypoplasia of new BPD will require the development of specific therapies, but avoiding volutrauma, oxidant injury and inflammation/infection will improve lung morphology. PMID:12667832

Coalson, Jacqueline J

2003-02-01

295

Contemporary pharmacotherapy and iatrogenic pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few decades, the pharmaceutical industry has developed into a powerful human activity highly influencing modern medicine. Thousands of synthetic therapeuticals have been developed, and these formulations enabled the successful treatment of many diseases, some of which were considered incurable. An increase in drug consumption followed the development of the pharmaceutical industry and the introduction of synthetic drugs. The widespread use of new medicals enabled the collection of data confirming their effectiveness, but also more and more data concerning side and unwanted effects were reported. Frequent side/unwanted effect reports gave rise to development of iatrogenic pathology, a new branch of clinical pathology. The knowledge of the possible unwanted effects of drugs on macro organisms did not enable the effective withdrawal of such formulations from the market. At the beginning, the reports concerning unwanted effects were not verealed. Consequently some potentially harmful formulations were used for years without methodical analyses of their side/unwanted effects. Some potentially dangerous formulations are still on the market such as drugs containing ulcerogenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic substances as well as those inducing bone marrow aplasia. The administration of these potentially dangerous formulations is understandable in the case of clear therapeutic indications allowing no alternatives. In these cases the risk of harmful side effects is greatly overwhelmed by the risk from the primary disease. Otherwise the administration of the potentially harmful drug is unjustified, especially if the indication is not a disease. Many potentially harmful drugs are formulated for use in healthy animals, recommended as growth, laying and milk stimulators, those allowing higher speed and strength in sport and racing horses, estrus inducers and suppressors. The misuse or maluse medication is highly present in sport horses daily treated with vitamin and mineral supplements, analgesics, corticosteroid and anabolic steroids. Unwanted effects of such treatments are evident sometimes shortly after application and sometimes later, influencing reproduction. The same problem is present in small animals.

Trailovi? D.R.

2005-01-01

296

Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG. PMID:22979951

Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N

2014-02-01

297

Pharmacological Treatments in Pathological Gambling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behavior. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. METHODS: A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. RESULTS: A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonistsand glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first-line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration, and involve possibly non-representative clinical groups (e.g., those without co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG.

Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

2012-01-01

298

[Recent advancement of BPPV management].  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common vestibular disorder. The recent development of diagnostic tools allowed clarification of its pathology. Dislodgement of the utricular otoconia is the basis of BPPV which leads to development of canalolithiasis or cupulolithiasis. Positional nystagmus test is a most essential bed side test. BPPV may involve multiple canals and utricle, thus showing complicated nystagmus pattern. Understanding the physiology of semicircular canals and vestibuloocular reflex allows proper diagnosis of a lesion side and types of BPPV. Based upon the basic and clinical findings, a lesion-specific physical therapy had been developed which turned out to be very effective. Nystagmus pattern can also be an index of the treatment outcome. PMID:22277490

Suzuki, Mamoru

2011-11-01

299

VEGF-A, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the pathological vascular phenotype  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Normal angiogenesis is a complex process involving the organization of proliferating and migrating endothelial cells (ECs) into a well-ordered and highly functional vascular network. In contrast, pathological angiogenesis, which is a conspicuous feature of tumor growth, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation, is characterized by vessels with aberrant angioarchitecture and compromised barrier function. Herein we review the subject of pathological angiogenesis, particularly that driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), from a new perspective. We propose that the serious structural and functional anomalies associated with VEGF-A-elicited neovessels, reflect, at least in part, imbalances in the internal molecular cues that govern the ordered assembly of ECs into three dimensional vascular networks and preserve vessel barrier function. Adopting such a viewpoint widens the focus from solely on specific pro-angiogenic stimuli such as VEGF-A to include a key set of cytoskeletal regulatory molecules, the Rho GTPases, which are known to direct multiple aspects of vascular morphogenesis including EC motility, alignment, multi-cellular organization, as well as intercellular junction integrity. We offer this perspective to draw attention to the importance of endothelial cytoskeletal dynamics for proper neovascularization and to suggest new therapeutic strategies with the potential to improve the pathological vascular phenotype

300

Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States. PMID:23599904

Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine playersrepresent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathologicalgambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time on slot machines compared withnon-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathologicalgambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathologicalgambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that responsefrequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency amongtwenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially availableslot machine, and screened for pathological gambling symptom severity using the South Oaks Gambling Screen(SOGS. The results showed that pathological gambling sufferers had significantly higher response frequencythan non-problem gamblers, and that response frequency was significantly correlated with SOGS symptomseverity among pathological gambling sufferers. Finally, binary logistic regression showed that responsefrequency accurately identified 21 (95.5% pathological gambling sufferers and 18 (85.7% non-problemgamblers. The correlation between response frequency and SOGS may suggest a stronger reinforcement ofgambling behavior in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may haveimportant implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling.

Jakob Linnet

2013-02-01

302

Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies??  

Science.gov (United States)

Alterations in appetitive processing are central to the major psychological theories of addiction, with differential predictions made by the reward deficiency, incentive salience, and impulsivity hypotheses. Functional MRI has become the chief means of testing these predictions, with experiments reliably highlighting disturbances at the level of the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and affiliated regions. However, demonstrations of hypo-reactivity and hyper-reactivity of this circuitry in drug addicted groups are reported in approximately equal measure. Similar findings are echoed in the emergent neuroimaging literature on pathological gambling, which has recently witnessed a coming of age. The first aim of this article is to consider some of the methodological aspects of these experiments that could influence the observed direction of group-level effects, including the baseline condition, trial structure and timing, and the nature of the appetitive cues (drug-related, monetary, or primary rewards). The second aim is to highlight the conceptual traction that is offered by pathological gambling, as a model of a ‘toxicity free’ addiction and an illness where tasks of monetary reinforcement afford a more direct mapping to the abused commodity. Our conclusion is that relatively subtle decisions in task design appear capable of driving group differences in fronto-striatal circuitry in entirely opposing directions, even with tasks and task variants that look ostensibly similar. Differentiation between the psychological theories of addiction will require a greater breadth of experimental designs, with more research needed on processing of primary appetitive cues, aversive processing, and in vulnerable/at-risk groups. PMID:24179792

Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Clark, Luke

2013-01-01

303

Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies?  

Science.gov (United States)

Alterations in appetitive processing are central to the major psychological theories of addiction, with differential predictions made by the reward deficiency, incentive salience, and impulsivity hypotheses. Functional MRI has become the chief means of testing these predictions, with experiments reliably highlighting disturbances at the level of the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and affiliated regions. However, demonstrations of hypo-reactivity and hyper-reactivity of this circuitry in drug addicted groups are reported in approximately equal measure. Similar findings are echoed in the emergent neuroimaging literature on pathological gambling, which has recently witnessed a coming of age. The first aim of this article is to consider some of the methodological aspects of these experiments that could influence the observed direction of group-level effects, including the baseline condition, trial structure and timing, and the nature of the appetitive cues (drug-related, monetary, or primary rewards). The second aim is to highlight the conceptual traction that is offered by pathological gambling, as a model of a 'toxicity free' addiction and an illness where tasks of monetary reinforcement afford a more direct mapping to the abused commodity. Our conclusion is that relatively subtle decisions in task design appear capable of driving group differences in fronto-striatal circuitry in entirely opposing directions, even with tasks and task variants that look ostensibly similar. Differentiation between the psychological theories of addiction will require a greater breadth of experimental designs, with more research needed on processing of primary appetitive cues, aversive processing, and in vulnerable/at-risk groups. PMID:24179792

Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H; van Holst, Ruth J; Clark, Luke

2013-01-01

304

Clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity of frontotemporal dementia: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common young-onset dementia and is clinically characterised by progressive behavioural change, executive dysfunction and language difficulties. Three clinical syndromes, behavioural variant FTD, semantic dementia and progressive non-fluent aphasia, form part of a clinicopathological spectrum named frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The classical neuropsychological phenotype of FTD has been enriched by tests exploring Theory of Mind, social cognition and emotional processing. Imaging studies have detailed the patterns of atrophy associated with different clinical and pathological subtypes. These patterns offer some diagnostic utility, while measures of progression of atrophy may be of use in future trials. 30-50% of FTD is familial, and mutations in two genes, microtubule associated protein tau and Progranulin (GRN), account for about half of these cases. Rare defects in VCP, CHMP2B, TARDP and FUS genes have been found in a small number of families. Linkage to chromosome 9p13.2-21.3 has been established in familial FTD with motor neuron disease, although the causative gene is yet to be identified. Recent developments in the immunohistochemistry of FTLD, and also in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have led to a new pathological nomenclature. The two major groups are those with tau-positive inclusions (FTLD-tau) and those with ubiquitin-positive and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). Recently, a new protein involved in familial ALS, fused in sarcoma (FUS), has been found in FTLD patients with ubiquitin-positive and TDP-43-negative inclusions. In this review, the authors discuss recent clinical, neuropsychological, imaging, genetic and pathological developments that have changed our understanding of FTD, its classification and criteria. The potential to establish an early diagnosis, predict underlying pathology during life and quantify disease progression will all be required for disease-specific therapeutic trials in the future. PMID:20971753

Seelaar, Harro; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Fox, Nick C; van Swieten, John C

2011-05-01

305

How can the postgraduate training program in pathology departments in India be improved?  

Science.gov (United States)

There exists a wide variation in the competence of the postgraduate residents trained in pathology in different institutions across India. This results in strong disparities in the clinical diagnostic skills, teaching skills, research capabilities and the managerial skills of the graduates. The end users of this training, namely the community, clinicians and health care institutions would benefit from a more uniform and better trained pathologist. The article reviews the reasons for the variation in the quality of the training programs. The main deficiencies include, lack of well-defined criteria for recruitment of residents, training facilities, faculty resources, curriculum with well-defined learning objectives and competencies, hands-on experiences in diagnostic and research activities, diagnostic specimens and medical autopsies, exposure to molecular pathology, pathology informatics, electron microscopy, research experiences, communication skills, professional behavior and bioethics, business practices in pathology and quality assurance. There is also a lack of defined career tracks in various disciplines in laboratory medicine, standard protocols for evaluation and regional and national oversight of the programs. The steps for rectification should include defining the competencies and learning objectives, development of the curriculum including teaching methods, facilities and evaluation strategies, communication skills, professional behavior skills, teaching skills, legal aspects of practicing pathology and the various career pathways to subspecialties in pathology. The training should include defined exposure to molecular pathology, electron microscopy, quality control and assurance, laboratory accreditation, business aspects of pathology practice, review of literature, evidence-based medicine, medical autopsy and medical informatics. Efforts should be made to share human and laboratory resources between regional cooperation. The oversight and accreditation policies should be evolved and well-documented. Web-based platforms need to be developed for easy interaction among residents, faculty and administrators on a national level. PMID:21934200

Bhusnurmath, Shivayogi R; Bhusnurmath, Bharti S

2011-01-01

306

The Situation of Consultation Practice in Pathology in Turkey  

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Full Text Available Objective: There are some suggestions regarding the methods of consultation practice in the literature including which case will be consulted, to whom, by which transport means, the payment methods as well as the ethical issues. There are no standards for consultations in Turkey. The standardization committee of the Federation of Turkish Pathology Societies has conducted a survey to detect the current situation, determine the problematic aspects, compare the situation with international methods and offer methods specific to Turkey.Material and Method: A survey has been prepared to cover all the aspects of consultation practice using the literature and referring to the current methods used in Turkey. The survey has been announced on the internet and 83 replies were collected.Results: Multiple choice questions were evaluated in terms of percentages and open ended questions were grouped according to the answer contents. It was seen that problems could be grouped as follows: absence of written procedures covering each step, means of transport, reaching the consultant, payment, reporting and ethical issues. The absence of procedures and issues regarding the payment methods were the interfering factors for each step of consultation.Conclusion: There are many problematic issues in consultation practice in pathology in Turkey. The basis of these problems is the absence of written regulations for procedural and payment methods. Regulations addressing these issues should be developed.

Alp USUBÜTÜN

2012-09-01

307

IFPA Meeting 2013 Workshop Report I: diabetes in pregnancy, maternal dyslipidemia in pregnancy, oxygen in placental development, stem cells and pregnancy pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2013 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of pregnancy pathologies and placental metabolism: 1) diabetes in pregnancy; 2) lipids, fatty acids and the placenta; 3) oxygen in placental development and pathologies; 4) stem cells and pathologies. PMID:24321782

Abumaree, M H; Alahari, S; Albrecht, C; Aye, I L M H; Bainbridge, S; Chauvin, S; Clifton, V L; Desoye, G; Ermini, L; Giuffrida, D; Graham, C H; Huang, Q-T; Kalionis, B; Lager, S; Leach, L; Li, Y; Litvack, M L; Nuzzo, A M; Moretto-Zita, M; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Powell, T; Rolfo, A; Salomon, C; Serov, A; Westwood, M; Yung, H W; Lash, G E

2014-02-01

308

Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility  

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Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

Hacer Sezgin

2014-06-01

309

Hydrodynamic aspect of caves  

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Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

Franci Gabrovsek

2008-01-01

310

Oral aspects of osteopetrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristic feature of osteopetrosis is a lack of osteoclastic activity, leading to a series of somatic problems for afflicted persons. The life span of osteopetrotic patients has increased in recent years, thereby making oral aspects of the disease more evident. Four children with malignant osteopetrosis, born between 1967 and 1975, were examined. In all patients the anterior teeth were of normal shape, and erupted on schedule. Primary molars and all permanent teeth were greatly distorted, and remained totally or partly embedded in basal bone. Vertical growth of alveolar ridge was very limited. Where a fenestration of overlaying mucosa had occurred, a localized progressive osteitis developed, leading to soft tissue inflammation and, in two cases, extraoral mandibular fistulas. Peridontal attachment was very poor, spontaneous exfoliation had occurred in all patients. In two children tooth germs and necrotic bone were surgically removed. No beneficial effect of the treatment was observed. Large doses of antibiotics were needed to control recurring infections. No means of curing progressive osseous destruction of mandibular bone has been found. The general prognosis is poor. PMID:295483

Bjorvatn, K; Gilhuus-Moe, O; Aarskog, D

1979-08-01

311

A patologização do sedentarismo The pathologization of sedentariness  

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Full Text Available A identificação do sedentarismo como fator de risco para doenças crônico-degenerativas influenciou significativamente nas recomendações de saúde pública em defesa de estilos de vida fisicamente ativos. O artigo estuda o processo de patologização do sedentarismo e seus desdobramentos para o campo da saúde pública. Num primeiro momento, discutimos de que maneira o modelo biomédico serve de base para a transposição de aspectos da conduta humana como "fator de risco" e, a seguir, como patologia, tal qual no caso específico da "Síndrome da Morte Sedentária", assim classificada por alguns autores. Em seguida, analisamos como essa visão vem sendo difundida no campo da saúde, tomando por base um programa institucional que, ao mesmo tempo em que transforma o sedentarismo em doença, apresenta a atividade física como um remédio cujos resultados podem se estender a todas as esferas da vida. Nessa linha de raciocínio, em que os mal-estares de nossa civilização são medicalizados e tornados mercadoria ao serem transformados em riscos e patologias, a atividade física torna-se vacina para o corpo social.The identification of physical inactivity as a risk factor for chronic degenerative diseases has significantly influenced public health recommendations in support of physically active lifestyles. This study analyzes the pathologization of sedentariness and its implications in the public health field. First we discuss how the biomedical model serves as a basis to transform aspects of human behavior into 'risk factors' and subsequently into pathologies such as the 'Sedentary Death Syndrome', as some authors classify it. Second, we analyze how this view is being spread in the health field; our analysis is based on an institutional program which transforms sedentariness into illness while presents physical activity as a medicine whose results can reach all aspects of life. According to this rationale, in which the discomforts of our civilization are medicalized and made into commodities as they are transformed into risks and pathologies, physical activity becomes a vaccine to be applied to the social body.

Marcos Santos Ferreira

2012-12-01

312

Recent advances in metal carcinogenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in metal carcinogenesis are comprehensively reviewed, including (a) epidemiological and clinical aspects, (b) carcinogenesis bioassays, (c) bacterial mutagenesis, (d) mammalian cell mutagenesis, (e) chromosomal damage, (f) mammalian cell transformation, (g) microsomal metabolism, (h) DNA strandbreaks and crosslinks, (i) DNA polymerase infidelity, (j) RNA strand initiation, and (k) helical transition of B-DNA to Z-DNA. Based upon these observations, several hypotheses are proposed for the molecular pathogenesis of carcinogenesis by metal compounds. These hypotheses are amenable to experimental test by existing techniques of molecular biology.

Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

313

[Pathological diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

This lymphoma was recognized by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. In 1865, Samuel Wilks named it Hodgkin disease. Now, the term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is acceptable over Hodgkin disease. Since the neoplastic cells of the disease is well-recognized to be a lymphoid cell, especially B lymphocyte. In WHO classification published in 2008, HLs are divided into two entities: Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominat HL. The former is composed of four different subtypes: nodular sclerosis (NS), mixed cellularity (MC), lymphocyte rich (LR), and lymphocyte depletion (LD). HL is characterized by the morphological feature comprising a minority of neoplastic cells, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and popcorn (LP) cells and a majority of non-neoplastic reactive cells. Antigen receptor gene analyses by prevailing molecular methods and flow cytometry are not appropriate method for the diagnosis of HL, because of small number of neoplastic cells. They are, however, very useful in the differential diagnosis to rule out other lymphomas. Even the present when science progressed, pathological (morphological and immunohistochemical) examination is very worth for diagnosis of HL. PMID:24724402

Tamaru, Jun-ichi

2014-03-01

314

Cerebellar pathology in tuberous sclerosis.  

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Cerebellar involvement in tuberous sclerosis is rare and generally nonsymptomatic. The authors describe a cerebellar tuber in a 5-year-old boy with tuberous sclerosis. A CT scan at age 2 years showed the characteristic cortical, white matter, and subependymal lesions of tuberous sclerosis. At 5 years, when the patient was symptomatic with ataxia, the CT and MRI scans revealed additionally the presence of a right cerebellar enhancing lesion with edema. A total surgical resection was undertaken. The cerebellar lesion was very firm and demonstrated marked disorganization of neuronal architecture in the cerebellar folia, with bizzare ectopic neurons in the molecular and granule cell layers and white matter, along with calcification, gliosis, and Rosenthal fiber deposition. Balloon cells with glassy, pale, eosinophilic cytoplasm were also present. There was a marked loss of myelin in the white matter, with significant vacuolation and gliosis. Electron microscopy documented abundant lysosomal inclusions, prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, microtubules, intermediate filaments, and synaptic contacts. While there is much speculation as to the precise nature of cerebellar pathology in tuberous sclerosis, this case demonstrates conclusively that the cerebellar lesions reflect anomolous neuronal development and migration akin to supratentorial lesions and can rarely be symptomatic. PMID:9805358

Jay, V; Edwards, V; Musharbash, A; Rutka, J T

1998-01-01

315

Practical pathology of aging mice  

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Full Text Available Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

Piper M. M. Treuting

2011-06-01

316

Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy in benign pathology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: We report our experience with 43 retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients had a poor function from obstructive uropathology and renal atrophy. None of these patients had a previous lumbotomy. Retroperitoneoscopy was perform [...] ed with 4 trocar port technique in a lateral position. The retroperitoneal space is created by using a Gaur's balloon made of sterile glove. The approach to vascular pedicle was done posteriorly and vessels were clipped by metal and Hem-o-lock (Weck Closure Systems, North Carolina, USA) clips. The sample was intact extracted in an Endo-Bag prolonging one trocar incision. RESULTS: Median operative time was 160 minutes and median blood loss was 200 mL. Four cases (9%) were converted to open surgery: one case due to bleeding and 3 cases due to technical difficulties regarding perirenal adherences. Most patients (39) checked out from the Hospital in day two. Four of them were left over 3 days due to wound complications. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneoscopy offers a safe, effective and reproductive access to nephrectomy for benign pathologies.

Rodrigo S., Quintela; Leonardo R., Cotta; Marcelo F., Neves; David L., Abelha Jr; Jose E., Tavora.

2006-10-01

317

Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy in benign pathology  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report our experience with 43 retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for benign kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients had a poor function from obstructive uropathology and renal atrophy. None of these patients had a previous lumbotomy. Retroperitoneoscopy was performed with 4 trocar port technique in a lateral position. The retroperitoneal space is created by using a Gaur's balloon made of sterile glove. The approach to vascular pedicle was done posteriorly and vessels were clipped by metal and Hem-o-lock (Weck Closure Systems, North Carolina, USA clips. The sample was intact extracted in an Endo-Bag prolonging one trocar incision. RESULTS: Median operative time was 160 minutes and median blood loss was 200 mL. Four cases (9% were converted to open surgery: one case due to bleeding and 3 cases due to technical difficulties regarding perirenal adherences. Most patients (39 checked out from the Hospital in day two. Four of them were left over 3 days due to wound complications. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneoscopy offers a safe, effective and reproductive access to nephrectomy for benign pathologies.

Rodrigo S. Quintela

2006-10-01

318

Treatment of lysosomal storage diseases: recent patents and future strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of rare genetic multisystemic disorders, resulting in deficient lysosomal activity. These pathologies are characterized by progressive accumulation of storage material within the lysosomes, ultimately leading to organ dysfunctions. LSDs patient's clinical outcomes have significantly improved, since the advent of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). ERT is approved worldwide for 6 LSDs: Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI, and Pompe disease. The efficacy and safety of ERT for LSDs has been confirmed by extensive clinical trials, however therapy with infused protein is life-long and disease progression is still observed in treated patients. Obstacles to successful ERT, such as immune reactions against the infused enzyme, miss-targeting of recombinant enzymes, and difficult delivery to crucial tissues (i.e. brain and bone), determine the need for further research, in order to ameliorate therapeutic strategies. Viral gene therapy, stem cell based therapy, pharmacological chaperones and could be considered essential tools for future improvement of recombinant enzyme trafficking and targeting. This review will discuss recent patents and new strategic approaches for enzyme delivery to highlight the most relevant aspects, concerning next generation LSDs treatment. PMID:24433521

Ortolano, Saida; Viéitez, Irene; Navarro, Carmen; Spuch, Carlos

2014-01-01

319

The Family Functioning of Female Pathological Gamblers  

Science.gov (United States)

The available evidence suggests that pathological gambling significantly disrupts family relationships and has a substantial impact on family members. However, these conclusions are based almost exclusively on male pathological gamblers and their female spouses or partners. The current study, which was a secondary study derived from a treatment…

Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

2009-01-01

320

28th Annual pathology congress of the Federation of the South African Societies of Pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 28th annual pathology congress of the Federation of the South African Societies of Pathology was held from 27-29 June 1988 at the Thaba'Nchu Sun Hotel. This publication only contains the abstracts of seminars delivered in the fields of anatomical and chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry and haematology

 
 
 
 
321

Bone morphogenetic protein-4: a novel therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy/heart failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which plays a key role in the bone formation and embryonic development. In addition to these predominate and well-studied effects, the growing evidences highlight BMP4 as an important factor in cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and valve disease. Our recent works demonstrated that BMP4 mediated cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis and ion channel remodeling in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. In this review, we discussed the role of BMP4 in pathological cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the recent advances about BMP4 in cardiovascular diseases closely related to pathological cardiac hypertrophy/heart failure. We put forward that BMP4 is a novel therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy/heart failure. PMID:24736806

Guo, Wen-Ting; Dong, De-Li

2014-11-01

322

Digital slides and ACGME resident competencies in anatomic pathology: An altered paradigm for acquisition and assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole slide digital imaging technology has matured considerably over the past decade. Applications in pathology education are widespread and are rapidly transforming the manner in which medical students learn pathology and histology, and they have a novel and significant impact on postgraduate continuing medical education. Whole slide digital images for use in pathology graduate education have been slower in adoption and remain much less widespread. Emphasis on professional competency by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and credentialing organizations, however, appear poised to significantly increase. The convergence of these two forces is propitious for pathology training. This article examines the opportunities for the use of whole slide images (WSI) in pathology residency training along with the developing potential uses in each of the areas of competency, as categorized by the ACGME. Barriers to WSI adoption in the pathology community are identified along with potentially significant promoters for adoption in training and practice. Current literature and recent presentations are reviewed. Digital pathology coupled with emphasis on competency is a shift of tremendous magnitude that can dramatically improve our abilities to help trainees acquire, demonstrate, and maintain the skills to practice pathology in the generation ahead. PMID:21773058

Hassell, Lewis A; Fung, Kar-Ming; Chaser, Brad

2011-01-01

323

Integrating anatomical pathology to the healthcare enterprise.  

Science.gov (United States)

For medical decisions, healthcare professionals need that all required information is both correct and easily available. We address the issue of integrating anatomical pathology department to the healthcare enterprise. The pathology workflow from order to report, including specimen process and image acquisition was modeled. Corresponding integration profiles were addressed by expansion of the IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative. Implementation using respectively DICOM Structured Report (SR) and DICOM Slide-Coordinate Microscopy (SM) was tested. The two main integration profiles--pathology general workflow and pathology image workflow--rely on 13 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standard. We propose a model of the case in anatomical pathology and of other information entities (orders, image folders and reports) and real-world objects (specimen, tissue samples, slides, etc). Cases representation in XML schemas, based on DICOM specification, allows producing DICOM image files and reports to be stored into a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System. PMID:17108550

Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Henin, Dominique; Fabiani, Bettina; Bourquard, Karima; Ouagne, David; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

2006-01-01

324

Lysosomal fusion dysfunction as a unifying hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease is characterized pathologically by extracellular senile plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and granulovacuolar degeneration. It has been debated whether these hallmark lesions are markers or mediators of disease progression, and numerous paradigms have been proposed to explain the appearance of each lesion individually. However, the unfaltering predictability of these lesions suggests a single pathological nidus central to disease onset and progression. One of the earliest pathologies observed in Alzheimer's disease is endocytic dysfunction. Here we review the recent literature of endocytic dysfunction with particular focus on disrupted lysosomal fusion and propose it as a unifying hypothesis for the three most-studied lesions of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22970406

Funk, Kristen E; Kuret, Jeff

2012-01-01

325

The Degenerative Joint Disease – Morphological Aspects in the Wild Boar  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to outline some data about the morphology of the pathological wild boar articular cartilage. The study was carried out on articular cartilage samples from wild boar femoral head and condyles, 1 - 10 years old. The samples were processed and stained by usual histological techniques. The samples examination revealed different stages of articular cartilage injury and various morphological aspects that suggest the degenerative joint disease (DJD occurrence. The chondrocyte clones, the extracellular matrix alteration, the cartilage fissures, the cartilage erosions and the subchondral bone exposure were the observed morphopathological aspects. These aspects are the specific pathological lesions for DJD, as described in the specialized literature for other species.

Liliana C?rpini?an

2010-05-01

326

Clinical aspects of malt lymphomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is an indolent lymphoma arising in extranodal sites. Several infectious agents and autoimmune disorders have been implicated in its pathogenesis. The stomach represents the most common and best-studied organ involved by MALT lymphoma and its development is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. MALT lymphomas are characterized by an indolent clinical course and excellent survival in most cases, independently of the treatment delivered. Recent progress in the knowledge of the etiology and the cellular and molecular pathological events related to MALT lymphomas allowed us to improve our clinical understanding of this disease entity and to better define treatment strategies. PMID:25240474

Kalpadakis, Christina; Pangalis, Gerassimos A; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P; Kyriakaki, Stavroula; Yiakoumis, Xanthi; Sachanas, Sotirios; Moschogiannis, Maria; Tsirkinidis, Pantelis; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Papadaki, Helen A; Angelopoulou, Maria K

2014-09-01

327

Experimental radiation pathology and oncology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The program goal is to provide basic data for evaluating the hazard to man from radioactive materials deposited within the body. The original objective, to obtain dose-response information and to provide data from several species for extrapolating animal data to man, is receiving less attention at present as effort is being put into determining how radiation causes bone cancer and whether viruses play a role. The program began with the very early radiotoxicologic investigations of materials important in the development of the atomic bomb and the necessity to establish maximum permissible levels of exposure to these materials. With the demonstration that bone cancer is the most sensitive indicator of damage from transuranic elements and some of the fission products, bone pathology became the focus of attention. When it became evident that questions of human hazard cannot be answered unequivocally on the basis of dose-response relationships, different approaches were considered, and one based on knowledge of mechanisms of cancer induction seemed most likely to be successful. The detection of viruses in both radiation-induced and spontaneous bone cancer of mice, and the present evidence for a similar virus in bone cancer of man, support the hypothesis that radiation causes cancer by activating endogenous neoplastic information, which can also be expressed as oncornavirus. Present emphases therefore concern understanding the biological, biochemical, and physical attributes of the five murine oncornaviruses that have now been isolated in the course of the program; demonstrating the existence of a comparable human oncornavirus; and discovering how radiation and virus interact in the induction of bone cancer

328

Pathological gambling in women: a review / Jogo patológico em mulheres: uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Ainda que jogos de azar e os problemas a eles relacionados sejam antigos para a humanidade, o Jogo Patológico, como alteração do comportamento humano, somente passou a ser reconhecido oficialmente como transtorno psiquiátrico a partir de sua inclusão na 3ª Edição do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico [...] de Transtornos Mentais (APA,1980). A maioria dos estudos sobre jogadores patológicos tem como base uma população eminentemente masculina. Entretanto, estima-se que pelo menos um terço dos indivíduos que recebem este diagnóstico sejam mulheres. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar características clínicas e epidemiológicas de jogadoras comparadas a jogadores. As bases de dados MEDLINE e PsycINFO foram consultadas a respeito de estudos sobre Jogo Patológico publicados nos últimos dez anos, com especial enfoque para características clínicas (dados sócio-demográficos, curso e evolução, comorbidade psiquiátrica, genética e personalidade) e epidemiologia. Artigos relevantes publicados anteriormente ao período escolhido de revisão foram selecionados a partir da lista original de referências. Os autores concluem que a literatura atual indica que jogadoras e jogadores apresentam semelhanças, mas carreiam possíveis diferenças etiopatogênicas cujo esclarecimento deverá aprimorar as estratégias de tratamento e prevenção. Abstract in english Pathological gambling was only recently recognized as a psychiatric disorder (DSM-III, APA, 1980). Most studies of pathological gambling include only male subjects. Despite the paucity of information, it is likely that at least one-third of pathological gamblers are women. The objective of this arti [...] cle is to review clinical and epidemiological characteristics of female gamblers as compared to their male counterparts. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for investigational studies and reviews of the past 10 years on clinical (sociodemographic, course and progression, psychiatric comorbidities, genetics, and personality) and epidemiological aspects of female gamblers. Other relevant articles were also selected from reference lists. It is concluded that the current literature indicates some common characteristics in female and male gamblers, but it also indicates the possibility that each gender may carry etiopathogenic differences that when better understood should lead to improved treatment and prevention strategies.

Silvia Saboia, Martins; Daniela S. S., Lobo; Hermano, Tavares; Valentim, Gentil.

2002-09-01

329

Recent developments in storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat storage in ground, storage by sensible heat and phase change, by means of chemical reactions, in aquifers is considered hydrogeological, geological and thermophysical aspects of aquifers are discussed. Refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

330

Negotiating a pathological identity in the clinical dialogue: discourse analysis of a family therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the framework of social constructionism, psychotherapy has been re-conceptualized as a semiotic process, which consists of the creative generation of new meanings in the context of collaborative discourse. In recent years, research approaches that draw from social constructionism, such as discourse analysis, have been fruitfully employed in the study of psychotherapy processes, whilst being in line with the contemporary emphasis on language, narrative, and meaning making. This paper aims to further the exploration of the usefulness of discourse analysis in the study of psychotherapy processes, and in particular, in situations where the medical discourse is powerfully implicated in the construction of a person's identity. It is based on the analysis of a family therapy with a family whose child has a diagnosis of autism. The analysis focuses on two features of the family's talk, namely shifts in the flexibility of employment of a diverse range of discourses and subject positions, and shifts in the ways agency is constructed and discursively negotiated in the clinical conversations. It is suggested that these shifts can be used as indications of change in the family's network of meanings. The analysis suggests that an important aspect in clinical work with families with a member with a psychiatric diagnosis lies in decentring, or deconstructing, the dominant, pathology-maintaining accounts, and allowing for a wider range of less problematic narratives and subject positions to emerge. PMID:16354441

Avdi, Evrinomy

2005-12-01

331

Increased Functional Connectivity between Prefrontal Cortex and Reward System in Pathological Gambling  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathological gambling (PG) shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum). PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder. PMID:24367675

Koehler, Saskia; Ovadia-Caro, Smadar; van der Meer, Elke; Villringer, Arno; Heinz, Andreas

2013-01-01

332

Morphological aspects in a urogenital malformation, complex and rare, in a child.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study follows the detailed evolution of a child diagnosed with prune-belly syndrome. This syndrome is a complex dysplasia, a rare pathology in children, characterized by the triad--the classic--hypo- or aplasia of righteous abdominal, cryptorchidism, abnormality of the urinary tract; also, it can be associated with pulmonary, cardiac, digestive, osteoarticular, and other malformations. Diagnostic criteria and etiopathogeny aspects are presented showing embryopathy and X-linked hereditary transmission theories as the most plausible, as proofed by recent genetic studies. Analyzing therapeutic aspects, it is stressed that medical treatment precedes or follows surgery, which cannot resolve urinary infection unless dysplastic urinary reconstruction is performed. Serious forms of prune-belly syndrome have a development and poor prognosis. Intrauterine and neonatal mortality is 20% and 50% in the first two years of life. The risk of urinary infection and/or lungs burdens the patient's clinical condition, allowing further appreciation on evolution of the disease. For cases solvable by plastic surgical reconstruction, as those who respond to medical therapy, differentiation will be monitored in territory and check-ups by the specialized consulting room from Polyclinic Health Center. Urinary infection relapse danger is permanent, requiring differentiated supervision. These case interest practitioners, by at least two aspects: the rarity of the disease, and complexity of dysplasia constituent, which has serious implications on the body economy. PMID:22732818

Leordean, Viorica; Laz?r, D; Trofenciuc, M

2012-01-01

333

Quality control of pathology laboratories in Turkey  

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Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the standards of quality control and assurance programs adopted in pathology laboratories in Turkey by the aid of a questionnaire-based survey.Materials and Methods: We have submitted a survey that consisted of 68 questions to 250 various public and private pathology laboratories located in university hospitals, Ministry of Health research hospitals, and private hospitals throughout Turkey. We received 84 responses, and the responses were analyzed with the aid of a statistics program (SPSS.Results: None of the pathology laboratories that responded to the survey used a quality control program that was unique to pathology, and many of the responders were using general hospital quality control programs. There were no standards in the use and calibration of histopathology equipment. Half of the laboratories had written guidelines of their quality control procedures. The written protocols were most common for macroscopic examination and reporting of specimens. Adult autopsies were very low to null, but there were large number of pediatric and perinatal autopsies performed in most of the laboratories. We identified many problems concerning the safety procedures.Conclusion: Our results showed that pathology quality control programs adopted elsewhere may not be entirely suitable to pathology laboratories in our country. We propose development of quality assurance programs that consider the specific circumstances of the pathology laboratories in our country, and such programs should be better implemented.

Kutsal YÖRÜKO?LU

2009-01-01

334

Economic aspects of smoking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking has become a major issue for public health policy in recent years. This paper deals with the economic aspects of smoking. First, we outline the basic concepts of welfare economics which subsequently are used as the normative framework of the analysis. In particular, we stress the role of efficiency as a criterion for economic policy evaluation. Second, we demonstrate that smoking is associated with several market failures, notably externalities and dependency/addiction (non-rational behavior). Third, costs and benefits of smoking are considered. We argue that the benefits of smoking are the satisfaction (utility) which the consumers derive from it rather than the employment effect of producing tobacco products or the revenues of the excise tax on these products. A general model for estimating the costs of smoking is developed and various cost concepts are discussed. Empirical cost estimates are presented for Switzerland. In 1976, estimated social (economic) costs of smoking were between 560 and 800 million Swiss francs while the external costs were between 140 and 260 million francs. Contrary to a widely held belief, smoking hardly influenced health care costs because the higher medical care costs of smokers during their lifetime are offset by their reduced life expectancy. The last section deals with intervention strategies to reduce smoking: anti-smoking publicity, advertising restrictions, and taxation. We discuss these three instruments on a conceptual level and summarize previous empirical studies. The main results are: (1) Both publicity and taxation offer a considerable potential as deterrents of cigarette demand. (2) The results for Switzerland imply that publicity campaigns are likely to be efficient in the sense that expected campaign benefits outweigh its costs. PMID:10269650

Leu, R E; Schaub, T

1984-01-01

335

Shift work and pathological conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Shift work exerts major influences on the physiological functions of the human body. These are primarily mediated by the disruption of circadian rhythms since most body functions are circadian rhythmic. Next to the disturbances caused by changes in the circadian system, shift work has also been suggested to be related to a number of other health disorders. The present study summarizes recently published data on the potential relationship between disorders and shift working.

Kessel Richard

2006-12-01

336

Prevalência e achados epidemiológicos, anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos dos tumores hepáticos malignos primários de cães da Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul (1965-2012) / Prevalence and epidemiological, pathological and immunohistochemical aspects of primary canine malignant hepatic tumors in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (1965-2012)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A prevalência e os aspectos epidemiológicos, anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos dos tumores hepáticos malignos primários (THMP) em cães foram estudados. De 7.373 cães necropsiados em 48 anos (1965-2012), 64 morreram de THMP, o que corresponde a 0,9% do total de cães que morreram por qualquer c [...] ausa, 7,8% do total de cães que morreram por tumores em geral e 33,5% do total de cães que morreram por tumores hepáticos. Desses 64 casos de THMP, 51 foram revistos histologicamente, avaliados imuno-histoquimicamente e reclassificados como carcinomas (colangiocarcinomas [n=36], carcinomas hepatocelulares [n=9] e hepatocolangiocarcinoma [n=1]) e sarcomas (hemangiossarcomas [n=5]). Dos cães com colangiocarcinomas e carcinomas hepatocelulares em que a idade estava disponível nos protocolos, 64,7% e 77,8% eram idosos, respectivamente. Na necropsia, colangiocarcinomas caracterizaram-se principalmente por ocorrerem em um padrão multinodular (83,3%), enquanto carcinomas hepatocelulares ocorreram tanto de forma massiva (44,4%) quanto nodular (44,4%). Metástases extra-hepáticas foram vistas em 77,8% e 33,3% dos casos de colangiocarcinomas e carcinomas hepatocelulares, respectivamente, e em relação aos colangiocarcinomas afetaram principalmente pulmões (52,8%), linfonodos (50%) e peritônio (19,4%). Ascite (22,2%) e icterícia (22,2%) foram achados associados ocasionalmente com ambos os tumores. Na histologia, a maior parte dos colangiocarcinomas (86,1%) e dos carcinomas hepatocelulares (55,6%) tinha padrão tubular e trabecular, respectivamente. Na imuno-histoquímica, a maioria (63,9%) dos colangiocarcinomas demonstrou imunomarcação para CK7 e nenhum imunomarcou para Hep Par 1. A maioria (55,6%) dos carcinomas hepatocelulares demonstrou imunomarcação para Hep Par 1 e nenhum imunomarcou para CK7. Os resultados aqui apresentados demonstram uma altíssima prevalência de THMP, principalmente colangiocarcinomas, e servem para auxiliar, através dos achados de necropsia, histologia e imuno-histoquímica, patologistas veterinários no diagnóstico dessa tão comum forma de câncer em cães da Região Central do RS, Brasil. Abstract in english The prevalence and epidemiological and immunohistochemical aspects of primary hepatic malignant tumors (PHMT) were reviewed in dogs necropsied in a 48-year period (1965-2012). Out of those7,373 dogs, 64 died due to PHMT, which corresponds to 0.9% of the dogs dying from any cause in the period; 7.8% [...] of dogs which deaths were caused by tumors in general; and 33.5% of all dogs dying from hepatic tumors (primary and metastatic). Out of the 64 cases of PHMT, 51 were reviewed histologically and evaluated by immunohistochemistry; they were diagnosed as carcinomas (36 cholangiocarcinomas, 9 hepatocellular carcinomas and one hepatocholangiocarcinoma) and sarcomas (5 hemangiosarcomas). In those dogs in which the age was possible determined, 64.7% (cholangiocarcinomas) and 77.8% (hepatocellular carcinomas) were old. At necropsy examination cholangiocarcinomas were characterized mainly by a multinodular pattern (83.3%) while hepatocellular carcinomas occurred both as massive (44.4%) or nodular (44.4%) distribution. Extra-hepatic metastasis occurred respectively in 77.8% and 33.3% of the cases of cholangiocarcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas; metastatic cholangiocarcinomas affected mainly the lungs (52.8%), lymph nodes (50%) and peritoneum (19.4%). Ascites (22.2%) and icterus (22.2%) were observed frequently associated to both tumors. Histologically, most part of the cholangiocarcinomas (86.1%) and of the hepatocellular carcinomas (55.6%) presented respectively a tubular or trabecular type. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the majority (63.9%) of cholangiocarcinomas was positive for CK7 and none was marked for Hep Par 1. The majority (55.6%) of the hepatocellular carcinomas revealed positive reaction for Hep Par 1 and none was marked for CK7. The results presented here demonstrated a very high

Mariana M., Flores; Ronaldo M., Bianchi; Glaucia D., Kommers; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen; Claudio S.L., Barros; Rafael A., Fighera.

337

Designing Aspects with AODL  

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Full Text Available There is a big gap in the level of maturity of implementation technologies and design strategies for aspect-oriented systems. Implementation-wise aspectoriented software development (AOSD has made remarkable progress and a number of efficient technologies have been developed but there is no de-facto design solution for AOSD available yet. Existing design strategies either provide strategies for designing aspects neglecting non-aspectual constructs or they provide complicated and hard-to-adopt strategies which are not easy towork with for traditional UML designers. This paper proposes a new design language for aspects which works with Unified Modelling Language in a single design environment. Some new design notations have been introduced for representing aspects and their key elements, and new models have been proposed to design structural and behavioural characteristics of aspects.

Saqib Iqbal

2011-07-01

338

Pathology Case Study: Cutaneous Nodules and Ulcers  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which presents "a 67 year old white male who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation in 1986 for cardiomyopathy." Visitors are given patient history, admission data, and pathological findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Abernethy, John; Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

2008-04-29

339

Role of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa: An example from Sudan  

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Full Text Available Khalid Dafaallah, Awadelkarim1, Ahmed Abdalla, Mohamedani2, Massimo Barberis31Department of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan; 3Department of Pathology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, ItalyAbstract: In sub-Saharan Africa there is an extreme shortage of pathology services and, when provided, they are of unacceptable standard. Specimen handling and storage are very poor, and render this important aspect of medicinal practice rudimentary. The situation on the ground reflects the full spectrum of the educational, cultural, political, and economical challenges that must be confronted in building basic scientific capabilities in the life sciences, including medicine, in such countries. It is a difficult and often discouraging situation, however, several constructive initiatives have been promoted to address this problem. In this paper we describe the current state of pathology services in sub-Saharan Africa, documenting our experience in Sudan. We also report some of the results obtained by others and our future goals, and propose how pathology-related problems could be addressed in sub-Saharan Africa, by focusing on specific critical points, which may also be considered for other developing countries outside Africa.Keywords: pathology, Africa, networks, standard operative procedures, telepathology

Khalid Dafaallah

2010-05-01

340

University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: The pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)-a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030

Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Clearance of pathological antibodies using biomimetic nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathological antibodies have been demonstrated to play a key role in type II immune hypersensitivity reactions, resulting in the destruction of healthy tissues and leading to considerable morbidity for the patient. Unfortunately, current treatments present significant iatrogenic risk while still falling short for many patients in achieving clinical remission. In the present work, we explored the capability of target cell membrane-coated nanoparticles to abrogate the effect of pathological antibodies in an effort to minimize disease burden, without the need for drug-based immune suppression. Inspired by antibody-driven pathology, we used intact RBC membranes stabilized by biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle cores to serve as an alternative target for pathological antibodies in an antibody-induced anemia disease model. Through both in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrated efficacy of RBC membrane-cloaked nanoparticles to bind and neutralize anti-RBC polyclonal IgG effectively, and thus preserve circulating RBCs. PMID:25197051

Copp, Jonathan A; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Hu, Che-Ming J; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang

2014-09-16

342

Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs  

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Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

Gabriel M. Fonseca

2012-10-01

343

Tumoral calcinosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiologic and pathologic findings, and medical records of 12 patients with tumoral calcinosis were reviewed and compared with equivalent information about 5 patients with other calcified lesions. (orig./MG)

344

Future time perspective in pathological gamblers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis that pathological gambling is associated with shortened time horizons was investigated by administering the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) and the Future Time Perspective Inventory (FPTI) to a group of pathological gamblers and two comparison groups, ps