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1

Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520

2005-09-01

2

Uterus MRI. Normal and pathological aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a non invasive procedure, is taking a place of growing importance as a means of radiological exploration. Its use in uterine pathologies has shown considerable developments. This requires an excellent knowledge of the normal and pathological aspects of the uterus. In fact it exists a zonal anatomy of the uterus which varies according to hormonal impregnation and this is very well seen by MRI. MRI gives excellent results in the diagnosis and study of different uterine pathologies. The radiological appearance of leiomyomas differs depending on the presence or not of degenerative changes within them. Uterine adenomyosis is also well studied by MRI. Lastly different studies in the literature have shown MRI to be a reliable method of exploration with a high degree of fiability, specificity and sensibility to study the local spread of malignant uterine diseases. The authors report their experience and also that present in the literature concerning the study of the uterus by MRI[fr] L'imagerie par resonance magnetique est une methode d'imagerie non invasive qui prend une importance grandissante au sein de l'arsenal radiologique. Ses applications a la pathologie uterine se sont considerablement developpees. Elles impliquent une excellente connaissance des aspects normaux et pathologiques de l'uterus. En effet, il existe une anatomie zonale de l'uterus soumise a des variations liees a l'impregnation hormonale qui est tout a fait specifique a l'IRM. Les performances de l'IRM dans le cadre du diagnostic et du bilan d'exension des differentes affections uterines sont excellentes. La semeiologie radiologique des leiomyomes uterins est differente selon que ceux-ci sont transformes ou non. L'adenomyose uterine est parfaitement bien etudiee en IRM. Enfin, les differentes etudes de la litterature accordent a l'IRM une fiabilite, une specificite et une sensibilite tres elevees dans le bilan d'extension locoregional des neoformations malignes de l'uterus. Les auteurs rapportent leur experience et les donnees de la litterature dans le domaine de l'IRM de l'uterus

1991-01-01

3

[New aspects of gallbladder pathology in children  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have reviewed in a retrospective study 38 children treated in our Hospital, during the last seven years, because of non congenital gall-bladder disease. The diagnosis established were cholelithiasis 58 for 100, hydrops 26 for 100, acalculous cholecystitis 13 for 100 and hemobilia in one child. Cholelithiasis was more frequent in females at a rate of 2/1. Just the opposite incidence was found for acalculous gall-bladder pathology. Mean age at time of first hospitalization was 7.6 years for the cholelithiasis group and 6.6 years for the rest. Symptoms in order of frequency were abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. Abdominal sonography has been basic in establishing to correct diagnosis in practically all cases. Our most interesting finding has been the clinical manifestations of patients with "Hydrops", consisting of abdominal pain which disappears spontaneously after 24 to 48 hours. The diagnosis has been established only after performing abdominal sonographic studies in children with abdominal pain of unclear etiology.

Gomezese S; García F; Echeverry J; de la Cruz R; Villagrasa E; Ceres L; Alonso I; López Pérez GA

1989-07-01

4

Recent advances in standards for collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Context Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology refers to the use of information technology that supports the creation and sharing or exchange of information, including data and images, during the complex workflow performed in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology can only be fully achieved using medical informatics standards. The goal of the international integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative is precisely specifying how medical informatics standards should be implemented to meet specific health care needs and making systems integration more efficient and less expensive. Objective To define the best use of medical informatics standards in order to share and exchange machine-readable structured reports and their evidences (including whole slide images) within hospitals and across healthcare facilities. Methods Specific working groups dedicated to Anatomy Pathology within multiple standards organizations defined standard-based data structures for Anatomic Pathology reports and images as well as informatic transactions in order to integrate Anatomic Pathology information into the electronic healthcare enterprise. Results The DICOM supplements 122 and 145 provide flexible object information definitions dedicated respectively to specimen description and Whole Slide Image acquisition, storage and display. The content profile “Anatomic Pathology Structured Report” (APSR) provides standard templates for structured reports in which textual observations may be bound to digital images or regions of interest. Anatomic Pathology observations are encoded using an international controlled vocabulary defined by the IHE Anatomic Pathology domain that is currently being mapped to SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusion Recent advances in standards for Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology are a unique opportunity to share or exchange Anatomic Pathology structured reports that are interoperable at an international level. The use of machine-readable format of APSR supports the development of decision support as well as secondary use of Anatomic Pathology information for epidemiology or clinical research.

Daniel Christel; Macary François; García Rojo Marcial; Klossa Jacques; Laurinavi?ius Arvydas; Beckwith Bruce A; Della Mea Vincenzo

2011-01-01

5

Recent aspects of vasculitis and future direction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vasculitis is pathologically identified as specific cellular inflammation, vessel destruction, and tissue necrosis. Current classifications of vasculitis such as the Chapel Hill Classification (CHCC) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines are not sufficiently adequate for clinicians to diagnose vasculitis. The biomarkers that are currently in clinical use such as PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA, only help in diagnosing small vessel vasculitis and their sensitivity and specificity are not sufficient. However, recent developments related to the pathogenesis and etiopathogenesis of vasculitis have the potential to contribute to new and improved biomarkers. The determination of diverse roles of ANCA and synergistic effects of infection, genetic, environmental factors and drugs on pathogenesis is quite important. The demonstration of a new autoantibody directed to hLAMP-2 and the resemblance to some microbial structures, in addition to the determination of the possible roles of hepatitis B and C on vasculitis are important findings. These hints may lead to new biomarker developments, providing a better method to diagnose vasculitis. The evidence on T cell immunity as circulatory and lesional will likely contribute to the development of new drugs for vasculitis.

Aras G

2011-01-01

6

[Autoimmune thyroid pathology in recently diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 1  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease among adult patients with recently diagnosed diabetes mellitus type I and its possible correlation with beta-cell autoimmunity markers (ICA, GAD, and IA 2) and with the presentation characteristics of diabetes mellitus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 100 patients diagnosed from 1992 to 1996 were included and anti-thyroid antibodies (Ac), anti-thyroglobulin (aTG) and antiperoxidase (aTPO) were measured. A comparison followed of the clinical characteristics, biochemical markers, and beta-cell immunity markers between the group of patients with positive and negative antibody determinations. Differences between groups were compared by the Student "t" test and non-parametric tests were used for cases not fulfilling the application conditions. RESULTS: Among the 100 patients, 25 had Ac+, two with previously known thyroid pathology and eight diagnosed at that moment. The group with Ac+ was characterized by a predominance of females (68% vs 32%; p = 0.001), lower bicarbonate levels (18.6 +/- 6.1 vs 21.3 +/- 6.4; p = 0.026) and higher requirements for insulin at discharge (0.77 +/- 0.22 vs 0.59 +/- 0.25 IU/kg; p = 0.002). Among patients in the Ac+ group, patients with thyroid pathology were characterized by a higher prevalence of females (90% vs 53.3%; p = 0.05) and a higher percentage of individuals with high anti-TPO titres (80% vs 33.3% higher than 400 IU/ml; p = 0.02). ICAs (66.6% vs 26.6% higher than 40 U JDF; p = 0.05) and IA2 (44.4% vs 0% higher than 12 IU/ml, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of thyroid pathology prevalence among our adult population with recently diagnosed DMI. Patients with thyroid autoimmunity have higher antibody titres to beta-cell and a somewhat more severe clinical presentation form. Prospective studies are required to determine the long term relevance of these differences.

Molina Lacasa A; Fernández Castañer M; Pérez Maraver M; López Jiménez L; Gómez Sáez JM; Soler Ramón J

1998-12-01

7

Serrated polyposis syndrome: Molecular, pathological and clinical aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyperplastic polyps have traditionally been considered not to have malignant potential. New pathological classification of serrated polyps and recent discoveries about the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis have revolutionized the concepts and revitalized the research in this area. Until recently, it has been thought that most colorectal cancers arise from conventional adenomas via the traditional tumor suppressor pathway initiated by a mutation of the APC gene, but it has been found that this pathway accounts for only approximately 70%-80% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. The majority of the remaining colorectal cancer cases follow an alternative pathway leading to CpG island methylator phenotype carcinoma with BRAF mutation and with or without microsatellite instability. The mechanism of carcinomas arising from this alternative pathway seems to begin with an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene. Serrated polyposis syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by multiple and/or large serrated polyps of the colon. Clinical characteristics, etiology and relationship of serrated polyposis syndrome to CRC have not been clarified yet. Patients with this syndrome show a high risk of CRC and both sporadic and hereditary cases have been described. Clinical criteria have been used for diagnosis and frequent colonoscopy surveillance should be performed in order to prevent colorectal cancer. In this review, we try to gather new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of serrated polyps in order to understand their possible clinical implications and to make an approach to the management of this syndrome.

Carla Guarinos; Cristina Sánchez-Fortún; María Rodríguez-Soler; Cristina Alenda; Artemio Payá; Rodrigo Jover

2012-01-01

8

Fabry disease: recent advances in pathology, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Fabry disease (?-galactosidase A deficiency) accumulation of Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) leads to progressive organ failure and premature death. The introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was the beginning of a new era in this disorder, and has prompted a broad range of research activities. This review aims to summarize recent developments and progress with high impact for Fabry disease. Methods A Pubmed analysis was performed using the search terms "Fabry disease", "Anderson-Fabry disease", "alpha-galactosidase A" and "Gb3". Of the given publications by 31st January 2009 only original articles recently published in peer reviewed journals were included for this review. Case reports were included only when they comprised a new aspect. In addition we included relevant conference abstracts when the results had not already been published as original articles. Results Apart from Gb3-accumulation cellular and organ specific damages may be related also to inflammatory and immunological consequences. It will be interesting whether this may lead to new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of Fabry disease. Since newborn screening is still difficult in Fabry disease, detection of patients in populations at risk is of great importance. Undiagnosed patients with Fabry disease may still be found in cohorts of subjects with renal diseases, cardiomyopathy and TIA or stroke. Efforts should be undertaken to identify these individuals and initialise ERT in order to hault disease progression. It has also been demonstrated that Gb3-accumulation leads to pre-clinical damages and it is believed that early treatment may be the only possibility so far to prevent irreversible organ damage.

Hoffmann Björn

2009-01-01

9

Pathology of asbestos: Clinical aspects, epidemiologic data and prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The word 'asbestos' is used to designate the main commercial types of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite) but there exist numerous asbestiform fibrous minerals, which are commercially valueless but widespread at the surface of the earth. Among them, zeolite has already created health hazards in Turkey. Measurement of fibres in air and in tissues can contribute to a better knowledge of lung and body fibre burden associated with diseases. Among fibre-related diseases, studies have recently focused on clinical, epidemiological and pathogenic aspects of pleural fibrosis and lung or pleural cancer. At present the roles of the different types of fibres in the genesis of these diseases remain controverted. However, tobacco smoke associated with inhaled asbestos fibres provokes a multiplied risk of lung cancer. Regarding asbestos there exist regulations in most industrial countries designed to protect workers and diminish environmental pollution.

Bignon, J.; Brochard, P.; Sebastien, P.

1982-02-06

10

Asbestos pathology: clinical aspects epidemiological data and prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The word asbestos is used to designate the main commercial types of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite) but there exist numerous asbestiform fibrous minerals, which are commercially valueless but widespread at the surface of the earth. Among them zeolite has already created health hazards in Turkey. Measurement of fibres in air and in tissues can contribute to a better knowledge of lung and body fibre burden associated with diseases. Among fibre-related diseases, studies have recently focused on clinical, epidemiological and pathogenic aspects of pleural fibrosis and lung or pleural cancer. At present the roles of the different types of fibres in the genesis of these diseases remain controverted. However, tobacco smoke associated with inhaled asbestos fibres provokes a multiplied risk of lung cancer. Regarding asbestos there exist regulations in most industrial countries designed to protect workers and diminish environmental pollution.

Bignon, J.; Brochard, P.; Sebastien, P.

1982-02-06

11

Environmental health aspects of hazardous and radioactive pathological waste incineration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) has recently begun testing and operation of a new pathological waste destructor to threat and dispose of a variety of wastes common to biomedical research institutions. Research projects at ITRI evaluate the health effects of inhaled potentially toxic materials. Some of the wastes generated by these projects that are processed in the waste treatment system include: (1) animal tissue and excreta that may be contaminated with toxic materials; (2) aqueous, low-level radioactive wastes; (3) nonhalogenated organic solvents and liquids, including liquid scintillation vials; and (4) various chemicals used in toxicological research. Stack air samples were taken for 14CO2, 3H2O and particulate radioisotopes. Continuous stack monitoring of CO was done along with isokinetic sampling for particulates. Random grab samples of ash were analyzed for organics and radioactivity. Personal and area air samples within the waste treatment building were taken for radioactivity, CO, CO2 and a hazardous waste surrogate, acetone

1989-01-01

12

Pathology is a critical aspect of preclinical aging studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experimental design for mouse aging studies has historically involved lifespan, but it is now clear that survival data without pathology data limit the information that can be obtained on aging animals. This limitation becomes more serious when interventions of any sort are implemented. Pathology gi...

Warren Ladiges; Yuji Ikeno; Denny Liggitt; Piper M. Treuting

13

Pathology is a critical aspect of preclinical aging studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental design for mouse aging studies has historically involved lifespan, but it is now clear that survival data without pathology data limit the information that can be obtained on aging animals. This limitation becomes more serious when interventions of any sort are implemented. Pathology gives an insight into the health of an animal by revealing lesions not readily observable in the live animal. As such, it is a snapshot of disease conditions at the time of death. Therefore, a long-term goal is to establish pathology information as an essential component of studies involving health span and lifespan of aging animals. Given that pathology assessment is essential to help define the progression of lesions associated with aging, the real challenge is including it in aging studies because there is currently a lack of specialized expertise and resources. An increase in the level and scope of pathology assessment of tissues from old mice involved in aging studies is needed. A focus on the correlation of pathology data with longitudinal and cross-sectional lifespan data and health span physiology data can be established by enhancing standard histologic assessment of lesions observed in tissues from old mice. An environment for the development and integration of pathology data into aging studies of mice is needed to encourage more pathologists and other scientists to specialize in pathology of aging, and establish relevant standards to compare with other species including humans. Such results will have an important positive impact on aging studies because of the significant empowerment on data analyses and interpretation.

Warren Ladiges; Yuji Ikeno; Denny Liggitt; Piper M. Treuting

2013-01-01

14

Pathology is a critical aspect of preclinical aging studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experimental design for mouse aging studies has historically involved lifespan, but it is now clear that survival data without pathology data limit the information that can be obtained on aging animals. This limitation becomes more serious when interventions of any sort are implemented. Pathology gives an insight into the health of an animal by revealing lesions not readily observable in the live animal. As such, it is a snapshot of disease conditions at the time of death. Therefore, a long-term goal is to establish pathology information as an essential component of studies involving health span and lifespan of aging animals. Given that pathology assessment is essential to help define the progression of lesions associated with aging, the real challenge is including it in aging studies because there is currently a lack of specialized expertise and resources. An increase in the level and scope of pathology assessment of tissues from old mice involved in aging studies is needed. A focus on the correlation of pathology data with longitudinal and cross-sectional lifespan data and health span physiology data can be established by enhancing standard histologic assessment of lesions observed in tissues from old mice. An environment for the development and integration of pathology data into aging studies of mice is needed to encourage more pathologists and other scientists to specialize in pathology of aging, and establish relevant standards to compare with other species including humans. Such results will have an important positive impact on aging studies because of the significant empowerment on data analyses and interpretation.

Ladiges W; Ikeno Y; Liggitt D; Treuting PM

2013-01-01

15

Informational aspects of telepathology in routine surgical pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of computer and telecommunication technology calls serious challenges in routine diagnostic pathology. Complete data integration, fast access patients' data to usage of diagnosis thesaurus labeled with standardized codes and free text supplements, complex inquiry of the data contents, data exchange via teleconsultation and multilevel data protection are required functions of an integrated information system. Increasing requirement for teleconsultation transferring a large amount of multimedia data among different pathology information systems raises new questions in telepathology. Creation of complex telematic systems in pathology requires efficient methods of software engineering and implementation. Information technology of object-oriented modeling, usage of client server architecture and relational database management systems enables more compatible systems in field of telepathology. The aim of this paper is to present a practical example how to unify text based database, image archive and teleconsultation in a frame of an integrated telematic system and to discuss the main conceptual questions of information technology of telepathology. PMID:11339561

Gombas, P

2000-01-01

16

Autophagy in physiological and pathological processes--selected aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes a model of cell death, called autophagy, one among other typical and atypical processes of cell death. This phenomenon is present in the organism, from conception until death, and is conditioned by many genes of ATG family, or mTOR kinase and specific proteins, like BNIP3. This process plays a very important role not only in physiological functions of the organism but also in pathological, such as Alzheimer or Huntington disease, as well as diseases caused by viruses.

Nied?wiedzka-Rystwej P; Tokarz-Deptu?a B; Deptu?a W

2013-01-01

17

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: clinical, pathological and molecular biological aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a newly established subtype of renal neoplasm, is composed of tumor cells with characteristically cloudy, weakly eosinophilic and reticular cytoplasm. The tumor should be distinguished from the common clear cell RCC, because of the unique clinicopathological and molecular biological features. The tumor does not show gender bias. Patient ages are similar to those of clear cell RCC, but might occur in the 20- to 40-year-old age group. Grossly, the tumor tends to be beige in color, which is different from the yellowish color of common RCC. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry indicate the intercalated cell of the collecting duct as the cellular origin. Cytogenetic study shows non-random multiple chromosome loss, with mitochondrial DNA rearrangement. Alteration of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, a cancer suppressor gene relating with clear cell RCC, has not yet been observed. In order to adopt the most appropriate treatment, including gene therapy, recognition and correct pathological diagnosis of chromophobe RCC are extremely important.

Nagashima Y

2000-11-01

18

Pathological aspects of the intraductal spread of breast cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intraductal spread of breast cancer is a major cause of local recurrence following breast-conserving therapy. To properly understand this pathology, three-dimensional (3D) cancer localization within the mammary ductal-lobular system (MDLS) is necessary. To this end we generated computer-assisted 3D reconstructions of all MDLSs using 2-mm-thick serial sections of surgically resected specimens. We then analyzed the characteristics of intraductal spread of breast cancer. In our study of quadrantectomy specimens from patients with primary invasive breast carcinoma, the intraductal spread of breast cancer was found to be continuous from the invasive tumor and spreading along the mammary glandular tree. The pattern is categorized into three types: the central type, the peripheral type, and the extensive type. The central type was found to be most common. A 3D analysis of total mastectomy specimen from a patient with primary non-invasive breast carcinoma revealed regional intraductal spread extending within and filling a single MDLS. The analysis also revealed the presence of ductal anastomoses connecting adjacent MDLSs. These ductal anastomoses were found to be an anatomical risk factor for extensive intraductal spread of breast cancer across multiple MDLSs. To minimize residual non-invasive components of breast carcinoma in the conserved breast, which is strongly associated with the outcome of local control of breast-conserving therapy, it is necessary to determine the optimum surgical margins in a flexible, patient-specific manner. This determination should be based on anatomical characteristics of the MDLS, such as those identified in the present study.

Ohtake T; Yasuda M; Ito J; Watanabe K; Gonda K; Abe N; Ishii M; Sato Y; Momma T; Takenoshita S

2013-01-01

19

[Intractable vasculitis: general consideration-concept and classification: pathological aspects].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vasculitis may be defined as an inflammatory process, primarily affecting the vascular wall which possesses an architecture, such as organ or tissue, and accordingly may not include the capillary. Since the walls are destroyed, secondary circulatory disturbances may be associated and produce vasculitic symptoms, which are nonspecific in most instances. Although the pathogenesis of most vasculitides is well understood, the lack of knowledge of the etiology makes it difficult to establish a satisfactory classification of vasculitis. The inflammatory lesions tend to be distributed along the course of the vessels throughout the body in most systemic vasculitic syndromes but long segments are frequently affected in the arteritides of large arteries. In recent years, a classification, useful for understanding the clinical manifestations of these vasculitic disorders, is based on the predominant size of the involved vessels, which may be categorized into large arteries (aorta and its primary branches), medium-sized to small muscular arteries and small vessels (arterioles and venules). Certain vasculitides may occur as a primary disease process, whereas others may be associated with other primary disorders. In general, idiopathic primary vasculitides have an extremely poor prognosis and are intractable. However, recent advances of drug therapies in the early stage of the systemic necrotizing vasculitides, such as Wegener's granulomatosis, has bettered prognosis. In the patients with Takayasu's arteritis, life has been prolonged over more than ten years. As a result, additional problems, such as luminal stenosis or dilatation of the involved vessels, have occurred.

Hotchi M

1994-08-01

20

[Intractable vasculitis: general consideration-concept and classification: pathological aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Vasculitis may be defined as an inflammatory process, primarily affecting the vascular wall which possesses an architecture, such as organ or tissue, and accordingly may not include the capillary. Since the walls are destroyed, secondary circulatory disturbances may be associated and produce vasculitic symptoms, which are nonspecific in most instances. Although the pathogenesis of most vasculitides is well understood, the lack of knowledge of the etiology makes it difficult to establish a satisfactory classification of vasculitis. The inflammatory lesions tend to be distributed along the course of the vessels throughout the body in most systemic vasculitic syndromes but long segments are frequently affected in the arteritides of large arteries. In recent years, a classification, useful for understanding the clinical manifestations of these vasculitic disorders, is based on the predominant size of the involved vessels, which may be categorized into large arteries (aorta and its primary branches), medium-sized to small muscular arteries and small vessels (arterioles and venules). Certain vasculitides may occur as a primary disease process, whereas others may be associated with other primary disorders. In general, idiopathic primary vasculitides have an extremely poor prognosis and are intractable. However, recent advances of drug therapies in the early stage of the systemic necrotizing vasculitides, such as Wegener's granulomatosis, has bettered prognosis. In the patients with Takayasu's arteritis, life has been prolonged over more than ten years. As a result, additional problems, such as luminal stenosis or dilatation of the involved vessels, have occurred. PMID:7933570

Hotchi, M

1994-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

[Syphilis : Part 1: Introduction, pathology and clinical aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany more than 3,500 people become infected with syphilis annually. As elsewhere in Western Europe there is a low level endemicity with a concentration among population subgroups with high rates of partner exchange, such as men who have sex with other men. In Germany after initially reduced numbers of cases, the incidence rate has increased after the turn of the millennium. In 2011 the incidence reached 4.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest incidence since the introduction of the Infection Protection Act of 2001. Syphilis, like other sexually transmitted infections and diseases with its manifold clinical manifestations and complex diagnostics, is a large global problem for public health systems. The recent resurgence of syphilis presents a challenge for all physicians but particularly for dermatologists and venereologists because the skin and adjacent mucous membranes are initially affected. Rapid diagnosis, differential diagnosis, consequent treatment and monitoring can cure the disease. Prevention of misdiagnosis is essential otherwise severe, sometimes fatal cardiovascular complications, neurosyphilis and transfer to unborn and newborn children can occur. The synergy of syphilis and sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of special importance. Syphilis together with genital herpes and other sexually transmitted genital and oral ulcers is an important pacemaker for HIV. PMID:24150827

Gross, G; Flaig, B; Rode, S

2013-10-01

22

Immunologic aspects and pathology of the malignant lymphomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant lymphomas have traditionally been classified on solely morphologic grounds. With new immunologic and cytochemical techniques, it has been possible to characterize normal cells of the T-lymphocytic, B-lymphocytic, and monocyte-macrophage systems. Application of these methodologies to malignant lymphomas has established their nature as neoplasmas of the immune system. Within the B-lymphocytic system it is possible to identify subpopulations responsible for Burkitt's tumor, follicular (nodular) lymphomas, lymphocytic lymphomas of intermediate differentiation and well differentiated lymphocytic lymphomas. The T-lymphocytic system includes lymphoblastic lymphomas, mycosis fungoides, and Sezary's syndrome. Large cell lymphomas are diverse but the majority are tumors of transformed lymphocytes, usually of the B-lymphocytic system. The precise nature of the neoplastic cells of Hodgkin's disease, i.e., Reed-Sternberg cells and their mononuclear counterparts, has not yet been established. Despite previous suggestions of a B-lymphocytic or T-lymphocytic origin, recent studies utilizing in vivo cultivation have strongly suggested derivation from the monocyte-macrophage system. PMID:356957

Berard, C W; Jaffe, E S; Braylan, R C; Mann, R B; Nanba, K

1978-08-01

23

Immunologic aspects and pathology of the malignant lymphomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant lymphomas have traditionally been classified on solely morphologic grounds. With new immunologic and cytochemical techniques, it has been possible to characterize normal cells of the T-lymphocytic, B-lymphocytic, and monocyte-macrophage systems. Application of these methodologies to malignant lymphomas has established their nature as neoplasmas of the immune system. Within the B-lymphocytic system it is possible to identify subpopulations responsible for Burkitt's tumor, follicular (nodular) lymphomas, lymphocytic lymphomas of intermediate differentiation and well differentiated lymphocytic lymphomas. The T-lymphocytic system includes lymphoblastic lymphomas, mycosis fungoides, and Sezary's syndrome. Large cell lymphomas are diverse but the majority are tumors of transformed lymphocytes, usually of the B-lymphocytic system. The precise nature of the neoplastic cells of Hodgkin's disease, i.e., Reed-Sternberg cells and their mononuclear counterparts, has not yet been established. Despite previous suggestions of a B-lymphocytic or T-lymphocytic origin, recent studies utilizing in vivo cultivation have strongly suggested derivation from the monocyte-macrophage system.

Berard CW; Jaffe ES; Braylan RC; Mann RB; Nanba K

1978-08-01

24

Imre schneider, ferenc harangi, bela sebok: clinical and pathological aspects of atopic dermatitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The book Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Atopic Dermatitis brings the latest information on atopic dermatitis. The book has 586 pages and 3 relevant parts. The first one is Clinical Aspects with 10 subparts and 29 color pictures, Pathology with 13 color pictures and 13 subparts, and Therapy with 15 subparts and Recommendations for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis and recent literature data. The book includes Abbreviations (7 pages) and Subject Index (14 pages). References follow every subpart in basic chapter: Clinical Aspects with 771 references, Pathology with 276 references, and Therapy with 580 references. In Clinical Aspects, there are valuable International Epidemiological Data on AD (Ferenc Harangi) in Europe (Norway, Russia, Sweden, Germany, France, Great Britain, Spain, Italy, Turkey), as well as in America (USA, Mexico, Argentina), Africa (Tunisia, Nigeria, Ethiopia, West Africa), Asia (Israel, Iran, Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, India, Singapore), and Australia. A Survey of the Prevalence of AD in Domestic, Living and Nourishment Conditions of Children in Large Hungarian Population Counties offer highly important data. Clinical Symptoms (with 29 color pictures) are described in detail, from Major Criteria (Pruritus, Lichenification, Chronic or Chronically Recurrent Dermatitis, Individual or Family Appearance of Atopy); Minor Criteria (Ichthyosis vulgaris, Keratosis pilaris, Eczema of the hand and foot (dyshidrotic; atopic winter feet), Mammillary and lip eczema, and many more clinical aspects to Periorbital pigmentation. The Course of AD (with 29 color pictures) is divided into Chronic or Chronically Recurring Dermatitis (Infancy, Childhood), Young Adult and Adult Age and other clinical symptoms as well as Assessment of the Clinical Picture and Severity of AD. The histopathology of AD (with 13 color pictures) includes Typical Atopic Dermatitis, Mycosis Fungoides as a Complication of AD, Immunohistologic examination, DNA extraction and Molecular examination, and Case Reviews of three patients with clonal gene rearrangement at 200 bp. The authors proved that some long-lasting therapy-resistant dermatoses like AD may be transformed into mycosis fungoides. Immunodeficiency and AD is described logically with the Eczema in primary immunodeficiency as well as Independent cutaneous markers in 13 different immunodeficiency diseases, which are presented in detail. Differential Diagnostics of AD is presented in 7 parts as 1) Immunodeficiencies, 2) Chronic Inflammatory Dermatoses, 3) Dermatoses due to Infections, 4) Congenital Diseases, 5) Immunological Disorders, 6) Metabolic Disorders, and 7) Malignant Processes. Especially valuable is Chapter 9, Dermatoses Possibly Concomitant with and Disorders Similar to AD (AD and Immunodeficiencies) Ectodermal Dysplasias; Respiratory Atopic Symptoms - Bronchial Asthma; Gastrointestinal Symptoms; Cardiovascular System; AD and Disorders of the Nervous System; AD and Ophthalmological Disorders. The Association of AD with Various Syndromes; AD and Endocrine Disorders (Endocrine Impacts, Diabetes Mellitus, Thyroid Gland, Pituitary Gland); AD and Irregularities of the Hair; AD and Intervertebral Disc Degeneration; The Association of AD and Bone Density; AD and Left-Handedness; AD and Olecranon; AD and Pretibial Bursitis; AD and Viral Infections (Pityriasis Rosea, Molluscum Contagiosum; Primary Herpes Simplex) AD and Autoimmune Diseases; AD and Actinic Reticuloid and Lichen Nitidus; AD and Hypersensitivity to Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs; AD and Vitiligo; Atopy and Renal Transplant Rejection; Ichthyosis Vulgaris - Xerosis, and many other diseases in patients with AD. In the AD and Skin Reactivity chapter, the authors classify AD into Allergic (IgE and Non-IgE associated variant), Non allergic AD and Unclassified AD type. The following are described: Prick Test, Intracutan Test, The Significance of the Positive Test, Food Allergens, Atopy Patch Test, RAST, PRIST, and other Diagnostic Methods (total IgE, RAST, Epicutaneous test, Metal Hypersensitivity, Latex Sensitivity, Natura

Lipozen?i? J

2013-08-01

25

The nonrapid eye movement parasomnias: recent advances and forensic aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to update the readership on recent advances in the diagnosis and classification of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias with an emphasis on recent research findings and related forensic consequences of the parasomnias. RECENT FINDINGS: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) has further refined the classification and diagnostic criteria for the parasomnias, dividing them into non-REM and REM sleep disorders. It has removed confusional arousal disorder and updated the diagnostic criteria in keeping with the evidence-base available at the time of its final drafting. New research subsequent to the final drafting of the DSM-5 has clarified certain aspects including those related to the risk factors ('triggers') for sleepwalking and the impact of sleepwalking on daytime functioning, social and occupational functioning. These new research data should be considered in the development of the next International Classification of Sleep Disorders. The new diagnostic system and research data provide further clarity for the forensic sleep medicine practitioner. SUMMARY: The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria combined with the latest research will inform both clinical and forensic sleep medicine practice and provide further impetus for evidence-based practice.

Ebrahim IO

2013-11-01

26

Paediatric urologic pathologies at the national teaching hospital in Cotonou: A etiological and therapeutic aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Urological pathologies of children are dominated by congenital malformations of the kidneys and urinary tract. Their management is often surgical. The objective of this survey was to study etiological and therapeutic aspects of urological presentations in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data for aetiology, treatment, and results in children hospitalized at the Paediatric Surgery service of National Teaching Hospital (CNHU) in Cotonou were retrospectively analyzed from January 1999 to December 2008. RESULTS: A total of 214 patients with complete data were evaluated. Urological pathologies represented 4.8% of the hospitalizations in paediatric surgery, with an incidence of 21 cases per year. The mean age was 4.9 ± 3.2 years (age 1 week to 14 years). The male to female ratio was 14:14. Cryptorchidism, hydrocele, nephroblastoma, the posterior urethral valves, ureteropelvic junction obstructions, post-circumcision haemorrhage and hypospadias were the most frequent pathologies. Congenital urological malformations represented 81.3%, followed neoplastic pathologies (7.9%), traumatic pathologies (6.1%) and others (4.7%). The disorders of male genitalia were more frequent and constituted 68.2% of the cases. The anomalies of the urinary tract were 30.8% and intersex disorders were 0.9%. The average age of the children urological pathologies at the time of consultation was 8.85 ± 4.6 years. The treatment was often surgical with a mortality of 2.8%.

Agossou-Voyeme AK; Fiogbe MA; Goundete J; Hounnou GM; Hodonou R

2013-04-01

27

Recent aspects of thyroglobulin in physiology and pathology; Aspects recents de la thyroglobuline en physiologie et pathologie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thyroglobulin (tg), strongly concentrated in the colloid, through a recycling to the colloid or by transcytosis to the blood stream, (function attributed to an unidentified N -Acetylglucosamine ) is linked to megalin to avoid lysosomal pathway and is delivered by a transepithelial transport (transcytosis). The promoter of this human thyroglobulin is tightly dependent on TTF-1 factor (thyroid-specific transcription factor) and Pax 8. Human recombinant TSH can increase serum baseline levels of thyroglobulin in a study from 25 to 30,000 ng/ml reflecting in part the heterogeneity of the population studied. The 131 Iodide Scan diagnosis and the measurement of serum thyroglobulin are the follow-up cornerstone that offer the opportunity in the detection of recurrence or ongoing cancer in early stage. Until now the thyroglobulin has been used in the same time than nuclear imaging. The Fluorine-18-fluoro deoxyglucose tomography positron emission plays a supplementary role in the localization of thyroid cancer recurrence sites. A control after increased post therapeutic thyroglobulin triggers a 131 Iodide scan and nuclear magnetic resonance study. In the follow-up of thyroidectomized patients with ablative radio-iodide, it is reasonable to treat patients that have an progressive increase of thyroglobulin levels but also to continue tight surveillance in those that have thyroglobulin concentrations that decrease or are stable. Fluorine-18 fluoro deoxyglucose positron emission tomography is useful in the cases with negative 131 Iodide scan and increase thyroglobulin levels. But this method has limits to find minimal disease. It is noteworthy that increased level of thyroglobulin is observed in iodine deficiency with 28.9% of world population concerned with goiter and 2% (11.2 million) with cretinism or 43 millions with mental retardation. Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies affect all the continuum of the clinical phenotype of autoimmune thyroid diseases suggesting a common pathophysiological mechanism. In the detection of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis in elderly positive findings concerning anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyro-peroxidase show a higher sensitivity in radioimmunology (76%) comparatively to hemagglutination tests (44%) (p < 0,05). Some epitopes in C terminal region of thyroglobulin are associated with Graves' disease. A group of autoantibodies directed to this thyroglobulin region is associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy and can be involved in the development of the disease. A main gene products antithyroid antibodies. This gene is localized on chromosome 2q33 and could be likely 4 CTLA gene. Immunohistochemistry by thyroglobulin allows to authenticate thyroid tissue features. It is necessary to avoid delay of appropriate diagnosis of thyroid occult papillary cancer. (author)

Hassane Sidibe, E. [Centre Medical Marc Sankale - Fann, Dakar (Senegal); Dangou, J.M. [Laboratoire Anatomo-Pathologie, FMPO - UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Mbodj, M. [Laboratoire de Biophysique, FMPO - UCAD, Dakar (Senegal)

2004-06-01

28

Pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 29 chapters. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Systemic Diseases; Cell Injury; Inflammation; The Gastrointestinal o Tract; The Pancreas; Environmental and Nutritional Pathology; Infectious and Parasitic Diseases; and Blood Vessels.

Rubin, E.; Farber, J.L. (Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (US))

1988-01-01

29

[The new WHO classification and recent results in soft tissue tumor pathology].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification presents a comprehensive description of soft tissue tumors which was published in book format at the beginning of 2013. Changes have been made relating to the allocation of known entities, e.g. undifferentiated sarcomas are formed into a new group and are not longer assigned to the so-called fibrohistiocytic tumors and new subgroups were incorporated, such as nerve sheath tumors and gastrointestinal stroma tumors which were previously included in the tumor classification of other organ systems. This development is important from the practical point of view as most of relevant soft tissue tumors are now summarized and can be found in a single book. This is also related to the rapid increase in knowledge of the genetics and cell biology of soft tissue tumors. At present there is considerable progress in tumor pathology illustrated by the fact that important new findings have been published after completion of the classification, such as those related to the identification of the recurrent NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion in solitary fibrous tumors and the detection of frequent mutations in the promoter of the hTERT gene in malignant melanoma. In this report some new findings and clinically relevant aspects of soft tissue tumor pathology will be presented.

Petersen I

2013-09-01

30

[The new WHO classification and recent results in soft tissue tumor pathology].  

Science.gov (United States)

The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification presents a comprehensive description of soft tissue tumors which was published in book format at the beginning of 2013. Changes have been made relating to the allocation of known entities, e.g. undifferentiated sarcomas are formed into a new group and are not longer assigned to the so-called fibrohistiocytic tumors and new subgroups were incorporated, such as nerve sheath tumors and gastrointestinal stroma tumors which were previously included in the tumor classification of other organ systems. This development is important from the practical point of view as most of relevant soft tissue tumors are now summarized and can be found in a single book. This is also related to the rapid increase in knowledge of the genetics and cell biology of soft tissue tumors. At present there is considerable progress in tumor pathology illustrated by the fact that important new findings have been published after completion of the classification, such as those related to the identification of the recurrent NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion in solitary fibrous tumors and the detection of frequent mutations in the promoter of the hTERT gene in malignant melanoma. In this report some new findings and clinically relevant aspects of soft tissue tumor pathology will be presented. PMID:23925976

Petersen, I

2013-09-01

31

General aspects and recent advances on bacterial protein toxins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial pathogens produce protein toxins to influence host-pathogen interactions and tip the outcome of these encounters toward the benefit of the pathogen. Protein toxins modify host-specific targets through posttranslational modifications (PTMs) or noncovalent interactions that may inhibit or activate host cell physiology to benefit the pathogen. Recent advances have identified new PTMs and host targets for toxin action. Understanding the mechanisms of toxin action provides a basis to develop vaccines and therapies to combat bacterial pathogens and to develop new strategies to use toxin derivatives for the treatment of human disease.

Lemichez E; Barbieri JT

2013-02-01

32

Genetic polymorphisms affecting drug metabolism: recent advances and clinical aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Though current knowledge of pharmacogenetic factors relevant to drug metabolism is fairly comprehensive and this should facilitate translation to the clinic, there are a number of gaps in knowledge. Recent studies using both conventional and novel approaches have added to our knowledge of pharmacogenetics of drug metabolism. Genome-wide association studies have provided new insights into the major contribution of cytochromes P450 to response to therapeutic agents such as coumarin anticoagulants and clopidogrel as well as to caffeine and nicotine. Recent advances in understanding of factors affecting gene expression, both regulation by transcription factors and by microRNA and epigenetic factors, have added to understanding of variation in expression of genes such as CYP3A4 and CYP2E1. The implementation of testing for pharmacogenetic polymorphisms in prescription of selected anticancer drugs and cardiovascular agents is considered in detail, with current controversies and barriers to implementation of pharmacogenetic testing assessed. Though genotyping for thiopurine methyltransferase is now common prior to prescription of thiopurines, genotyping for other pharmacogenetic polymorphisms prior to drug prescription remains uncommon. However, it seems likely that it will become more widespread as both increased evidence that certain pharmacogenetic tests are valuable and cost-effective and more accessible genotyping methods become available.

Daly AK

2012-01-01

33

Recent advances in strigolactone research: chemical and biological aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strigolactones (SLs) are a group of terpenoid lactones that were discovered in the 1960s. They were initially characterized as allelochemicals secreted from roots to the rhizosphere, and have functions in parasitic and symbiotic interactions with root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, respectively. In 2008, SLs were shown to act as endogenous hormones that regulate shoot branching. The discovery of a hormonal function for SLs has provided a link between genetically studied shoot branching mutants and chemically characterized SLs in earlier studies. This has offered new strategies and experimental tools to address a number of intriguing questions as to the biological function and molecular action of SLs. In this review, we will provide an overview of recent topics on SLs, and highlight new discoveries regarding its biosynthetic pathway and multiple hormonal roles in plant development and adaptive responses.

Seto Y; Kameoka H; Yamaguchi S; Kyozuka J

2012-11-01

34

Recent advances in strigolactone research: chemical and biological aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strigolactones (SLs) are a group of terpenoid lactones that were discovered in the 1960s. They were initially characterized as allelochemicals secreted from roots to the rhizosphere, and have functions in parasitic and symbiotic interactions with root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, respectively. In 2008, SLs were shown to act as endogenous hormones that regulate shoot branching. The discovery of a hormonal function for SLs has provided a link between genetically studied shoot branching mutants and chemically characterized SLs in earlier studies. This has offered new strategies and experimental tools to address a number of intriguing questions as to the biological function and molecular action of SLs. In this review, we will provide an overview of recent topics on SLs, and highlight new discoveries regarding its biosynthetic pathway and multiple hormonal roles in plant development and adaptive responses. PMID:23054391

Seto, Yoshiya; Kameoka, Hiromu; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kyozuka, Junko

2012-10-10

35

Primary solid pancreatic tumors: recent imaging findings updates with pathology correlation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The imaging findings of primary solid pancreatic tumors have long been studied and are generally well-established. However, interestingly enough, a wealth of new information has recently appeared in the literature, including the imaging findings of novel or previously seldom-addressed pathological entities as well as atypical imaging findings of common tumors, both of which are well-correlated with the pathology findings. 5 %-14 % of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas have been reported on dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography to be isoattenuating, and thus making the imaging diagnosis challenging. The imaging-pathology correlation in such isoattenuating tumors is presented along with a discussion regarding the early imaging detection of pancreatic cancers. Colloid (or mucinous non-cystic) pancreatic cancer may resemble a less harmful cystic lesion due to its abundant extracellular mucin, and thus requiring caution in the image interpretation. Serotonin-producing neuroendocrine tumors have recently been recognized as a separate entity from usual neuroendocrine tumors. Exuberant fibrosis caused by serotonin metabolites and scarce tumor cells creates a unique pattern of pancreatic ductal obstruction seen on imaging. Small solid pseudopapillary tumors appear as unencapsulated, completely solid lesions with gradually increasing enhancement after contrast administration, unlike typical solid pseudopapillary neoplasms that present as a large mixed solid and degenerated cystic or hemorrhagic mass encapsulated by a thick capsule and which, therefore, tend to be misdiagnosed on imaging. Solid serous adenoma is a rare, solid variant of serous cystadenoma and appears on imaging as a hypervascular, solid nodule due to its genuinely microscopic cystic, alveolar, and ectatic tubular tumor architecture. PMID:23640523

Kim, So Yeon; Park, Seong Ho; Hong, Nurhee; Kim, Jin Hee; Hong, Seung-Mo

2013-10-01

36

Recent advances in cardiovascular aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers, but population studies have not clarified whether there is an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Four different PCOS phenotypes resulted from the Rotterdam criteria that may differ in their CVR potential, thus introducing further complexity. This has led to studies using surrogate CVR markers including biomarkers in blood and imaging such as flow-mediated vasodilatation. In PCOS, both peripheral and central insulin resistance (IR) have been shown. Weight loss has been shown to improve IR and visceral fat, while insulin sensitizer therapies with metformin or thiazolidinediones improve IR and endothelial dysfunction. IR is also found in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that in turn is very common in PCOS; studies have suggested that IR may be improved by treatment with metformin and omega-3 fish oils. PCOS patients have a more dyslipidemic phenotype that is worse in 'classical PCOS' associated with a higher CVR. Studies with atorvastatin and simvastatin have reported a decrease in the lipid parameters and an improvement in CVR indices including IR, but it is unclear whether this is due to their lipid-lowering action or a pleiotropic effect of the statin. In this expert opinion review, the relevant literature published during the last 2 years was considered. It focuses on some recent important data that has emerged while also exposing the gaps that remain in our knowledge that need to be addressed.

Sathyapalan T; Atkin SL

2012-04-01

37

Recent progress in omics-driven analysis of MS to unravel pathological mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At present, the pathophysiology and specific biological markers reflecting pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remain undetermined. The risk of developing MS is considered to depend on genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. The interaction of environmental factors with epigenetic mechanisms could affect the transcriptional level and therefore also the translational level. In the last decade, growing amount of hypothesis-free 'omics' studies have shed light on the potential MS mechanisms and raised potential biomarker targets. To understand MS pathophysiology and discover a subset of biomarkers, it is becoming essential to take a step forward and integrate the findings of the different fields of 'omics' into a systems biology network. In this review, we will discuss the recent findings of the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic fields for MS and aim to make a unifying model.

Malekzadeh A; Teunissen C

2013-09-01

38

[Morbidity, mortality and social class. Bibliographical review covering differents aspects of pathology, and discussion (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bibliographical review of social differences in morbidity and mortality is presented. The data concerns France, Great Britain and U.S.A., only for recent years, and come from large surveys, health examinations, or morbidity or mortality registers. The social class variable may be the educational level, or a professional classification. Different aspects of mortality and morbidity are examined: cancer, cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory diseases, musculo-skeletal diseases, digestive diseases, obesity and diabetes, accidents, mental illnesses; acute and minor illnesses, and unusual illnesses, are no studied. For almost all the diseases in this review, the risk is greater in the lowest socioeconomic class.

Leclerc A; Aiach P; Philippe A; Vennin M; Cebe D

1979-01-01

39

Physiological and pathological aspects of A? in iron homeostasis via 5'UTR in the APP mRNA and the therapeutic use of iron-chelators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Many studies have highlighted the pathological involvement of iron accumulation and iron-related oxidative stress (OS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iron was further demonstrated to modulate expression of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor holo-protein (APP) by a mechanism similar to that of regulation of ferritin-L and -H mRNA translation through an iron-responsive element (IRE) in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs). Here, we discuss two aspects of the link between iron and AD, in relation to the recently discovered IRE in the 5'UTR of APP mRNA. The first is the physiological aspect: a compensatory neuroprotective response of amyloid-? protein (A?) in reducing iron-induced neurotoxicity. Thus, given that A? possesses iron chelation sites, it is hypothesized that OS-induced intracellular iron may stimulate APP holo-protein translation (via the APP 5'UTR) and subsequently the generation of its cleavage product, A?, as a compensatory response that eventually reduces OS. The second is the pathological aspect: iron chelating compounds target the APP 5'UTR and possess the capacity to reduce APP translation, and subsequently A? levels, and thus represent molecules with high potential in the development of drugs for the treatment of AD.

Avramovich-Tirosh Yael; Amit Tamar; Bar-Am Orit; Weinreb Orly; Youdim Moussa BH

2008-01-01

40

[Surgical aspects of malignant pleural mesothelioma: from the perspective of pathology].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increased use of asbestos in Germany in the mid 1970s led occupational physicians, pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons and pathologists to the expectation of an increasing incidence and mortality in patients with pleural mesothelioma up to 2020. Prerequisite for curative surgery is a pathological anatomical tumor diagnosis on the basis of a biopsy and accurate tumor staging. In order to achieve reproducible results in the assessment of malignant pleural diseases, the pathological anatomical diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma should be made according to the guidelines of the international mesothelioma interest group (IMIG). Currently used multimodal thoracic surgery therapeutic concepts present new challenges and problems to the pathological anatomical diagnosis and are discussed in this article.

Fisseler-Eckhoff A

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Melanocyte colonization and pigmentation of breast carcinoma : pathological and clinical aspects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction. Melanocyte colonization of breast carcinoma by nonneoplastic melanocytes of epidermal origin is a rare and serious condition first described in 1977. We report on the exceptional clinical and pathological features of this migration phenomenon in a 74-year-old patient. Discussion. The pathogenesis by which melanocyte migration takes place is not known, but a breached basement membrane is considered essential. Conclusion. Histological examination and additional staining of skin are essential to differentiate breast cancer melanosis from malignant melanoma.

Mele, Marco; Laurberg, Tinne

2012-01-01

42

Pathological aspects of the UK Breast Screening Project with special reference to minimal and 'borderline' lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because of the logistical and financial implications of large scale screening for the early detection of breast cancer, the Department of Health and Social Security in the UK has established a study to compare two methods, mammography and breast self-examination. Screening is under evaluation in women aged 45-64 years, over a seven year period. Mammography is carried out in health districts based on Edinburgh and Guildford and self-examination related to a programme of education in Huddersfield and Nottingham. Four other health districts, Bristol, Dundee, Oxford and Stoke, act as control areas. A Pathology Review Panel composed of pathologists from each participating centre has been established to verify the accuracy of the histopathological data. In particular, all lesions in the borderline between benign and malignant disease are reviewed together with all minimal carcinomas. The Pathology Panel has carried out four consistency surveys to improve diagnostic criteria and accuracy, and 83% agreement is now achieved with no errors across the benign/malignant border. Review of 'borderline' cases from the study is now in progress.

Elston CW

1984-06-01

43

[Prenatal diagnosis of anatomo-pathologic aspects of 2 cases of sirenomelia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antenatal echographic diagnostic aspects and anatomopathological features of two foetuses suffering from sirenomelia, or caudal pole regression syndrome, are examined. Conduction of the two cases is compared. In the first case, observed at the 22nd week, antenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia led to the therapeutic interruption of pregnancy. The second case, seen close to term, closed with the birth of an already dead sirenomelic foetus.

Pisoni MP; Cretì G; Pezzica E; Bianchini E; Bonacina E

1990-04-01

44

Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis as a rare pathologic aspect of chronic active pelvic inflammatory disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) is a rare form of chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes. A 41-year old woman with a history of secondary infertility for 2 years is presented. The patient underwent bilateral salpingooopherectomy with presumptive diagnosis of adnexal mass with cystic component. Intraoperative pathology consultation was done. The diagnosis of bilateral XGS associated with chronic active follicular salpingitis was made. XGS is reported to be caused by an unsuccesfully treated pelvic inflammatory disease. Its association with chronic active follicular salpingitis has not been previously reported. Chronic active follicular salpingitis with xanthogranulomatous inflammation might give the impression of a cystic adnexal mass with septations on preoperative pelvic computed tomography. Frozen sections are necessary to rule out malignancy as done in our case.

Yener Nese; Ilter Erdin; Midi Ahmet

2011-01-01

45

Morphological and pathological aspects of the rete ovarii in sheep (Ovis aries)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty-four ovaries of adult woolly sheep from the Centro de Pesquisa dos Campos Sul Brasileiros - Embrapa, Bagé-RS, Brazil, were analyzed histologically. The presence of the rete ovarii was detected in 55 of the 64 ovaries (85.9%), located in the periovarian tissue, in the hilus and in the medullary or cortical regions. As also observed in other mammals, the rete ovarii of sheep is morphologically divided into three portions: intraovarian rete, connecting rete and extraovarian rete. Continuity between the extraovarian rete and the uterine tube was observed in five ovaries (7.8%), suggesting a tuboretial connection, as reported for cows and does. Pathological examination of the rete showed the formation of cysts surrounding the connecting and/or extraovarian rete in seven cases (10.9%) and one case of hyperplasia of the extraovarian rete (1.6%).

Cassali G.D.; Nogueira J.C.; Nascimento E.F.; Cardoso J.S.; Ferreira D.L.

2000-01-01

46

Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developed in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolution, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physio-pathologic studies. (author)

1984-01-01

47

Epidemiologic aspects in esophageal pathology focusing on gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the main epidemiologic characteristics of esophageal pathology,insisting on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and to evaluate therelationship between these conditions and some widely spread risk factors. Material and methods: Datawere collected from clinical file records archive, endoscopy reports and histopatologic reports and slidesfor 8225 patients (01.01.2005-31.07.2007) who presented esophageal changes during upper digestiveendoscopy. We used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to assess the normality of variables distribution and thenwe used parametric or non-parametric tests along with multivariate analysis. Results: BE is associatedwith male sex (r=0.039; pHelicobacter pylori (Hp) infection(r=0.024; p=0.02). Age is not an important factor (OR=0.99; p=0.03). Presence of sliding hiatal hernia(SHH) is influenced by body mass index (r=0.533; p<0.001) and female sex (p=0.001). SHH sizeinfluences the severity of esophagitis (r=0.04; p<0.01). The most frequent type of metaplasia is theincomplete intestinal one and the most frequent form of esophageal cancer is adenocarcinoma.Conclusion: BE is associated positively with GERD, esophagitis, male sex and negatively with Hp andesophageal varices. SHH influences severity of esophagitis and is more frequent in female patients.Adenocarcinoma is more frequent that squamous esophageal cancer.

George S?raci; ?tefan Cristian Vesa; Oliviu Pascu

2011-01-01

48

[Clinico-pathological and molecular aspects of diagnostic and prognostic value in gliomas].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse infiltrative gliomas, the most common primary brain tumours, account for almost 80% of malignant brain tumours. 60-70% of gliomas are astrocytic and over 80% of these tumours is considered high grade malignancy (grade III and IV) according to current World Health Organization classification. Infiltrating gliomas include diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. AIM: To review the clinical and histological features of cerebral gliomas, and molecular alterations that add relevant information for novel approaches in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. DEVELOPMENT: The current gold standard diagnosis of these tumours relies on histopathological classification, which provides a grading of malignancy as a predictor of biological behaviour. However emerging molecular abnormalities have been discovered in the last years and these molecular changes are playing an increasingly prominent role as predictive biomarkers or in the development of diagnostic and prognostic. Now the neuropathologist is in crossroads between pathology and molecular biology and he plays a significant role in implementation of treatments and/or clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: The study of proteomics and molecular biomarkers should complement the histopathological analysis and sometimes allows to determine direct or indirect predictive factors as well as the study of affected pathways which may become selective therapeutic targets.

Ortega-Aznar A; Jimenez-Leon P; Martinez E; Romero-Vidal FJ

2013-02-01

49

[Aspects of dysmicrobism in the isolation of Koch bacilli and its pathological implications  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results are presented, of a follow-up over several years concerning the changes which occurred in the products sampled from tuberculous patients, with regard to the ecologic balance between Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and other mycobacteria and fungi under the influences of chemical drugs and antibiotics. Thus atypical mycobacteria have been recorded, in a proportion of 1.07% (and in some periods as high as 2.52%). Other species were also identified, classified according to morphological and chemical characteristics. These species are included in a synoptic scheme used in laboratories which are concerned with the isolation of mycobacteria. At present different species of mycobacteria can be isolated on the same culture medium, as appears also from the results of the authors of this study. Beside manifestations of dysmicrobism another fact was also demonstrated, namely the frequent isolation of fungi in patients undergoing anti-tuberculous therapy, or secondary to the anti-tuberculous treatment. This has permitted, on the basis of the authors' cases to confirm some pulmonary mycoses according to generally accepted rigorous laboratory techniques. The present study stresses the new pathologic phenomena interrelated with tuberculosis. These data expand the knowledge of laboratory techniques and methods, and improve cooperation between laboratories and clinical units involved in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary affections.

Jemna I; Vintilescu E; Lego I

1982-01-01

50

Preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation: specific aspects of borderline personality disorder or general dimensions of personality pathology?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD.

Scott LN; Kim Y; Nolf KA; Hallquist MN; Wright AG; Stepp SD; Morse JQ; Pilkonis PA

2013-08-01

51

Allergic fungal sinusitis: clinico-pathological aspects. Findings on CT and MR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) represents the most recently described form of chronic sinusitis caused by fungi. It occurs in affects teenagers and young adults with atopic antecedents. This disease is a non-invasive chronic sinusitis, fungus acts as the allergen, causing a host immune response, mediated by type I and III reactions. Typically, several paranasal sinuses are usually involved with unilateral predominance. Most common clinical findings are headache, different grades of nasal obstruction and proptosis. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed for this entity, including imaging findings obtained with computed tomography (CT). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings together have recently been postulated as practically pathognomonic. Treatment and prognosis of this entity, different from other types of fungal sinusitis, makes important to achieve a correct diagnosis. On this task, imaging studies as CT and MR play an important role. (Author) 23 refs

1999-01-01

52

Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia under the recent crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Territorial cohesion has been one of the most prominent topics of discourse among spatial planners, urban sociologists, economists and experts from various other fields. Territorial systems with high degree of cohesion are better equipped to withstand the external pressures and situational imbalancies. Recent global crisis exposed these imbalancies and challenged the smooth and balanced spatial development of European countries. Major economic setbacks influenced entire society in Slovakia. Global financial crisis evaporated the ultimate growth of Slovak economics and exposed hidden imbalancies of development policies solely related to GDP growth instead of creating the fundaments for sustainability in the transition economy. Spatial polarization on different levels of society weakened down the overall (mainly social) cohesion and highlighted the problems of marginalized regions and social groups. Social aspects of territorial and spatial processes are more visible than ever before and regional disparities are becoming more prominent issue in political and scientific discourse. Despite the deep profilation of regional identity and place attachment, there are still considerable distinctions and disparities between metropolitan/urban and rural communities in terms of values, consumption patterns, life style, sense of solidarity or wealth distribution. Selected aspects of territorial cohesion in Slovakia, mainly in the field of social cohesion are in the spotlight in this paper. Focus on integrative spatial development balancing the contradictions by effective mixture of general approach and reasonable and sensible differentiation is considered highly essential.

Jaššo Matej; Finka Maroš

2010-01-01

53

Aspects of gametogenesis and radiation pathology in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen); gametogenesis, pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads. Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and autoradiographical methods, including investigation of living male germinal cells, are used. The gross anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems is simple as compared to other insect species. In newly hatched larvae the gonads contain on an average 13 germinal cells. Gonads in larvae which are less than 7 days old cannot be distinguished as being male or female. This distinction becomes possible after the apical cell and the apical somatic tissue respectively is formed in the young gonad. Spermatogenesis is treated in a number of paragraphs dealing with the description and identification of germinal and somatic cell types, the ontogenetic development of the testis, the dynamics of spermatogenesis and aspects comparative spermatogenesis. A proper identification of the testicular cell types is considered to be imperative to any correct experimental approach of spermatogenesis. Morphological descriptions of the various germinal and somatic cell types are given accordingly. Comparison of mainly morphological features of male germinal cell types in a number of insect species, including H. antiqua, indicates possibilities for comparative research of spermatogenesis in various insect species. This could provide a basis for comparative radiobiological or other experimental investigations on insect spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis share a number of features, which suggests a certain similarity of the processes involved.

1976-01-01

54

Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to communicate. The second work is a radioanatomic study of one of the structures of the inner ear - the bony canal for the cochlear nerve. It involves measurements of the dimensions of the canal on 117 silicone rubber casts of the temporal bone (from a unique collection of casts at Uppsala temporal bone laboratory) and on 50 clinical CT-studies (100 ears). The purpose was to show the normal variation, which is of use in the appraisal of congenital temporal bone malformations on CT. Based on our results we propose that if the canal is less than 1.4 mm, as measured on CT, the possibility of cochlear nerve abnormality should be considered. This is of interest since aplasia of the cochlear nerve is a contraindication to cochlear implantation. If the canal is wider than 3.0 mm, then other anomalies may coexist, with the risk of CSF gusher when a cochleostomy or stape-dectomy is performed.

Stjernholm, Christina [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Soedersjukhuset

2003-07-01

55

Aspects of temporal bone anatomy and pathology in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cochlear implantation is a treatment for patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss/deafness, who get no help from ordinary hearing aids. The cochlear implant is surgically placed under the skin near the ear and a very thin electrode array is introduced into the cochlea of the inner ear, where it stimulates the remaining nerve fibers. The operation is complicated; it is performed with the aid of a microscope, and involves drilling very close to vital vessels and important nerves. High resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone is a part of the preoperative evaluation preceding cochlear implantation. It is a method for visualizing the bony structures of the middle and inner ear - to diagnose pathology and to describe the anatomy. The first work concerns CT of the temporal bone and cochlear implant surgery in children with CHARGE association. This is a rare condition with multiple congenital abnormalities, sometimes lethal. Children with CHARGE have different combinations of disabilities, of which impairments of vision and hearing, as well as balance problems and facial palsy can lead to developmental delay. There have been few reports of radiological temporal bone changes and none of cochlear implant surgery for this group. The work includes a report of the findings on preoperative CT and at surgery, as well as postimplant results in two children. A review of the latest diagnostic criteria of CHARGE and the temporal bone changes found in international literature is also included. The conclusion was that certain combinations of temporal bone changes in CHARGE are, if not specific, at least extremely rare in other materials. CT can visualize these changes and be used as a diagnostic tool. This is important, since some of the associated disabilities are not so obvious from the start. Early treatment is vital for the child's development. This work also shows that cochlear implantation may help some of these often very isolated children to communicate. The second work is a radioanatomic study of one of the structures of the inner ear - the bony canal for the cochlear nerve. It involves measurements of the dimensions of the canal on 117 silicone rubber casts of the temporal bone (from a unique collection of casts at Uppsala temporal bone laboratory) and on 50 clinical CT-studies (100 ears). The purpose was to show the normal variation, which is of use in the appraisal of congenital temporal bone malformations on CT. Based on our results we propose that if the canal is less than 1.4 mm, as measured on CT, the possibility of cochlear nerve abnormality should be considered. This is of interest since aplasia of the cochlear nerve is a contraindication to cochlear implantation. If the canal is wider than 3.0 mm, then other anomalies may coexist, with the risk of CSF gusher when a cochleostomy or stape-dectomy is performed

2003-01-01

56

The effect of electronic pathology ordering in emergency departments on one aspect of test turn around time: A failure time analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electronic ordering systems have the potential to enhance the effective and efficient utilisation of pathology services. This study examined the influence of electronic ordering of pathology tests in four emergency departments on data entry times, a contributing factor to test turnaround time using failure time analysis. Data relating to tests ordered for 50,854 emergency department patients at four hospitals were analysed. The introduction of electronic test ordering significantly reduced turnaround time associated with laboratory data entry at the four hospitals, but there was significant variation between hospitals. Investigation of the impact of electronic ordering on efficiency of pathology services must take into account specific aspects of turnaround time measurement.

Li L; Georgiou A; Vecellio E; Toouli G; Eigenstetter A; Wilson R; Westbrook JI

2013-01-01

57

Abordaje subcraneal: Consideraciones técnicas y aplicaciones en patología traumática craneofacial Subcranial approach: Technical aspects and application in craneofacial traumatic pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. La elección del abordaje más adecuado a la base craneal en cada caso es esencial para la obtención de resultados quirúrgicos globales satisfactorios. Inicialmente dependerá de la localización anatómica exacta de la lesión dentro de la base craneal y de su extensión tridimensional, así como de la naturaleza de la misma. Las opciones posibles deben ser depuradas finalmente en función del status global del paciente, planificación reconstructiva y experiencia del equipo quirúrgico. El abordaje subcraneal es una opción terapéutica segura en el tratamiento de la patología traumática frontal. Permite el manejo adecuado del seno frontal y su obliteración si es precisa, favoreciendo el seguimiento radiológico del mismo. Objetivos. Validar el abordaje subcraneal como vía adecuada de acceso en patología traumática de la base craneal anterior. Revisión de nuestra serie clínica. Valoración de aspectos técnicos quirúrgicos. Análisis de complicaciones. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 50 pacientes intervenidos desde Enero de 2004 hasta Diciembre 2009 por el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial y Servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid) mediante abordaje subcraneal. 34 pacientes presentaban traumatismos craneofaciales o secuelas postraumáticas y 16 pacientes presentaban patología oncológica. Se enumeran los casos oncológicos como base de experiencia para la descripción de los aspectos técnicos. La casuística descrita se refiere a la patología traumática y sus secuelas. Los principales parámetros analizados fueron la técnica quirúrgica incluyendo el material de relleno para la obliteración del seno frontal, patología traumática asociada, estancia hospitalaria y tasa de complicaciones. Resultados. No existió mortalidad intra-postoperatoria inmediata. La edad varía entre los 15-76 años siendo 22 varones y 12 mujeres. Se describe el tipo de fracturas frontales asociadas. El material de relleno empleado en la obliteración frontal fue hueso de calota. El 29% de los pacientes con patología traumática o secuelas presentaron morbilidad precoz-tardía. La estancia media hospitalaria fue de 13 días. Conclusiones. El abordaje subcraneal a la base craneal anterior es una técnica versátil y razonable en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la patología de dicha región anatómica. Aporta una exposición excelente de la cavidad nasal, órbitas y celdillas etmoidales-seno esfenoidal, permitiendo un amplio acceso a la fosa anterior con mínima retracción de los lóbulos frontales.Introduction. Suitable approach to anterior cranial base is mandatory to get global satisfactory surgical out-comes. In the beginning it depends on the exactly anatomical position into the cranial fossa and tridimensional spread. Surgical approach implies the evaluation of the patient status, reconstructive options and surgical team experience. Subcranial approach is a safe surgical option in the treatment of frontal traumatic pathology. It allows adequate management of frontal sinus and its obliteration with easy radiologic follow-up. Objectives. To analyse subcranial approach as a treatment option in traumatic pathology of the anterior cranial base and to present our review of subcranial approach. Valuation of surgical technical aspects. and related complications. Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 50 patients operated (subcranial approach) from January 2004 to December 2009 by Maxillofacial and Neurosurgery Department, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid. 34 patients presented craniofacial trauma or postraumatic sequela and 16 patients presented craniofacial tumours. Oncological cases offers experience to discuss surgical aspects. Results are related to traumatic pathology and sequela. Main items review were surgical technique including materials used for frontal sinus obliteration, associated traumatic pathology, hospital stay and complication rates. Results. No perioperatory mortality was found. Patients' age ranged 15-76 years.

I. Zubillaga-Rodríguez; M.I. Falguera-Uceda; G. Sánchez-Aniceto; J.J. Montalvo-Moreno; R. Díez-Lobato

2010-01-01

58

Abordaje subcraneal: Consideraciones técnicas y aplicaciones en patología traumática craneofacial/ Subcranial approach: Technical aspects and application in craneofacial traumatic pathology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. La elección del abordaje más adecuado a la base craneal en cada caso es esencial para la obtención de resultados quirúrgicos globales satisfactorios. Inicialmente dependerá de la localización anatómica exacta de la lesión dentro de la base craneal y de su extensión tridimensional, así como de la naturaleza de la misma. Las opciones posibles deben ser depuradas finalmente en función del status global del paciente, planificación reconstructiva y e (more) xperiencia del equipo quirúrgico. El abordaje subcraneal es una opción terapéutica segura en el tratamiento de la patología traumática frontal. Permite el manejo adecuado del seno frontal y su obliteración si es precisa, favoreciendo el seguimiento radiológico del mismo. Objetivos. Validar el abordaje subcraneal como vía adecuada de acceso en patología traumática de la base craneal anterior. Revisión de nuestra serie clínica. Valoración de aspectos técnicos quirúrgicos. Análisis de complicaciones. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 50 pacientes intervenidos desde Enero de 2004 hasta Diciembre 2009 por el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial y Servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid) mediante abordaje subcraneal. 34 pacientes presentaban traumatismos craneofaciales o secuelas postraumáticas y 16 pacientes presentaban patología oncológica. Se enumeran los casos oncológicos como base de experiencia para la descripción de los aspectos técnicos. La casuística descrita se refiere a la patología traumática y sus secuelas. Los principales parámetros analizados fueron la técnica quirúrgica incluyendo el material de relleno para la obliteración del seno frontal, patología traumática asociada, estancia hospitalaria y tasa de complicaciones. Resultados. No existió mortalidad intra-postoperatoria inmediata. La edad varía entre los 15-76 años siendo 22 varones y 12 mujeres. Se describe el tipo de fracturas frontales asociadas. El material de relleno empleado en la obliteración frontal fue hueso de calota. El 29% de los pacientes con patología traumática o secuelas presentaron morbilidad precoz-tardía. La estancia media hospitalaria fue de 13 días. Conclusiones. El abordaje subcraneal a la base craneal anterior es una técnica versátil y razonable en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la patología de dicha región anatómica. Aporta una exposición excelente de la cavidad nasal, órbitas y celdillas etmoidales-seno esfenoidal, permitiendo un amplio acceso a la fosa anterior con mínima retracción de los lóbulos frontales. Abstract in english Introduction. Suitable approach to anterior cranial base is mandatory to get global satisfactory surgical out-comes. In the beginning it depends on the exactly anatomical position into the cranial fossa and tridimensional spread. Surgical approach implies the evaluation of the patient status, reconstructive options and surgical team experience. Subcranial approach is a safe surgical option in the treatment of frontal traumatic pathology. It allows adequate management of f (more) rontal sinus and its obliteration with easy radiologic follow-up. Objectives. To analyse subcranial approach as a treatment option in traumatic pathology of the anterior cranial base and to present our review of subcranial approach. Valuation of surgical technical aspects. and related complications. Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 50 patients operated (subcranial approach) from January 2004 to December 2009 by Maxillofacial and Neurosurgery Department, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid. 34 patients presented craniofacial trauma or postraumatic sequela and 16 patients presented craniofacial tumours. Oncological cases offers experience to discuss surgical aspects. Results are related to traumatic pathology and sequela. Main items review were surgical technique including materials used for frontal sinus obliteration, associated traumatic pathology, hospital stay and complication rates. Results. No perioperator

Zubillaga-Rodríguez, I.; Falguera-Uceda, M.I.; Sánchez-Aniceto, G.; Montalvo-Moreno, J.J.; Díez-Lobato, R.

2010-12-01

59

Recent advances into understanding some aspects of the structure and function of mammalian and avian lungs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent findings are reported about certain aspects of the structure and function of the mammalian and avian lungs that include (a) the architecture of the air capillaries (ACs) and the blood capillaries (BCs); (b) the pulmonary blood capillary circulatory dynamics; (c) the adaptive molecular, cellular, biochemical, compositional, and developmental characteristics of the surfactant system; (d) the mechanisms of the translocation of fine and ultrafine particles across the airway epithelial barrier; and (e) the particle-cell interactions in the pulmonary airways. In the lung of the Muscovy duck Cairina moschata, at least, the ACs are rotund structures that are interconnected by narrow cylindrical sections, while the BCs comprise segments that are almost as long as they are wide. In contrast to the mammalian pulmonary BCs, which are highly compliant, those of birds practically behave like rigid tubes. Diving pressure has been a very powerful directional selection force that has influenced phenotypic changes in surfactant composition and function in lungs of marine mammals. After nanosized particulates are deposited on the respiratory tract of healthy human subjects, some reach organs such as the brain with potentially serious health implications. Finally, in the mammalian lung, dendritic cells of the pulmonary airways are powerful agents in engulfing deposited particles, and in birds, macrophages and erythrocytes are ardent phagocytizing cellular agents. The morphology of the lung that allows it to perform different functions-including gas exchange, ventilation of the lung by being compliant, defense, and secretion of important pharmacological factors-is reflected in its "compromise design."

Maina JN; West JB; Orgeig S; Foot NJ; Daniels CB; Kiama SG; Gehr P; Mühlfeld C; Blank F; Müller L; Lehmann A; Brandenberger C; Rothen-Rutishauser B

2010-09-01

60

Recent advances into understanding some aspects of the structure and function of mammalian and avian lungs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent findings are reported about certain aspects of the structure and function of the mammalian and avian lungs that include (a) the architecture of the air capillaries (ACs) and the blood capillaries (BCs); (b) the pulmonary blood capillary circulatory dynamics; (c) the adaptive molecular, cellular, biochemical, compositional, and developmental characteristics of the surfactant system; (d) the mechanisms of the translocation of fine and ultrafine particles across the airway epithelial barrier; and (e) the particle-cell interactions in the pulmonary airways. In the lung of the Muscovy duck Cairina moschata, at least, the ACs are rotund structures that are interconnected by narrow cylindrical sections, while the BCs comprise segments that are almost as long as they are wide. In contrast to the mammalian pulmonary BCs, which are highly compliant, those of birds practically behave like rigid tubes. Diving pressure has been a very powerful directional selection force that has influenced phenotypic changes in surfactant composition and function in lungs of marine mammals. After nanosized particulates are deposited on the respiratory tract of healthy human subjects, some reach organs such as the brain with potentially serious health implications. Finally, in the mammalian lung, dendritic cells of the pulmonary airways are powerful agents in engulfing deposited particles, and in birds, macrophages and erythrocytes are ardent phagocytizing cellular agents. The morphology of the lung that allows it to perform different functions-including gas exchange, ventilation of the lung by being compliant, defense, and secretion of important pharmacological factors-is reflected in its "compromise design." PMID:20687843

Maina, J N; West, J B; Orgeig, S; Foot, N J; Daniels, C B; Kiama, S G; Gehr, P; Mühlfeld, C; Blank, F; Müller, L; Lehmann, A; Brandenberger, C; Rothen-Rutishauser, B

 
 
 
 
61

Nail pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When dealing with nails, pathologic examination is often indispensable to reach an accurate diagnosis. This requires a biopsy correctly performed by the dermatologist, a specimen correctly handled in the pathology lab, and a pathologist with good knowledge of the various nail conditions. The normal nail histology is first described in this paper. The pathologic aspects of melanocytic lesions, nonmelanocytic tumors of the nail apparatus, inflammatory nail conditions, and onychomycosis are then considered, together with their main differential diagnoses.

André J; Sass U; Richert B; Theunis A

2013-09-01

62

Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling. RECENT FINDINGS: Personality dimensions, such as impulsivity and impulsivity-related variables, are important aspects that may shape our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of pathological gambling. Furthermore, a large percentage of pathological gamblers have a co-occurring personality disorder which may impact the clinical presentation of pathological gambling. SUMMARY: Evidence suggests that pathological gamblers exhibit impulsivity or impulsivity-related traits, as well as a range of personality disorders. Subtyping pathological gamblers based on personality domains has been proposed; however, more research is needed to provide support for these models. Overall, recent research represents an advancement in our understanding of how personality impacts pathological gambling, but further research is warranted to better understand how personality impacts the clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of pathological gambling.

Odlaug BL; Schreiber LR; Grant JE

2013-01-01

63

Aspects récents de la thermodynamique des solutions de polymères Recent Aspects of the Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On examine dans cet article différentes approches de la thermodynamique des solutions de polymères placées dans leur contexte historique. On rappelle d'abord le modèle du réseau de Flory-Huggins et on en souligne les déficiences. On traite ensuite brièvement de la mécanique statistique des solutions de polymères introduite par Prigogine en 1957 et on montre qu'elle constitue un progrès qualitatif par rapport à la théorie du réseau, mais qu'elle ne prévoit cependant pas de manière quantitative les propriétés de ces solutions. On montre ensuite que le concept de volume libre, qui permet un traitement simplifié de certaines quantités, permet également d'expliquer tout naturellement l'existence d'une deuxième température de séparation en phase lorsque l'on élève la température, propriété qui différencie les solutions de polymères des mélanges de liquidés simples. Enfin, dans une dernière partie, on mentionne brièvement les travaux récents de l'École de Paris, qui traite les solutions de polymères par analogie avec les transitions magnétiques. This article examines différent approaches ta the thermodynamics of polymer solutions set in their historical context. First of all, the Flory-Huggins network model is described and ifs deficiencies are pointed out. Then attention is briefly drawn to the statistical mechanics of polymer solutions as introduced by Prigogine in 1957, and this mechanics is shown to be a qualitative advance compared with the network theory, but it nonetheless does not quantitatively predict the properties of such solutions. It is then shown that the concept of free volume, enabling some quantifies to be treated in a simplified way, also serves to provide a quite natural explanation for the existence of a second phase separation temperature when the temperature is raised, i. e. a property that differentiates polymer solutions from simple liquid mixtures. In the final part, brief mention is made of recent research by the Paris School which has been treating polymer solutions by similarity ta magnetic transitions.

Dayantis J.

2006-01-01

64

Recent Conceptual Consequences of Loop Quantum Gravity. Part II Holistic Aspects  

CERN Multimedia

Based on the foundational aspects which have been discussed as consequences of ongoing research on loop quantum gravity in the first part of this paper, the holistic aspects of the latter are discussed in this second part, aiming at a consistent and systematic approach to eventually model a hierarchically ordered architecture of the world which is encompassing all of what there actually is. The idea is to clarify the explicit relationship between physics and philosophy on the one hand, and philosophy and the sciences in general, on the other. It is shown that the ontological determination of worldliness is practically identical with its epistemological determination so that the (scientific) activity of modelling and representing the world can be visualized itself as a (worldly) mode of being.

Zimmermann, R E

2001-01-01

65

[Systemic inflammation: theoretical and methodological approaches to description of general pathological process model. Part 2. Evolution aspects].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Theoretical and methodological approaches to description of systemic inflammation as general pathological process are discussed. It is shown, that there is a need of integration of wide range of types of researches to develop a model of systemic inflammation.

Gusev E; Chereshnev VA

2013-01-01

66

Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent Earthquakes, and Consequential Mudflows and Landslides, held in Moscow, October 1989. The annexes to the document provide information on the participants, the work programme and the resolution adopted at each of the seminars. Refs, figs and tabs

1992-01-01

67

Nanosuspensions in drug delivery: recent advances, patent scenarios, and commercialization aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interest in the preparation and application of nanometer-sized materials is increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with wide range of applications. Recently, nanoscale systems have received much interest as a way to resolve solubility issues because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compared to liposomes and other colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions have proven to be a better alternative over other approaches currently available for improving bioavailability of number of drugs with low solubility. Nanosuspensions have been extensively developed for a wide range of drugs and have been evaluated for in vitro and in vivo applications by various routes: parenteral, oral, pulmonary, topical. They have also been used for drug targeting. Different preparation methods for nanosuspensions and their application are being reported and patented. In fact, the number of products based on nanosuspension in the market and under clinical study is higher than that of other nanotechnology-based applications. This article reviews the research and recent advances in formulation, characterization, application of nanosuspensions as well as patents on nanosuspension methods. PMID:22077201

Chavhan, Sandip S; Petkar, Kailash C; Sawant, Krutika K

2011-01-01

68

Nanosuspensions in drug delivery: recent advances, patent scenarios, and commercialization aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The interest in the preparation and application of nanometer-sized materials is increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with wide range of applications. Recently, nanoscale systems have received much interest as a way to resolve solubility issues because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compared to liposomes and other colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions have proven to be a better alternative over other approaches currently available for improving bioavailability of number of drugs with low solubility. Nanosuspensions have been extensively developed for a wide range of drugs and have been evaluated for in vitro and in vivo applications by various routes: parenteral, oral, pulmonary, topical. They have also been used for drug targeting. Different preparation methods for nanosuspensions and their application are being reported and patented. In fact, the number of products based on nanosuspension in the market and under clinical study is higher than that of other nanotechnology-based applications. This article reviews the research and recent advances in formulation, characterization, application of nanosuspensions as well as patents on nanosuspension methods.

Chavhan SS; Petkar KC; Sawant KK

2011-01-01

69

Recent aspects of the chemistry of the tin-carbon bond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last few years there has been a strong interest in the use of organotin compounds as reagents for organic synthesis. Oganotin hydrides are already very popular as reducing agents, but the tin-carbon bond is now becoming more and more directly involved in new applications. It is clear that in order to reinforce and widen the scope of organotin reagents as intermediates in synthesis, we must increase our understanding of the tin-carbon bond. Since potential applications necessarily involve the formation and the cleavage of the metal-carbon linkage, it is important to develop research in this field with special emphasis on regioselectivities, stereoselectivities and mechanisms. The present review is intended to summarize the work which has been recently done on this topic at the University of Bordeaux. It includes also some unpublished data as well as relevant contributions from external research groups. In the first part of the text, focus is on the non-activated carbon-tin bond: synthesis of chiral organotin compounds and stereochemistry of electrophilic cleavage. The second part is devoted to the construction of activated carbon-tin bonds by means of organostannylanions. Thus the metallation of aryl halides, vinyl halides and allyl derivatives will be successively examined. 51 references.

Pereyre, M.; Quintard, J.P.; Rahm, A.

1981-01-01

70

Genetics Aspects of Epilepsies and Recent Advances In Genetics of Idiopathic Epilepsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distinct genetic inheritance patterns such as chromosomal disorders, single gene defects and complex inheritance underly epileptic syndromes. Genetic background of more than 200 diseases, which have other neurological and systemic findings accompanied by epilepsy are caused by single gene disorders. These syndromes constitute only 1% of the epilepsies. However, complex inheritance underlies the majority of idiopathic epilepsies in which seizures are the prominent clinical features. Due to the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, besides multiple genes interacting with environmental factors, the genetic etiology of common idiopathic epilepsies is undetermined yet. On the other hand, mutations in voltage or ligand gated ion channel genes are discovered in a few idiopathic epilepsy syndromes including autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, benign familial neonatal convulsions, generalized epilepsy febrile seizures plus syndromes. These advances suggested epilepsies could be interpreted as channelopathies. In this review, the management of clinical and molecular approach to a patient with suspected genetic etiology and recent advances in the genetics of epilepsies are presented.

Nerses BEBEK; Betül BAYKAN

2006-01-01

71

The rapidly expanding family of human polyomaviruses: recent developments in understanding their life cycle and role in human pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since their discovery in 1971, the polyomaviruses JC (JCPyV) and BK (BKPyV), isolated from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, respectively, remained for decades as the only known members of the Polyomaviridae family of viruses of human origin. Over the past five years, the application of new genomic amplification technologies has facilitated the discovery of several novel human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), bringing the present number to 10. These HPyVs share many fundamental features in common such as genome size and organization. Infection by all HPyVs is widespread in the human population, but they show important differences in their tissue tropism and association with disease. Much remains unknown about these new viruses. In this review, we discuss the problems associated with studying HPyVs, such as the lack of culture systems for the new viruses and the gaps in our basic understanding of their biology. We summarize what is known so far about their distribution, life cycle, tissue tropism, their associated pathologies (if any), and future research directions in the field.

White MK; Gordon J; Khalili K

2013-03-01

72

The Rapidly Expanding Family of Human Polyomaviruses: Recent Developments in Understanding Their Life Cycle and Role in Human Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Since their discovery in 1971, the polyomaviruses JC (JCPyV) and BK (BKPyV), isolated from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, respectively, remained for decades as the only known members of the Polyomaviridae family of viruses of human origin. Over the past five years, the application of new genomic amplification technologies has facilitated the discovery of several novel human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), bringing the present number to 10. These HPyVs share many fundamental features in common such as genome size and organization. Infection by all HPyVs is widespread in the human population, but they show important differences in their tissue tropism and association with disease. Much remains unknown about these new viruses. In this review, we discuss the problems associated with studying HPyVs, such as the lack of culture systems for the new viruses and the gaps in our basic understanding of their biology. We summarize what is known so far about their distribution, life cycle, tissue tropism, their associated pathologies (if any), and future research directions in the field.

White, Martyn K.; Gordon, Jennifer; Khalili, Kamel

2013-01-01

73

Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides. Proceedings of the UNDRO/USSR/UNDP training seminars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent...

1992-01-01

74

[Epidemiological and histological aspects of gynecologic and breast cancer in the pathology department of Niamey's Health Faculty, Niger  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to identify the epidemiological and histological aspects of gynaecologic and breast cancer for a best care of patients. METHODOLOGY: A restropective and descriptive study have been realised in the Histopathologic laboratory of Niamey's Health faculty department, Niger. During 9 years (01 January 1992 to 31 December 2000), we brought up all cases of gynaecological and breast cancer. We analysed epidemiologic characteristics of patients, the histological type of cancer. RESULTS: Gynaecologic and breast cancer reprensented 54.3% of woman cancer and 33.1% of diagnosed cancer of both sex. Patients mean age was 36.5 years (extreme 9 to 79 years). The most frequent site was breast (40.4%) follow by cervix (26%). The distribution according to histoloigical group have detected a neat predominance of epitheliale tumours (87%). Sarcoma represents 7.9% of case and 5.1% for the other histological types. CONCLUSION: Despite the results, suggestions have been formulated for epidemiological and histological follow up of gynecologic and breast cancer in Niger.

Nayama M; Nouhou H; Souna-Madougou K; Idi N; Garba M; Tahirou A; Touré A

2006-01-01

75

Aspectos patológicos, imunológicos e propriedades moleculares do TT vírus/ Pathological and immunological aspects and molecular properties of TT virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O TT vírus (TTV) foi primeiramente descrito no Japão, em 1997, por T. Nishizawa, no soro de pacientes com hepatite, pós-transfusão, não-A-G. Tem sido intensivamente investigado, desde então, como uma possível adição à lista dos vírus indutores de hepatite. O TTV é um vírus DNA não-envelopado, de fita simples. Uma considerável variabilidade genética tem sido demonstrada por parte do TTV, o que tem levado pesquisadores a agrupar isolados do vírus em inúmer (more) os genótipos e subtipos. No entanto a significância clínica da infecção por TTV permanece desconhecida. Ele é freqüentemente detectado em fluidos corporais e seu componente mais bem elucidado atualmente é o genoma. Conhecimentos relacionados ao TTV têm aumentado constantemente, porém vários aspectos fundamentais permanecem obscuros. Esta revisão apresenta algumas das propriedades moleculares do TT vírus. Abstract in english TT virus (TTV) was first reported in Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in sera from non-A to non-G post-transfusion hepatitis patients. It has been intensively investigated, ever since, as a possible addition to the list of hepatitis-inducing viruses. The TTV is an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus. Considerable genetic variability of TTV has been demonstrated and has led investigators to group its isolates into numerous genotypes and subtypes. However, the clinical sign (more) ificance of TTV infection remains unknown. It is frequently detected in the serum and in other body fluids of humans. The component of TTV currently best understood is its genome. Knowledge related to TTV has increased rapidly, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This review shows some of the molecular properties of TT virus.

Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; Miranda, Helen Cristina; Oliveira, Karen Brajão de; Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral de; Tristão, Fabrine Sales Massafera; Duarte, Leila Maria; Silva, Ligiane de Lourdes; Corte, Andréia Corrêa; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra; Kaminami, Mari Sumigawa

2005-08-01

76

Aspectos patológicos, imunológicos e propriedades moleculares do TT vírus Pathological and immunological aspects and molecular properties of TT virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O TT vírus (TTV) foi primeiramente descrito no Japão, em 1997, por T. Nishizawa, no soro de pacientes com hepatite, pós-transfusão, não-A-G. Tem sido intensivamente investigado, desde então, como uma possível adição à lista dos vírus indutores de hepatite. O TTV é um vírus DNA não-envelopado, de fita simples. Uma considerável variabilidade genética tem sido demonstrada por parte do TTV, o que tem levado pesquisadores a agrupar isolados do vírus em inúmeros genótipos e subtipos. No entanto a significância clínica da infecção por TTV permanece desconhecida. Ele é freqüentemente detectado em fluidos corporais e seu componente mais bem elucidado atualmente é o genoma. Conhecimentos relacionados ao TTV têm aumentado constantemente, porém vários aspectos fundamentais permanecem obscuros. Esta revisão apresenta algumas das propriedades moleculares do TT vírus.TT virus (TTV) was first reported in Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in sera from non-A to non-G post-transfusion hepatitis patients. It has been intensively investigated, ever since, as a possible addition to the list of hepatitis-inducing viruses. The TTV is an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus. Considerable genetic variability of TTV has been demonstrated and has led investigators to group its isolates into numerous genotypes and subtypes. However, the clinical significance of TTV infection remains unknown. It is frequently detected in the serum and in other body fluids of humans. The component of TTV currently best understood is its genome. Knowledge related to TTV has increased rapidly, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This review shows some of the molecular properties of TT virus.

Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe; Helen Cristina Miranda; Karen Brajão de Oliveira; Carlos Eduardo Coral de Oliveira; Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão; Leila Maria Duarte; Ligiane de Lourdes Silva; Andréia Corrêa Corte; Flávia Alessandra Guarnier; Mari Sumigawa Kaminami

2005-01-01

77

Aspectos clínico-patológicos da intoxicação experimental por selenito de sódio em eqüinos Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental poisoning by sodium selenite in horses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dadas as controvérsias sobre a intoxicação por selênio, foram realizados nove experimentos com a administração de selenito de sódio, por via intramuscular, em eqüinos, com o intuito de estudar e melhor fundamentar os aspectos clínico-patológicos e toxicológicos sobre esse tema. Conseguiram-se produzir quadros com evoluções superaguda, aguda, subaguda e crônica; alguns sinais clínicos de origem nervosa observados nos quadros agudos foram similares aos descritos para "blind staggers"; a despeito disto, o carácter conflitante e duvidoso das descrições sobre essa pretensa entidade historicamente descrita, não permite uma comparação mais exata. O quadro crônico, por outro lado, configurou claramente a primeira reprodução de "alkali disease", por via parenteral, em eqüinos. Estabeleceu-se 1,49 mg/kg de selenito de sódio como a dose única letal para essa espécie. Descrevem-se diversos achados clínico-patológicos relativos aos sistemas cardiovascular e nervoso, antes não mencionados na literatura relativa aos eqüinos intoxicados por selênio. Entre eles, destacam-se, clinicamente, sopro e arritmia cardíacos, desdobramento de bulhas e convulsão. À necropsia, um animal apresentou nítido achatamento das circunvoluções cerebrais e, em relação à histopatologia, lise e necrose de neurônios do córtex, edema de astrócitos, bem como ativação endotelial e gliose. Em relação à patogênese, postula-se que as alterações degenerativo-necróticas observadas no sistema nervoso central, devam-se ao edema, por sua vez conseqüente ao aumento da permeabilidade vascular, determinada pelo selenito de sódio.Due to the numerous contradictions on selenium poisoining, and in order to improve knowledge about the clinical, pathological and toxicological aspects, experiments were performed with intramuscular injections of sodium selenite in 9 horses. Peracute, acute, subacute and chronic poisoning was reproduced; some nervous symptoms observed in acute cases were similar to those described for "blind staggers". In spite of this, the conflicting and dubious feature of this formerly described disease turns very difficult any comparison. On the other hand, the chronic poisoning was the first experimental reproduction of "alkali disease" by the parenteral route in horses. When administered as one injection, the lethal dose for sodium selenite was 1.49 mg/kg. Various clinical and pathological observations regarding the cardiovascular and nervous system, not previously mentioned in the literature for horses, are described. There have to be mentioned especially, (1) as to clinical aspects, cardiac murmurs, arrythmia, splitting of the heart sounds and convulsions, (2) regarding post-mortem findings, flattening of the cerebral gyri and increase of the liquor, and (3) concerning histopathology, lysis and necrosis of neurons in the cortex, oedema of astrocytes, as well as activation of endothelial and glia cells. It is suggested, that the degenerative-necrotic alterations in the central nervous system could be due to the oedema caused by an increase in vascular permeability through the action of the selenite.

Pedro Brandini Néspoli; Marcos Dutra Duarte; Pedro Soares Bezerra Jr; Jürgen Döbereiner; Paulo Vargas Peixoto

2001-01-01

78

Aspects of training in clinical medical sciences in dentistry (human disease): recent graduates' perspectives from a UK dental school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Teaching the management of medical emergencies is an important part of most courses in Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry (Human Disease). The aim of this study was to examine which medical emergencies graduates from the School of Dental Sciences at Newcastle University had experienced 1 year after qualification and their perceptions of their ability to assess a patient's fitness for treatment or to manage a medical emergency. The study instrument was a computer readable questionnaire. Very few emergencies had been experienced in general practice at this stage of their career, but all respondents either strongly agreed or agreed that their training had adequately equipped them to assess a patient's medical history and deal with medical emergencies. There were, however, aspects of the course that upon reflection that clearly needed to be addressed, including the use of different teachers for aspects of the medical emergency teaching.

Greenwood M; Beattie A; Green R; Durham J

2013-05-01

79

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano.Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eight cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were proeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with micobactin and on IS900 PCR. After the adoption of control measures, as slaughter of cows with clin

Elise M Yamasaki; Carlos H Tokarnia; Alexandre Galvão; Marcos J.P Gomes; José A.B Chies; Tiago Degani Veit; Ana Paula Aragão; Marilene F Brito

2010-01-01

80

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro/ Clinic-pathological aspects and control of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, ob (more) servaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do agente através de cultivo bacteriano e PCR IS900. Após implementação de medidas de controle, tais como eliminação de animais doentes, abate seletivo dos animais soropositivos, separação dos bezerros ao nascer e utilização de banco de colostro, observou-se, nos três anos de estudo, diminuição da ocorrência de casos clínicos no rebanho, de seis casos por ano para cerca de um caso por ano. Abstract in english Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Epidemiology, clinic-pathological and laboratorial aspects of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd are described. The disease was diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in eight cows that presented chronic-intermittent diarrhea and chronic weight loss, in the Rio Claro municipality, Rio de Janeiro. At necropsy, the subserosal lymphatic vessels were p (more) roeminent and dilated, mesenteric nodes were enlarged and intestinal mucosa was corrugated, thickened and of microgranular aspect. From duodenum to the rectum, histopathology revealed severe and diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the lamina propria and submucosa, broadened and distorted villi, dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in their apex, lymphangioectasia and granulomatous lymphangitis in the submucosa. Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed variable amounts of acid-fast bacilli in macrophages, in Langhans giant cells and freely in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine, colon and lymphnodes. In some cows, the lamina propria presented severe hypertrophy, mainly in the jejunum and ileum. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated through bacterial cultivation of samples taken from feces, intestinal mucosa and milk, and identified through IS900 PCR. From 298 cows older than three years, the percentage of reactive animals was 40% by indirect ELISA test. The diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on clinic-epidemiological data, serology, bacterial isolation in Herrold egg yolk medium with micobactin and on IS900 PCR. After the

Yamasaki, Elise M; Tokarnia, Carlos H; Galvão, Alexandre; Gomes, Marcos J.P; Chies, José A.B; Veit, Tiago Degani; Aragão, Ana Paula; Brito, Marilene F

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Economic aspects of hypercholesterolemia treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: a review of recent developments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent literature on the cost effectiveness of hepatic hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia is reviewed with a twofold objective. First, the relative cost effectiveness of treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is compared with that of other interventions based on recent long term morbidity and mortality trials; and second, drugs within this therapeutic class are identified that produce the desired effect at minimum cost. Given the limited resources available to treat hypercholesterolemia, the question of establishing which subgroup of the population is most likely to benefit from treatment with statins is legitimate. The latest economic evidence is used to demonstrate that the most cost effective public health strategy is to identify the patient population that needs to be treated and to select the most cost effective treatment.

MacNeil P

1998-04-01

82

Aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do hemagiossarcoma em cães: 40 casos (1965-2012)/ Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 40 cases (1965-2012)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de casos de hemangiossarcoma em cães da Região Central do RS foram estudados. Dos casos avaliados (n=40), cães idosos e da raça Pastor Alemão foram nitidamente os mais afetados (72,2% e 20% dos casos, respectivamente), visto que na população total de cães necropsiados nesse mesmo período (n=7.063) essa faixa etária e raça tiveram comparativamente uma prevalência bem mais baixa (14,6% e 10,1% dos casos, respect (more) ivamente). Na necropsia (n=40), os tumores ocorreram quase sempre como nódulos (92,5%) e, menos frequentemente, como massas (37,5%), e afetaram principalmente: baço (62,5%), pulmão (60%), fígado (52,5%), peritônio (42,5%), rim (37,5%), encéfalo (30%), pleura (25%) e coração (22,5%). Hemoperitônio (42,5%) e, consequentemente, anemia (22,5%) foram vistos com certa frequência. Na histologia (n=25), os hemangiossarcomas eram principalmente bem diferenciados (84%), de baixo grau (64%) e com estroma escasso (84%), mas frequentemente (68%) havia áreas com células demonstrando algum grau de atipia. Necrose, hemorragia e trombose foram vistos em todos os casos, mas hematopoiese extramedular (28%) e proliferação angiomatosa benigna (12%) foram achados menos comuns. Na imuno- -histoquímica (n=24), utilizando anticorpo anti-fator de von Willebrand, todos os casos demonstraram marcação de intensidade variável com um padrão citoplasmático finamente granular. Em relação à classificação anatômica, 55% dos hemangiossarcomas foram considerados como multicêntricos, 30% como primários com metástase(s) e 15% como solitários. Esse artigo discute esses resultados e propõe, com base em combinações de órgãos afetados, um esquema de separação entre hemangiossarcomas primário com metástase(s) e multicêntrico, a fim de tentar homogeneizar a maneira com que patologistas veterinários referem-se a esse neoplasma. Abstract in english Epidemiological and pathological aspects of hemangiosarcoma in dogs from the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Out of the studied cases (n=40), aged dogs (72.2% of the cases) and dogs of German shepherd breed (20% of the cases) were clearly more frequently affected since in the total population of necropsied dogs in the same period (n=7,063) this age group and breed were comparatively less represented (respectively 14.6% e 10.1% of the cases). At n (more) ecropsy (n=40) most tumors (92.5%) occurred as nodules and less frequently as masses (37.5%), affecting mainly the spleen (62.5%), lung (60%), liver (52.5%), peritoneum (42.5%), kidney (37.5%), brain (30%), pleura (25%), and heart (22.5%). Hemoperitoneum (42.5% of the cases) and resultant anemia (22.5% of the cases) were also observed. On histological examination (n=25), most hemangiosarcomas (84%), were, in general, well differentiated, of low grade (64%) and possessed a scant stroma (84%), although frequently (68%) focal areas with cells displaying some degree of atypia were seen. Necrosis, hemorrhage, and thrombosis were observed in all cases, however extramedullary hematopoiesis (28%) and benign angiomatous proliferation (12%) were less common findings. In all cases submitted to immunohistochemistry staining (n=24) the tumor cells displayed a finely granular positive staining when using anti-factor von Willebrand. Regarding anatomical classification, 55% of the hemangiosarcomas were considered as multicentric, 30% as primary tumors with one or more metastasis and 15% were solitary tumors. This paper discusses these results an suggests, based on the combination of affected organs, a scheme for setting apart primary hemangiosarcoma with metastasis from multicentric hemangiosarcoma, aiming to uniformize communication between pathologists regarding this tumor.

Flores, Mariana M.; Panziera, Welden; Kommers, Glaucia D.; Irigoyen, Luiz Francisco; Barros, Claudio S.L.; Fighera, Rafael A.

2012-12-01

83

Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011)/ Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2%) e hemorragia (75,5%), principalmente no pulmão (56,6%). Alterações macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6%) e renais (50,9%) foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente), acentuaç (more) ão do padrão lobular hepático (26,4%) e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%). Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%). Hepatomegalia (11,3%), nefromegalia (9,4%) e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8%) foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53), as lesões encontradas (98,1%) foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2%) e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8%) e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%), com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42), as lesões encontradas (97,6%) eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%), colestase intra-canalicular (33,3%) e necrose hepática (31%). Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%). Na histologia do pulmão (n=28), hemorragia (85,7%) e edema (57,1%) alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7%) e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9%) também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil) não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia. Abstract in english The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2%) and hemorrhage (75.5%), mainly in the lungs (56.6%). Gross hepatic (56.6%) and renal (50.9%) changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%), accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4%) and whit (more) e streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%). Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%). Enlarged livers (11.3%), and kidneys (9.4%), and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8%) were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53), the encountered lesions (98.1%) were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2%) and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8%) and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%), with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42), the encountered lesions (97.6%) consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%), intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3%) and hepatocellular necrosis (31%). Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were observed in several cases (42.8%)

Tochetto, Camila; Flores, Mariana M.; Kommers, Glaucia D.; Barros, Claudio S.L.; Fighera, Rafael A.

2012-05-01

84

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos da paratuberculose em uma criação intensiva de bovinos de leite no município de Capela de Santana, RS. Sinais clínicos foram observados em oito de um total de 345 bovinos e consistiam em diarréia crônica refratária ao tratamento, emagrecimento progressivo e queda da produção de leite. As principais lesões macroscópicas, observadas nos oito animais eutanasiados e necropsiados, incluíam intestino delgado com acentuado espessamento da parede e superfície mucosa de aspecto reticulado, semelhante às circunvoluções cerebrais, lesão essa perceptível através da serosa. A luz intestinal estava preenchida por conteúdo fluido e de aspecto leitoso. Os vasos linfáticos do mesentério mostravam-se mais evidentes, sendo que alguns tinham aspecto varicoso. Os linfonodos mesentéricos estavam aumentados de volume e, ao corte, fluía grande quantidade de líquido leitoso. Focos de mineralização foram observados na íntima das artérias, nas válvulas cardíacas e na serosa do rúmen. Havia também edema das dobras do abomaso e do mesentério e atrofia do lobo caudado do fígado. As principais lesões microscópicas incluíam enterite, linfadenite e linfangite granulomatosas que se caracterizavam por infiltrado inflamatório composto por macrófagos, células epitelióides e células gigantes de Langhans que continham grande quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes. As lesões vasculares consistiam em degeneração e mineralização das túnicas íntima e média das artérias de grande calibre associadas à proliferação de colágeno. Havia calcificação da serosa do rúmen, atrofia hepatocelular difusa e hepatite granulomatosa multifocal. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis foi cultivado em meio de Herrold enriquecido com micobactina a partir de raspados do intestino em todas as oito amostras enviadas para exame bacteriológico.The clinical and pathological aspects of bovine paratuberculosis in a dairy herd in the county of Capela de Santana, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, are described. Clinical signs in eight cows out of 345 cattle included chronic diarrhea refractory to treatment, progressive emaciation and decreased milk production. Necropsy findings included severe and diffuse thickening of the mucosa of the small intestine with exaggerated reticular pattern, reflected in the serosal surface, similar to cerebral gyri. Intestinal loops were filled with whitish watery contents. The lymphatic vessels of the intestinal serosa and of the mesentery were thickened and tortuous. The mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and, on cut surface, there were oozing of milky fluid. Plaques of mineralization were evident in the intima of larger arteries, in the endocardium of the heart valves and in the ruminal serosa. There was also edema of the abomasal folds and atrophy of the caudate lobe of the liver. The main histopathological findings were granulomatous enteritis, lymphadenitis and lymphangitis. The inflammatory infiltrate was composed of macrophages, epithelioid cells and Langhans' giant cells containing large numbers of acid-fast bacilli. Vascular lesions included degeneration, calcification and collagen proliferation of the intima and media of larger arteries. Other microscopic lesions included calcification of the ruminal serosa, diffuse hepatocellular atrophy and multifocal granulomatous hepatitis. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was cultured in Herrold's medium enriched with mycobactin from all the eight samples of intestinal scrapings submitted to bacteriological examination.

David Driemeier; Claudio Estevão Farias Cruz; Marcos José Pereira Gomes; Luís Gustavo Corbellini; Alexandre Paulino Loretti; Edson Moleta Colodel

1999-01-01

85

Aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose em cães: 53 casos (1965-2011) Pathological aspects of leptospirosis in dogs: 53 cases (1965-2011)  

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Full Text Available Os aspectos anatomopatológicos da leptospirose foram estudados em 53 cães que tiveram diagnóstico definitivo confirmado por imuno-histoquímica do tecido renal. Na necropsia, as principais lesões observadas incluíram icterícia (79,2%) e hemorragia (75,5%), principalmente no pulmão (56,6%). Alterações macroscópicas hepáticas (56,6%) e renais (50,9%) foram frequentes e caracterizavam-se principalmente por descolorações (30,2% e 32,1% respectivamente), acentuação do padrão lobular hepático (26,4%) e estriações brancas na superfície de corte dos rins (22,6%). Lesões extrarrenais de uremia ocorreram na metade dos casos (50,9%). Hepatomegalia (11,3%), nefromegalia (9,4%) e irregularidade da superfície capsular dos rins (3,8%) foram menos comuns. Na histologia dos rins (n=53), as lesões encontradas (98,1%) foram quase que exclusivamente agudas ou subagudas (96,2%) e caracterizavam-se por graus variados de nefrose tubular (86,8%) e nefrite intersticial não supurativa (60,4%), com evidente dissociação degenerativo-inflamatória. Na histologia do fígado (n=42), as lesões encontradas (97,6%) eram constituídas principalmente por dissociação dos cordões de hepatócitos (78,6%), colestase intra-canalicular (33,3%) e necrose hepática (31%). Lesões reativas, como hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, leucocitostase sinusoidal e infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear nos espaços porta, foram vistas em muitos casos (42,8%). Na histologia do pulmão (n=28), hemorragia (85,7%) e edema (57,1%) alveolares foram muito prevalentes. Neutrófilos e macrófagos nos espaços alveolares (35,7%) e neutrófilos no interior de pequenos vasos pulmonares (17,9%) também foram achados frequentes. Os resultados aqui demonstrados devem servir de alerta aos patologistas veterinários brasileiros, pois a apresentação anatomopatológica da leptospirose canina em nossa região (Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil) não se modificou nos últimos 50 anos, mantendo-se semelhante àquela descrita internacionalmente até a década de 1980, mas muito diferente do que é atualmente reconhecido para os Estados Unidos, o Canadá e parte da Europa Ocidental. Recomendamos que os critérios histopatológicos para o diagnóstico da leptospirose canina devem incluir a presença concomitante de nefrite tubulointersticial aguda ou subaguda, hepatite reativa não específica e lesão alveolar difusa, incluindo hemorragia alveolar difusa com capilarite, em um cão que durante a necropsia demonstre icterícia, hemorragias e lesões extrarrenais de uremia na ausência de esplenomegalia.The pathological aspects of canine leptospirosis were studied in 53 dogs with a conclusive diagnosis of the disease, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on renal tissue. Main necropsy lesions included icterus (79.2%) and hemorrhage (75.5%), mainly in the lungs (56.6%). Gross hepatic (56.6%) and renal (50.9%) changes were frequently found and were characterized mainly by discoloration (respectively 30.2% and 32.1%), accentuation of hepatic lobular pattern (26.4%) and white streaks in the cut surface of kidneys (22.6%). Extrarenal lesions secondary to uremia occurred in half of the cases (50.9%). Enlarged livers (11.3%), and kidneys (9.4%), and rough renal capsular surfaces (3.8%) were less common findings. In the histopathology of the kidneys (n=53), the encountered lesions (98.1%) were almost exclusively acute or subacute (96.2%) and were characterized by varying degrees of tubular nephrosis (86.8%) and non-suppurative interstitial nephritis (60.4%), with evident degenerative-inflammatory dissociation. In the histopathology of the liver (n=42), the encountered lesions (97.6%) consisted mainly of hepatocellular dissociation (78.6%), intracanalicular cholestasis (33.3%) and hepatocellular necrosis (31%). Reactive lesions, such as Kupffer cell hypertrophy, sinusoidal leucocytostasis and inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate within portal triads were observed in several cases (42.8%). In the histopathology of the lung (n=28), alveolar hemorrh

Camila Tochetto; Mariana M. Flores; Glaucia D. Kommers; Claudio S.L. Barros; Rafael A. Fighera

2012-01-01

86

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Gurltia paralysans em gatos/ Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of Gurltia paralysans infection in cats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos 20 anos, uma doença neurológica desconhecida acometeu populações de gatos da Região da Campanha do RS e tornou-se um desafio diagnóstico para os veterinários locais. Os gatos afetados desenvolviam inicialmente paralisia da cauda, seguida de paraparesia progressiva nos membros pélvicos, alteração da marcha, posição plantígrada e ataxia proprioceptiva. Após longos períodos de evolução clínica (12-24 meses), quando se tornavam marcadamente para (more) paréticos e começavam a apresentar escaras de decúbito, eram sacrificados pelos proprietários. Na necropsia, demonstravam graus variados de atrofia dos músculos pélvicos e algum grau de avermelhamento das meninges entre T10 e L7, devido à presença de miríades de pequenos vasos sanguíneos, uma típica lesão varicosa, semelhante a um hamartoma vascular. Histologicamente, tais lesões consistiam de distensão do espaço subaracnóideo por vasos sanguíneos dilatados e tortuosos, repletos de sangue e, ocasionalmente, de trombos, que ocluíam parcial ou totalmente seus lúmens. Essas varizes venulares eram aleatoriamente circundadas por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso ou linfocítico com pequenos focos de eosinófilos maduros. No lúmen das vênulas varicosas havia secções transversais e longitudinais de parasitos. Com base na morfologia desses parasitos, em sua localização anatômica (vasos sanguíneos meníngeos) e na espécie afetada (gato), o nematódeo foi identificado como Gurltia paralysans. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar em detalhes os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos dessa intrigante mielopatia de gatos e estabelecer definitivamente seu diagnóstico definitivo: paraplegia crural parasitária felina, uma doença descoberta no Chile, na década de 1930, e agora, pela primeira vez, descrita no Brasil. Abstract in english In the last 20 years, an unknown neurological disease affected cat populations in the Western Border Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The onset of the disease was characterized by tail paralysis, followed by progressive paraparesis in the pelvic limbs, difficulty in ambulation and proprioceptive ataxia. After long prolonged clinical courses (12-24 months), when then affected cats became severely paraparetic and start to develop pressure sores do to decubi (more) tus, they were destroyed by the owners. At necropsy there were variable degrees of skeletal muscle atrophy of the pelvic muscles and some degree of reddening of the meninges at the level of T10-L7, due to the presence of a myriad of small blood vessels, as a typical varicose lesion that resembled a vascular hamartoma. Histologically, such lesions consisted of distension of the subarachnoid space due to a collection of dilated, blood-filled, tortuous blood vessels the lumina of which were occasionally partially or completely occluded by thrombi. Those varices were randomly surrounded by a lymphocytic or granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate with small foci of mature eosinophils. In the lumina of these varicose venules cross and longitudinal sections of nematode parasites could be observed. Based on the morphology of these parasites, in their anatomical localization (meningeal blood vessels) and in the species (cat) affected the nematode was identified as Gurltia paralysans. This paper describes detailed aspects of the epidemiology, clinical disease and pathology of this intriguing feline myelopathy and the definitive diagnosis of the condition: Feline crural parasitic paraplegia, a disease first described in Chile in the 1930's and now, for the first time, in Brazil.

Togni, Monique; Panziera, Welden; Souza, Tatiana M.; Oliveira Filho, José C.; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Barros, Claudio S.L.; Fighera, Rafael A.

2013-03-01

87

Aspectos recentes da patogênese e diagnóstico da pleuropneumonia suína Current aspects of pathogenesis and diagnosis of porcine pleuropneumonia  

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Full Text Available A pleuropneumonia suína, causada por Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, é uma doença caracterizada pela apresentação fibrino-hemorrágica com pleurite adesiva. A enfermidade está presente em todos os países produtores de suínos, sendo responsável por prejuízos econômicos elevados. No Brasil e no mundo, diversos grupos vêm conduzindo estudos na busca por um melhor entendimento da doença e de sua epidemiologia. Avanços importantes foram obtidos, entre os quais a caracterização dos fatores de virulência, implicados na apresentação clínica da enfermidade; e a aplicação de novos métodos de diagnóstico. A difusão das técnicas de biologia molecular como ferramenta diagnóstica em Medicina Veterinária tem contribuindo para a identificação de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Nesta revisão, são abordados os aspectos mais recentes sobre a patogênese e o diagnóstico deste importante patógeno.Porcine pleuropneumonia is a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for substantial losses worldwide to the pig industry. The disease is characterized by fibrinous pleuritis with hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in the lungs, and pleural adhesions. Specific and precise methods for the identification of this pathogen are still required. In the present article we review the pathogenesis, as the traditional and the recently developed molecular methods employed for the identification and characterization of A. pleuropneumoniae.

Clarissa Silveira Luiz Vaz; Sérgio Ceroni da Silva

2004-01-01

88

Aspectos más recientes en relación con la diabetes mellitus tipo MODY/ Most recent aspects about type MODY diabetes mellitus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: la mejor comprensión fisiopatológica de la diabetes mellitus permite identificar diferentes tipos, entre ellos una variante monogénica denominada por sus siglas en inglés MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young). Objetivos: describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos de los diferentes subtipos MODY. Desarrollo: los pacientes con diabetes tipo MODY presentan un comportamiento similar a la diabetes mellitus del adu (more) lto. Se caracteriza por una alteración genética autosómica dominante inherente y primaria a un defecto en la secreción de insulina. Hasta el momento actual se aceptan 9 subtipos de MODY. Los subtipos 1, 3, 4, 5 y 6 afectan a genes que codifican a factores nucleares de trascripción, y el subtipo 2 al gen que codifica a la enzima glucoquinasa. Se caracterizan clínicamente por cuadros que oscilan entre hiperglucemias permanentes, leves o moderadas, con buen pronóstico clínico, y pocas complicaciones, hasta cuadros de hiperglucemias mantenidas acompañadas de complicaciones crónicas precoces y graves. Conclusiones: las personas que padecen diabetes tipo MODY no son tan infrecuentes como se piensa. La correcta y temprana identificación de la enfermedad permitirá una acción terapéutica más racional y adecuada para brindar la posibilidad de mejor calidad de vida de estas personas. Abstract in english Background: a better physiopathological understanding of diabetes mellitus allows identifying its different types such as a monogenic variant called MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young). Objectives: to describe the physiopathological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the different subtypes in MODY diabetes. Development: the patients with MODY diabetes behave similarly to those suffering diabetes mellitus in adults. It is characterized by inherited do (more) minant autosomal genetic alteration which is primary to a defect in insulin secretion. Up to the present, 9 subtypes are accepted. The subtypes 1,3,4,5 and 6 affect gens coding for nuclear transcriptional factors whereas subtype 2 affects the gen coding for glycokinase enzyme. From the clinical viewpoint, they are characterized by conditions ranging from permanent, slight or moderate hyperglycemias, with good clinical prognosis and low complications, to sustained hyperglycemias accompanied by early chronic and serious complications. Conclusions: the people suffering MODY diabetes are not as uncommon as one might think. The correct and early detection will allow taking quick, adequate and more rational therapeutic actions to provide the patients with a better quality of life.

Conesa González, Ana Ibis; González Calero, Teresa Margarita

2012-08-01

89

Aspectos genéticos e imunopatogênicos da doença celíaca: visão atual/ Genetics and immunopathogenics aspects of the celiac disease: a recent vision  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese RACIONAL: A doença celíaca ou enteropatia por sensibilidade ao glúten, é uma forte condição hereditária. Embora a associação genética da doença celíaca com os haplótipos HLA-DQ2 e DQ8 seja conhecida há muito tempo, outros genes HLA e não-HLA também são importantes no desenvolvimento da afecção. A doença celíaca resulta de um efeito combinado de produtos de diferentes genes funcionantes normalmente. A lesão intestinal é imunologicamente mediada e mú (more) ltiplos mecanismos efetores são responsáveis pela sua expressão. A interação entre fatores genéticos, imunológicos e ambientais explicam o amplo espectro de alterações clínicas, histológicas e sorológicas observadas nos diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento da doença, ressaltando a natureza poligênica da mesma. CONCLUSÃO: Os avanços recentes na compreensão da imunopatogenia, genética e diagnóstico da doença celíaca têm permitido que rígidos conceitos e critérios pré-estabelecidos sejam revistos e adequados às novas evidências, visando melhor diagnóstico e orientação para pacientes celíacos e familiares. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Celiac disease, or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a strongly inherited condition. Although the genetic association of CD with the DQ2 and DQ8 HLA haplotypes has been known for long, others HLA and non-HLA genes are also important in the development of the disease. Celiac disease results of the combined effect of different normally functioning genes' products. The tissue damage in celiac disease is immunologically mediated and several effector mechanisms are (more) responsible for the disease expression. The interplay between genetic, immunological and environmental factors explains the large spectrum of clinical, histological and serological alterations observed in the different stages of the disease development, pointing out to the polygenic nature of celiac disease. CONCLUSION: The recent advances in the understanding of the immunopathogenesis, genetics and diagnoses of celiac disease have allowed the revision of strict concepts and previous criteria and their adequation to the new evidences, aiming a better diagnostic and orientation to celiac patients and relatives.

Utiyama, Shirley Ramos da Rosa; Reason, Iara José Taborda de Messias; Kotze, Lorete Maria da Silva

2004-06-01

90

Aspectos genéticos e imunopatogênicos da doença celíaca: visão atual Genetics and immunopathogenics aspects of the celiac disease: a recent vision  

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Full Text Available RACIONAL: A doença celíaca ou enteropatia por sensibilidade ao glúten, é uma forte condição hereditária. Embora a associação genética da doença celíaca com os haplótipos HLA-DQ2 e DQ8 seja conhecida há muito tempo, outros genes HLA e não-HLA também são importantes no desenvolvimento da afecção. A doença celíaca resulta de um efeito combinado de produtos de diferentes genes funcionantes normalmente. A lesão intestinal é imunologicamente mediada e múltiplos mecanismos efetores são responsáveis pela sua expressão. A interação entre fatores genéticos, imunológicos e ambientais explicam o amplo espectro de alterações clínicas, histológicas e sorológicas observadas nos diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento da doença, ressaltando a natureza poligênica da mesma. CONCLUSÃO: Os avanços recentes na compreensão da imunopatogenia, genética e diagnóstico da doença celíaca têm permitido que rígidos conceitos e critérios pré-estabelecidos sejam revistos e adequados às novas evidências, visando melhor diagnóstico e orientação para pacientes celíacos e familiares.BACKGROUND: Celiac disease, or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a strongly inherited condition. Although the genetic association of CD with the DQ2 and DQ8 HLA haplotypes has been known for long, others HLA and non-HLA genes are also important in the development of the disease. Celiac disease results of the combined effect of different normally functioning genes' products. The tissue damage in celiac disease is immunologically mediated and several effector mechanisms are responsible for the disease expression. The interplay between genetic, immunological and environmental factors explains the large spectrum of clinical, histological and serological alterations observed in the different stages of the disease development, pointing out to the polygenic nature of celiac disease. CONCLUSION: The recent advances in the understanding of the immunopathogenesis, genetics and diagnoses of celiac disease have allowed the revision of strict concepts and previous criteria and their adequation to the new evidences, aiming a better diagnostic and orientation to celiac patients and relatives.

Shirley Ramos da Rosa Utiyama; Iara José Taborda de Messias Reason; Lorete Maria da Silva Kotze

2004-01-01

91

Physiological and pathological aspects of A? in iron homeostasis via 5'UTR in the APP mRNA and the therapeutic use of iron-chelators  

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Many studies have highlighted the pathological involvement of iron accumulation and iron-related oxidative stress (OS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iron was further demonstrated to modulate expression of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor holo-protein (APP) by a mechanism similar to that of regulatio...

Avramovich-Tirosh, Yael; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Weinreb, Orly; Youdim, Moussa BH

92

Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE.

Smolen, J.S.

1987-01-01

93

Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

1987-01-01

94

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Recent aspect, a change from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron beam and a new protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1968, One-hundred seventy three patients with glioblastoma (n=81), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumor (n=32) were treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a combination of thermal neutron and BSH in 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MuITR n=98, KUR n=28, JRR-2 n=33). Out of 101 patients with glioma treated by BNCT under the recent protocol, 33 (10 glioblastoma, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, 9 low grade astrocytoma) patients lived or have lived longer than 3 years. Nine of these 33 lived or have lived longer than 10 years. According to the retrospective analysis, the important factors related to the clinical results were tumor dose radiation dose and maximum radiation dose in thermal brain cortex. The result was not satisfied as it was expected. Then, we decided to introduce mixed beams which contain thermal neutron and epithermal neutron beams. KUR was reconstructed in 1996 and developed to be available to use mixed beams. Following the shutdown of the JRR-2, JRR-4 was renewed for medical use in 1998. Both reactors have capacity to yield thermal neutron beam, epithermal neutron beam and mixed beams. The development of the neutron source lead us to make a new protocol. (author)

Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Dept. of Neurosurgery National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentsuji, Kagawa (Japan)

1999-08-01

95

Competency-Based Pathology Residency Training Program: Hacettepe University Experience  

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Full Text Available Objective: Pathology residency training in the 21st century is being intensively discussed in order to revise the goals and methods of the program. Based on these discussions, a competency-based pathology residency training program was conducted at the Hacettepe University Pathology Department in 2002. We performed a survey in order to obtain more comprehensive data on the perceptions of strenghts and weaknesses of our competency-based pathology residency training program.Material and Method: A questionnaire consisting of 45 questions focused on microscopical and gross examination, intraoperative consultation, autopsy, cytopathology, molecular pathology and laboratory management, was completed by 5 pathology residents and 5 recent graduates.Results: Results from our survey suggested that the residents and recent graduates were generally confident in several aspects of pathology, but major deficiencies were noted in laboratory management and molecular diagnostic skills.Conclusion: The results of this survey will provide input for future pathology training programs in our department so that we will be able to train pathologists that are competent in pathology practice and prepared for the changing role of pathologists in patient care management in 21th century.

Figen SÖYLEMEZO?LU; Cenk SÖKMENSÜER; Arzu SUNGUR

2009-01-01

96

Handheld computing in pathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in ...

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

97

Aspectos emocionales en la infertilidad: una revisión de la literatura reciente/ Emotional Aspects in Infertility: a Review of Recent Literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se entiende por infertilidad la imposibilidad de una pareja de lograr un embarazo, después de un año de vida sexual activa, sin uso de anticonceptivos. En Chile afecta al 15% de las parejas en edad fértil. La etiología es variada, a veces desconocida (20%). Se ha evaluado el impacto que tiene en la pareja el diagnóstico de infertilidad. Es descrito como una crisis vital, a la cual contribuyen muchos factores, y se traduce en un gran desgaste emocional, por su caráct (more) er cíclico. Se repite una y otra vez la vivencia de esperanza (al inicio del ciclo) y fracaso (cuando llega la menstruación). Impacta el elevado costo económico del tratamiento, el sometimiento a procesos quirúrgicos y la invasión a la privacidad sexual. En parejas infértiles se han encontrado sentimientos de inadecuación, desesperación, pena, envidia y celos hacia la mujer embarazada, miedo, pérdida de la libido, disfunción eréctil, inestabilidad emocional, pérdida de la autoestima, culpa, depresión e ideación suicida. Se han descrito trastornos psicosomáticos, represión de las reacciones emocionales, deseo frenético de adoptar un hijo rápidamente o incorporarse a algún programa de fertilización asistida. Luego del fracaso terapéutico, desenlace habitual (70%), el 50% de las parejas presenta alguna alteración psicológica importante. Los autores revisan la literatura reciente sobre el tema y subrayan la necesidad de la participación activa de los profesionales de la salud mental junto a los equipos de medicina reproductiva Abstract in english Infertility is defined as a couple's inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. This problem affects 15% of couples of fertile age in Chile. The impact of infertility on the couple is assessed, and it is described as an emotionally debilitating life crisis due to multiple factors. It is characterized by a cyclical pattern in which the experience of hope (at the beginning of the cycle) is recurrently followed by the experience of failure (whe (more) n menses begin). The high financial burden of treatment, the need to undergo surgical procedures, and the invasion of sexual intimacy are additional sources of stress. Infertile couples may suffer feelings of inadequacy, despair, sorrow, envy and jealousy towards pregnant women, fear, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, emotional instability, loss of self-esteem, guilt, depression, and suicidal ideation. Psychosomatic disorders, the repression of emotional reactions, and frantic desires to quickly adopt a child or to join a program of assisted reproduction are described. Following therapeutic failure, which is the most common outcome (70%), fifty percent of couples show some significant psychological distress. The authors review recent literature on the subject and underscore the need for mental health professionals to collaborate with infertility specialists in these cases

Palacios, Estela; Jadresic, Enrique

2000-04-01

98

Aspectos emocionales en la infertilidad: una revisión de la literatura reciente Emotional Aspects in Infertility: a Review of Recent Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se entiende por infertilidad la imposibilidad de una pareja de lograr un embarazo, después de un año de vida sexual activa, sin uso de anticonceptivos. En Chile afecta al 15% de las parejas en edad fértil. La etiología es variada, a veces desconocida (20%). Se ha evaluado el impacto que tiene en la pareja el diagnóstico de infertilidad. Es descrito como una crisis vital, a la cual contribuyen muchos factores, y se traduce en un gran desgaste emocional, por su carácter cíclico. Se repite una y otra vez la vivencia de esperanza (al inicio del ciclo) y fracaso (cuando llega la menstruación). Impacta el elevado costo económico del tratamiento, el sometimiento a procesos quirúrgicos y la invasión a la privacidad sexual. En parejas infértiles se han encontrado sentimientos de inadecuación, desesperación, pena, envidia y celos hacia la mujer embarazada, miedo, pérdida de la libido, disfunción eréctil, inestabilidad emocional, pérdida de la autoestima, culpa, depresión e ideación suicida. Se han descrito trastornos psicosomáticos, represión de las reacciones emocionales, deseo frenético de adoptar un hijo rápidamente o incorporarse a algún programa de fertilización asistida. Luego del fracaso terapéutico, desenlace habitual (70%), el 50% de las parejas presenta alguna alteración psicológica importante. Los autores revisan la literatura reciente sobre el tema y subrayan la necesidad de la participación activa de los profesionales de la salud mental junto a los equipos de medicina reproductivaInfertility is defined as a couple's inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. This problem affects 15% of couples of fertile age in Chile. The impact of infertility on the couple is assessed, and it is described as an emotionally debilitating life crisis due to multiple factors. It is characterized by a cyclical pattern in which the experience of hope (at the beginning of the cycle) is recurrently followed by the experience of failure (when menses begin). The high financial burden of treatment, the need to undergo surgical procedures, and the invasion of sexual intimacy are additional sources of stress. Infertile couples may suffer feelings of inadequacy, despair, sorrow, envy and jealousy towards pregnant women, fear, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, emotional instability, loss of self-esteem, guilt, depression, and suicidal ideation. Psychosomatic disorders, the repression of emotional reactions, and frantic desires to quickly adopt a child or to join a program of assisted reproduction are described. Following therapeutic failure, which is the most common outcome (70%), fifty percent of couples show some significant psychological distress. The authors review recent literature on the subject and underscore the need for mental health professionals to collaborate with infertility specialists in these cases

Estela Palacios; Enrique Jadresic

2000-01-01

99

Analysis of pathological and non-pathological human skeletal remains by FT-IR spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we report the chemical analyses of various non-pathological, tuberculosis and syphilis infected bone samples from different burial environments by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), in the framework of a general study of diagenesis. Dating human skeletal remains is one of the most important and yet unreliable aspects of forensic anthropology. In this paper, a new method has been suggested, using the crystallinity index and carbonate-phosphate index as a means of distinction between recent and archaeological, anthropological bone samples. Pathological bone samples were analyzed with the same method to see if changes in crystallinity interfere with the process of dating.

Nagy G; Lorand T; Patonai Z; Montsko G; Bajnoczky I; Marcsik A; Mark L

2008-02-01

100

Handheld computing in pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

2012-04-18

 
 
 
 
101

Handheld computing in pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology.

Park S; Parwani A; Satyanarayanan M; Pantanowitz L

2012-01-01

102

Hepatobiliary pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies pertaining to the histopathology of the liver and biliary tract are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies are reviewed which describe the histologic features and clinical behavior of 'plasma cell hepatitis' in the posttransplant setting. Cytokeratin 7, EMA, and CD68 were found to be useful immunohistochemical stains in fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma and may aid in the distinction between this variant and classic hepatocellular carcinoma. Arginase-1, another immunohistochemical stain, was found to have improved sensitivity over HepPar-1 in the diagnosis of classic hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolic syndrome is common in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and may be an indicator of more severe disease activity and fibrosis. Histologic features were described that may aid in the distinction between the steroid-responsive IgG4-associated cholangitis and the steroid-nonresponsive primary sclerosing cholangitis. In addition, immunohistochemical stains for IgM and IgG may be helpful in distinguishing between autoimmune liver diseases, with primary biliary cirrhosis and its antimitochondrial-negative variant, autoimmune cholangitis, being the two autoimmune liver diseases with a predominance of IgM-positive plasma cells. SUMMARY: Several informative studies pertaining to hepatobiliary pathology were published this year, with topics including posttransplant plasma cell hepatitis, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the use of immunohistochemical stains specific for various immunoglobulin subtypes.

Taylor SL; Haque S

2011-05-01

103

[Recent aspects of Parkinson therapy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After a short summary of the leading symptoms, the neuropathological and the pathobiochemical findings in Parkinson's disease, the possibilities of pharmacological treatment are pointed out. The choice of the suitable medication depends on the stage and severity of the disorder and the leading symptoms. Medical side-effects and contraindications of the different antiparkinsonica must be considered. Problems of long-term medication especially of L-dopa are discussed. Examples of reasonable "combined therapies" are given allowing the attempt to reduce the L-dopa dose without losing treatment effectiveness. In addition to the pharmacological treatment and for special indications, surgical i.e. stereotactic manipulations, intensive physiosocial care, physiotherapy and logotherapy are very necessary.

Jörg J; Janssen A

1987-01-01

104

[Recent aspects of Parkinson therapy].  

Science.gov (United States)

After a short summary of the leading symptoms, the neuropathological and the pathobiochemical findings in Parkinson's disease, the possibilities of pharmacological treatment are pointed out. The choice of the suitable medication depends on the stage and severity of the disorder and the leading symptoms. Medical side-effects and contraindications of the different antiparkinsonica must be considered. Problems of long-term medication especially of L-dopa are discussed. Examples of reasonable "combined therapies" are given allowing the attempt to reduce the L-dopa dose without losing treatment effectiveness. In addition to the pharmacological treatment and for special indications, surgical i.e. stereotactic manipulations, intensive physiosocial care, physiotherapy and logotherapy are very necessary. PMID:3107231

Jörg, J; Janssen, A

105

Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are driven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor.

Lawrie M; Good A

2013-07-01

106

[Pathology- a new revival].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The field of pathology has undergone considerable change in recent years. The editor and editorial board of this journal are to be commended for their decision to devote a special issue to the field of pathology. Pathology deals with the characterization, investigation, and diagnosis of disease and disease processes and as such, has Long been considered one of the foundations of medicine. It is a rich and multi-faceted field which has retained its breadth of scope in the face of ever-increasing specialization and sub-specialization in medicine. In addition to its classic roles in autopsy, case description, and the diagnosis of pathoLogic processes, new and innovative spheres of activity are becoming integral to the field, especially in the realm of molecular pathology. Pathology is a Leading player in the new age of "personalized cancer therapy", where pathologists are responsible not only for diagnosing disease in the tissue, but also for conducting additional tests which may predict its response to specific drug therapies. In this context, moLecular pathology has become essential to the field both in the provision of cLinical service and research. To fully implement this trend, we are witness to the rise of tissue collection and tissue banking initiatives for both diagnostic and research purposes. A national tissue banking project in Israel has recently received considerable attention.

Barshack I

2013-06-01

107

RECOGNITION, JUSTICE AND SOCIAL PATHOLOGIES IN AXEL HONNETH'S RECENT WRITINGS Reconocimiento, justicia y patologías sociales en los trabajos recientes de Axel Honneth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses Axel Honneth's recent book on Reification and its relation to Honneth's theory of recognition. It critically examines Honneth's hypothesis concerning the existential roots of recognition, and compares two classical concepts of social critique, Reification and alienation, in order to argue for the superiority of the latter over the formerEste ensayo discute el último libro de Axel Honneth sobre la cosificación (Verdinglichung, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005) y su relación con la teoría del reconocimiento avanzada por el mismo autor. El ensayo examina críticamente la nueva hipótesis de Honneth sobre las raíces existenciales del reconocimiento, y hace una comparación entre dos conceptos clave de la teorí crítica, la cosificación y la alienación, para argumentar la superioridad teórica de esteúltimo concepto

STÉPHANE HABER

2007-01-01

108

Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog/ Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de neurônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observa (more) dos sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma. Abstract in english A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the (more) right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

Martins, B.D.C.; Torres, B.B.J.; Rodriguez, A.A.M.; Gamba, C.O.; Cassali, G.D.; Lavalle, G.E.; Martins, G.D.C.; Melo, E.G.

2013-04-01

109

Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog Sinais neurológicos multifocais devido ao hemangiossarcoma multicêntrico em um cão Pinscher: aspectos clínicos e patológicos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.Uma cadela Pinscher de três anos de idade foi atendida em Hospital Veterinário Escola com histórico de dor nos membros pélvicos com progressão aguda para paraparesia não ambulatória. O animal estava apático e anoréxico há seis dias. Os achados neurológicos foram compatíveis com sinais de lesão de neurônios motores superiores para o membro pélvico esquerdo devido a uma massa no 12º corpo vertebral comprimindo a medula espinhal. Por outro lado, foram observados sinais de lesão de neurônios motores inferiores para o membro pélvico direito devido a uma fratura patológica no colo proximal do fêmur direito que comprimiu o nervo isquiático. Análises histopatológicas de todos os órgãos revelaram proliferação de células endoteliais com crescimento infiltrativo e organização sólida em estruturas vasculares. Adicionalmente, a análise imuno-histoquímica revelou baixa proliferação e marcação citoplasmática positiva para CD-31, confirmando a natureza vascular da neoplasia. Os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos foram consistentes com hemangiossarcoma.

B.D.C. Martins; B.B.J. Torres; A.A.M. Rodriguez; C.O. Gamba; G.D. Cassali; G.E. Lavalle; G.D.C. Martins; E.G. Melo

2013-01-01

110

Comparing virtual with conventional microscopy for the consensus diagnosis of Barrett's neoplasia in the AspECT Barrett's chemoprevention trial pathology audit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional versus virtual microscopy for the diagnosis of Barrett's neoplasia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-one biopsies from 35 ASPirin Esomeprazole ChemopreventionTrial (AspECT) trial patients were given a Barrett's neoplasia score (1-5) by a panel of five pathologists using conventional microscopy. Thirty-three biopsies positive for neoplasia were digitized and rescored blindly by virtual microscopy. Diagnostic reliability was compared between conventional and virtual microscopy using Fleiss' kappa. There was substantial reliability of diagnostic agreement (? = 0.712) scoring the 61 biopsies and moderate agreement scoring the subgroup of 33 'positive' biopsies with both conventional microscopy (? = 0.598) and virtual microscopy (? = 0.436). Inter-observer diagnostic agreement between two pathologists by virtual microscopy was substantial (? = 0.76). Comparison of panel consensus neoplasia scores between conventional and virtual microscopy was almost perfect (? = 0.8769). However, with virtual microscopy there was lowering of the consensus neoplasia score in nine biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic agreement with virtual microscopy compares favourably with conventional microscopy in what is recognized to be a challenging area of diagnostic practice. However, this study highlights possible limitations for this method in the primary diagnostic setting.

Sanders DS; Grabsch H; Harrison R; Bateman A; Going J; Goldin R; Mapstone N; Novelli M; Walker MM; Jankowski J

2012-11-01

111

Aspectos clínico-patológicos do envenenamento botrópico experimental em equinos Clinical and pathological aspects of the experimental poisoning by Bothrops snakes in horses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em equinos, inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni e Bothropoides neuwiedi, com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para o diagnóstico do envenenamento pela picada dessas. Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a seis equinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,5 e 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0,8 e 1,6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0,205mg/kg (B. moojeni) e 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). Todos os equinos, menos os que receberam o veneno de B. jararacussu, morreram Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se entre 8min e 2h10min após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou, nos quatro casos de êxito letal, de 24h41min a 70h41min, e nos dois equinos que se recuperaram foi de 16 dias. O quadro clínico, independente do tipo de veneno e das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, arrastar da pinça do membro inoculado no solo, inquietação, apatia, diminuição da resposta aos estímulos externos, mucosas pálidas e hemorragias. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram anemia normocítica normocrômica com progressiva diminuição no número de hemácias, da hemoglobina e do hematócrito, e leucocitose por neutrofilia. Houve aumento de alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, dehidrogenase láctica, ureia e glicose, bem como aumento do tempo de ativação da protrombina e do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada. Os achados de necropsia foram extensas hemorragias no tecido subcutâneo, com presença de sangue não coagulado e em boa parte associadas a edema (edema hemorrágico), que se estendia desde o local da inoculação até as regiões cervical, torácica, escapular e membro. Na periferia das áreas hemorrágicas havia predominantemente edema gelatinoso. Havia ainda presença de grande quantidade de líquido sanguinolento nas cavidades torácica, pericárdica e abdominal. Não foram encontradas alterações histológicas significativas.The clinical and pathological alterations in horses, experimentally inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni and Bothropoides neuwiedi poisons, were studied with the purpose to supply subsidies for the diagnosis of the poisoning. The liofilized poisons were diluted in 1ml of physiologic solution and subcutaneously administered to six horses, at doses of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0.8 and 1.6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0.205mg/kg (B. moojeni) and 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). All horses, less those that received the poison of B. jararacussu, died The clinical signs began between 8min and 2h10min after the inoculation. The clinical course varied, in the four cases of lethal exit, from 24h41min to 70h41min, and was 16 days in the two horses that recovered,. The clinical picture, independent of the poison type and doses, was characterized by tumefaction at the site of inoculation, dragging on the ground with the hooves of the inoculated leg, inquietude, apathy, decrease of reaction to external stimuli, pale mucous membranes and hemorrhages. Laboratory exams revealed normocytic normochrômic anemia with progressive decrease in the number of erythrocytes, of hemoglobin and of the hematocrit, and leucocytosis due to neutrophilia. There was increase of alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, lactic dehydrogenase, ureia and glucose, as well increase of the time of activation of protrombin and partial tromboplastina. At postmortem examination, the main findings were extensive hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissue, with the presence of non-coagulated blood, to a large degree associataed with edema (hemorragic edema), which extended from the inoculation site of the venom to the cervical, thoraxic and scapular region, and to the leg. In the periphery of the hemorragic areas existed gelatinous edema. There were great amounts of sanguinary liquid in the thoracic, pericardic and abdominal cavities. No significant histological alterations were found.

Melina Garcia de Sousa; Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia; Marilene de Farias Brito; Alessandra Belo Reis; Carlos Magno Oliveira; Nayra Fernanda Freitas; Cairo Henrique Oliveira; José Diomedes Barbosa

2011-01-01

112

Aspectos clínico-patológicos do envenenamento botrópico experimental em equinos/ Clinical and pathological aspects of the experimental poisoning by Bothrops snakes in horses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em equinos, inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni e Bothropoides neuwiedi, com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para o diagnóstico do envenenamento pela picada dessas. Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a seis equinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,5 e 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0 (more) ,8 e 1,6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0,205mg/kg (B. moojeni) e 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). Todos os equinos, menos os que receberam o veneno de B. jararacussu, morreram Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se entre 8min e 2h10min após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou, nos quatro casos de êxito letal, de 24h41min a 70h41min, e nos dois equinos que se recuperaram foi de 16 dias. O quadro clínico, independente do tipo de veneno e das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, arrastar da pinça do membro inoculado no solo, inquietação, apatia, diminuição da resposta aos estímulos externos, mucosas pálidas e hemorragias. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram anemia normocítica normocrômica com progressiva diminuição no número de hemácias, da hemoglobina e do hematócrito, e leucocitose por neutrofilia. Houve aumento de alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, dehidrogenase láctica, ureia e glicose, bem como aumento do tempo de ativação da protrombina e do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada. Os achados de necropsia foram extensas hemorragias no tecido subcutâneo, com presença de sangue não coagulado e em boa parte associadas a edema (edema hemorrágico), que se estendia desde o local da inoculação até as regiões cervical, torácica, escapular e membro. Na periferia das áreas hemorrágicas havia predominantemente edema gelatinoso. Havia ainda presença de grande quantidade de líquido sanguinolento nas cavidades torácica, pericárdica e abdominal. Não foram encontradas alterações histológicas significativas. Abstract in english The clinical and pathological alterations in horses, experimentally inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni and Bothropoides neuwiedi poisons, were studied with the purpose to supply subsidies for the diagnosis of the poisoning. The liofilized poisons were diluted in 1ml of physiologic solution and subcutaneously administered to six horses, at doses of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (B. jararaca), 0.8 and 1.6mg/kg (B. jararacussu), 0.205mg/kg (B. moo (more) jeni) and 1mg/kg (B. neuwiedi). All horses, less those that received the poison of B. jararacussu, died The clinical signs began between 8min and 2h10min after the inoculation. The clinical course varied, in the four cases of lethal exit, from 24h41min to 70h41min, and was 16 days in the two horses that recovered,. The clinical picture, independent of the poison type and doses, was characterized by tumefaction at the site of inoculation, dragging on the ground with the hooves of the inoculated leg, inquietude, apathy, decrease of reaction to external stimuli, pale mucous membranes and hemorrhages. Laboratory exams revealed normocytic normochrômic anemia with progressive decrease in the number of erythrocytes, of hemoglobin and of the hematocrit, and leucocytosis due to neutrophilia. There was increase of alamina aminotransferase, creatinaquinase, lactic dehydrogenase, ureia and glucose, as well increase of the time of activation of protrombin and partial tromboplastina. At postmortem examination, the main findings were extensive hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissue, with the presence of non-coagulated blood, to a large degree associataed with edema (hemorragic edema), which extended from the inoculation site of the venom to the cervical, thoraxic and scapular region, and to the leg. In the periphery of the hemorragic areas existed gelatinous edema. There were great amounts of sanguinary liquid in the thoracic, pericardic and abdominal cavities.

Sousa, Melina Garcia de; Tokarnia, Carlos Hubinger; Brito, Marilene de Farias; Reis, Alessandra Belo; Oliveira, Carlos Magno; Freitas, Nayra Fernanda; Oliveira, Cairo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

2011-09-01

113

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em equinos Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental crotalic envenoming in horses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Descrevem-se os quadros clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de equinos inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus na antiga nomenclatura), com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios que favoreçam a compreensão desse tipo de acidente ofídico em equinos. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1ml de solução salina a 0,9% e inoculado por via subcutânea em cinco equinos, nas doses de 0,12mg/kg (um animal), 0,066mg/kg (dois animais) e 0,03mg/kg (dois animais). O veneno causou a morte do equino que recebeu a dose de 0,12mg/kg e de um dos dois que receberam a dose de 0,066mg/kg, com evolução de 27h27min e 52h29min, respectivamente. O segundo animal que recebeu a dose de 0,066mg/kg também adoeceu, mas recuperou-se após 12 dias da inoculação. A dose de 0,03mg/kg determinou quadros não fatais do envenenamento, com período de evolução que variou entre 6 e 10 dias. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por considerável aumento de volume no local de inoculação (escápula) que se estendeu por todo o membro, apatia e cabeça baixa, alterações locomotoras evidenciadas pelo arrastar das pinças no solo, decúbito e dificuldade para levantar, redução dos reflexos auricular, palatal, do lábio superior e de ameaça, e aumento das frequências cardíaca e respiratória. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram leucocitose por neutrofilia e linfocitose em apenas dois animais. Houve aumento das enzimas creatina quinase (CK), dehidrogenase láctica (DHL) e da ureia, e também redução nos níveis séricos de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) aumentou nos equinos que morreram. Os achados de necropsia foram edema do tecido subcutâneo em todo o membro em que foi aplicado o veneno, sufusões no epicárdio dos ventrículos cardíacos esquerdo e direito, e bexiga com áreas hemorrágicas em grande parte da mucosa. Ao exame histopatológico observaram-se fígado com moderada vacuolização difusa, afetando mais a zona intermediária do lóbulo hepático, leve dilatação dos sinusoides hepáticos em algumas áreas e rim com leve dilatação dos túbulos uriníferos, principalmente no córtex.The clinic-pathological picture and laboratory findings in horses experimentally inoculated with the venom of Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus, according to the former nomenclature) are described. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of this type of snake accident in horses. The lyophilized venom was diluted into 1ml of a 0.9% saline solution and was inoculated subcutaneously into five horses, at the doses of 0.12mg/kg (one horse), 0.066mg/kg (two horses) and 0.03mg/kg (two horses). The venom caused death of the horse that had received 0.12mg/kg, and of one horse of the two that had received the dose of 0.066mg/kg. The clinical course varied from 27h27min to 52h29min. The second horse inoculated with 0.066mg/kg recovered within 12 days after inoculation. The dose of 0.03mg/kg had a course of 6 to 10 days, but did not cause fatal envenomation. The clinical picture in the horses was characterized by swelling of the inoculation site (shoulder) that spread to the whole leg, by apathy and lowered head, locomotory alterations shown by dragging of the hoves on the ground, decubitus and difficulty to get up, reduction of auricular, palatal, upperlip and threat reflexes, and increase of heart and breathing frequency. The laboratory examination revealed leukocytosis and lymphocytosis in two horses. There was increase of the creatine-kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (DHL) and urea, and reduction in the seric levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The activated partial tromboplastina time (TTPA) increased in the horses that died. Postmortem findings were edema of the subcutaneous tissue of the whole leg into which the venom was inoculated, suffusions in the epicard of left and right heart ventricles, and bladder with hemorrhagic areas in its mucosa. Histopatologic examination r

Cinthia Távora A. Lopes; Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia; Marilene de Farias Brito; Melina Garcia S. de Sousa; Carlos Magno Chaves Oliveira; Natália da Silva e Silva; Danillo Henrique S. Lima; José Diomedes Barbosa

2012-01-01

114

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em equinos/ Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental crotalic envenoming in horses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Descrevem-se os quadros clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de equinos inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus na antiga nomenclatura), com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios que favoreçam a compreensão desse tipo de acidente ofídico em equinos. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1ml de solução salina a 0,9% e inoculado por via subcutânea em cinco equinos, nas doses de 0,12mg/kg (um animal), 0,06 (more) 6mg/kg (dois animais) e 0,03mg/kg (dois animais). O veneno causou a morte do equino que recebeu a dose de 0,12mg/kg e de um dos dois que receberam a dose de 0,066mg/kg, com evolução de 27h27min e 52h29min, respectivamente. O segundo animal que recebeu a dose de 0,066mg/kg também adoeceu, mas recuperou-se após 12 dias da inoculação. A dose de 0,03mg/kg determinou quadros não fatais do envenenamento, com período de evolução que variou entre 6 e 10 dias. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por considerável aumento de volume no local de inoculação (escápula) que se estendeu por todo o membro, apatia e cabeça baixa, alterações locomotoras evidenciadas pelo arrastar das pinças no solo, decúbito e dificuldade para levantar, redução dos reflexos auricular, palatal, do lábio superior e de ameaça, e aumento das frequências cardíaca e respiratória. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram leucocitose por neutrofilia e linfocitose em apenas dois animais. Houve aumento das enzimas creatina quinase (CK), dehidrogenase láctica (DHL) e da ureia, e também redução nos níveis séricos de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) aumentou nos equinos que morreram. Os achados de necropsia foram edema do tecido subcutâneo em todo o membro em que foi aplicado o veneno, sufusões no epicárdio dos ventrículos cardíacos esquerdo e direito, e bexiga com áreas hemorrágicas em grande parte da mucosa. Ao exame histopatológico observaram-se fígado com moderada vacuolização difusa, afetando mais a zona intermediária do lóbulo hepático, leve dilatação dos sinusoides hepáticos em algumas áreas e rim com leve dilatação dos túbulos uriníferos, principalmente no córtex. Abstract in english The clinic-pathological picture and laboratory findings in horses experimentally inoculated with the venom of Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus, according to the former nomenclature) are described. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of this type of snake accident in horses. The lyophilized venom was diluted into 1ml of a 0.9% saline solution and was inoculated subcutaneously into five horses, at the doses of 0.12mg/kg (more) (one horse), 0.066mg/kg (two horses) and 0.03mg/kg (two horses). The venom caused death of the horse that had received 0.12mg/kg, and of one horse of the two that had received the dose of 0.066mg/kg. The clinical course varied from 27h27min to 52h29min. The second horse inoculated with 0.066mg/kg recovered within 12 days after inoculation. The dose of 0.03mg/kg had a course of 6 to 10 days, but did not cause fatal envenomation. The clinical picture in the horses was characterized by swelling of the inoculation site (shoulder) that spread to the whole leg, by apathy and lowered head, locomotory alterations shown by dragging of the hoves on the ground, decubitus and difficulty to get up, reduction of auricular, palatal, upperlip and threat reflexes, and increase of heart and breathing frequency. The laboratory examination revealed leukocytosis and lymphocytosis in two horses. There was increase of the creatine-kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (DHL) and urea, and reduction in the seric levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The activated partial tromboplastina time (TTPA) increased in the horses that died. Postmortem findings were edema of the subcutaneous tissue of the whole leg into which the venom was inoculated, suffusions in the epicard of left and right heart ventricles, and bladder with he

Lopes, Cinthia Távora A.; Tokarnia, Carlos Hubinger; Brito, Marilene de Farias; Sousa, Melina Garcia S. de; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Silva, Natália da Silva e; Lima, Danillo Henrique S.; Barbosa, José Diomedes

2012-09-01

115

Comparative molecular developmental aspects of the mammalian- and the avian lungs, and the insectan tracheal system by branching morphogenesis: recent advances and future directions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Gas exchangers fundamentally form by branching morphogenesis (BM), a mechanistically profoundly complex process which derives from coherent expression and regulation of multiple genes that direct cell-to-cell interactions, differentiation, and movements by signaling of various molecular morphogenetic cues at specific times and particular places in the developing organ. Coordinated expression of growth-instructing factors determines sizes and sites where bifurcation occurs, by how much a part elongates before it divides, and the angle at which branching occurs. BM is essentially induced by dualities of factors where through feedback- or feed forward loops agonists/antagonists are activated or repressed. The intricate transactions between the development orchestrating molecular factors determine the ultimate phenotype. From the primeval time when the transformation of unicellular organisms to multicellular ones occurred by systematic accretion of cells, BM has been perpetually conserved. Canonical signalling, transcriptional pathways, and other instructive molecular factors are commonly employed within and across species, tissues, and stages of development. While much still remain to be elucidated and some of what has been reported corroborated and reconciled with rest of existing data, notable progress has in recent times been made in understanding the mechanism of BM. By identifying and characterizing the morphogenetic drivers, and markers and their regulatory dynamics, the elemental underpinnings of BM have been more precisely explained. Broadening these insights will allow more effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions of developmental abnormalities and pathologies in pre- and postnatal lungs. Conservation of the molecular factors which are involved in the development of the lung (and other branched organs) is a classic example of nature’s astuteness in economically utilizing finite resources. Once purposefully formed, well-tested and tried ways and means are adopted, preserved, and widely used to engineer the most optimal phenotypes. The material and time costs of developing utterly new instruments and routines with every drastic biological change (e.g. adaptation and speciation) are circumvented. This should assure the best possible structures and therefore functions, ensuring survival and evolutionary success.

Maina John N

2012-01-01

116

Multiple sclerosis pathology: evolution of pathogenetic concepts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This historical review describes the evolution of pathogenetic concepts of multiple sclerosis (MS) from the viewpoint of pathology. MS research is based on studies of descriptive neuropathology, performed during the 19th and early-20th century, which defined the basic nature of the inflammatory demyelinating lesions. Advances in basic immunology and neurobiology, performed during the second half of the 20th century, paved the way for the understanding of the molecular mechanims involved in inflammation and well as tissue destruction in this disease. However, recent clinical and neuroradiological studies on the evolution of the disease and its brain lesions as well as ongoing attempts to define the genetic basis of the disease indicate that our current pathogenetic concepts may be too simple and that essential aspects of MS pathology have to be redefined. PMID:16196388

Lassmann, Hans

2005-07-01

117

Multiple sclerosis pathology: evolution of pathogenetic concepts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This historical review describes the evolution of pathogenetic concepts of multiple sclerosis (MS) from the viewpoint of pathology. MS research is based on studies of descriptive neuropathology, performed during the 19th and early-20th century, which defined the basic nature of the inflammatory demyelinating lesions. Advances in basic immunology and neurobiology, performed during the second half of the 20th century, paved the way for the understanding of the molecular mechanims involved in inflammation and well as tissue destruction in this disease. However, recent clinical and neuroradiological studies on the evolution of the disease and its brain lesions as well as ongoing attempts to define the genetic basis of the disease indicate that our current pathogenetic concepts may be too simple and that essential aspects of MS pathology have to be redefined.

Lassmann H

2005-07-01

118

The analysis of the recent economic and social aspects important for the management of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The management system of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic is using already more that ten years as a one tool a monetary value of man Sv. The appropriate values are published in the Decree on radiation protection and they are distinguished for different types and levels of exposure. The derivation of these values has been done about 15 years ago based on studies performed at the 90's. Recently the State Office for Nuclear Safety initiated a new pilot study with the following scope: 1-) To analyze the current economic approaches and techniques used for the determination of the monetary statistical value of the human life under new economical, political and social conditions; 2-) To design the mathematical model for the determination of the lost production and to gain economic and demographic data necessary for the calculation; 3-) To organize a pilot survey of the public opinion in the Czech Republic with the accent on the detriment caused by ionizing radiation and on the willingness to pay for the averted risk or to accept the compensation of the elevated risk. The first evaluation of the results shows that a new evaluated values are not significantly different for the currently used values in the legislation. Although the approaches of the life value estimation are different the valuation is relatively consistent and the average value of the statistical life fall into the range between 300 - 350 thousands CZK (app.10-13 ths EUR) per one year of life. The study confirmed a fact that the optimization of the processes covering the threat of the human health and life is very complicated, complex and demanding a multidisciplinary approach. The study and research will continue in the future focusing to the particular aspects of the problem. The poster will describe in details the methods used and will present the results achieved. (author)

2008-01-01

119

Patología forense y neurología asociada de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos: Estudio práctico Forensic pathology and associated neurology of head injury: Practical aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se reúnen en este trabajo de forma sucinta los conocimientos más útiles en la resolución forense de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE) letales. El estudio está orientado hacia la identificación macroscópica, la causalidad y los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones, con apoyo iconográfico. Se hace especial hincapié en la valoración de las fracturas craneales, las hemorragias subaracnoideas por lesión de la arteria vertebral, el edema y la hiperemia cerebral postraumáticos, así como algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la autopsia de los fallecidos por trauma cefálico, incluida la retención y fijación del encéfalo. Algunos de estos conocimientos son antiguos y aunque olvidados o desconocidos por muchos han resistido el paso del tiempo, manteniendo plena vigencia. Igualmente se incluyen las características clínicas esenciales de cada trastorno, los nuevos avances en el diagnóstico neuropatológico de los TCE, en su fisiopatología y sus sospechadas relaciones con la posterior aparición de enfermedad degenerativa tipo Alzheimer y las alteraciones genómicas que predisponen a una evolución fatal de TCE ligeros o moderados.This review summarizes in a brief format the most useful tips in the forensic evaluation of fatal head trauma. This study is aimed at the macroscopic evaluation, causality and production mechanisms of the lesions, with image-based support. Skull fractures, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to lesion of the vertebral artery, posttraumatic cerebral edema and hyperaemia as well as basic recommendations to carry out the autopsy procedure (including the retention and fixation of the brain) in bodies with a lethal traumatic brain injury (TBI) will be analyzed. Some of this knowledge has been developed a long time ago, and although sometimes forgotten, their meaning is still fully patent. This study also points out the essential clinical characteristics of each condition and recent advances in the neuropathological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its physiopathology. Finally, the suspected relationship of head injuries with the late development of degenerative disorders (Alzheimer-like); as well as new insights relating genomics and fatal evolution of mild to moderate TBIs are included.

J.L. Palomo Rando; V. Ramos Medina; I. Palomo Gómez; A. López Calvo; I.M. Santos Amaya

2008-01-01

120

Patología forense y neurología asociada de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos: Estudio práctico/ Forensic pathology and associated neurology of head injury: Practical aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se reúnen en este trabajo de forma sucinta los conocimientos más útiles en la resolución forense de los traumatismos craneoencefálicos (TCE) letales. El estudio está orientado hacia la identificación macroscópica, la causalidad y los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones, con apoyo iconográfico. Se hace especial hincapié en la valoración de las fracturas craneales, las hemorragias subaracnoideas por lesión de la arteria vertebral, el edema y la hiperemia c (more) erebral postraumáticos, así como algunas recomendaciones para la práctica de la autopsia de los fallecidos por trauma cefálico, incluida la retención y fijación del encéfalo. Algunos de estos conocimientos son antiguos y aunque olvidados o desconocidos por muchos han resistido el paso del tiempo, manteniendo plena vigencia. Igualmente se incluyen las características clínicas esenciales de cada trastorno, los nuevos avances en el diagnóstico neuropatológico de los TCE, en su fisiopatología y sus sospechadas relaciones con la posterior aparición de enfermedad degenerativa tipo Alzheimer y las alteraciones genómicas que predisponen a una evolución fatal de TCE ligeros o moderados. Abstract in english This review summarizes in a brief format the most useful tips in the forensic evaluation of fatal head trauma. This study is aimed at the macroscopic evaluation, causality and production mechanisms of the lesions, with image-based support. Skull fractures, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to lesion of the vertebral artery, posttraumatic cerebral edema and hyperaemia as well as basic recommendations to carry out the autopsy procedure (including the retention and fixation of the (more) brain) in bodies with a lethal traumatic brain injury (TBI) will be analyzed. Some of this knowledge has been developed a long time ago, and although sometimes forgotten, their meaning is still fully patent. This study also points out the essential clinical characteristics of each condition and recent advances in the neuropathological diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its physiopathology. Finally, the suspected relationship of head injuries with the late development of degenerative disorders (Alzheimer-like); as well as new insights relating genomics and fatal evolution of mild to moderate TBIs are included.

Palomo Rando, J.L.; Ramos Medina, V.; Palomo Gómez, I.; López Calvo, A.; Santos Amaya, I.M.

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Aspectos toxicológico, clínico-patológico e ultraestrutural das intoxicações iatrogênica e experimental por vitamina D em coelhos Toxicological, clinic-pathological and ultrastructural aspects of iatrogenic and experimental poisoning by vitamin D in rabbits  

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Full Text Available São descritos aspectos toxicológicos, clínico-patológicos e ultraestruturais de coelhos intoxicados iatrogênica e experimentalmente por vitamina D por via subcutânea. Clinicamente, os animais evidenciaram sinais de insuficiência cardiovascular como ascite e edema pulmonar, hiporexia, anorexia, diarréia mucosa, emagrecimento e apatia. As clássicas alterações de mineralização e, por vezes, osseificação, do sistema cardiovascular, bem como as alterações de rins, pulmões, estômago, entre outros órgãos, foram reproduzidas com administrações subcutâneas de solução oleosa de colecalciferol (vitamina D3 não-ativada).Toxicological, clinic-pathological and ultrastructural aspects of iatrogenic and experimental subcutaneous poisoning in rabbits by vitamin D are described. Clinically the animals showed signs of cardiovascular insufficiency, as ascite and lung edema, hyporexia, anorexia, mucous diarrhoea, loss of weight and apathy. The classical alterations of minera-lization and, occasionally, ossification of the cardiovascular system, as well the lesions of kidneys, lungs, stomach, among other organs, were reproduced by the subcutaneous administration of an oily solution of cholecalciferol (non-activated vitamin D3).

Paulo V. Peixoto; Marcius A.P. Klem; Marilene F. Brito; Valíria D. Cerqueira; Ticiana N. França

2010-01-01

122

Aspectos toxicológico, clínico-patológico e ultraestrutural das intoxicações iatrogênica e experimental por vitamina D em coelhos/ Toxicological, clinic-pathological and ultrastructural aspects of iatrogenic and experimental poisoning by vitamin D in rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese São descritos aspectos toxicológicos, clínico-patológicos e ultraestruturais de coelhos intoxicados iatrogênica e experimentalmente por vitamina D por via subcutânea. Clinicamente, os animais evidenciaram sinais de insuficiência cardiovascular como ascite e edema pulmonar, hiporexia, anorexia, diarréia mucosa, emagrecimento e apatia. As clássicas alterações de mineralização e, por vezes, osseificação, do sistema cardiovascular, bem como as alterações de r (more) ins, pulmões, estômago, entre outros órgãos, foram reproduzidas com administrações subcutâneas de solução oleosa de colecalciferol (vitamina D3 não-ativada). Abstract in english Toxicological, clinic-pathological and ultrastructural aspects of iatrogenic and experimental subcutaneous poisoning in rabbits by vitamin D are described. Clinically the animals showed signs of cardiovascular insufficiency, as ascite and lung edema, hyporexia, anorexia, mucous diarrhoea, loss of weight and apathy. The classical alterations of minera-lization and, occasionally, ossification of the cardiovascular system, as well the lesions of kidneys, lungs, stomach, amon (more) g other organs, were reproduced by the subcutaneous administration of an oily solution of cholecalciferol (non-activated vitamin D3).

Peixoto, Paulo V.; Klem, Marcius A.P.; Brito, Marilene F.; Cerqueira, Valíria D.; França, Ticiana N.

2010-03-01

123

'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry (N-rays, polywater) as well as the recent case of cold fusion in electrochemistry involved research practices not clearly distinguishable from those in (revolutionary) science. The concept of 'pathological science' was put forth nearly half a century ago in a seminar and lacks justification in contemporary understanding of science studies (history, philosophy, and sociology of science). It is time to abandon the phrase.

Henry H. Bauer

2002-01-01

124

Increasing pathology utilisation lies behind increasing pathology costs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Recent increases in pathology costs per scheme member are a concern to medical schemes and pathologists alike. To better understand the observed increasing costs, the National Pathology Group commissioned Prognosys to analyse the trends affecting these increases. We found that these increases are driven by inflation, increases in utilisation, and redistribution of the burden of cost. The identification of utilisation as a cost driver for pathology services is noteworthy as almost all pathology services are by referral from another doctor.

Lawrie, M; Good, A

2013-07-01

125

Labyrinthine pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in detecting intralabyrinthine pathology. Enhancement of the membranous labyrinth was shown in 4 patients with labyrinthine schwannoma, 2 with suppurative labyrinthitis, 3 with autoimmune hearing loss (rheumatoid arthritis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome), and 2 with carcinoma of the ear invading the labyrinth. Slight partial labyrinthine enhancement was noticed in 2 of 5 patients with syphilitic hearing loss, one of 3 with viral labyrinthitis, one of 3 with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, and none of 2 with active otosclerosis. Except for a questionable enhancement within the cochlea in one case, MR failed to demonstrate any labyrinthine enhancement in 3 patients with classic features of Meniere disease. Labyrinthine involvement detectable at MR is noteworthy, and we recommend enhanced MR imaging when there is clinical evidence of intralabyrinthine pathology

1991-01-01

126

Pathological jealousy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The behavioural enactment in pathological jealousy is a substitute for and defence against full, loving and sexual, intimacy with a single, live person. It is a masturbatory equivalent, sometimes a masturbatory prelude, a perverse form of sexual relatedness. The cast of characters includes at least four roles: male and female sexual protagonists, an observer, and an audience witnessing the interaction between the three. The need for concrete evidence relates to denial, mistrust, and guilt, especially about feared destructiveness, as well as masochistic and narcissistic enhancement. The object choice in pathological jealousy involves a fantasied protector, and is basically homosexual, narcissistic. These defend against the dangers of passive needs of another person different from oneself, as well as of aggressive destruction.

Coen SJ

1987-01-01

127

Clinico-Pathological aspects of Shock  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shock can be defined as “a common grave medical emergency characterised basically by reduction in the effective circulating blood volume and blood pressure”. (Robbins) or as “Disparity between the volume of blood and the volume capacity of the vascular system” which cause inability of body tissue to metabolise nutrients due to inadequate oxygen supply. Shock can be classified into: Primary and Secondary.Cardiogenic, Vasogenic, Hematogenic, Neurogenic and Electrocution. The therapy includes Blood, Plasma, Saline transfusion, antibiotic, antihistaminic, hyperimmune serum, vasoconstrictor according to the cause of the shock. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000): 163-165

Kulkarni M.D.; Yadav G.B.; Samant S.R.and Khanvilkar A.V.

2009-01-01

128

Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"  

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Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed.

Víctor M Castellano-Megías; Carolina Ibarrola-de Andrés; Francisco Colina-Ruizdelgado

2013-01-01

129

Pathological aspects of osteoarthritis related to surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Careful examination of existing information may promote a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Alterations in venous drainage of the juxta-articular bone appear to produce disturbances in the joint capsule microcirculation. Histological evidence suggests a slowing down of the circulation; this might be the cause of proliferation and thickening of the capsule, and may also explain the experimental findings of increased oxygen pressure within the joint caused by reduced utilization of oxygen and increased glycolysis within the joint capsule. This increased consumption of glucose may lead to a reduced glucose concentration in the synovial fluid. This causes a reduction of glycolysis in the joint-cartilage, followed by decreased lactate concentration in the synovial fluid. With the inducer of hyaluronic acid production (lactate) absent, the joint consequently 'dries up'. Furthermore, during times of increased wear, friction-products of articular cartilage can irritate the synovial membrane and cause effusion; this may explain an apparent contradiction. It is therefore necessary to discuss the effectiveness of preventive and curative surgery in osteoarthritis. The biological effect of juxta-articular osteotomies reaches beyond the purely mechanical consequences. The hypothesis that an improved circulation following osteotomy may affect the metabolic changes within the osteoarthritic joint is discussed.

Tillmann K

1984-06-01

130

Plant Pathological Terms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book, in my opinion, is a ‘must have’ for every person working in the field of plant pathology. Everywhere one looks, more information has been added increasing its usefulness. This comprehensive dictionary provides an essential reference for plant pathologists and agriculturalists at all levels, listing the authoritative information in easy language. More than 4100 entries, which include all terms, used in several branches like mycology, plant bacteriology, plant virology, plant disease, plant disease management especially fungicides, quarantine and trade, epiphytology, plant nematology and molecular plant pathology. Many existing entries were updated and expanded. This book placed a wide coverage of all entries helpful in all competitive examinations concerning plant pathology because it is quite helpful in understanding the fundamentals of these highly technical and intricate branches of agricultural sciences. The terms of various aspects have generally been defined in a concise manner except those which required more elaborate explanation. Overall, the book provides a wide-ranging resource for all those working in the discipline. This dictionary fills a gap in the plant pathology literature. The author deserves thanks for making such a dictionary available. It certainly will find a place on the desk of many phytopathologists and others who have to deal with plant diseases.

Editor IPS

2011-01-01

131

Priorities in seed pathology research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of seedborne pathogens that might go undetected using more conventional means. These types of research will be fundamental in guaranteeing seed health quality standards and achieving phytosanitary requirements throughout the world in the new millennium.

Nameth S.T.

1998-01-01

132

The personality of pathological gamblers: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review summarizes studies of pathological gambling and personality. Meta-analyses were conducted on 44 studies that reported personality traits of pathological gamblers (N = 2134) and nonpathological gambling control groups (N = 5321). Effect size estimates were calculated for 128 comparisons and organized according to the factors associated with two integrative accounts of personality. Four of the meta-analyses examined traits that have previously been found to load on the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, and Sensation Seeking aspects of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam 2001). Substantial effects were found for traits associated with Negative Urgency (Cohen's d =.99) and Low Premeditation (d =.84), but not for Low Perseverance or Sensation Seeking. A second set of meta-analyses examined broad domains of personality that have previously been found to load on Negative Affect, Positive Affect, Disagreeable Disinhibition, and Unconscientious Disinhibition (Markon, Krueger, & Watson, 2005). Substantial effects were found for Unconscientious Disinhibition (d =.79), Negative Affect (d =.50), and Disagreeable Disinhibition (d =.50), but not Positive Affect. It was concluded that these individual personality characteristics may be important in the etiology of pathological gambling. The personality profile implicated in the etiology of pathological gambling is similar to that found in a recent meta-analysis of substance use disorders (Kotov, Gamez, Schmidt, & Watson, 2010). These results suggest that pathological gambling may be part of a broad cluster of externalizing psychopathology, and also call into question the current classification of pathological gambling as an Impulse Control Disorder in the DSM-IV. PMID:21802620

Maclaren, Vance V; Fugelsang, Johnathan A; Harrigan, Kevin A; Dixon, Michael J

2011-02-11

133

The personality of pathological gamblers: a meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review summarizes studies of pathological gambling and personality. Meta-analyses were conducted on 44 studies that reported personality traits of pathological gamblers (N = 2134) and nonpathological gambling control groups (N = 5321). Effect size estimates were calculated for 128 comparisons and organized according to the factors associated with two integrative accounts of personality. Four of the meta-analyses examined traits that have previously been found to load on the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, and Sensation Seeking aspects of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam 2001). Substantial effects were found for traits associated with Negative Urgency (Cohen's d =.99) and Low Premeditation (d =.84), but not for Low Perseverance or Sensation Seeking. A second set of meta-analyses examined broad domains of personality that have previously been found to load on Negative Affect, Positive Affect, Disagreeable Disinhibition, and Unconscientious Disinhibition (Markon, Krueger, & Watson, 2005). Substantial effects were found for Unconscientious Disinhibition (d =.79), Negative Affect (d =.50), and Disagreeable Disinhibition (d =.50), but not Positive Affect. It was concluded that these individual personality characteristics may be important in the etiology of pathological gambling. The personality profile implicated in the etiology of pathological gambling is similar to that found in a recent meta-analysis of substance use disorders (Kotov, Gamez, Schmidt, & Watson, 2010). These results suggest that pathological gambling may be part of a broad cluster of externalizing psychopathology, and also call into question the current classification of pathological gambling as an Impulse Control Disorder in the DSM-IV.

Maclaren VV; Fugelsang JA; Harrigan KA; Dixon MJ

2011-08-01

134

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6) em gatos Epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6) in cats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6) foram estudados em 10 gatos que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos diferem daqueles previamente descritos na literatura nos seguintes aspectos: 1) a doença ocorreu na forma de um modelo bimodal relacionado à idade dos gatos afetados, em que 50% tinham 1-3 anos de idade e 50% tinham 10 anos de idade ou mais; 2) quase todos os gatos afetados (87,5%) demonstravam policromasia, possivelmente decorrente de eritropoese extramedular; 3) em todos os casos havia múltiplos focos de células hematopoéticas, principalmente eritropoeticas, em múltiplos órgãos, que incluíam baço (85,7%), linfonodos (71,4%), fígado (57,1%) e rim (28,6%); 4) em alguns casos (28,6%) esses focos podiam ser vistos macroscopicamente, na forma de metástases, mas sempre diferiam histologicamente da medula óssea quanto à proporção dos precursores eritroides envolvidos; 5) em pelo menos um caso ocorreu um continuum patologicum até outra forma de LMA (LMA M4), um fenômeno denominado "infidelidade de linhagem". Esse artigo discute essas diferenças e reforça os critérios fundamentais para se estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo dessa que é a forma mais importante de leucemia em gatos na nossa região.The epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6) were studied in 10 cats that died from this condition. The results obtained in the present study differ from those previously described in the literature regarding the following aspects: 1) The disease occurred as a bimodal model related to the age of affected cats, in which 50% were1-3-years-old and 50% were 10 years-old or above; 2) almost all affected cats (87.5%) displayed polychromasia, possible resulting from extramedullar erythropoiesis; 3) in all cases there were multiple foci of hematopoietic cells, mainly erythropoietic, in multiple organs including spleen (85.7%), lymph nodes (71.4%), liver (57.1%), and kidney (28.6%); 4) in some cases (28.6%) these foci could be observed on gross examination as metastasis, but they always histologically differ from bone marrow in regard to the proportion of erythroid precursors involved; 5) at least in one case a continuum patologicum occurred with the condition evolving to another form of LMA (LMA M4), a phenomenon coined as "lineage infidelity". This paper discuss these differences and stresses the fundamental criteria to establish a definitive diagnosis of this condition, which is the most import form of leukemia in cats from our region.

Camila Tochetto; Tatiana M. Souza; Claudio S.L. Barros; Rafael A. Fighera

2011-01-01

135

Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6) em gatos/ Epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6) in cats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da leucemia eritroide aguda (LMA M6) foram estudados em 10 gatos que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos diferem daqueles previamente descritos na literatura nos seguintes aspectos: 1) a doença ocorreu na forma de um modelo bimodal relacionado à idade dos gatos afetados, em que 50% tinham 1-3 anos de idade e 50% tinham 10 anos de idade ou mais; 2) quase todos os g (more) atos afetados (87,5%) demonstravam policromasia, possivelmente decorrente de eritropoese extramedular; 3) em todos os casos havia múltiplos focos de células hematopoéticas, principalmente eritropoeticas, em múltiplos órgãos, que incluíam baço (85,7%), linfonodos (71,4%), fígado (57,1%) e rim (28,6%); 4) em alguns casos (28,6%) esses focos podiam ser vistos macroscopicamente, na forma de metástases, mas sempre diferiam histologicamente da medula óssea quanto à proporção dos precursores eritroides envolvidos; 5) em pelo menos um caso ocorreu um continuum patologicum até outra forma de LMA (LMA M4), um fenômeno denominado "infidelidade de linhagem". Esse artigo discute essas diferenças e reforça os critérios fundamentais para se estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo dessa que é a forma mais importante de leucemia em gatos na nossa região. Abstract in english The epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of acute erythroid leukemia (LMA M6) were studied in 10 cats that died from this condition. The results obtained in the present study differ from those previously described in the literature regarding the following aspects: 1) The disease occurred as a bimodal model related to the age of affected cats, in which 50% were1-3-years-old and 50% were 10 years-old or above; 2) almost all affected cats (87.5% (more) ) displayed polychromasia, possible resulting from extramedullar erythropoiesis; 3) in all cases there were multiple foci of hematopoietic cells, mainly erythropoietic, in multiple organs including spleen (85.7%), lymph nodes (71.4%), liver (57.1%), and kidney (28.6%); 4) in some cases (28.6%) these foci could be observed on gross examination as metastasis, but they always histologically differ from bone marrow in regard to the proportion of erythroid precursors involved; 5) at least in one case a continuum patologicum occurred with the condition evolving to another form of LMA (LMA M4), a phenomenon coined as "lineage infidelity". This paper discuss these differences and stresses the fundamental criteria to establish a definitive diagnosis of this condition, which is the most import form of leukemia in cats from our region.

Tochetto, Camila; Souza, Tatiana M.; Barros, Claudio S.L.; Fighera, Rafael A.

2011-07-01

136

Pathological gambling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG.

Hollander E; Buchalter AJ; DeCaria CM

2000-09-01

137

Pathological gambling.  

Science.gov (United States)

With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

2000-09-01

138

Patogênese e achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção por Rangelia vitalii em 35 cães (1985-2009)/ Pathogenesis, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of Rangelia vitalii infection in 35 dogs (1985-2009)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A patogênese e os achados clínicos, hematológicos e anatomopatológicos da infecção natural pelo protozoário Rangelia vitalii (rangeliose canina) foram estudados em 35 cães que morreram em consequência dessa condição. Os resultados obtidos permitem o seguinte conjunto de conclusões: (1) causa doença hemolítica exclusivamente extravascular e de origem imunomediada; (2) cursa invariavelmente com algum grau de hemorragia à necropsia, mas nem sempre clinicamente (more) perceptível; (3) os principais sinais que devem chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica são anemia, icterícia e esplenomegalia; (4) o principal achado hematológico e que deve chamar a atenção para a suspeita clínica é a ocorrência de anemia com sinais de intensa regeneração eritroide; (5) os três principais diagnósticos diferenciais são leptospirose, babesiose e erliquiose monocitotrópica aguda; (6) a principal lesão observada é uma associação de hiperplasia linfoide com inflamação mononuclear, predominantemente plasmocitária, mas por vezes granulomatosa; (7) outras lesões frequentes são secundárias à marcada anemia regenerativa; (8) o agente etiológico pode ser facilmente encontrado, pois ocorre em grande quantidade na maioria dos tecidos, principalmente nos linfonodos, no baço, na medula óssea, no coração e nas tonsilas. Abstract in english The pathogenesis, clinical, hematological and pathological features of the natural infection by the protozoan organism Rangelia vitalii (canine rangeliosis) was studied in 35 dogs that died due this condition. The results allow for the following set of conclusions on canine rangeliosis: (1) causes an exclusively extravascular immune mediated hemolysis; (2) is invariably associated with some degree of hemorrhage observed at necropsy, but no always clinically apparent; (3) (more) the clinical signs that are the hallmark of the disease are anemia, icterus and splenomegaly; (4) the main hematological aspect that establishes a clinical suspect is the development of anemia with signs of intense erythroid regeneration; (5) the three main differential diagnosis are leptospirosis, babesiosis and e acute monocytotropic ehrlichiosis; (6) the main observed histopathological lesion is an association of lymphoid hyperplasia with mononuclear inflammatory reaction, predominantly plasmacytic, but occasionally granulomatous; (7) other frequently found lesions are secondary to a marked regenerative anemia; (8) large numbers of the etiologic agent can be easily demonstrate in most tissues, mainly in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, heart, and tonsils.

Fighera, Rafael A; Souza, Tatiana M; Kommers, Glaucia G; Irigoyen, Luis Francisco; Barros, Claudio S.L

2010-11-01

139

Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: For decades anatomic pathology (AP) workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users' needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. OBJECTIVE: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists' needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. RESULTS: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number of processes that may possibly improve following the introduction of digital pathology systems were identified. These work processes included case management, case examination and review, and final case reporting. Furthermore, a digital slide system should integrate with the anatomic pathologic laboratory information system. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilized the contextual inquiry method to document AP workflow. Findings were used to establish key requirements for the design of digital pathology systems.

Ho J; Aridor O; Parwani AV

2012-01-01

140

Terapia fotodinâmica: aspectos farmacológicos, aplicações e avanços recentes no desenvolvimento de medicamentos Photodynamic therapy: pharmacological aspects, applications and news from medications development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a clinical procedure, which utilize a photosensitive compound and light. This is a new modality of treatment for cancer, aged related macular degenerescence (AMD), psoriasis, arthritis, arterial restenosis, etc which exhibits efficiency, less traumatic effects, low recovery time and few co-lateral effects. The first officially approved drug for PDT by the Food and Drug Administration (EUA) is Photofrinâ, which is applied for cancer. A new generation drug for PDT, Visudyneâ was recently approved to treat AMD; its photoactive compound is BPDMA, a benzoporphyrin mono-acid derivative (chlorin-type molecule). A concise history, technical information and some drugs for PDT are reported.

Fernanda Ibanez Simplicio; Florângela Maionchi; Noboru Hioka

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Ln(3+)-doped nanoparticles for upconversion and magnetic resonance imaging: some critical notes on recent progress and some aspects to be considered.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this feature article we will critically discuss the synthesis and characterisation aspects of Ln(3+)-doped nanoparticles (NPs) that show upconversion, upon 980 nm excitation. Upconversion is a non-linear process that converts two or more low-energy photons, often near-infrared photons, into one of higher energy, e.g. blue and 800 nm from Tm(3+) and green and red from Er(3+) or Ho(3+). Nearly all researchers use the absorption of 980 nm light by Yb(3+) as the sensitiser for the co-doped emissive Ln(3+) ions. The focus will be on LnF(3) and MLnF(4) (M = alkali metal) as the host matrix, because most progress has been made with these. In particular we will argue that a detailed understanding of how the dopant ions and the host Ln(3+) ions are distributed (in the core) and how (doped) shell growth occurs is not well understood. Moreover, their use as optical and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents will be discussed. We will argue that deep-tissue imaging beyond 600 ?m with retention of optical resolution, i.e. to see fine structure such as blood capillaries in brain tissues, has not yet been achieved. Three key parameters have been identified as impediments: (i) the low absorption efficiency of the Yb(3+) sensitiser, (ii) the low quantum yield of upconversion, and (iii) the long-lived excited states. On the other hand, there are very encouraging results that suggest that these nanoparticles could be developed into very potent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. PMID:23086529

van Veggel, Frank C J M; Dong, Cunhai; Johnson, Noah J J; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham

2012-12-01

142

Ln3+-doped nanoparticles for upconversion and magnetic resonance imaging: some critical notes on recent progress and some aspects to be considered  

Science.gov (United States)

In this feature article we will critically discuss the synthesis and characterisation aspects of Ln3+-doped nanoparticles (NPs) that show upconversion, upon 980 nm excitation. Upconversion is a non-linear process that converts two or more low-energy photons, often near-infrared photons, into one of higher energy, e.g. blue and 800 nm from Tm3+ and green and red from Er3+ or Ho3+. Nearly all researchers use the absorption of 980 nm light by Yb3+ as the sensitiser for the co-doped emissive Ln3+ ions. The focus will be on LnF3 and MLnF4 (M = alkali metal) as the host matrix, because most progress has been made with these. In particular we will argue that a detailed understanding of how the dopant ions and the host Ln3+ ions are distributed (in the core) and how (doped) shell growth occurs is not well understood. Moreover, their use as optical and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents will be discussed. We will argue that deep-tissue imaging beyond 600 ?m with retention of optical resolution, i.e. to see fine structure such as blood capillaries in brain tissues, has not yet been achieved. Three key parameters have been identified as impediments: (i) the low absorption efficiency of the Yb3+ sensitiser, (ii) the low quantum yield of upconversion, and (iii) the long-lived excited states. On the other hand, there are very encouraging results that suggest that these nanoparticles could be developed into very potent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents.

van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.; Dong, Cunhai; Johnson, Noah J. J.; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham

2012-11-01

143

Oligodendroglial tumors: diagnostic and molecular pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oligodendroglial tumors, which encompass pure oligodendroglioma and mixed oligoastrocytoma, represent the second most common glioma in adults after glioblastoma. They remain controversial neoplasms in the realm of surgical neuropathology. The early recognition of their more favorable prognosis and responsiveness to treatment when compared with diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas has influenced the pathologic diagnostic interpretation, and resulted in a pervasive interobserver variability. The more recent finding of an increased frequency of 1p/19q deletion in these tumors by cytogenetic analysis, and the association of this molecular abnormality with a better prognosis has greatly impacted the field of neuro-oncology. In this review, we focus on important histopathologic aspects in the evaluation of oligodendroglial tumors, key differential diagnoses, and highlight particular clinical and molecular characteristics, as well as current diagnostic and conceptual controversies. PMID:20860317

Rodriguez, Fausto J; Giannini, Caterina

2010-05-01

144

Oligodendroglial tumors: diagnostic and molecular pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oligodendroglial tumors, which encompass pure oligodendroglioma and mixed oligoastrocytoma, represent the second most common glioma in adults after glioblastoma. They remain controversial neoplasms in the realm of surgical neuropathology. The early recognition of their more favorable prognosis and responsiveness to treatment when compared with diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas has influenced the pathologic diagnostic interpretation, and resulted in a pervasive interobserver variability. The more recent finding of an increased frequency of 1p/19q deletion in these tumors by cytogenetic analysis, and the association of this molecular abnormality with a better prognosis has greatly impacted the field of neuro-oncology. In this review, we focus on important histopathologic aspects in the evaluation of oligodendroglial tumors, key differential diagnoses, and highlight particular clinical and molecular characteristics, as well as current diagnostic and conceptual controversies.

Rodriguez FJ; Giannini C

2010-05-01

145

Terapia fotodinâmica: aspectos farmacológicos, aplicações e avanços recentes no desenvolvimento de medicamentos/ Photodynamic therapy: pharmacological aspects, applications and news from medications development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a clinical procedure, which utilize a photosensitive compound and light. This is a new modality of treatment for cancer, aged related macular degenerescence (AMD), psoriasis, arthritis, arterial restenosis, etc which exhibits efficiency, less traumatic effects, low recovery time and few co-lateral effects. The first officially approved drug for PDT by the Food and Drug Administration (EUA) is Photofrinâ, which is app (more) lied for cancer. A new generation drug for PDT, Visudyneâ was recently approved to treat AMD; its photoactive compound is BPDMA, a benzoporphyrin mono-acid derivative (chlorin-type molecule). A concise history, technical information and some drugs for PDT are reported.

Simplicio, Fernanda Ibanez; Maionchi, Florângela; Hioka, Noboru

2002-09-01

146

Recent Advances in Geriatric Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ageing is a natural process. In the words of Seneca;“Old age is an incurable disease”, but more recently,Sir James Sterling Ross commented: “You do not healold age. You protect it; you promote it; you extendit” [1]. These are in fact the basic principles ofpreventive medicine. Old age should be regarded as anormal, inevitable biological phenomenon. The studyof the physical and psychological changes which areincident to old age is called gerontology. The care ofthe aged is called clinical gerontology or geriatrics.Another aspect of gerontology is social gerontology which was born on the one hand out of the instincts of humanitarian and social attitudes and on the other out of the problems set by the increasing number of old people[2]. Experimental gerontology is concerned withresearch into the basic biological problems of ageing, into its physiology, biochemistry, pathology and psychology.

N.A. Ansari; Nadeem Ahmad

2008-01-01

147

Raman scattering in pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raman scattering is the inelastic scattering of light by chemical bonds, and can therefore show molecular specificity. It can be used both in pure spectroscopy mode, and in imaging mode. While many applications of Raman spectroscopy and imaging in the biomedical field have been so far demonstrated, the use of this technology for pathology applications is still in its early stages. In this paper we review some of the most important recent developments in this field, including a description of relevant technologies, applications to molecular sensing, characterization of cells and tissues of interest, and disease detection via Raman scattering.

Smith ZJ; Huser TR; Wachsmann-Hogiu S

2013-01-01

148

[Recent aspects of the pathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune diseases in the human: what role does expression of class II HLA molecules in the endocrine target cell play?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inappropriate expression of HLA Class II molecules by the target cells of endocrine autoimmune diseases is a recent observation that has been intensively studied in thyroid autoimmunity and type I diabetes mellitus. In vitro studies have shown that interferon-gamma can induce Class II expression, either alone, as in thyrocytes, or in combination with other mediators like tumour necrosis factor or lymphotoxin, as in islet cells, pointing to possible mechanisms operating in vivo. Endocrine cells expressing Class II molecules are able to present their autoantigens to helper T cells, thus possibly inducing the autoimmune process. However, until now it is still unclear if the expression of Class II molecules by the target cells is the primary immune phenomenon, which might possibly be triggered by a latent viral infection of the endocrine cell. Alternatively, it might be a secondary response in an ongoing autoimmune process. Particularly data obtained in the diabetic pancreas favour the first possibility, but only progress in our understanding of the role of HLA antigens in immunoregulation will make it possible to interpret the phenomenon properly.

Deuss U; Buscema M; Bottazzo GF; Winkelmann W

1989-11-01

149

[Recent aspects of the pathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune diseases in the human: what role does expression of class II HLA molecules in the endocrine target cell play?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The inappropriate expression of HLA Class II molecules by the target cells of endocrine autoimmune diseases is a recent observation that has been intensively studied in thyroid autoimmunity and type I diabetes mellitus. In vitro studies have shown that interferon-gamma can induce Class II expression, either alone, as in thyrocytes, or in combination with other mediators like tumour necrosis factor or lymphotoxin, as in islet cells, pointing to possible mechanisms operating in vivo. Endocrine cells expressing Class II molecules are able to present their autoantigens to helper T cells, thus possibly inducing the autoimmune process. However, until now it is still unclear if the expression of Class II molecules by the target cells is the primary immune phenomenon, which might possibly be triggered by a latent viral infection of the endocrine cell. Alternatively, it might be a secondary response in an ongoing autoimmune process. Particularly data obtained in the diabetic pancreas favour the first possibility, but only progress in our understanding of the role of HLA antigens in immunoregulation will make it possible to interpret the phenomenon properly. PMID:2685454

Deuss, U; Buscema, M; Bottazzo, G F; Winkelmann, W

1989-11-17

150

Understanding Your Pathology Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding Your Pathology Report Updated September 27, 2010 A pathology report is a document that contains the breast cancer diagnosis determined ... who does this exam and writes the report. Pathology reports play an important role in breast cancer ...

151

An assessment of international trade related to bioenergy use in Austria—Methodological aspects, recent developments and the relevance of indirect trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing international biomass trade for energy and concerns about sustainability of globally traded biomass have raised interest in assessments of cross-border trade related to bioenergy. Within this paper, approaches to overcome methodological difficulties related to biomass trade are proposed and applied for the case of Austria. Biomass currently has a share of 15.5% in Austria’s primary energy consumption of 1354 PJ (2009). According to energy statistics, the rate of self-sufficiency with biomass for energy (defined as the ratio of domestic production to inland consumption, with both imports and exports taken into account) is 91%. However, feedstock imports for transport fuel production and indirect imports of wood-based fuels (wood processing residues and waste liquor of the paper industry originating from imported wood) are not taken into account in energy statistics, but prove to be of some significance. Imports of agricultural commodities to the amount of 9.7 PJ can be attributed to domestic biofuel production, and indirect imports of wood-based fuels, account for 31 PJ. With these import streams taken into account, the share of domestic fuels in bioenergy use is only 67%, rather than 84%, as official energy statistics suggest. On the other hand, Austria is exporting more than 50% of its production of sawnwood, panelboard and paper products. - Highlights: ? We investigate biomass cross-border trade related to bioenergy use in Austria. ? International biomass trade for energy has increased significantly in recent years. ? A flow wood diagram is derived to identify indirect trade streams of wood fuels. ? Biofuel feedstock imports are about as important as direct biofuel imports. ? 33% of bioenergy in Austria originate from imported biomass (2009).

2012-01-01

152

[Thymus surgical pathology in children  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The object of this paper is to briefly review the surgical aspects of the thymic pathology. Thymic cysts and thymic ectopy are usually asymptomatic and are one of the multiple etiologies of cervical masses. Thymic tumors are very rare and may sometimes be difficult to differentiate from simple thymic hyperplasia; being almost always separated from the normal thymic tissue by a dense capsule, they do not tend to extend rapidly. Thymectomy may be indicated in severe myasthenia.

Chavrier Y

1987-01-01

153

Voice recognition technology implementation in surgical pathology: advantages and limitations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Voice recognition technology (VRT) has been in use for medical transcription outside of laboratories for many years, and in recent years it has evolved to a level where it merits consideration by surgical pathologists. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and impact of making a transition from a transcriptionist-based service to VRT in surgical pathology. DESIGN: We have evaluated VRT in a phased manner for sign out of general and subspecialty surgical pathology cases after conducting a pilot study. We evaluated the effect on turnaround time, workflow, staffing, typographical error rates, and the overall ability of VRT to be adapted for use in surgical pathology. RESULTS: The stepwise implementation of VRT has resulted in real-time sign out of cases and improvement in average turnaround time from 4 to 3 days. The percentage of cases signed out in 1 day improved from 22% to 37%. Amendment rates for typographical errors have decreased. Use of templates and synoptic reports has been facilitated. The transcription staff has been reassigned to other duties and is successfully assisting in other areas. Resident involvement and exposure to complete case sign out has been achieved resulting in a positive impact on resident education. CONCLUSIONS: Voice recognition technology allows for a seamless workflow in surgical pathology, with improvements in turnaround time and a positive impact on competency-based resident education. Individual practices may assess the value of VRT and decide to implement it, potentially with gains in many aspects of their practice.

Singh M; Pal TR

2011-11-01

154

Non-pathology: the bedrock of pathology.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pathology, also called morbid anatomy, is macroscopically, microscopically, and molecularly so manifest an array of phenomena that it has compelled medical men to closely link it up with disease, dis-ease, and death. But there is more than meets the eye of the morbid anatomists, microscopists, and the molecular biologists. The obvious science of pathology is governed by numerous abstract, subtle, non-pathological factors. A pathological phenomenon is subservient to cosmic noumenon. Such a sea-change allows a newer perspective that cures modern medicine of many of its dogmas and provides epistemologically valid directions to research methodologies on the one hand and clinical practices on the other.

Kothari M; Mehta L; Kothari V

2000-01-01

155

Surgical pathology of urologic diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

1987-01-01

156

FISH: recent advances and diagnostic aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ Hybridization (ISH), since its introduction in 1969 by Gall and Pardue has found multiple uses in molecular morphology due to its unique capability of visualizing nucleic acid sequences without altering the cell's cytological, chromosomal or histological integrity. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) has established itself as a variation of the traditional hybridization process whereby the probes utilized are a fluorescently labeled and produce bright clear signals upon detection. FISH is involved in localizing and exploring chromosomal, genetic and genomic aberrations that are often directly correlated to disease causation and progression. This technique is used as an essential tool not only in research laboratories, but also in prognostics, diagnostics and disease monitoring in medicine. In the past decade, there have appeared multiple modifications to traditional FISH technology allowing a wider variety of practical applications. Some of the latest innovative techniques discussed in this review paper are Forward and Reverse Chromosome Painting, Chromosome in situ suppression hybridization (CISS), Multicolor FISH, Chromosomal bar coding, Micro-FISH, In situ Hybridization to mRNA, in-cell RT-PCR, Fluorescence immunophonotyping and interphase cytogenetics as tool for investigation of neoplasmas (FICTION), Primed in situ DNA synthesis (PRINS), Fiber-FISH, FISHES, and Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). This paper provides a brief overview of FISH and the techniques exploiting FISH modifications as well as their evaluation and discussion of practical applications. PMID:9660726

Luke, S; Shepelsky, M

157

FISH: recent advances and diagnostic aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In situ Hybridization (ISH), since its introduction in 1969 by Gall and Pardue has found multiple uses in molecular morphology due to its unique capability of visualizing nucleic acid sequences without altering the cell's cytological, chromosomal or histological integrity. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) has established itself as a variation of the traditional hybridization process whereby the probes utilized are a fluorescently labeled and produce bright clear signals upon detection. FISH is involved in localizing and exploring chromosomal, genetic and genomic aberrations that are often directly correlated to disease causation and progression. This technique is used as an essential tool not only in research laboratories, but also in prognostics, diagnostics and disease monitoring in medicine. In the past decade, there have appeared multiple modifications to traditional FISH technology allowing a wider variety of practical applications. Some of the latest innovative techniques discussed in this review paper are Forward and Reverse Chromosome Painting, Chromosome in situ suppression hybridization (CISS), Multicolor FISH, Chromosomal bar coding, Micro-FISH, In situ Hybridization to mRNA, in-cell RT-PCR, Fluorescence immunophonotyping and interphase cytogenetics as tool for investigation of neoplasmas (FICTION), Primed in situ DNA synthesis (PRINS), Fiber-FISH, FISHES, and Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). This paper provides a brief overview of FISH and the techniques exploiting FISH modifications as well as their evaluation and discussion of practical applications.

Luke S; Shepelsky M

1998-01-01

158

[Pathology of the eyelid in elderly patients  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Didactic review of the various features of eyelid pathology in elderly patients. METHODS: Illustrated review centered on diagnosis of the usual aspects and pitfalls of eyelid pathology divided into semiological chapters (tumors, blisters, erythema, etc.). RESULTS: Pathology of the eyelids in elderly patients is extremely polymorphic. It is mainly centered on skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adnexal carcinomas, and melanoma). Most severe aspects of the inflammatory diseases of the eyelid are bullous diseases (cicatricial pemphigoid, pemphigus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, etc.). A number of rare diseases deserve mention since their presence could lead to the diagnosis of internal or systemic diseases (dermatomyositis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, Erdheim-Chester, etc.). In such conditions, early diagnosis is often based on the observation of isolated periocular symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Even though topographic dermatology is a somewhat reductive vision of skin diseases, pathology of the eyelids deserves special mention because of its polymorphism as well as its diagnostic and/or therapeutic significance.

Thomas L; Dalle S

2006-06-01

159

Avaliações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais da intoxicação experimental por monofluoroacetato de sódio em ovinos/ Clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by sodium monofluoroacetate in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a administração de doses únicas e de frações diárias da dose letal de monofluoroacetato de sódio (MF) a ovinos induzem a clássica degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar (DHV) dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais observada no rim de bovinos intoxicados por plantas brasileiras que causam "morte súbita" (PBCMS). MF foi administrado, por via oral, em doses únicas de 0,5 e 1,0mg/kg, cada dose para dois ovinos, e em doses (more) subletais repetidas diariamente de 0,1mg/kg/dia, por quatro dias, e 0,2mg/kg/dia por seis dias, cada dose para um ovino. Todos os ovinos que receberam MF morreram, exceto um que recebeu 0,5mg/kg e não mostrou sintomas. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 3min a 33h5min. Clinicamente os animais apresentaram taquicardia, respiração abdominal, tremores musculares, ligeira perda de equilíbrio, por vezes cambaleavam, deitavam e apoiavam a cabeça no flanco. Na fase final, os ovinos caíam em decúbito lateral, esticavam os membros, faziam movimentos de pedalagem, apresentavam opistótono e morriam. O exame ecocardiográfico evidenciou dilatação cardíaca e redução da fração de encurtamento sistólico. A análise dos níveis séricos de uréia e creatinina revelou moderada a acentuada azotemia. MF provocou "morte súbita" em todos os ovinos que mostraram sintomas. À necropsia verificaram-se aurículas e veias jugulares, cavas, ázigos e pulmonares moderadamente ingurgitadas e, em alguns animais, edema pulmonar. O exame histopatológico revelou, em todos os ovinos, leve a acentuada DHV das células epiteliais dos túbulos contornados distais, associada à picnose nuclear. Adicionalmente, verificaram-se discreta vacuolização e, por vezes, necrose de coagulação de hepatócitos. Não encontramos referências a esse tipo peculiar de lesão, exceto das descrições sobre lesões renais associadas à ingestão de PBCMS e de recentes estudos em bovinos intoxicados com MF. Este trabalho demonstra, em ovinos, que tanto doses letais únicas quanto subdoses diárias de MF induzem a DHV dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais associada à picnose nuclear. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify if the ingestion of single doses of sodium monofluoroacetate (MF) and daily fractions of 1/2.5 and 1/5 of the lethal dose causes the same lesion as the one observed in the kidney of cattle poisoned by Brazilian sudden death causing plants (BSDCP). MF was administered orally in single doses of 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg to four sheep, and repeated daily doses of 0.1 and 0.2mg/kg to two others. Death occurred in five of six animals. The cours (more) e of poisoning lasted from 3min to 33h5min. Clinically the animals presented palpitation, abdominal breathing, slight balance loss with sometimes swaying gait, they laid down and placed the head on their flank. In the "dramatic phase", all the sheep fell into lateral decubitus, stretched out the legs, made peddling movements, presented opistotonus, and died. The electrocardiographical examination showed heart dilatation and reduction of the systolic shortening fraction. Laboratory hematological exams revealed increased urea and creatinine. MF caused the clinical and pathological symptoms of "sudden death". At postmortem examination, heart auricles and jugular, cava, azygos and pulmonary veins of all animals were moderately engorged, and in some sheep, pulmonary edema was observed. Histopathology revealed hydropic-vacuolar degeneration (HVD) of the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted kidney tubules associated with nuclear picnosis in all the sheep. Vacuolation and less often necrosis of liver cells was seen in some cases. No references to that peculiar type of lesion could be found in the literature, except the description of kidney lesions in animals associated with the ingestion of BSDCP, and recent studies of MF poisoning in cattle. The present study demonstrated in sheep that single lethal doses or repeated doses of fractions of the lethal dose o

Peixoto, Tiago C.; Nogueira, Vivian A.; Coelho, Cleide D.; Veiga, Cristiano C.P.; Peixoto, Paulo V.; Brito, Marilene F.

2010-12-01

160

Tracking in Anatomic Pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory.

Pantanowitz L; Mackinnon AC Jr; Sinard JH

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Pathology Case Study: Coccygeal Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 60-year-old man has a recently enlarging coccygeal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in skeletal and soft tissue pathology.

Horn, Kevin D.

2007-09-04

162

Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

1996-01-01

163

Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of labyrinthine pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Membranous labyrinth pathologies are quite rare. They were until recently difficult to demonstrate by imaging technics, CT being the modality of choice. Our purpose was to stress the interest of MR examination for investigating patients complaining of vertigo, tinnitus, and profound sensorineural hearing loss. Normal anatomy as well as the main pathologically encountered changes are illustrated. (orig.)

Marsot-Dupuch, K. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Vignaud, J. [Val de Grace, Hopital d`Instruction du Service de Sante des Armees, 75 - Paris (France); Mehdi, M. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Pharaboz, C. [Hopital Begin, Hopital d`Instruction des Armees, 94 - Saint-Mande (France); Meyer, B. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service d`ORL, 75 - Paris (France)

1996-10-01

164

In vivo spreading of tau pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent findings have suggested that tau pathology may spread in the brain by a prion-like mechanism. In this issue of Neuron, de Calignon et al. (2012) recreated an early stage of neurofibrillary tangle pathology to show that tau aggregates initially generated in a circumscribed area spread throughout the brain and lead to neurodegeneration. PMID:22365536

Soto, Claudio

2012-02-23

165

In vivo spreading of tau pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent findings have suggested that tau pathology may spread in the brain by a prion-like mechanism. In this issue of Neuron, de Calignon et al. (2012) recreated an early stage of neurofibrillary tangle pathology to show that tau aggregates initially generated in a circumscribed area spread throughout the brain and lead to neurodegeneration.

Soto C

2012-02-01

166

Building a pathology laboratory in Malawi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Until recently, the Malawian capital of Lilongwe was without diagnostic pathology services, which left many patients with cancer facing serious diagnostic delays. Through collaboration with the University of North Carolina and other partners, a pathology laboratory was successfully established at Kamuzu Central Hospital in July, 2011, providing an essential foundation for cancer diagnosis and research in the country's largest city.

Gopal S; Krysiak R; Liomba G

2013-04-01

167

Features of pathological assessment in rectal cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rectal cancer diagnosis is established by collaboration between oncological surgeons, oncologists, pathologists and imaging specialists. By examining the macroscopic and microscopic aspect of the surgical specimen, the pathologist could provide the surgeon with information regarding the surgical procedure. Staging represents the clinical or pathological assessment of the extent of tumour spread. The clinical staging is a preoperative evaluation based on clinical and radiological information being used to determine the appropriate treatment for each case. The pathological staging permits the postoperative assessment that brings prognostic information. The aim of this paper is to present the suggestions of our multidisciplinary team for an accurate pathology assessment of rectal cancer.

Scripcariu V; Dajbog E; Lefter L; Danciu M; Ferariu D; Pricop A; Grigora? M; Negru D; Volov?? C; Miron L; Drug V; Dragomir C

2006-07-01

168

Features of pathological assessment in rectal cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rectal cancer diagnosis is established by collaboration between oncological surgeons, oncologists, pathologists and imaging specialists. By examining the macroscopic and microscopic aspect of the surgical specimen, the pathologist could provide the surgeon with information regarding the surgical procedure. Staging represents the clinical or pathological assessment of the extent of tumour spread. The clinical staging is a preoperative evaluation based on clinical and radiological information being used to determine the appropriate treatment for each case. The pathological staging permits the postoperative assessment that brings prognostic information. The aim of this paper is to present the suggestions of our multidisciplinary team for an accurate pathology assessment of rectal cancer. PMID:17571550

Scripcariu, V; Dajbog, Elena; Lefter, L; Danciu, M; Ferariu, D; Pricop, Adriana; Grigora?, M; Negru, D; Volov??, C; Miron, L; Drug, V; Dragomir, C

169

Pathology of trophoblast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In summary, recent light microscopic studies, complemented by immunocytochemical and cytogenetic techniques, have demonstrated profound differences in the etiology, morphology, and clinical behavior of various forms of GTD. In addition, in vitro studies combined with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of normal trophoblast have provided new insight into the factors that coordinate the interactions of trophoblastic and maternal cells at the implantation site and have elucidated some of the mechanisms that regulate normal trophoblastic invasion. Analysis of the studies of normal and neoplastic trophoblast suggests that each of the specific forms of GTD is related to discrete pathologic aberrations occurring at different stages of gametogenesis and placentation. The results of these studies are examined in light of what is known about the pathobiology of GTD and are correlated with the histologic classification of GTD developed by the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists under the auspices of the World Health Organization.

Kurman RJ

1991-01-01

170

The teaching of pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A/Professor Chong Siew Meng relates the teaching of Pathology in the Medical School since 1905. The Pathology Department of the College of Medicine is closely associated with the Department of Pathology of the Government Medical Service. Pathologists in the Government Medical Service taught medical students till 1955 when the chair of Pathology was filled by Professor R Kirts. Undergraduates and postgraduate teaching and research in the department are described briefly.

Chong SM

2005-07-01

171

International review of experimental pathology. Volume 27  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book reviews the experimental pathology advancements made in recent years. Specifically discussed are - Epstein-Barr virus pathogenesis, immune deficient diseases, Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas and other lymphoproliferative disorders.

Richter, G.W.; Epstein, M.A.

1985-01-01

172

Pathology Residency Training in Turkey from the Residents' Point of View: A Survey Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Recent insights that have emerged in local meetings with participation of pathology residents are promising as regards achieving progress in pathology residency training. Accordingly, in this study, overall pathology residency training in Turkey is discussed in detail from the pathology residents' point of view; current data and suggestions for the solutions of problems are presented.Material and Method: Two questionnaires were applied to resident representatives and overall residents, respectively, from 23 institutions including 12 Universities and 11 Ministry of Health education and Research Hospitals.Results: The total number of participating residents was 138; 74 from University hospitals and 64 from Education and Research Hospitals. An adequate number of cases per resident, widespread use of multiocular microscopes, increasing number of macroscopy technicians, ongoing educational meetings and renewal projects of the physical environment were the positive findings. However, the lack of autopsy practice, insufficient number of lectures, communication problems between resident and senior staff due to inadequate feedback mechanism, insufficient numbers of academic staff in education and research hospitals and lack of educational material in some basic branches of surgical pathology were negative findings. During pathology training, the major stress factor was the pathology workload inhibiting optimal learning. Feedback provision and scheduled working habits were the two qualities, which were needed to be improved by senior staff. Two fields, suggested by the senior residents to be incompetent were intraoperative consultation and cytopathology. When overall satisfaction for pathology residency training was considered, it was near 80% in Universities, while it remained around 40% in Education and Research Hospitals (p=0.000).Conclusion: Positive and negative aspects addressed in this survey will provide data for the new regulations in pathology residency training in Turkey.

Kemal KÖSEMEHMETO?LU; Ayça TAN; Tu?çe ESEN; K?v?lc?m EREN ATE?

2010-01-01

173

Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la patología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una pIntroduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabitants, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical accessibility of the rehabilitation services, residence in a rural or urban milieu, and between the different health areas. Methods. We study all the processes of temporary disability due to pathology of the locomotor system in Health Areas I and III of Navarra in 1997 and 1998, taking different variables into account. We make a descriptive study of the pathologies, counting the working days lost. We calculate the annual incidence of sick leave because of pathologies. We compare average duration with other variables. Results. These represent 221,054 lost working days per year. Low back pain and sprained ankles are the most frequent processes. We find an increase in the incidence of temporary disability due to low back pain and lumbar/sciatica in the basic rural areas of the middle region. There are no statistically significant differences with a p<0.05 in the duration of temporary disability according to Health Area, rural or urban milieu or geographical accessibility to the Rehabilitation Services. A statistically significant fall can be observed in the first year of operation of a temporary disability management program.

E. Sáinz de Murieta; J. Fernández Baraibar; I. Pascual; A. Mena; A. Martínez-Zubiri; M.J. Condón

2005-01-01

174

Second metatarsophalangeal joint pathology and freiberg disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pain in the second metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) is a complaint frequently encountered by foot and ankle specialists. The pathology associated with this joint is often painful and debilitating for the patient. In the past, typical treatment protocols for second MTPJ pathology were aimed at relief of patient symptoms. Conservative treatment and offloading devices have historically dominated treatment options for the clinician. However, recent surgical techniques and procedures have been developed to correct the mechanical and structural defects that can affect this joint. The aim of this review was to outline recent developments and treatment options for common second MTPJ pathologies.

Shane A; Reeves C; Wobst G; Thurston P

2013-07-01

175

Second metatarsophalangeal joint pathology and freiberg disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pain in the second metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) is a complaint frequently encountered by foot and ankle specialists. The pathology associated with this joint is often painful and debilitating for the patient. In the past, typical treatment protocols for second MTPJ pathology were aimed at relief of patient symptoms. Conservative treatment and offloading devices have historically dominated treatment options for the clinician. However, recent surgical techniques and procedures have been developed to correct the mechanical and structural defects that can affect this joint. The aim of this review was to outline recent developments and treatment options for common second MTPJ pathologies. PMID:23827490

Shane, Amber; Reeves, Christopher; Wobst, Garrett; Thurston, Paul

2013-07-01

176

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em frangos de corte (Gallus gallus domesticus) infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 Clinical and pathological aspects in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected experimentally with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 sporulated oocysts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente estudo, sinais clínicos e alterações patológicas foram avaliados por 30 dias em frangos de corte, linhagem Cobb, machos, com dez dias de idade, infectados com Eimeria acervulina. Foram utilizados 192 animais distribuídos em 3 grupos: grupo A inoculado com 1x10(6) oocistos esporulados; grupo B inoculado com 1x10(5) oocistos esporulados; grupo C inoculado com água destilada. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, diarréia e apatia. As alterações patológicas macroscópicas observadas foram: enterite, hiperemia seguido de congestão intestinal, excesso de exsudato mucoso no lúmen do intestino delgado, palidez e desidratação muscular, alto acúmulo de bile na vesícula biliar e deposição de gordura hepática. A atrofia de vilosidades e alta presença de células inflamatórias foram as alterações microscópicas observadas no epitélio intestinal. Na análise histopatológica do fígado observaram-se infiltrados inflamatórios e deposição de gordura. Os resultados demonstraram que frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com E. acervulina apresentam progressivas lesões intestinais de intensidade variável e que essas anormalidades são as principais causas de redução no desenvolvimento da ave.In the present study, clinical signs and pathological changes were evaluated during 30 days in broilers, lineage Cobb, males, with ten days old, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Were used 192 animals distributed in 3 groups: group A inoculated with 1x10(6) sporulated oocysts; group B inoculated with 1x10(5) sporulated oocysts; group C inoculated with distilled water. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, diarrhea and apathy. The pathological macroscopic changes observed were: enteritis, hyperemia with subsequent intestinal congestion, high concentration of mucus exudates in the lumen of the small intestine, pale and dehydration muscle, gall bladder full of liquid and deposition of hepatic fat. The villous atrophy and high presence of inflammatory cells were the microscopic changes observed in the gut epithelium. In histopathologic analysis of liver observed inflammatory cells infiltrated and fat deposition. The results demonstrate that broilers experimentally infected with E. acervulina presented progressive intestinal lesions of variable intensity and that these abnormalities are the main cause of reduction of bird performance.

Fagner Luiz da C. Freitas; Katyane de S. Almeida; Adjair A. do Nascimento; José H. Tebaldi; Rosangela Z. Machado; Celio R. Machado

2008-01-01

177

Professional and pathological gamblers: similarities and differences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although much recent research has focused on the gambling practices and psychosocial functioning of pathological gamblers, few investigations have examined the characteristics of professional gamblers. The current project sought to address this gap in the literature by conducting a quantitative comparison of professional and pathological gamblers. Pathological gamblers were recruited and balanced with professional gamblers on demographic variables and preferred gambling activity. A total of 22 professional gamblers and 13 pathological gamblers completed an extensive self-report battery including instruments assessing demographics, gambling behaviors and problems, other psychiatric disorders, current psychosocial functioning, recent stressful events, personality characteristics, and intelligence. Pathological and professional gamblers reported similar rates of gambling frequency and intensity and types of games played. Pathological gamblers endorsed poor psychosocial functioning, whereas professional gamblers reported a rate of psychiatric distress within a normative range. Pathological gamblers also reported lower gambling self-efficacy, greater impulsivity, and more past-year DSM-IV Axis I disorders than professional gamblers. The results of the present study shed light on the unique circumstances of professional gamblers, as well as underscore important differences between such individuals and pathological gamblers that could prove fruitful in future research and intervention and prevention efforts.

Weinstock J; Massura CE; Petry NM

2013-06-01

178

Pathological gambling and depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A number of previous studies have indicated that pathological gambling is often associated with depression. Equally, a number of theoretical models of pathological gambling have included depression as a key variable. Here we report a study of depression in pathological gamblers identified within a random sample of 1,615 adults living in the major cities of Galicia (northwest Spain). Pathological gamblers were identified on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Depression was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, subjects being classified 'depressive' if they obtained a score of 18 or more. Of 19 pathological gamblers who completed the Beck Depression Inventory, 21% were depressive; by contrast, only 9% of the other subjects were depressive. The Beck scores of pathological gamblers were positively correlated with the severity of their addiction as indicated by the number of DSM-IV-specified symptoms reported.

Becona E; Del Carmen Lorenzo M; Fuentes MJ

1996-04-01

179

Basic Sciences - Surgical Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Surgical Pathology Section provides expertise and diagnostic services in the field of Anatomic Pathology for Clinical Center patients and collaborates with the research staff in those investigations, which involve the use and study of human pathological material. Approximately 6,000 surgical specimens and biopsies (more than 60,000 slides which include routine and a variety of special stains) are accessioned each year. These include more than 2,000 fresh human tissues.

180

Forms of pathologization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many studies estimate that around half of the population in Western countries will suffer from a mental disorder sometime in their life. Approximately a quarter of the population will develop an anxiety disorder and a similar number will suffer from depression. A tenth will develop a personality disorder, and similar figures are found for many other mental disorders. These figures are striking, but are hard to interpret. This presentation argues in favour of the pathologization thesis, which claims that it cannot be argued in a straightforward manner that we are simply more ill and disordered than before, perhaps due to the malaises of modernity. Instead, we have learned to think and talk about human problems in new ways, viz. ways that involve pathologization. Pathologization, however, is not a unitary phenomenon, and the presentation gives an overview of four types of pathologization, which are called stigmatizing pathologization, self pathologization, risk pathologization and de-pathologization. It is argued that we need a variety of ways of understanding the complex phenomenon of pathologization and that previous critical frameworks (e.g. as promoted by the anti-psychiatry movement) are often overly simplistic.

Brinkmann, Svend

 
 
 
 
181

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul Clinical and pathological aspects of Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats in Rio Grande do Sul  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos, S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose pelo estudo histoquímico por lectinas. Os vacúolos nas células de Purkinje reagiram fortemente com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris e Triticum vulgaris succinilado. O padrão obtido neste estudo é similar ao encontrado em intoxicação por plantas que apresentam swainsoniana como princípio tóxico.This report includes the clinical and pathological studies of a lysosomal storage disease which spontaneously occurred in three flocs of goats e after consumption of Sida carpinifolia, the predominant plant in the paddocks where the animals were grazing. In the outbreaks a total of 25 out of 51 animals were affected. Post-mortem examination was performed on 11 goats. The disease was experimentally induced by dosing goats with Sida carpinifolia. The plant was administered in natura or dried to 3 animals. No clinical or pathological changes were observed in one goat dosed with Sida rhombifolia ad libidum during 40 days. Clinical signs of the poisoning were ataxia, hypermetria, muscle tremors in the head and neck and disorders of deglutition. The clinical signs were exacerbated by movement. After the surviving animals had been moved to other pastures and stopped eating the plant, clinical signs were still observed during 24 months. At necropsy, no significant gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions included various degrees of vacuolization in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells. Similar lesions were observed in the acinar pancreatic cells, hepatocytes, proximal convoluted tubular cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and macrophages of lymph nodes. In the surviving animals, mild neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed, and few cells were eosinophilic and shrunken. In these cases neurons, especially Purkinje cells, had disappeared. Through the histochemical study of the cerebellar sections, the lysosomal storage disease was characterized as an alpha-mannosidosis. The vacuoles within the Purkinje cells strongly reacted with lectins of Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris and succinylated Triticum vul

Edson M. Colodel; David Driemeier; Alexandre P. Loretti; Eduardo J. Gimeno; Sandra D. Traverso; Anderson L. Seitz; Priscila Zlotowski

2002-01-01

182

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação por Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul/ Clinical and pathological aspects of Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats in Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho inclui os estudos clínicos e patológicos da doença de armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo espontâneo de Sida carpinifolia. A enfermidade foi observada em três rebanhos, que juntos eram compostos por 51 caprinos, dos quais, 25 foram afetados e 11 necropsiados. Nos três surtos, S. carpinifolia era a vegetação predominante nos piquetes ocupados pelos animais. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por distúrbios neurológicos que consistiam (more) de ataxia, hipermetria, posturas anormais, tremores musculares afetando principalmente as regiões da cabeça e pescoço, dificuldade para ingestão de alimentos e quedas freqüentes. Estes sinais clínicos eram exacerbados pela movimentação. Em alguns animais, embora com um quadro clínico estabilizado, as alterações neurológicas persistiram durante 24 meses após sua retirada dos piquetes infestados por S. carpinifolia. A doença foi reproduzida administrando-se S. carpinifolia, in natura ou seca à sombra, para 3 caprinos. Um caprino recebeu Sida rhombifolia, ad libidum, por 40 dias e não desenvolveu alterações clínicas ou patológicas. Na necropsia não havia alterações. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram distensão e vacuolização citoplasmáticas em neurônios e, em menor intensidade, em células da glia do sistema nervoso central. Alterações similares foram observadas em células acinares pancreáticas, hepatócitos, células tubulares renais, células foliculares epiteliais da tireóide e macrófagos de órgãos linfóides. Nos animais que não mais ingeriam S. carpinifolia por períodos de um mês ou mais, observou-se uma diminuição da vacuolização citoplasmática de neurônios, que apresentavam citoplasma eosinofílico e aspecto enrugado. Nestes casos, notou-se também desaparecimento neuronal especialmente em células de Purkinje e gliose local. Em cortes cerebelares, esta doença de armazenamento foi caracterizada como ?-manosidose pelo estudo histoquímico por lectinas. Os vacúolos nas células de Purkinje reagiram fortemente com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris e Triticum vulgaris succinilado. O padrão obtido neste estudo é similar ao encontrado em intoxicação por plantas que apresentam swainsoniana como princípio tóxico. Abstract in english This report includes the clinical and pathological studies of a lysosomal storage disease which spontaneously occurred in three flocs of goats e after consumption of Sida carpinifolia, the predominant plant in the paddocks where the animals were grazing. In the outbreaks a total of 25 out of 51 animals were affected. Post-mortem examination was performed on 11 goats. The disease was experimentally induced by dosing goats with Sida carpinifolia. The plant was administered (more) in natura or dried to 3 animals. No clinical or pathological changes were observed in one goat dosed with Sida rhombifolia ad libidum during 40 days. Clinical signs of the poisoning were ataxia, hypermetria, muscle tremors in the head and neck and disorders of deglutition. The clinical signs were exacerbated by movement. After the surviving animals had been moved to other pastures and stopped eating the plant, clinical signs were still observed during 24 months. At necropsy, no significant gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions included various degrees of vacuolization in the cytoplasm of neurons and glial cells. Similar lesions were observed in the acinar pancreatic cells, hepatocytes, proximal convoluted tubular cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland and macrophages of lymph nodes. In the surviving animals, mild neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed, and few cells were eosinophilic and shrunken. In these cases neurons, especially Purkinje cells, had disappeared. Through the histochemical study of the cerebellar sections, the lysosomal storage disease was characterized as an alpha-mannosidosis. The vacuoles within the Purkinje cells strongly reacted with lectins of Concanavalia e

Colodel, Edson M.; Driemeier, David; Loretti, Alexandre P.; Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Traverso, Sandra D.; Seitz, Anderson L.; Zlotowski, Priscila

2002-04-01

183

Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

1984-01-01

184

Aspectos clínicos e patológicos em bovinos afetados por raiva com especial referência ao mapeamento do antígeno rábico por imuno-histoquímica/ Clinical and pathological aspects in cattle affected by rabies with special reference to the rabies antigen mapping by immunohistochemistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu achados clínicos e patológicos de 15 bovinos afetados por raiva. Em treze dos quinze casos, raiva foi confirmada por imunofluorescência direta. Bovinos entre 4 meses e 8 anos foram afetados. O curso clínico variou de três a sete dias. A forma paralítica foi a mais frequente e incluiu incoordenação, paresia e paralisia dos membros pélvicos, decúbito, movimentos de pedalagem e morte. Os principais achados histopatológicos foram m (more) eningoencefalite linfoplasmocitária associada com corpúsculos de Negri em 86,6% dos casos. Todos os casos foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para raiva, cujas reações foram mais evidentes no tronco encefálico, incluindo bulbo, ponte e mesencéfalo, além de gânglio trigêmeo. A imuno-histoquímica demonstrou o vírus da raiva em axônios, dendritos e pericário de neurônios, como agregados de grânulos ou em formações arredondadas associadas com números variáveis de corpúsculos de inclusão virais nos neurônios. Houve também marcação nos neurônios de Purkinje e de seus processos na camada molecular, nos núcleos do tronco encefálico e camada profunda do córtex telencefálico. A imuno-histoquímica pode ser importante ferramenta diagnóstica no diagnóstico da raiva, especialmente em situações nas quais não é possível manter refrigeração adequada das amostras e em casos com meningoencefalite não-supurativa e ausência de corpúsculos de inclusão. Abstract in english This retrospective study included clinical and pathological findings from 15 cattle affected by rabies. Thirteen of the 15 cases were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Cattle between 4 months and 8 years of age were affected. Clinical course ranged from 3 to 7 days. Paralytical form was the most common clinical picture and included incoordination, paresis, and paralysis of the pelvic members, besides recumbence, paddling, and death. The main histopathological findin (more) gs were lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis associated with characteristic Negri bodies in 86.6% of the cases. All cases showed anti-rabies immunostaining, which were most prominent in the brainstem including medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, besides trigeminal ganglion. Positive labeling was present within axons, dendrites, and perikarya of neurons as aggregates of granules or round formations associated with varying numbers of inclusion bodies. Immunostaining was also observed in the Purkinje neurons and their processes in the molecular layer, in the neurons of of the brainstem, and deep layer of the telencephalic cortex. Immunohistochemistry may be an important auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of rabies, especially in circumstances in which refrigeration cannot be adequately maintained, and in cases characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with absence of inclusion bodies.

Pedroso, Pedro M.O.; Colodel, Edson M.; Pescador, Caroline A.; Arruda, Laura P.; Driemeier, David

2009-11-01

185

Rotator Cuff Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotator Cuff Pathology Page Content What is the rotator cuff and rotator cuff pathology? The rotator cuff is the group of four muscles and tendons ... shoulder joint, providing strength and stability. Above the rotator cuff there is a bursa, or sac of tissue, ...

186

Pathology annual. Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies.

Fechner, R.E.; Rosen, P.P.

1987-01-01

187

Pathology annual. Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies

1987-01-01

188

Radiographic pathology for technologists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.

Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

1988-01-01

189

Kaposi's Sarcoma: clinical and pathological aspects in patients seen at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil/ Sarcoma de Kaposi: achados clínico-patológicos nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: O Sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia de origem endotelial, dividida em quatro formas clínicas: clássica (homens idosos de origem judaica e mediterrânea), epidêmica (associada ao HIV), endêmica (negros africanos) e iatrogênica (relacionada à imunossupressão). A infecção pelo herpes vírus humano tipo 8 (HHV-8) é necessária, mas insuficiente para que todas as formas possam ocorrer. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e caracterís (more) ticas histopatológicas das lesões dos pacientes com Sarcoma de Kaposi consultados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória - ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, realizado pela análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com Sarcoma de Kaposi, durante janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 2009, no Serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: Dos 15 pacientes estudados, houve maioria do sexo masculino (93,3%) e predomínio da raça branca (60%). A forma epidêmica foi a mais freqüente (80%), seguida pela clássica (20%). Não foram observadas as formas: endêmica e iatrogênica. A revisão das lâminas das biópsias cutâneas foi feita nos 15 casos, e demonstrou derme com proliferação de células fusiformes, extravasamento de hemácias e fendas vasculares em torno de vasos maiores, com aspecto clássico de "vasos em torno de vasos". CONCLUSÕES: O número de casos de Sarcoma de Kaposi foi linear ao longo do estudo, especialmente da forma epidêmica. Por outro lado, a incidência e a prevalência da AIDS no Espírito Santo foram crescentes. Portanto, considerando-se a relação entre o sarcoma de Kaposi e a AIDS houve decréscimo do primeiro, mais acentuado após a era HAART. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of endothelial origin that is divided into four distinct types according to the clinical characteristics and the affected population: Classic (in elder men of Jewish or Mediterranean origin); Epidemic (in patients affected by AIDS); Endemic (in black African men) and Iatrogenic (in patients under immunosuppressive regimens). Human herpesvirus 8 infection is essential but not sufficient for the sarcoma development. OBJECTIVE: To d (more) escribe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic -Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital - Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória - ES. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study based on clinical charts of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic from 1986 to 2009. RESULTS: The majority of the 15 cases were male patients (93,3%) and white (60%). Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma occurred in 80%, and the Classic form in 20%, with no cases in the Endemic or Iatrogenic groups. All the histopatho logical exams of the cutaneous lesions were reviewed and a proliferation of fusiform cells, extravasated erythrocytes and vascular rifts among the largest vessels, assuming the "vessels in vessels" typical aspect, were seen. CONCLUSION: The number of cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma was linear throughout the years of the study, especially of the epidemic form, although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS increased in the state of Espírito Santo. Therefore, if we consider the relation between KS and AIDS, a decreasing line of Kaposi's sarcoma could be seen, especially after the introduction of HAART.

Tiussi, Ricardo Montibeler; Caus, Antonio Luiz de Oliveira; Diniz, Lucia Martins; Lucas, Elton Almeida

2012-04-01

190

Kaposi's Sarcoma: clinical and pathological aspects in patients seen at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil Sarcoma de Kaposi: achados clínico-patológicos nos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Vitória - Espírito Santo - Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of endothelial origin that is divided into four distinct types according to the clinical characteristics and the affected population: Classic (in elder men of Jewish or Mediterranean origin); Epidemic (in patients affected by AIDS); Endemic (in black African men) and Iatrogenic (in patients under immunosuppressive regimens). Human herpesvirus 8 infection is essential but not sufficient for the sarcoma development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological aspects of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic -Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital - Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória - ES. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study based on clinical charts of patients with KS seen at the Dermatology Clinic from 1986 to 2009. RESULTS: The majority of the 15 cases were male patients (93,3%) and white (60%). Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma occurred in 80%, and the Classic form in 20%, with no cases in the Endemic or Iatrogenic groups. All the histopatho logical exams of the cutaneous lesions were reviewed and a proliferation of fusiform cells, extravasated erythrocytes and vascular rifts among the largest vessels, assuming the "vessels in vessels" typical aspect, were seen. CONCLUSION: The number of cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma was linear throughout the years of the study, especially of the epidemic form, although the incidence and prevalence of AIDS increased in the state of Espírito Santo. Therefore, if we consider the relation between KS and AIDS, a decreasing line of Kaposi's sarcoma could be seen, especially after the introduction of HAART.FUNDAMENTOS: O Sarcoma de Kaposi é neoplasia de origem endotelial, dividida em quatro formas clínicas: clássica (homens idosos de origem judaica e mediterrânea), epidêmica (associada ao HIV), endêmica (negros africanos) e iatrogênica (relacionada à imunossupressão). A infecção pelo herpes vírus humano tipo 8 (HHV-8) é necessária, mas insuficiente para que todas as formas possam ocorrer. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e características histopatológicas das lesões dos pacientes com Sarcoma de Kaposi consultados no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória - ES. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, realizado pela análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com Sarcoma de Kaposi, durante janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 2009, no Serviço de Dermatologia. RESULTADOS: Dos 15 pacientes estudados, houve maioria do sexo masculino (93,3%) e predomínio da raça branca (60%). A forma epidêmica foi a mais freqüente (80%), seguida pela clássica (20%). Não foram observadas as formas: endêmica e iatrogênica. A revisão das lâminas das biópsias cutâneas foi feita nos 15 casos, e demonstrou derme com proliferação de células fusiformes, extravasamento de hemácias e fendas vasculares em torno de vasos maiores, com aspecto clássico de "vasos em torno de vasos". CONCLUSÕES: O número de casos de Sarcoma de Kaposi foi linear ao longo do estudo, especialmente da forma epidêmica. Por outro lado, a incidência e a prevalência da AIDS no Espírito Santo foram crescentes. Portanto, considerando-se a relação entre o sarcoma de Kaposi e a AIDS houve decréscimo do primeiro, mais acentuado após a era HAART.

Ricardo Montibeler Tiussi; Antonio Luiz de Oliveira Caus; Lucia Martins Diniz; Elton Almeida Lucas

2012-01-01

191

Update on pathological skin picking  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pathological skin picking (PSP) is a disabling disorder characterized by repetitive picking of the skin that causes tissue damage. Estimated to affect 2% to 5.4% of the population, PSP is currently listed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified. However, the repetitive and compulsive behaviors seen in PSP are phenomenologically and clinically similar to the behaviors seen in obsessive-compulsive disorder and other body-focused repetitive behaviors, such as trichotillomania and pathological nail biting. Animal neuroimaging research in related disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania provides useful information for understanding PSP. Recent cognitive testing of individuals with PSP demonstrated impaired inhibitory control; these findings may assist in the proper characterization of PSP and aid in the development of effective treatment options. Although the disorder is common, appropriate treatments for PSP are limited. Pharmacotherapeutic and certain cognitive-behavioral interventions have demonstrated promise in treating this disorder and need to be explored further.

Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

2009-01-01

192

Pulmonary infections in transplantation pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Pulmonary infections are common and often life-threatening in solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients. Understanding their pathology is critical to making improvements in care and survival as well as in surgical techniques, immunosuppression management, prophylaxis, and treatment. Pulmonary infections are particularly common and serious in the susceptible population of lung transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To summarize recent updates in the field for opportunistic infections and some common pathogens, and to consider the role of the diagnostic pulmonary histopathologist as well as advances in molecular diagnosis. DATA SOURCES: This work is based on a selected review of the relevant medical and scientific literature, with emphasis on lung transplantation experience gained during 2 decades of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary infections in transplant recipients present a diagnostic challenge and are a continuing source of mortality and morbidity despite improvement in prophylaxis and treatment. Accurate diagnosis requires multidisciplinary input from clinicians, radiologists, and pathology disciplines as well as complementary molecular methods.

Stewart S

2007-08-01

193

NCI-Frederick PHL - Molecular Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Molecular Pathology Group (MPG) is a recent addition to the laboratory Animal Science Program (LASP), at the Frederick, Maryland campus of the National Cancer Institute. This SAIC-Frederick Inc group is actively working to expand high-quality, pathology-based research application support available to NCI investigators and their collaborators. Its primary role is to extend the capabilities of the existing SAIC-Frederick, Inc. Pathology and Histology Laboratory (PHL) core group by coordinating and performing advanced, tissue-based molecular imaging studies at the request of investigators.

194

[Reversible pathological gambling under treatment with pramipexole  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the recent past, pathological gambling has been increasingly reported to be related with dopamine agonist application in patients with Parkinson's disease. We present the case of a female patient whose gambling behavior occurred shortly after reaching the final dose of a combined levodopa and pramipexole therapy and resolved completely after stopping pramipexole. Pathological gambling seems to be a rare and serious but reversible adverse reaction to treatment with dopamine agonists of which clinicians should be aware in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Spengos K; Grips E; Karachalios G; Tsivgoulis G; Papadimitriou G

2006-08-01

195

Envenenamento experimental por Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu em ovinos: aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais/ Experimental poisoning by Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in sheep: clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em ovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu, no intuito de fornecer subsídios que possam facilitar o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial dessa condição. Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a quatro ovinos por via subcutânea. Três ovinos foram a óbito e u (more) m que recebeu a dose de 0,5mg/kg (B. jararaca), recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 7 minutos e 1 hora. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 9 minutos a 21 horas 59 minutos. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento e de preenchimento capilar aumentados, taquicardia, dispnéia, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram acentuada anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, acentuada redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito diminuído em dois animais, além de acentuado aumento de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática em todos os animais. À necropsia, os principais achados no local da inoculação e tecidos adjacentes eram extensas hemorragias no animal que recebeu o veneno de B. jararaca e edema e acentuado edema pulmonar agudo para os dois animais envenenados por B. jararacussu. Além de hemorragia e edema a principal alteração histopatológica verificada foi necrose das fibras musculares e de vasos, no local de inoculação e adjacências. A necrose tubular renal foi atribuída ao quadro de choque. Nos ovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído predominantemente por sangue (B. jararaca) e por edema (B. jararacussu). Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to establish the clinic-pathological and laboratory changes in sheep inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu venom to provide subsidies for the differential diagnosis of snake bites. The liofilized venoms were diluted in 1 ml saline and administrated subcutaneously to four sheep. Three of the animals died, and the one that received 0.5mg/kg (B. jararaca venom) recovered. First symptoms were observed from 7 minutes to 1 (more) hour after inoculation, and the clinical course varied from 7 hours and 9 minutes to 21 hours and 59 minutes. The symptoms, independent of the dosage, were swelling of the inoculation site, increased bleeding time and capillary filling, tachycardia, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes and diminished reaction to external stimuli. Laboratory tests revealed pronounced normocytic and normochromic anemia, trombocytopenia, slight reduction of fibrogen and total plasmatic protein, in two animals diminished hematocrit, besides pronounced increase of creatinaquinase and lactic dehydrogenase. At necropsy, the main findings at the inoculation site and adjacent tissues were extensive hemorrhages in the sheep inoculated with jararaca venom, and predominantly edema in the two animals inoculated with jararacussu venom. In two sheep which received jararacussu venom, acute pulmonary edema was observed. Hemorrhage and edema as the main histopathological changes, besides necrosis of muscle fibers and vessels at the inoculation site and adjacent tissue was observed. The renal tubular necrosis was attributed to shock. The volume increase at the inoculation site and surroundings was mainly due to hemorrhage (B. jararaca) or edema (B. jararacussu).

Aragão, Ana Paula; Tokarnia, Carlos H.; Graça, Flávio A.S.; França, Ticiana N.; Coelho, Cleide D.; Caldas, Saulo A.; Peixoto, Paulo V.

2010-09-01

196

Envenenamento experimental por Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu em ovinos: aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais Experimental poisoning by Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in sheep: clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e laboratoriais em ovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu, no intuito de fornecer subsídios que possam facilitar o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial dessa condição. Os venenos liofilizados foram diluídos em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrados a quatro ovinos por via subcutânea. Três ovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,5mg/kg (B. jararaca), recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 7 minutos e 1 hora. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 9 minutos a 21 horas 59 minutos. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento e de preenchimento capilar aumentados, taquicardia, dispnéia, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram acentuada anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, acentuada redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito diminuído em dois animais, além de acentuado aumento de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática em todos os animais. À necropsia, os principais achados no local da inoculação e tecidos adjacentes eram extensas hemorragias no animal que recebeu o veneno de B. jararaca e edema e acentuado edema pulmonar agudo para os dois animais envenenados por B. jararacussu. Além de hemorragia e edema a principal alteração histopatológica verificada foi necrose das fibras musculares e de vasos, no local de inoculação e adjacências. A necrose tubular renal foi atribuída ao quadro de choque. Nos ovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído predominantemente por sangue (B. jararaca) e por edema (B. jararacussu).The purpose of this study was to establish the clinic-pathological and laboratory changes in sheep inoculated with Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu venom to provide subsidies for the differential diagnosis of snake bites. The liofilized venoms were diluted in 1 ml saline and administrated subcutaneously to four sheep. Three of the animals died, and the one that received 0.5mg/kg (B. jararaca venom) recovered. First symptoms were observed from 7 minutes to 1 hour after inoculation, and the clinical course varied from 7 hours and 9 minutes to 21 hours and 59 minutes. The symptoms, independent of the dosage, were swelling of the inoculation site, increased bleeding time and capillary filling, tachycardia, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes and diminished reaction to external stimuli. Laboratory tests revealed pronounced normocytic and normochromic anemia, trombocytopenia, slight reduction of fibrogen and total plasmatic protein, in two animals diminished hematocrit, besides pronounced increase of creatinaquinase and lactic dehydrogenase. At necropsy, the main findings at the inoculation site and adjacent tissues were extensive hemorrhages in the sheep inoculated with jararaca venom, and predominantly edema in the two animals inoculated with jararacussu venom. In two sheep which received jararacussu venom, acute pulmonary edema was observed. Hemorrhage and edema as the main histopathological changes, besides necrosis of muscle fibers and vessels at the inoculation site and adjacent tissue was observed. The renal tubular necrosis was attributed to shock. The volume increase at the inoculation site and surroundings was mainly due to hemorrhage (B. jararaca) or edema (B. jararacussu).

Ana Paula Aragão; Carlos H. Tokarnia; Flávio A.S. Graça; Ticiana N. França; Cleide D. Coelho; Saulo A. Caldas; Paulo V. Peixoto

2010-01-01

197

Intoxicação por sal em suínos: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos e breve revisão de literatura/ Salt poisoning in swine: epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects and brief review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Intoxicação por sal ocorre comumente em suínos por ingestão excessiva de cloreto de sódio ou por privação de água por um período de tempo, seguido de um livre acesso a água abundante. O objetivo deste trabalho é agregar dados de casos de intoxicação por sal, diagnosticados, compilar dados já existentes na literatura e caracterizar as principais alterações clínicas e patológicas observadas. Foram revisados cinco surtos, sendo que um deles foi minuciosamen (more) te acompanhado. Em três deles a ingestão de cloreto de sódio foi determinada. Os sinais clínicos eram basicamente convulsões, com intensos tremores musculares e desenvolvimento de opistótono. Os animais permaneciam em decúbito lateral, fazendo movimentos de pedalagem. Alguns andavam em círculos. Dosagens de sódio em fragmentos de músculo e de fígado, no soro, líquor e humor aquoso revelaram concentrações aumentadas do íon. A quantidade de eosinófilos circulantes foi baixa caracterizando grande recrutamento dessas células para o encéfalo. Em todos os surtos foi observada infiltração de eosinófilos nas leptomeninges e no espaço de Virchow-Robin do córtex cerebral. Necrose cortical laminar foi observada mais detalhadamente em um dos surtos onde os suínos estavam doentes há seis dias. A combinação dessas duas lesões caracteriza a doença. Todas as alterações observadas podem ser explicadas pela provável patogenia da doença em que as elevadas concentrações de sódio causam edema cerebral que leva ao aumento da pressão intracraniana e decréscimo da perfusão para o cérebro causando isquemia difusa e necrose neuronal, com consequente malacia. Abstract in english Salt poisoning occurs commonly in pigs by excessive intake of sodium chloride or by a period water deprivation for followed by free access to water. The objective of this work is to aggregate data from cases of salt poisoning, combining existing data in the literature and describe the main clinical and pathological features observed. We reviewed five outbreaks, one of which was carefully monitored. In three of them the intake of sodium chloride had been determined. Clinic (more) al signs were basically seizures with the lateral decubitus with paddling movements. Circling was observed in some cases. Sodium determination in muscle of and liver fragments, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor showed increased concentrations of this ion. There was eosinopenia characterizing increased recruitment eosinophils from the circulation into the brain. In all outbreaks eosinophil infiltration was observed in the meninges and the Virchow-Robin space of the cerebral cortex. Cortical laminar necrosis was more pronounced in the brain of pigs from one of the outbreaks in which animals were sick for six days. The combination of these two lesions characterizes the disease. The changes observed result from high concentrations of sodium in the brain causing cause edema that leads to increased intracranial pressure and decreased perfusion to the brain tissue causing diffuse ischemia and neuronal necrosis, with consequent malacia.

Brum, Juliana S.; Galiza, Glauco J.N.; Lucena, Ricardo B.; Barros, Claudio S.L.

2013-07-01

198

Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento experimental por Bothrops alternatus em bovinos Clinic and pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by Bothrops alternatus venom in cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar as alterações clínico-patológicas e os achados laboratoriais em bovinos inoculados com a peçonha de Bothrops alternatus, no intuito de fornecer subsídios para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico e do diagnóstico diferencial, bem como esclarecer pontos obscuros da literatura pertinente. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1 ml de solução fisiológica e administrado a cinco bovinos, por via subcutânea, nas doses de 0,0625, 0,125 e 0,25 mg/kg e a dois outros, por via intramuscular, nas doses de 0,25 e 0,45 mg/kg. Seis bovinos foram a óbito e um que recebeu a dose de 0,0625mg/kg, por via subcutânea, recuperou-se. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início entre 25 minutos a 5 horas 30 minutos após a inoculação. O período de evolução variou de 7 horas 18 minutos a 66 horas 12 minutos. Um animal recuperou-se após 92 horas. O quadro clínico, independentemente das doses, caracterizou-se por aumento de volume (hemorragia/hematoma) no local da inoculação, tempo de sangramento aumentado, mucosas hipocoradas e apatia. O exame laboratorial revelou progressiva anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia, redução de fibrinogênio e proteínas plasmáticas totais, hematócrito e hemoglobina diminuídos, além de leve aumento dos níveis de creatinaquinase e desidrogenase lática. Á necropsia, havia, a partir do local da inoculação, extensos hematomas e áreas de hemorragia no tecido celular subcutâneo dos animais que receberam o veneno por via subcutânea; nos animais inoculados por via intramuscular, adicionalmente, havia hemorragia intramuscular. O endocárdio esquerdo apresentava extensas hemorragias e verificaram-se petéquias na serosa do rúmen e do omaso e na mucosa do abomaso e da vesícula biliar. Em cinco animais, o cólon, reto e região perirrenal estavam envoltos por coágulos de sangue. Ao exame histológico observou-se, além do quadro hemorragíparo, necrose muscular coagulativa, acompanhada de hemorragia, no entorno do local da inoculação nos animais que receberam o veneno por via intramuscular; essa lesão era discreta nos músculos próximos ao local de inoculação subcutânea. Nos bovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído por sangue e não edema. Não foram observadas mioglobinúria, nem lesões macro ou microscópicas significativas nos rins. Este estudo indica que exemplares de B. alternatus, caso inoculem todo seu veneno, poderiam levar bovinos adultos à morte. Por outro lado, pelo fato de ofídios serem capazes de regular a quantidade de veneno inoculada e, possivelmente, não considerarem bovinos como presa potencial, é provável que o número de acidentes nessa espécie seja pequeno, o que está de acordo com o observado na maioria dos centros diagnóstico anátomo-patológico no país.The aim of this study was to determine the clinical-pathological alterations and laboratory findings in cattle inoculated with Bothrops alternatus venom, with the intention of providing information for the establishment of diagnosis and differential diagnosis procedures, as well as to elucidate some obscurities observed in the pertinent literature. The lyophilized venom was diluted in 1 ml of physiologic solution. It was administered to 5 bovines by the subcutaneous route at doses of 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25mg/kg body weight, and to 2 bovines by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.25 e 0.45mg/kg. Six bovines died and the only animal that survived, who had subcutaneously received the venom at a dose of 0.0625mg/kg, recovered. The first clinical signs were observed from 25min to 5h30min after the inoculation. The clinical evolution time varied from 7 hours 18 minutes to 92 hours. Regardless of the dose, the clinical picture was characterized by swelling (hemorrhage/hematoma) at the site of inoculation, increase in bleeding time and capillary refill time, paleness of mucous membranes and apathy. The laboratory exams revealed progressive normocytic normochromic anemia, thromb

Saulo A. Caldas; Carlos H. Tokarnia; Ticiana N. França; Marilene F. Brito; Flávio A.S. Graça; Cleide D. Coelho; Paulo V. Peixoto

2008-01-01

199

Pathology Case Study: Headache  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. In this case, a 79 year old male with headaches and sinus problems is evaluated. The patient previously had "an inverted papilloma resected." Using the gross description, microscopic description, and images provided, students are encouraged to test their knowledge of pathology and diagnose the patient's medical problem. This is an excellent resource for providing students experience with patient history, lab results and diagnostics.

Nine, Jeff S.

2007-11-28

200

Pathology Case Study: Hemoptysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a pulmonary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55 year old female has spontaneously occurring hemoptysis. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Holst, Valerie; Yousem, Sam

2007-08-28

 
 
 
 
201

Pathologic gambling and bankruptcy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although prior studies have examined rates of bankruptcy in pathologic gambling (PG), there are only limited data regarding the clinical correlates of those with PG who declare bankruptcy because of gambling.

Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana

2013-01-01

202

Basic Sciences - Ultrastructural Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pediatric Tumor Biology and Ultrastructural Pathology Section provides traditional and specialized diagnostic services on pediatric tumors to the Pediatric Branch, and diagnostic electron microscopic services to a diverse group of Clinical Center physicians at the NIH.

203

Careers in Plant Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

This brochure reads easily and features pictures of plant pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider plant pathology as a career choice.

Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society;)

2004-01-01

204

Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage amore inclusively global treatment approach.

Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

2012-01-01

205

Recent advances in the pathology of alcoholic myopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were Victor R. Preedy and Junko Adachi. The presentations were (1) Alcoholic myopathy: Past, present and future, by Timothy J. Peters and Victor R. Preedy; (2) Protein adducts in the type I and II fiber-predominant muscles of the ethanol-fed rat, by Simon Worrall, Seppo Parkkila, and Onni Niemela; (3) Hydroperoxides and changes in alcoholic myopathy, by Junko Adachi, Migiwa Asamo, and Yasuhino Ueno; and (4) A close association between testicular atrophy, muscle atrophy, and the increase in protein catabolism after chronic ethanol administration, by Kunihiko Takeda, Masayoshi Yamauchi, Kazuhiko Sakamoto, Masaru Takagi, Hisato Nakajima, and Gotaro Toda.

Preedy VR; Adachi J; Peters TJ; Worrall S; Parkkila S; Niemela O; Asamo M; Ueno Y; Takeda K; Yamauchi M; Sakamoto K; Takagi M; Nakajima H; Toda G

2001-05-01

206

[Hematological aspects of Gaucher disease  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal storage disease, and corresponds to an inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. Due to excessive accumulation of glucocerebroside in bone marrow, cytopenia and bone lesions occur. KEY POINTS: The clinical signs at diagnosis include frequently anaemia, thrombopenia and splenomegaly. The hematologist is often in first line of the diagnosis, but it must avoid certain diagnostic traps (pseudo-Gaucher cells or even pseudo-pseudo-Gaucher cells in certain crystal storage diseases). The treatment of substitution when adequately carried out generally makes it possible to quickly improve the hematologic parameters. Another hematologic aspect must be evoked in Gaucher disease, i.e. the incidence of associated malignant pathologies and more particularly of multiple myeloma. Many cases of association between multiple myeloma and Gaucher disease have been reported in the literature. Recently two important series demonstrated the nonfortuitous character of this association. PROJECTS: The physiopathological links which could connect myeloma and Gaucher disease are not known to date. Immune network imbalance could be an interesting hypothesis that should require further investigations.

Costello R; O'Callaghan T; Baccini V; Sébahoun G

2007-10-01

207

Pathologic conditions in pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation.

1991-01-01

208

Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms is medication that binds to dopamine receptors in the brain, i.e., dopamine agonists [1]. Unfortunately, for some PD patients a very serious side effect to this specific kind of treatment is developing PG. PG is an Impulse Control Disorder characterized by recurrent maladaptive behavior associated with personal, relational, and financial consequenses [2].   Since 2000, numerous reports have described PD patients who develop PG due to treatment with dopamine agonists [3-11]. The objective of the present project is to explain the pathogenesis of this particular complication to the treatment of PD patients. The aims are twofold, both driven by the main hypothesis that PD patients who develop PG secondary to treatment with dopamine agonists have a decreased sensitivity towards dopamine and hence an increased demand for dopamine. The neurophysiological subproject 1 uses PET imaging to determine changes of dopamine occupancy in the striatum in baseline and gambling situations. We will test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism release more dopamine during gambling than PD patients without PG, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls. The behavioral subproject 2 uses a slot machine to test the hypothesis that PD patients with PG secondary to dopamine agonism have exacerbated gambling behavior compared to PD patients without PD, pathological gamblers, and healthy controls.     References: 1.            Siegel, A. & Sapru, H.N. (2006). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. USA. 2.            DSM-IV-TR. (1994). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. xxvii, 886. 3.            Seedat, S. et Al. (2000). Case Reports in Depression and Anxiety, vol. 11. 4.            Gschwandtner, U., et Al. (2001). Clinical Neuropharmacology, vol. 24 (3). 5.            Driver-Dunckley, E. et Al. (2003). Neurology, vol. 61. 6.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2004). Neurol Sci. 7.            Dodd, M.L. et Al. (2005). Arch Neurol, vol. 62. 8.            Larner, A.J. (2006). Letters to the editors. Movement Disorders, vol. 21 (10). 9.            Grosset, K.A. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 10.            Avanzi, M. et Al. (2006). Movement Disorders vol. 21(12). 11.            Wong, S.H. et al. (2007). Letters to the editors, Movement Disorders, vol. 22 (4).    

Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob

209

Recent Trends in African History.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The dynamism of Africa's role in world history, recent work in African economic history, the role of women, and the African colonial period are discussed. Various aspects of this history can be integrated easily into existing social studies courses. (RM)|

Sullivan, Jo

1982-01-01

210

[Czech eponyms in pathology].  

Science.gov (United States)

The 24th European Congress of Pathology taking place in Prague is an opportunity to remind our society of the Czech names appearing as eponyms in pathological terminology: Karel Rokitanský - R. protuberance in dermoid cyst; R. thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis; Mayer - R. - Küster - Hauser - Winckel syndrome (congenital malformation of the vagina and uterus); Václav Treitz - T. duodenal ligament; T. retroperitoneal hernia; T. uremic colitis; Vilém Dušan Lambl - L. excrescences of heart valves; Lamblia (Giardia) intestinalis, and also the foundation of urological cytology; Stanislav Provázek - Prowazek - Halberstädter bodies (trachoma), Rickettsia Prowazeki (typhus fever); Josef Van?k - V. tumor (gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp), and also discovery of the etiology of pneumocystic pneumonia; Otto Jírovec - Pneumocystis Jiroveci; Blahoslav Bedná? - B. tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans). Keywords: Rokitansky - Treitz - Lambl - Prowazek - Van?k - Jírovec - Bedná? - history of pathology. PMID:23432077

Steiner, Ivo

2013-12-01

211

[Czech eponyms in pathology].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 24th European Congress of Pathology taking place in Prague is an opportunity to remind our society of the Czech names appearing as eponyms in pathological terminology: Karel Rokitanský - R. protuberance in dermoid cyst; R. thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis; Mayer - R. - Küster - Hauser - Winckel syndrome (congenital malformation of the vagina and uterus); Václav Treitz - T. duodenal ligament; T. retroperitoneal hernia; T. uremic colitis; Vilém Dušan Lambl - L. excrescences of heart valves; Lamblia (Giardia) intestinalis, and also the foundation of urological cytology; Stanislav Provázek - Prowazek - Halberstädter bodies (trachoma), Rickettsia Prowazeki (typhus fever); Josef Van?k - V. tumor (gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp), and also discovery of the etiology of pneumocystic pneumonia; Otto Jírovec - Pneumocystis Jiroveci; Blahoslav Bedná? - B. tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans). Keywords: Rokitansky - Treitz - Lambl - Prowazek - Van?k - Jírovec - Bedná? - history of pathology.

Steiner I

2013-12-01

212

Aspects of Multiple Membranes  

CERN Multimedia

This paper examines various aspects of the recently proposed theory of coincident membranes by Bagger and Lambert. These include the properties of open membranes and the resulting boundary theory with an interpretation in terms of the fivebrane and marginal supersymmetric deformations of the interactions with the relation to the holographic dual.

Berman, David S; Thompson, Daniel C

2008-01-01

213

Hygrothermal behavior, building pathology and durability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behavior. Presents a new durability approach for historical and old buildings. Reviews the current state of knowledge. The main purpose of this book, Hygrothermal, Building Pathology and Durability, is to provide a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behaviour of buildings, durability and diagnostic techniques and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building physics and hygrothermal behaviour, durability approach for historical and old buildings and building pathology vs. durability. The book is divided in several chapters that are a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties to network.

Peixoto de Freitas V.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q. (eds.) [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Building Physics Lab.

2013-03-01

214

Pathology Case Study: Peritonitis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old woman has had a 13-year history of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Visitors are given both the patient history and laboratory results, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical microbiology.

Pasculle, A. W.; Anhalt, John P.; Torbenson, Michael; Sheaffer, John; Macauley, Robert

2007-10-05

215

Pathology Case Study: Petechiae  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 6-hour-old baby was found to have petechiae. Visitors are given the case description and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Lopez-Plaza, Iliana; Qu, Lirong; Nester, Theresa

2008-03-26

216

Transplant Pathology Case  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathology is a complex field, and persons who might be new to the field might appreciate a bit of assistance. Medical educators might also need a hand as they begin to teach others in the field, and this particular case study offered by the University of Pittsburgh's Department of Pathology will be most useful in that regard. In this case, users will be exposed to slides, explanations, and relevant illustrations of a patient who was diagnosed with hepatitis C. Additionally, visitors can read descriptions of each microscope slide and look over the final diagnosis report.

217

Some immuno-pathological aspects in bilharzial and amoebic dysentery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Serum immunoglobulin, secretory IgA in stools and leucocyte migration inhibition test were done for 75 patients suffering from bilharzial and amoebic dysentery as well as 20 normal controls. Sigmoidoscopic examination with immunofluorescent staining of colonic biopsy was done in patients with bilharzial dysentery. Humoral immune response increased significantly as detected by significant increase in serum IgG and IgM. Secretory IgA decreased significantly in bilharzial cases leucocyte migration inhibition test decreased significantly as well as plasma cells secreting IgA. This change in systemic and local immune response may predispose to infection or occur secondary to the disease.

el-Hawy AM; Abou Taleb SA; Abdel Rahman MM; Soliman AA; Abdin FH; Rageh KK

1989-06-01

218

Chagas disease: an overview of clinical and epidemiological aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a serious health problem in Latin America and is an emerging disease in non-endemic countries. In recent decades, the epidemiological profile of the disease has changed due to new patterns of immigration and successful control in its transmission, leading to the urbanization and globalization of the disease. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most important and severe manifestation of human chronic Chagas disease and is characterized by heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, heart blocks, thromboembolic phenomena, and sudden death. This article will present an overview of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. It will focus on several clinical aspects of the disease, such as chronic Chagas disease without detectable cardiac pathology, as well as dysautonomia, some specific features, and the principles of treatment of chronic cardiomyopathy.

Nunes MC; Dones W; Morillo CA; Encina JJ; Ribeiro AL

2013-08-01

219

Recent developments in biodosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews recent developments in biodosimetry (1989-1993), and presents a comparative study of the existing techniques and their future prospects. The report summarizes the sensitivity, reproducibility, limiting dose, dose-rate, energy, linear energy transfer (LET) responses, sources of variability and uncertainty, and other practical aspects of each bio-indicator. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach are evaluated on the basis of a set of common criteria for particular applications. (author). 155 refs., 15 tabs.

1995-01-01

220

TC pathological Neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Applied pathology for radiographers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents a basic text for the student of radiologic sciences. It includes most of the pathology recommended by the ASRT Curriculum Guide. Radiographic technique and positioning are examined when relevant to obtaining quality radiographs of specific disease conditions. Brief overviews of these conditions include background etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Many illustrations are included to enhance understanding.

Laudicina, P.

1987-01-01

222

[Computerized axial tomography in the study of orbital pathology].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, C.A.T. has revolutionized the diagnostic iter in the field of orbitary pathology. Although echotomography has reached very good results in this field, C.A.T. still remains, according to the Authors the most reliable diagnostic approach, because of its excellent insight of normal and pathological orbital material. the analysis of personal casistics of 120 orbital tomodensitometric examinations has proved this event, especially as retrobulbar expansive pathology is concerned.

De Donatis M; Pichezzi P; Isgro' E; Bertolino G; Contini C; Cusmano F; Bruschi G; Bassi P

1983-01-01

223

Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, and the Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

2006-11-15

224

[Reversible pathological gambling under treatment with pramipexole].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the recent past, pathological gambling has been increasingly reported to be related with dopamine agonist application in patients with Parkinson's disease. We present the case of a female patient whose gambling behavior occurred shortly after reaching the final dose of a combined levodopa and pramipexole therapy and resolved completely after stopping pramipexole. Pathological gambling seems to be a rare and serious but reversible adverse reaction to treatment with dopamine agonists of which clinicians should be aware in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:16821061

Spengos, K; Grips, E; Karachalios, G; Tsivgoulis, G; Papadimitriou, G

2006-08-01

225

Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patients were in their fourth decade. Episodic hemoptysis was the commonest mode of presentation (85.4%). Forty aspergillomas were complex, occurring in cavitatory lesions (82.9%) or in bronchiectasis (14.6%). Simple aspergilloma was seen as an incidental finding in only one. Tuberculosis was the etiological factor in 31 patients, producing cavitatory or bronchiectatic lesions; other causes were chronic lung abscess and bronchiectasis (unrelated to tuberculosis). Surgical resections are endorsed in view of high risk of unpredictable, life-threatening hemoptysis.

Shah Rajeev; Vaideeswar Pradeep; Pandit Shobhana

2008-01-01

226

[Molecular diagnostics in pathology].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tissue-based molecular diagnostics is a fast growing diagnostic field, which already complements morphologic classifications in many cases. Pathology based molecular diagnosis is performed almost exclusively on paraffin embedded material and always in conjunction with histopathology. Besides the classic field of tissue based detection of pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, molecular diagnostics of tumor tissue is one of the current hot topics in oncology. In this context the detection of predictive molecular biomarkers, such as specific mutations, allows patient stratification for individually tailored treatment strategies and thereby is one of the key components of individualized patient care in oncology. The rapidly growing number of clinically relevant predictive biomarkers together with impressive technical advances, specifically the development of massive parallel sequencing, will modify the care of patients with malignant diseases. Pathology, therefore, has returned in the very center of interdisciplinary patient care.

Stenzinger A; Penzel R; Endris V; Weichert W

2013-05-01

227

Basic Sciences - Biochemical Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of normal cell growth and differentiation and play essential roles in pathological conditions such as tumor metastasis and infection by pathogens. We are defining functions of adhesion molecules, their cell surface and matrix receptors, and the signal transduction pathways that regulate their activities in specific diseases. These studies will identify new molecular targets and could provide a basis for designing novel therapeutic agents.

228

The pathologic medical shelf.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is now recognized that a previously normal fold of synovium on the medial side of the knee (a medial patellar plica) may, as a result of trauma, become pathologically inflamed and/or fibrosed, producing symptoms that may be mistakenly diagnosed as a torn meniscus or chondromalacia patellae. Clinical awareness, aided by arthroscopy, can establish the diagnosis. The correct treatment is simple and, if instituted early before irreversible changes have occurred in the femoral condyle articular cartilage, is extremely effective.

Jackson RW; Marshall DJ; Fujisawa Y

1982-04-01

229

Breast pathology in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present the first results of the assessment of MRI (0.35 T) with adapted surface reel in the exploration of mammary pathology in 90 cases. On a morphological level, MRI permits a new analysis of sign of dystrophy. As far as MRI is concerned, no specific sign of mammary neoplasia seems to exist. A classification is suggested, taking into account morphology and parameters of relaxation. (orig.)

1986-01-01

230

Pathology Case Study: Hydrocephalus  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Department of Pathology has compiled a series of case studies to help both students and instructors. In this particular study an otherwise healthy 9 month old infant is presented with hydrocephalus. The case study provides test results and images along with microscopic photos and description. Clicking on the final diagnosis provides a thorough explanation of the diagnosis and treatment.

2007-08-20

231

Nondomestic avian pediatric pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a snapshot of avian neonatal pathology—not an exhaustive review. Through knowledge and recognition of the significant pathogenic challenges of avian neonates and the associated lesions, avian practitioners can improve their diagnostic and therapeutic success. An area of need for avian research is determining the specific pathogenesis of many conditions affecting avian neonates. By narrowing the specific etiologies, we can improve management and reduce neonatal concerns.

St Leger J

2012-05-01

232

Spinal Cord Decompression Sickness: A Review of the Pathology and Some New Findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the pathological changes reported in spinal cord decompression sickness and describes the major theories of the aetiology of the disease process supported by the pathological changes reported. Recently reported findings are included w...

J. J. Sykes

1985-01-01

233

Recent developments in tau-based therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a major public health issue due to an increasingly aged population as a consequence of generally improved medical care and demographic changes. Current drug treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent dementia, with cholinesterase inhibitors or NMDA antagonists has demonstrated very modest, symptomatic efficacy, leaving an unmet medical need for new, more effective therapies. Drug development efforts for AD in the last two decades have primarily focused on targets defined by the amyloid cascade hypothesis, so far with disappointing results. In contrast, tau-based strategies have received little attention until recently despite that the presence of extensive tau pathology is central to the disease. The discovery of mutations within the tau gene that cause fronto-temporal dementia demonstrated that tau dysfunction, in the absence of amyloid pathology, was sufficient to cause neuronal loss and clinical dementia. This review focuses on emerging therapeutic strategies aimed at treating the underlying causes of the tau pathology in tauopathies and AD, including some targets with significant potential in the field and which might be on the verge of providing new treatment paradigms within the coming years. Among those strategies, immunotherapy approaches will be mostly discussed. An update on 2010 patents regarding different aspects of tau-based therapeutic strategies is also provided. PMID:21118095

Medina, Miguel

2011-01-01

234

Recent developments in tau-based therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a major public health issue due to an increasingly aged population as a consequence of generally improved medical care and demographic changes. Current drug treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent dementia, with cholinesterase inhibitors or NMDA antagonists has demonstrated very modest, symptomatic efficacy, leaving an unmet medical need for new, more effective therapies. Drug development efforts for AD in the last two decades have primarily focused on targets defined by the amyloid cascade hypothesis, so far with disappointing results. In contrast, tau-based strategies have received little attention until recently despite that the presence of extensive tau pathology is central to the disease. The discovery of mutations within the tau gene that cause fronto-temporal dementia demonstrated that tau dysfunction, in the absence of amyloid pathology, was sufficient to cause neuronal loss and clinical dementia. This review focuses on emerging therapeutic strategies aimed at treating the underlying causes of the tau pathology in tauopathies and AD, including some targets with significant potential in the field and which might be on the verge of providing new treatment paradigms within the coming years. Among those strategies, immunotherapy approaches will be mostly discussed. An update on 2010 patents regarding different aspects of tau-based therapeutic strategies is also provided.

Medina M

2011-01-01

235

'Pathological Science'; is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Pathological' science implies scientific misconduct: it should not happen and the scientists concerned ought to know better. However, there are no clear and generally agreed definitions of pathological science or of scientific misconduct. The canonical exemplars of pathological science in chemistry...

Henry H. Bauer

236

Medicolegal aspects in gastroenterology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Medical practice is under continual public scrutiny. There are increasing concerns on medical malpractice and its consequences - further deterioration of health and death. Public criticism of medical practice very often outrageous, but sometimes medical negligence is obvious. Aim of the study: We are presenting basic medicolegal analysis of causation in cases of medical malpractice with subsequent fatal outcome. Case study: We are reporting on two cases from archives of Institute of Forensic Medicine. The selected cases (biliary ileus and pseudomembranous colitis subsequent to elective cholecistectomy) may reflect common gastroenterological pathology. The analysis of medical practice and its consequences, i.e. analyze of causation has been presented and commented in regard to the pertinent legislation. Conclusion: Doctors ought to be familiar with medicolegal aspects of their practice. This might affect them to improve the quality of health care, and to increase protection, both of health care personal and patients. .

Alempijevi? ?.; Alempijevi? T.; Savi? S.; Kova?evi? N.; Krsti? M.

2007-01-01

237

[Scrotal ultrasound: anatomy and pathological findings].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ultrasonography (US) is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of scrotal disease. It provides high anatomical detail and in most cases, it is essential to enable a correct diagnosis and to obtain the right management of the patient. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a non invasive technique that aids important information about testicular perfusion, necessary in reaching a specific diagnosis in many pathologic conditions; moreover contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), recently introduced in the clinical practice, may be considered an additional tool in the classification and differentiation of testicular pathology. The purpose of this review, is to provide the state of the art on the role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of different scrotal pathologies including vaginal process' disorders, acute scrotum, varicocele, hydrocele, chronic inflammatory diseases and testicular tumours.

Iannicelli E; Sessa B; Sapori A; Cappucci M; Briani C; Federici GF; Di Pietropaolo M; Merola S

2013-01-01

238

Digital Pathology Devices Panel Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

Text VersionDigital Pathology Devices Panel Meeting. October 23, 2009. Tremel Faison, MS, RAC, SCT(ASCP). Day 1. ... Digital Pathology. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

239

[Pathology of the ANCA-associated vasculitides].  

Science.gov (United States)

The international guidelines emphasize the crucial role of renal biopsy in the diagnosis of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody (ANCA)- associated glomerulonephritis (Microscopic Polyangiitis, Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis). 1) According to the recent 2012 Chapel Hill Consensus Conference, ANCA- associated vasculitides are classified in the group of small vessel vasculitis. 2) Pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis is the morphological hallmark of ANCA-associated vasculitis. The lesion can vary widely in severity and extent of the damage, from segmental tuft necrosis to massive circumferential crescents and frequent peri-glomerular granulomatous reaction. 3) The ANCA test is highly specific for these types of autoimmune vasculitides but renal biopsy still remains the gold standard for final diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and therapeutic intervention, although discrepancy between clinical and morphological features is frequently found. 4) Crescentic damage of the glomerular tuft is characterized by monocyte.- macrophage accumulation through Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) activation. Activated macrophages are considered to have a key role in the chronic progression of renal damage due to their ability to produce substances directly involved in matrix remodelling (Tumor Growth Factor b). 5) Diffuse and marked interstitial infiltration of T, B lymphocytes and monocyte- macrophages is another frequent morphological feature with aspects of tubulitis recently being considered important markers for a worse prognosis. 6) Unfortunately, repeat biopsies are infrequently performed in these disorders and long-term renal changes have remained largely unidentified. 7) Despite the formulation of standardized scoring for renal biopsies, definitive histopathologic classification is still lacking. The European Vasculitis Study (EUVAS) group has proposed a classification system based on glomerular pathology as assessed by light microscopy which is, in turn, divided into four categories: focal, crescentic, sclerotic and mixed. A preliminary correlation with clinical features in 100 cases of ANCA-associated vasculitis has demonstrated that renal biopsy categories were the only independent predictors for the estimated glomerular flow rate (eGFR). The international study currently way is being evaluated by EUVAS for possible confirmation of the classification. PMID:23832458

Ferrario, Franco; Vanzati, Alice; Pilla, Daniela; Pagni, Fabio

240

[Pathology of the ANCA-associated vasculitides].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The international guidelines emphasize the crucial role of renal biopsy in the diagnosis of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody (ANCA)- associated glomerulonephritis (Microscopic Polyangiitis, Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis). 1) According to the recent 2012 Chapel Hill Consensus Conference, ANCA- associated vasculitides are classified in the group of small vessel vasculitis. 2) Pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis is the morphological hallmark of ANCA-associated vasculitis. The lesion can vary widely in severity and extent of the damage, from segmental tuft necrosis to massive circumferential crescents and frequent peri-glomerular granulomatous reaction. 3) The ANCA test is highly specific for these types of autoimmune vasculitides but renal biopsy still remains the gold standard for final diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and therapeutic intervention, although discrepancy between clinical and morphological features is frequently found. 4) Crescentic damage of the glomerular tuft is characterized by monocyte.- macrophage accumulation through Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) activation. Activated macrophages are considered to have a key role in the chronic progression of renal damage due to their ability to produce substances directly involved in matrix remodelling (Tumor Growth Factor b). 5) Diffuse and marked interstitial infiltration of T, B lymphocytes and monocyte- macrophages is another frequent morphological feature with aspects of tubulitis recently being considered important markers for a worse prognosis. 6) Unfortunately, repeat biopsies are infrequently performed in these disorders and long-term renal changes have remained largely unidentified. 7) Despite the formulation of standardized scoring for renal biopsies, definitive histopathologic classification is still lacking. The European Vasculitis Study (EUVAS) group has proposed a classification system based on glomerular pathology as assessed by light microscopy which is, in turn, divided into four categories: focal, crescentic, sclerotic and mixed. A preliminary correlation with clinical features in 100 cases of ANCA-associated vasculitis has demonstrated that renal biopsy categories were the only independent predictors for the estimated glomerular flow rate (eGFR). The international study currently way is being evaluated by EUVAS for possible confirmation of the classification.

Ferrario F; Vanzati A; Pilla D; Pagni F

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Axonal pathology in traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 70years, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has emerged as one of the most common and important pathological features of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Axons in the white matter appear to be especially vulnerable to injury due to the mechanical loading of the brain during TBI. As such, DAI has been found in all severities of TBI and may represent a key pathologic substrate of mild TBI (concussion). Pathologically, DAI encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities from primary mechanical breaking of the axonal cytoskeleton, to transport interruption, swelling and proteolysis, through secondary physiological changes. Depending on the severity and extent of injury, these changes can manifest acutely as immediate loss of consciousness or confusion and persist as coma and/or cognitive dysfunction. In addition, recent evidence suggests that TBI may induce long-term neurodegenerative processes, such as insidiously progressive axonal pathology. Indeed, axonal degeneration has been found to continue even years after injury in humans, and appears to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease-like pathological changes. Here we review the current understanding of DAI as a uniquely mechanical injury, its histopathological identification, and its acute and chronic pathogenesis following TBI. PMID:22285252

Johnson, Victoria E; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H

2012-01-20

242

Axonal pathology in traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past 70years, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has emerged as one of the most common and important pathological features of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Axons in the white matter appear to be especially vulnerable to injury due to the mechanical loading of the brain during TBI. As such, DAI has been found in all severities of TBI and may represent a key pathologic substrate of mild TBI (concussion). Pathologically, DAI encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities from primary mechanical breaking of the axonal cytoskeleton, to transport interruption, swelling and proteolysis, through secondary physiological changes. Depending on the severity and extent of injury, these changes can manifest acutely as immediate loss of consciousness or confusion and persist as coma and/or cognitive dysfunction. In addition, recent evidence suggests that TBI may induce long-term neurodegenerative processes, such as insidiously progressive axonal pathology. Indeed, axonal degeneration has been found to continue even years after injury in humans, and appears to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease-like pathological changes. Here we review the current understanding of DAI as a uniquely mechanical injury, its histopathological identification, and its acute and chronic pathogenesis following TBI.

Johnson VE; Stewart W; Smith DH

2013-08-01

243

Pathology of lymphatic filariasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing and adult worms of the humanlymphatic filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti,Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori) are located mainly inthe lymphatic system and occasionally in aberrant siteslike subcutaneous and conjunctival cysts. Lymphaticpathology ranging from dilatation of lymphatic channelsand lymphangiectasia are detected on ultrasonography inapparently healthy, amicrofilaraemic, but filarial antigenpositive individuals in endemic areas. Microfilariae aredistributed in various organs and may be associatedwith immune mediated pathology at these sites; tropicalpulmonary eosinophilia is characterized by intenseimmune mediated destruction of microfilariae in thelung parenchyma. In the spleen and other sites, nodulargranulomatous lesions can occur where microfilariaeare trapped and destroyed. The finding of Wolbachiaendosymbionts in all stages of lymphatic filarial parasiteshas provided new insight on the adverse reactionsassociated with anti-filarial chemotherapy. Inflammatorymolecules mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-likemolecules released from endosymbionts on death of theparasites are largely responsible for the adverse reactionsencountered during anti-filarial chemotherapy. Prenataltolerance or sensitization to parasite derived moleculescan immune-modulate and contribute to both pathologyand susceptibility/resistance to infection. Pathologicalresponses thus depend not only on exposure tofilarial antigens/infection, but also on host-parasiteendosymbiontfactors and to intervention with antifilarialtreatment. Treatment induced or host mediateddeath of parasites are associated with various grades ofinflammatory response, in which eosinophils and LPSfrom endosymbionts play prominent roles, leadingto death of the parasite, granulomatous formation,organization and fibrosis.The non-human primate (Presbytis spp.) model ofBrugia malayi developed for the tertiary screeningof anti-filarial compounds has provided uniqueopportunities for the longitudinal study of the pathologyassociated with lymphatic filariasis. The pathology in thisnon-human primate model closely follows that seen in human lymphatic filarial infections and correlates withclinical evidence of lymphatic pathology as detectedwith ultrasonography. These studies also show thatsuccessful treatment as detected by loss of motility andcalcification of worms on ultrasonography is associatedwith reversal of early dilatations of lymphatic channels.

Joon-Wah Mak

2012-01-01

244

Patología puerperal/ Puerperal pathology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El puerperio es el periodo desde el final del parto hasta la aparición de la primera menstruación. Las posibles patologías acontecidas en este tiempo son la causa más frecuente de mortalidad materna incluso en nuestro medio. La patología de la lactancia incluye el fallo de lactancia, grietas en el pezón, ingurgitación mamaria y mastitis puerperal. La infección puerperal es una complicación obstétrica frecuente aunque las pautas de profilaxis han disminuido mucho (more) la incidencia de esta patología. La patología vascular del puerperio incluye cuadros de gravedad importante, representando una de las principales causas de mortalidad materna. Se incluye la trombosis venosa profunda y el tromboembolismo pulmonar como la complicación más grave de la primera. No parece que la patología psiquiátrica sea más frecuente en el puerperio que en otra época de la vida, pero sí que se describen los cuadros relacionados con este periodo, como son el «blues», la depresión puerperal y la psicosis puerperal. Por último, otros cuadros poco frecuentes, pero que pueden constituir una emergencia médica en el puerperio son el síndrome de Sheehan, la miocardiopatía periparto y la tiroiditis postparto. Abstract in english The puerperium is the period from the end of labour to the appearance of the first menstruation. The possible pathologies that can occur in this period of time are the most frequent cause of maternal mortality even in our setting. The pathology of lactation includes failure of breastfeeding, cracks in the nipple, mammary ingurgitation and puerperal mastitis. Puerperal infection is a frequent obstetric complication although clinical guidelines for prophylaxis have consider (more) ably reduced its incidence. The vascular pathology of the puerperium includes clinical features of great seriousness, representing one of the main causes of maternal mortality. These include deep vein thrombosis, of which pulmonary thromboembolism is the most serious complication. It does not appear that a psychiatric pathology is more frequent in the puerperium than in other periods of life, but the clinical features related to this period are described, such as «blues», puerperal depression and puerperal psychosis. Finally, other clinical features which although infrequent can constitute a medical emergency in the puerperium are: Sheehan`s syndrome, peripartum cardiomyopathy and postpartum thyroids.

Bezares, B.; Sanz, O.; Jiménez, I.

2009-01-01

245

Intracranial meningeal pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the role of Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in the detection of meningeal pathology, the authors reviewed 100 consecutive patients with suspected intracranial disease. Fifteen patients demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement that represented sarcoid (n = 6), lymphoma (n = 4), carcinomatosis (n = 2), glioblastoma (n = 1), aseptic meningitis (n = 1), and subdural empyema (n = 1). Seven patients had accompanying parenchymal abnormalities, but the majority did not show any abnormalities before contrast enhancement. A diffuse pattern of enhancement was seen in 12 patients, with the remaining three showing a nodular/segmental pattern. In these patients, the demonstration of abnormal enhancement provided the initial evidence of meningeal involvement leading to critical therapeutic decisions

1989-12-01

246

Pathology of lung cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews current concepts in pathologic classification of lung cancer based on the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors and the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Preinvasive lesions are discussed. The major changes in lung disease diagnosis affected by the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification are presented. For adenocarcinomas diagnosed in small biopsies, specific terminology and diagnostic criteria are proposed along with recommendations for strategic management of tissue and EGFR mutation testing in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma. Histologic criteria are also presented for other tumors. PMID:22054879

Travis, William D

2011-12-01

247

Pathology of lung cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews current concepts in pathologic classification of lung cancer based on the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors and the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Preinvasive lesions are discussed. The major changes in lung disease diagnosis affected by the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification are presented. For adenocarcinomas diagnosed in small biopsies, specific terminology and diagnostic criteria are proposed along with recommendations for strategic management of tissue and EGFR mutation testing in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma. Histologic criteria are also presented for other tumors.

Travis WD

2011-12-01

248

Patología puerperal Puerperal pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El puerperio es el periodo desde el final del parto hasta la aparición de la primera menstruación. Las posibles patologías acontecidas en este tiempo son la causa más frecuente de mortalidad materna incluso en nuestro medio. La patología de la lactancia incluye el fallo de lactancia, grietas en el pezón, ingurgitación mamaria y mastitis puerperal. La infección puerperal es una complicación obstétrica frecuente aunque las pautas de profilaxis han disminuido mucho la incidencia de esta patología. La patología vascular del puerperio incluye cuadros de gravedad importante, representando una de las principales causas de mortalidad materna. Se incluye la trombosis venosa profunda y el tromboembolismo pulmonar como la complicación más grave de la primera. No parece que la patología psiquiátrica sea más frecuente en el puerperio que en otra época de la vida, pero sí que se describen los cuadros relacionados con este periodo, como son el «blues», la depresión puerperal y la psicosis puerperal. Por último, otros cuadros poco frecuentes, pero que pueden constituir una emergencia médica en el puerperio son el síndrome de Sheehan, la miocardiopatía periparto y la tiroiditis postparto.The puerperium is the period from the end of labour to the appearance of the first menstruation. The possible pathologies that can occur in this period of time are the most frequent cause of maternal mortality even in our setting. The pathology of lactation includes failure of breastfeeding, cracks in the nipple, mammary ingurgitation and puerperal mastitis. Puerperal infection is a frequent obstetric complication although clinical guidelines for prophylaxis have considerably reduced its incidence. The vascular pathology of the puerperium includes clinical features of great seriousness, representing one of the main causes of maternal mortality. These include deep vein thrombosis, of which pulmonary thromboembolism is the most serious complication. It does not appear that a psychiatric pathology is more frequent in the puerperium than in other periods of life, but the clinical features related to this period are described, such as «blues», puerperal depression and puerperal psychosis. Finally, other clinical features which although infrequent can constitute a medical emergency in the puerperium are: Sheehan`s syndrome, peripartum cardiomyopathy and postpartum thyroids.

B. Bezares; O. Sanz; I. Jiménez

2009-01-01

249

Apnostresstherapy and psychosomatic pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors, after having underlined history and peculiarities of the Apnostresstherapy, set out a range of 80 cases treated of infantile psychosomatic pathology. They describe diagnostic criteria with relative diagnosis of 80 cases, indications and modalities of the treatment. Clinical results, statistically evaluated, are reported, at first on the whole group and, then, in a differential way, in a group that have carried out the treatment for 3-6 months and in another group to whom the treatment length is been of 6-12 months.

De Lellis M; Giampietro M; Mastracci M; Cerbo R; Mazza M

1995-07-01

250

Medicolegal issues in pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The various methods used by risk managers to assist clinicians in handling medicolegal risk, including improving communication with patients and better dealing with medical records issues, are not particularly of benefit to pathologists. An understanding of tort law, the theory of negligence, the principle of standard of care, and the role of the expert witness helps the pathologist generally assess and manage risk and put it into context with daily pathology practice. An understanding of the litigation process and techniques to better handle a deposition and high-risk specimens or diagnoses are of practical value in avoiding a lawsuit or increasing the likelihood for good outcome in medical malpractice litigation.

Allen TC

2008-02-01

251

Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

2010-01-01

252

Patología molecular: Aplicaciones de la biología molecular en anatomía patológica Molecular pathology: Applications of molecular biological techniques in pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid development of molecular biology techniques as well as recent progress in the understanding of genetic and molecular basis of human diseases have had enormous impact in the practice of clinical pathology. Since new diagnostic (molecular) tools are now available, the concept of Molecular Pathology is emerging. Molecular Pathology is defined by the use of molecular biology techniques and the type of specimens that are involved in its practice, basically ARN and ADN, extracted from cytological and tissue specimens. Although most methods used in molecular pathology and their applications are still under investigation and clinical validation they have great potential in several areas of pathological diagnosis, particularly on infectious and neoplastic diseases. Introduction of these techniques in pathology laboratories in our country should significantly enhance the diagnostic and research skills in the field (Rev Méd Chile 2001: 791-804).

Ignacio I Wistuba O

2001-01-01

253

Pathologic gambling and bankruptcy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although prior studies have examined rates of bankruptcy in pathologic gambling (PG), there are only limited data regarding the clinical correlates of those with PG who declare bankruptcy because of gambling. METHOD: Five hundred seventeen consecutive subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, PG (54.7% females; mean age 47.6 years) were grouped into 2 categories: those who had (n = 93; 18.0%) and had not (n = 424; 82.0%) declared bankruptcy secondary to gambling. Groups were compared on clinical characteristics, gambling severity (using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling, Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale; Clinical Global Impression-severity scale, and time and money spent gambling), and psychiatric comorbidity. RESULTS: Gamblers who had declared bankruptcy were more likely to be single (P = .004); have an earlier age of problem gambling onset (P = .032); and have more financial (P < .001), work-related (P = .006), marital (P < .001), and legal (P < .001) problems secondary to their gambling. They also reported higher rates of depressive disorders (P < .001), substance use disorders (P = .005) and were more likely to be daily users of nicotine (P = .022). Money spent gambling did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results suggest that bankruptcy in PG may be associated with specific clinical differences. Treatment strategies may want to assess bankruptcy status to develop more effective treatments that take account of these clinical differences.

Grant JE; Schreiber L; Odlaug BL; Kim SW

2010-03-01

254

Nanotechnology: toxicologic pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies.

Hubbs AF; Sargent LM; Porter DW; Sager TM; Chen BT; Frazer DG; Castranova V; Sriram K; Nurkiewicz TR; Reynolds SH; Battelli LA; Schwegler-Berry D; McKinney W; Fluharty KL; Mercer RR

2013-02-01

255

Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism.

De Block A; Adriaens PR

2013-01-01

256

Pathologizing sexual deviance: a history.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism. PMID:23480073

De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R

2013-01-01

257

Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul/ Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of five calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a farm of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pelo BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secre (more) ções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação. Abstract in english Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for different syndromes that affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. This study analyzed the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of persistent infection by BVDV in five animals of a farm located in the county of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The clinical signs included growth impairment, nasal and ocular discharge and, in two animals, congenital cataract. The main (more) gross lesions observed at the necropsy were enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and in one case, pododermatitis and crusted lesions on nasal planum and periocular region. Microscopic findings were characterized mostly by mononuclear infiltrate in the lamina propria, primarily in the small intestine and lymphoid depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in follicular centers of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Viral antigens were more frequently demonstrated in epidermal keratinocytes, epithelium of hair follicles and dendritic cells of the dermis of the ears and skin, histiocytes and lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thyroid follicular cells, in the cytoplasm of neurons and to a lesser extent, in glial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Viral isolation from blood samples and organs confirmed the presence of non-cytopathic BVDV. Moreover, viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of the5' non-translated region of the viral genome allowed the classification of the sample as BVDV type 2b. The present study strengthens the need to investigate and to characterize BVD outbreaks and to describe its different clinic-pathological presentations.

Santos, Adriana S; Antoniassi, Nadia A.B; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Bitencourt, Ana P.G; Almeida, Laura L; Canal, Cláudio W; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; Driemeier, David

2011-10-01

258

Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of five calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a farm of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pelo BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secreções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação.Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for different syndromes that affect cattle worldwide causing important economic losses. This study analyzed the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and viral aspects of persistent infection by BVDV in five animals of a farm located in the county of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The clinical signs included growth impairment, nasal and ocular discharge and, in two animals, congenital cataract. The main gross lesions observed at the necropsy were enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, and in one case, pododermatitis and crusted lesions on nasal planum and periocular region. Microscopic findings were characterized mostly by mononuclear infiltrate in the lamina propria, primarily in the small intestine and lymphoid depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in follicular centers of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Viral antigens were more frequently demonstrated in epidermal keratinocytes, epithelium of hair follicles and dendritic cells of the dermis of the ears and skin, histiocytes and lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thyroid follicular cells, in the cytoplasm of neurons and to a lesser extent, in glial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Viral isolation from blood samples and organs confirmed the presence of non-cytopathic BVDV. Moreover, viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial fragment of the5' non-translated region of the viral genome allowed the classification of the sample as BVDV type 2b. The present study strengthens the need to investigate and to characterize BVD outbreaks and to describe its different clinic-pathological presentations.

Adriana S Santos; Nadia A.B Antoniassi; Fabiana M Boabaid; Ana P.G Bitencourt; Laura L Almeida; Cláudio W Canal; Eduardo Furtado Flores; David Driemeier

2011-01-01

259

The fetal pathology of the XXXXY-syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A second case of fetal XXXXY-syndrome detected by prenatal chromosome analysis is presented. The pathological findings include a facial aspect featuring fetal Down's syndrome, hypogenitalism and hypogonadism with excessive reduction of germ cells and also skeletal abnormalities that may be interpreted as early changes, preceding phalangeal shortening V and radioulnar synostosis. PMID:3780037

Rehder, H; Fraccaro, M; Cuoco, C; Gimelli, G; Porro, E

1986-09-01

260

The fetal pathology of the XXXXY-syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A second case of fetal XXXXY-syndrome detected by prenatal chromosome analysis is presented. The pathological findings include a facial aspect featuring fetal Down's syndrome, hypogenitalism and hypogonadism with excessive reduction of germ cells and also skeletal abnormalities that may be interpreted as early changes, preceding phalangeal shortening V and radioulnar synostosis.

Rehder H; Fraccaro M; Cuoco C; Gimelli G; Porro E

1986-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Manifestação clínico-patológica de infecção natural pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em bovinos de criação extensiva no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil/ Clinic-pathological aspects in the natural infection of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRVS) in extensive management of cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese São descritas as manifestações clínicas, patológicas, microbiológicos e sorológicos da enfermidade natural causada pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em uma criação extensiva de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul. Clinicamente havia tosse crônica e dispnéia intensa frente a exercícios físicos mínimos em dois animais. Os dois foram sacrificados e necropsiados. As alterações macroscópicas eram pulmonares com enfisema alveolar disseminado, (more) focos de atelectasia e espessamento dos septos interlobulares. A imunofluorescência para BRSV em corte de pulmão congelado foi positiva em ambos os casos, sendo negativa para Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), Diarréia Vírica Bovina (BVDV) e Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (BHV). Foi isolado BRSV em cultivo celular de MDBK a partir de um dos animais necropsiados. Nenhuma associação foi detectada através de elisa para detecção de antígeno LPS gênero específico de Chlamydia psittaci no tecido pulmonar. O exame histopatológico evidenciou células sinciciais, enfisema crônico, hipertrofia da camada muscular peribronquiolar e metaplasia escamosa do epitélio bronquial e bronquiolar. O exame sorológico para BRSV evidenciou 79% de soropositivos em uma primeira amostragem na qual havia animais jovens e alguns com tosse. O segundo exame sorológico 6 meses após, proveniente de animais de diferentes faixas etárias, resultou em 17,3% de soropositivos. Este é o primeiro relato de doença causada por BRSV no Brasil. Abstract in english The clinical aspects as well as the pathology, microbiology and serology of a natural Bovine Respiratory Syncytial (BRSV) infection of bovine in a herd of 600 beef cattle kept under extensive management in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are described. Clinically two animals had chronic cough and severe dyspnea when forced to mild physical exercise. These two animals were euthanatized and post-morten examination was performed. The macroscopic changes were of pulmo (more) nary origin, such as disseminated alveolar emphysema, focal atelectasis and marked interlobular septal thickening. The fluorescent antibody test on lung cryostat sections was positive to BRSV for both animals, and it was negative to PI-3 virus, BVDV and BHV. The BRSV was isolated from the lung of one of the animals on MDBK, and was also identified by fluorescent antibody test. No association with Chlamydia psittaci was found by ELISA performed on lung tissues. The histopathology showed syncytial cells, chronic emphysema, peribronchiolar muscle layer hypertrophy and squamous metaplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. The serology to detect antibodies to BRSV resulted in 79% of positives from the first specimen collection. In this group of young animals some of them had a cough. The second samples collected 6 months later were from animals of different age groups resulting in 17.3% of positives. This is the first report on clinical BRSV infection in Brazil.

Driemeier, David; Gomes, Marcos José Pereira; Moojen, Valéria; Arns, Clarice Weiss; Vogg, Guilherme; Kessler, Luciano; Costa, Ubirajara Maciel da

1997-04-01

262

Manifestação clínico-patológica de infecção natural pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em bovinos de criação extensiva no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Clinic-pathological aspects in the natural infection of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRVS) in extensive management of cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available São descritas as manifestações clínicas, patológicas, microbiológicos e sorológicos da enfermidade natural causada pelo Vírus Respiratório Sincicial Bovino (BRSV) em uma criação extensiva de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul. Clinicamente havia tosse crônica e dispnéia intensa frente a exercícios físicos mínimos em dois animais. Os dois foram sacrificados e necropsiados. As alterações macroscópicas eram pulmonares com enfisema alveolar disseminado, focos de atelectasia e espessamento dos septos interlobulares. A imunofluorescência para BRSV em corte de pulmão congelado foi positiva em ambos os casos, sendo negativa para Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), Diarréia Vírica Bovina (BVDV) e Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina (BHV). Foi isolado BRSV em cultivo celular de MDBK a partir de um dos animais necropsiados. Nenhuma associação foi detectada através de elisa para detecção de antígeno LPS gênero específico de Chlamydia psittaci no tecido pulmonar. O exame histopatológico evidenciou células sinciciais, enfisema crônico, hipertrofia da camada muscular peribronquiolar e metaplasia escamosa do epitélio bronquial e bronquiolar. O exame sorológico para BRSV evidenciou 79% de soropositivos em uma primeira amostragem na qual havia animais jovens e alguns com tosse. O segundo exame sorológico 6 meses após, proveniente de animais de diferentes faixas etárias, resultou em 17,3% de soropositivos. Este é o primeiro relato de doença causada por BRSV no Brasil.The clinical aspects as well as the pathology, microbiology and serology of a natural Bovine Respiratory Syncytial (BRSV) infection of bovine in a herd of 600 beef cattle kept under extensive management in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are described. Clinically two animals had chronic cough and severe dyspnea when forced to mild physical exercise. These two animals were euthanatized and post-morten examination was performed. The macroscopic changes were of pulmonary origin, such as disseminated alveolar emphysema, focal atelectasis and marked interlobular septal thickening. The fluorescent antibody test on lung cryostat sections was positive to BRSV for both animals, and it was negative to PI-3 virus, BVDV and BHV. The BRSV was isolated from the lung of one of the animals on MDBK, and was also identified by fluorescent antibody test. No association with Chlamydia psittaci was found by ELISA performed on lung tissues. The histopathology showed syncytial cells, chronic emphysema, peribronchiolar muscle layer hypertrophy and squamous metaplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. The serology to detect antibodies to BRSV resulted in 79% of positives from the first specimen collection. In this group of young animals some of them had a cough. The second samples collected 6 months later were from animals of different age groups resulting in 17.3% of positives. This is the first report on clinical BRSV infection in Brazil.

David Driemeier; Marcos José Pereira Gomes; Valéria Moojen; Clarice Weiss Arns; Guilherme Vogg; Luciano Kessler; Ubirajara Maciel da Costa

1997-01-01

263

Digital pathology: Attitudes and practices in the Canadian pathology community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Digital pathology is a rapidly evolving niche in the world of pathology and is likely to increase in popularity as technology improves. We performed a questionnaire for pathologists and pathology residents across Canada, in order to determine their current experiences and attitudes towards digital pathology; which modalities digital pathology is best suited for; and to assess the need for training in digital pathology amongst pathology residents and staff. An online survey consisting of 24 yes/no, multiple choice and free text questions regarding digital pathology was sent out via E-mail to all members of the Canadian Association of Pathologists and pathology residents across Canada. Survey results showed that telepathology (TP) is used in approximately 43% of institutions, primarily for teaching purposes (65%), followed by operating room consults (46%). Seventy-one percent of respondents believe there is a need for TP in their practice; 85% use digital images in their practice. The top two favored applications for digital pathology are teaching and consultation services, with the main advantage being easier access to cases. The main limitations of using digital pathology are cost and image/diagnostic quality. Sixty-two percent of respondents would attend training courses in pathology informatics and 91% think informatics should be part of residency training. The results of the survey indicate that Pathologists and residents across Canada do see a need for TP and the use of digital images in their daily practice. Integration of an informatics component into resident training programs and courses for staff Pathologists would be welcomed.

Bellis M; Metias S; Naugler C; Pollett A; Jothy S; Yousef GM

2013-01-01

264

Pulp and periapical pathologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pulp undergoes inflammatory or degenerative reactions when submitted to an aggressive factor. These depend on the type, frequency and intensity of the irritant as well as the patient’s immune response. If the aggressive agent is not removed, the pulp will either show calcifications or result in necrosis. This latter would occur when a pulp alteration is present and not treated. Pulp necrosis is the complete cessation of the tissue’s metabolic processes. If it is not removed, the bacterial and the tissue decomposition’s toxic products ill injure the periapical tissues, resulting in periapical alterations. The dentist must know the histological, clinical and radiographic features of these pathologies to recognize them and indicate the best treatment option.

Denise Piotto Leonardi; Allan Fernando Giovanini; Susimara Almeida; Celso Alfredo Schramm; Flares Baratto-Filho

2011-01-01

265

Game graph structure and its influence on pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost all game tree search procedures used in artificial intelligence are variants on minimaxing. Until recently, it was almost universally believed that searching deeper on game trees with such procedures would in general yield a better decision. However, recent investigations show that there are many pathological game trees for which searching deeper consistently degrades the decision. This paper investigates one possible cause of pathology. In particular, a class of games that is normally pathological is shown to become nonpathological when the games are modified so that game positions can be reached by more than one path. This result suggests that in general, pathology is less likely when game positions can be reached by more than one path. This may be one reason why games such as chess and checkers are nonpathological. In addition, this result supports the hypothesis that pathology is less likely when sibling nodes have similar minimax values. This paper also investigates a possible cure for pathology-an alternative to minimaxing called probability estimation which has been shown to avoid pathology and thus produce more accurate decisions than minimaxing on at least one pathological game. 22 references.

Nau, D.S.

1983-12-01

266

Chernobyl: pathology of the thyroid (facts and explanations)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facts concerning the thyroid pathology in persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl accident are presented. Following 15 years after the Chernobyl accident, no criteria have been established with significance for differential diagnostics between the spontaneous thyroid pathology and that attributed to physical and social effects of the accident. The exception is the thyroid cancer in children. Epidemiological investigations provide evidence for the role of ionizing radiation in etiology of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Various interpretations of the thyroid pathology have been considered involving ecological, causal, spatial-temporal and functional aspects. The thyroid pathology is uneven over area, variable over time, multivariable, and systematic. Thus, special research programmes are needed with a complex approach

2001-01-01

267

[Pathology of Schistosomiasis mansoni in rabbits  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pathology of schistosomiasis mansoni in rabbits was studied with special consideration to worm burden and duration of infection. Heavy and prolonged infections resulted in severe changes involving the intrahepatic portal vein branches, such as: polypoid endophlebitis, granulomatous endophlebitis and, later on, vascular occlusion and recanalization, vascular ectasia, fibrosis and hyalinization of the endothelial polyps. Living and dead adult worms, rather than the mature eggs, were the main pathogenetic factors. For some time the lesions tend to be limited to the portal vein branches, not extending to the periportal tissues, but, after 8 to 10 months, variable degree of portal, septal and intra-parenchymal fibrosis can be formed. However, both vascular and fibrotic changes in the liver had a focal distribution and therefore did not appear to cause portal hypertension and had no resemblance to the human pathology seen in cases of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Pathology of schistosomiasis in rabbits has peculiar aspects, which are worthwhile studying, since the model can be of interest for investigations, especially concerning the immunology and immunopathology of schistosomiasis mansoni.

Andrade ZA; Ramos EG; Dos Reis MG

1988-07-01

268

Recommendations for pathology peer review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process. PMID:20924082

Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

2010-10-05

269

Recommendations for pathology peer review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process.

Morton D; Sellers RS; Barale-Thomas E; Bolon B; George C; Hardisty JF; Irizarry A; McKay JS; Odin M; Teranishi M

2010-12-01

270

Clinical Pathology - A Diagnostic Aid?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clinical pathology is now an essential component of high quality clinical care. Pathology tests are important to reaching a diagnosis in 85% of hospital patients. Indeed in some areas including oncology, infection and transplantation medicine diagnosis and optimum treatment cannot be delivered without histopathological investigation. Pathology testing is a core component of early cancer detection through screening for breast, bowel, cervix and prostate cancers. In the last twenty years pathology has moved from a useful diagnostic aid to a clinical essential.

Prof Stuart Fleming

2012-01-01

271

Pathologic evaluation of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in dementia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide oxytocin, produced in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus, is now understood to function as a neurotransmitter critical for various aspects of social cognition and pro-social behaviour. While patients with Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) display prominent and progressive deficits in such social behaviours, the integrity of these nuclei in FTD is not known. METHODS: We conducted a quantitative neuropathologic examination of the SON and PVN from patients with FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease and controls to determine whether significant pathologic changes or neuronal loss may contribute to the striking behavioural symptoms of FTD. RESULTS: Contrary to predictions, we found both nuclei to be free of significant pathologic change (TDP-43) in FTLD. In contrast, tau related pathology was found in the PVN in Alzheimer's disease, and alpha-synuclein pathology in the SON in patients with Lewy body dementia. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the SON and PVN are resistant to FTLD TDP-43 pathology. They also support prior suggestions that the SON is resistant to Alzheimer's disease (AD) related pathology, and extend this to demonstrate SON susceptibility to alpha-synuclein pathology in patients with Lewy body dementia.

Diodati D; Cyn-Ang L; Kertesz A; Finger E

2012-03-01

272

[Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

Baliasny? MM

1991-01-01

273

[Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

Baliasny?, M M

1991-01-01

274

Center for Cancer Research - Laboratory of Pathology - Surgical Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Submitted cases for second opinion Occasionally, biopsy slides will be accepted by the National Institutes of Health's (NIH), Laboratory of Pathology (LP), Surgical Pathology Section for second opinion review. The LP is not a reference laboratory for routine case reviews, and all requests are considered on a case by case basis due to limited resources.

275

Mundo do trabalho: alguns aspectos vivenciados pelos profissionais recém- formados em enfermagem El mundo del trabajo: algunos aspectos experimentados por profesionales de enfermería recién graduados The world of work: some aspects experienced by professional nurses recently graduated  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer algumas vivencias de recém graduados em enfermagem, na transição do mundo acadêmico para o mundo do trabalho. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa exploratória descritiva realizada com amostra de 31 profissionais graduados em cursos de enfermagem no período de 2000 a 2004. RESULTADOS: Na análise e interpretação dos dados, foram identificados três tipos de vivencias: preconceitos no mundo do trabalho, inserção na equipe de trabalho em saúde e fatores que facilitam a transição para o mundo do trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: O início da atividade profissional, para o(a) enfermeiro(a), pode ser marcado por dificuldades, gerando ansiedade. Entretanto, o mundo do trabalho pode ser prazeroso, gratificante e instigante, estimulando o profissional a superar os desafios e os próprios limites decorrentes da formação profissional.OBJETIVO: Conocer algunas vivencias de recién graduados en enfermería, en la transición del mundo académico para el mundo del trabajo. MÉTODOS: Investigación exploratoria y descriptiva realizada con una muestra de 31 profesionales graduados en cursos de enfermería en el período de 2000 a 2004. RESULTADOS: El análisis e interpretación de los datos identificó tres tipos de vivencias (prejuicios en el mundo del trabajo, inserción en el equipo de trabajo en salud y factores que facilitan la transición para el mundo del trabajo). CONCLUSIÓN: El inicio de la actividad profesional, para el enfermero, puede ser marcada por dificultades que generan ansiedad. Entre tanto, el mundo del trabajo puede ser placentero, gratificante e provocativo, estimulando al profesional a superar desafíos y límites, provenientes de la formación profesional.OBJECTIVE: To know some experiences, of nurses recently graduated, in the transition from academia to the world of work. METHODS: It is a descriptive and exploratory study conducted with a sample of 31 professionals graduated in nursing courses in the period 2000-2004. RESULTS: The analysis and data interpretation identified three types of experiences (prejudice in the world of work, integration into the health work-team and factors that facilitate the transition to the world of work). CONCLUSION: The beginning of the professional activity, for nurses, could be marked by difficulties that generate anxiety. Meanwhile, the world of work can be enjoyable, rewarding and challenging, encouraging professionals to overcome challenges and constraints that arise from the profession education.

Mariza Maria Serafim Mattosinho; Maria Seloi Coelho; Betina Hörner Schlindwein Meirelles; Sabrina da Silva de Souza; Cleonete Elena Argenta

2010-01-01

276

Mundo do trabalho: alguns aspectos vivenciados pelos profissionais recém- formados em enfermagem/ The world of work: some aspects experienced by professional nurses recently graduated/ El mundo del trabajo: algunos aspectos experimentados por profesionales de enfermería recién graduados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Conhecer algumas vivencias de recém graduados em enfermagem, na transição do mundo acadêmico para o mundo do trabalho. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa exploratória descritiva realizada com amostra de 31 profissionais graduados em cursos de enfermagem no período de 2000 a 2004. RESULTADOS: Na análise e interpretação dos dados, foram identificados três tipos de vivencias: preconceitos no mundo do trabalho, inserção na equipe de trabalho em saúde e fatores que faci (more) litam a transição para o mundo do trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: O início da atividade profissional, para o(a) enfermeiro(a), pode ser marcado por dificuldades, gerando ansiedade. Entretanto, o mundo do trabalho pode ser prazeroso, gratificante e instigante, estimulando o profissional a superar os desafios e os próprios limites decorrentes da formação profissional. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Conocer algunas vivencias de recién graduados en enfermería, en la transición del mundo académico para el mundo del trabajo. MÉTODOS: Investigación exploratoria y descriptiva realizada con una muestra de 31 profesionales graduados en cursos de enfermería en el período de 2000 a 2004. RESULTADOS: El análisis e interpretación de los datos identificó tres tipos de vivencias (prejuicios en el mundo del trabajo, inserción en el equipo de trabajo en salud (more) y factores que facilitan la transición para el mundo del trabajo). CONCLUSIÓN: El inicio de la actividad profesional, para el enfermero, puede ser marcada por dificultades que generan ansiedad. Entre tanto, el mundo del trabajo puede ser placentero, gratificante e provocativo, estimulando al profesional a superar desafíos y límites, provenientes de la formación profesional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To know some experiences, of nurses recently graduated, in the transition from academia to the world of work. METHODS: It is a descriptive and exploratory study conducted with a sample of 31 professionals graduated in nursing courses in the period 2000-2004. RESULTS: The analysis and data interpretation identified three types of experiences (prejudice in the world of work, integration into the health work-team and factors that facilitate the transition to the w (more) orld of work). CONCLUSION: The beginning of the professional activity, for nurses, could be marked by difficulties that generate anxiety. Meanwhile, the world of work can be enjoyable, rewarding and challenging, encouraging professionals to overcome challenges and constraints that arise from the profession education.

Mattosinho, Mariza Maria Serafim; Coelho, Maria Seloi; Meirelles, Betina Hörner Schlindwein; Souza, Sabrina da Silva de; Argenta, Cleonete Elena

2010-01-01

277

Continuum model of tendon pathology - where are we now?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model.

McCreesh K; Lewis J

2013-08-01

278

[Disability and vestibular pathology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To probe the ability in differentiate the handicap degree among patients with peripheral vestibular illness by means of a questionnaire carefully thought with this purpose. DESIGN: Prospective study covering 2 years (May 1st. 1991 till May the 1st. 1996). FIELD OF STUDY: Patients from the Health Area of Zamora, ambulatory attended at Otolaryngology Department, complaining of peripheral vestibular troubles. INDIVIDUALS INCLUDED: 60 patients diagnosed as paroxitic positional vertigo or Ménière's disease, lasting the discomfort either 6 weeks or less or 2 years or more, the totality split into 4 groups, of 15 individuals each. SCORING: Analysis of the performed scores of the first valuation by means of the Questionnaire for Assessment of the Disability in Vestibular Pathology (Q.A.D.V.P.). Descriptive statistics were performed for each group and each scale. RESULTS: Patients with more than 2 years of evolvement present themselves, usually, with higher scores in both emotional and functional scales if compared with those resulting from patients suffering from paroxistic positional vertigo. CONCLUSIONS: The Q.A.D.V.P. is a measure instrument very useful, by allowing the differentiation of several degrees of disabled people of our studied samples.

Pardal Refoyo JL

2000-01-01

279

Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands.

1973-01-01

280

Pathology of chronic mountain sickness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arias-Stella, J., Krüger, H., and Recavarren, S. (1973).Thorax, 28, 701-708. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness. Pathological data on chronic mountain sickness are scarce due to the fact that the disease is ameliorated or cured by descent to a low altitude. In this report we describe a case of c...

Arias-Stella, Javier; Krüger, Hever; Recavarren, Sixto

 
 
 
 
281

Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson's disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobb...

Kelley, Brendan J.; Duker, Andrew P.; Chiu, Peter

282

Pathology on game trees revisited, and an alternative to minimaxing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost all game tree search procedures used in artificial intelligence are variants on minimaxing. Until recently, it was almost universally believed that searching deeper on the game tree with such procedures would in general yield a better decision. However, recent investigations have revealed the existence of many game trees and evaluation functions which are pathological in the sense that searching deeper consistently degrades the decision. This paper extends these investigations in two ways. First, it is shown that whenever the evaluation function satisfies certain properties, pathology will occur on any game tree of high enough constant branching factor. This result, together with monte carlo studies on actual games, gives insight into the causes of pathology. Second, an investigation is made of a possible cure for pathology: a probabilistic decision procedure which does not use minimaxing. Under some conditions, this procedure gives results superior to minimaxing. 23 references.

Nau, D.S.

1983-03-01

283

Grey matter damage in multiple sclerosis: a pathology perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past decade, immunohistochemical studies have provided compelling evidence that gray matter (GM) pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) is extensive. Until recently, this GM pathology was difficult to visualize using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. However, with newly developed MRI sequences, it has become clear that GM damage is present from the earliest stages of the disease and accrues with disease progression. GM pathology is clinically relevant, as GM lesions and/or GM atrophy were shown to be associated with MS motor deficits and cognitive impairment. Recent autopsy studies demonstrated significant GM demyelination and microglia activation. However, extensive immune cell influx, complement activation and blood-brain barrier leakage, like in WM pathology, are far less prominent in the GM. Hence, so far, the cause of GM damage in MS remains unknown, although several plausible underlying pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. This paper provides an overview of GM damage in MS with a focus on its topology and histopathology.

Klaver R; De Vries HE; Schenk GJ; Geurts JJ

2013-01-01

284

Toxicological aspects of energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Part I reviews the principles of toxicology, describes the biological fate of chemicals in the body, discusses basic pathobiology, and reviews short-term toxicity tests. Part II describes the toxicology and pathology of pollutants in several important organ systems. The greatest emphasis is placed on the respiratory tract because of its high probability as a route of exposure to pollutants from energy technologies and its high sensitivity to pollutant related tissue damage. Part III describes the toxicological aspects of specific chemical classes associated with fossil fuels; these include polycyclic hydrocarbons, gases and metals. Part IV describes the biomedical effects associated with each energy technology, including coal and oil, fossil fuel and biomass conversions, solar and geothermal and radiological health aspects associated with uranium mining, nuclear fission and fusion, and with nonionising radiations and electromagnetic fields

1986-01-01

285

Molecular biologic techniques in ophthalmic pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid hybridization assays are recently introduced molecular techniques that allow for the identification of extremely small quantities of specific nucleic acids. These techniques have significant advantages over more conventional laboratory techniques, but also have some limitations. They are bound to have tremendous potential in diagnostic ophthalmic pathology and also in investigative pathology for deciphering the pathophysiology of ocular diseases. Despite their increased sensitivity and specificity, the results will still have to be co-related with clinical findings for maximum impact. For an ophthalmologist to derive maximum benefit, knowledge of these techniques, and their advantages, and limitations is essential. This article describes the basic concepts of molecular biology and the techniques of PCR, nucleic acid hybridization, and immunohistochemistry.

Rajeev Buddi; Biswas Jyotirmay

1998-01-01

286

Câncer de mama feminino: aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos cadastrados de 2005 a 2008 num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe/ Female breast cancer: clinical and pathological aspects of cases registered between 2005 and 2008 at a public oncology service in the Brazilian State of Sergipe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: conhecer os aspectos clínicos e patológicos dos casos de câncer de mama feminino cadastrados num serviço público de oncologia de Sergipe. MÉTODOS: procurou-se fazer uma associação do estadiamento com as características presentes nos tumores. A coleta de dados foi realizada em 165 prontuários de mulheres cadastradas no período de 2005 a 2008 no ambulatório de oncologia do Hospital Cirurgia, localizado em Aracaju-Sergipe, por meio de formulário de co (more) leta de dados, em 2009. RESULTADOS: identificou-se o carcinoma ductal invasivo como o tipo de neoplasia mamária mais frequente com 80,8% dos casos; 76 (46,1%) neoplasias foram diagnosticadas em estádio avançado (IIB, III e IV) e a mastectomia prevaleceu como tipo de cirurgia utilizado no tratamento independente do estadiamento. Quanto aos receptores hormonais todos apresentaram associação com o grau do estádio e, ainda, notou-se que a positividade do estrogênio e progesterona é fator de proteção para um pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: é notável que os casos de câncer de mama estudados apresentam maior agressividade biológica, cursando com pior prognóstico, considerando o estádio clínico. Fazem-se necessárias ações de detecção precoce voltadas ao câncer de mama na atenção básica de Sergipe para redução da morbi-mortalidade, melhora da sobrevida e qualidade de vida entre as mulheres acometidas por essa neoplasia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to discover the clinical and pathologic aspects of cases of female breast cancer registered at a public oncology service in Sergipe. METHODS: an attempt was made to associate the stage with the characteristics of the tumors. Data was gathered from 165 medical records taken between 2005 and 2008 at the oncology outpatients clinic of the Hospital Cirurgia, in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, using a data collection form in 2009. RESULTS: ductal invasive carcinoma w (more) as identified as the most frequent kind of neoplasia, accounting for 80.8% of cases. Seventy-six (46.1%) of neoplasias were identified at an advanced stage (IIB, III and IV) and mastectomy was the main kind of surgery used, irrespective of the stage of the cancer. All the hormone receptors were associated with the stage and it was noted that positive estrogen and progesterone levels were associated with a more positive prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: it is worth noting that the cases of breast cancer studied were those that are more biologically aggressive with a less promising prognosis in terms of clinical stage. Action to ensure early detection of breast cancer needs to be taken in the course of basic care in Sergipe in order to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve the survival rates and quality of life of women afflicted with this kind of neoplasia.

Gonçalves, Leila Luíza Conceição; Santos, Simone Barbosa; Marinho, Emily Carvalho; Almeida, Ana Maria de; Santos, Alessandro Henrique da Silva; Barros, Ângela Maria Melo Sá; Fakhouri, Ricardo

2012-03-01

287

Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

2006-12-15

288

[A new Approbation Order for teaching medical pathology].  

Science.gov (United States)

A basic reform and a draft of a new approbation order were developed during the last years to improve medical education in Germany. Aims of this reform are to link the theoretical and practical teaching, to foster the interdisciplinary teaching, to promote case- and problem-based instruction, to reduce written multiple choice examinations, and to promote oral exams. During the discussion about the reform proposals were made to put much more weight on the social and psychological aspects of health care and to reduce the teaching of a science-based understanding of disease, for which pathology stands. In the final draft of the reform, however, pathology was maintained as subject of clinical education. Decisive changes now include, that the traditional distinction between general and special pathology will be abolished, and that a case- and problem-based teaching by interdisciplinary clinical-pathological conferences will be fostered. Thus the education will consist of a systematic lecture and practical sessions in pathology, which have to focus on the basic principles of the etiology, pathogenesis and classification of human diseases. Practical clinical aspects of pathology will then be thought by problem-based and interdisciplinary clinical pathological conferences or demonstrations, which start in the 4th year of the curriculum and have to be continued during the practical year's term until the end of the studies. Presently the new approbation order still requires consent of the Bundesrat. It depends on agreement about the limitation for the maximum number of students, the regulation of admittance to the medical education and the cost effects of the reform. There are some indications that solutions of these problems might be achieved during 2001. PMID:11894415

Kirchner, T

2001-01-01

289

Recent developments in XPS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is at a point in its history at which a state of technological maturity has been reached, progress continues to be made on a number of aspects of this important surface analysis technique. Recent advances have included improved control over the depth sensitivity of XPS analyses, enhancements in XPS detection and computer systems, and higher spatial resolution. Current progress and prospects for XPS were reviewed at the 1986 Eastern Analytical Symposium by Cedric J. Powell, chief of the surface science division at the National Bureau of Standards. Powell spoke at a session on Modern Methods of Thin Film and Surface Analysis that was chaired by Richard J. Colton of the Naval Research Laboratory.

1987-01-01

290

Center for Cancer Research - Laboratory of Pathology - Surgical Pathology Staff  

Science.gov (United States)

The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredits LP for its residency program in Anatomic Pathology and fellowship programs in Cytopathology and Hematopathology. Additional information and application process may be reviewed at the NIH Office of Graduate Medical Education.

291

Going fully digital: Perspective of a Dutch academic pathology lab.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last years, whole slide imaging has become more affordable and widely accepted in pathology labs. Digital slides are increasingly being used for digital archiving of routinely produced clinical slides, remote consultation and tumor boards, and quantitative image analysis for research purposes and in education. However, the implementation of a fully digital Pathology Department requires an in depth look into the suitability of digital slides for routine clinical use (the image quality of the produced digital slides and the factors that affect it) and the required infrastructure to support such use (the storage requirements and integration with lab management and hospital information systems). Optimization of digital pathology workflow requires communication between several systems, which can be facilitated by the use of open standards for digital slide storage and scanner management. Consideration of these aspects along with appropriate validation of the use of digital slides for routine pathology can pave the way for pathology departments to go "fully digital." In this paper, we summarize our experiences so far in the process of implementing a fully digital workflow at our Pathology Department and the steps that are needed to complete this process.

Stathonikos N; Veta M; Huisman A; van Diest PJ

2013-01-01

292

Utilization Management in Anatomic Pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breeching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

Lewandrowski K; Black-Schaffer S

2013-10-01

293

Pathological processes affecting exercise capacity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exercise capacity and physical activity status are well-known predictors of general mortality and especially cardiovascular mortality. Pathological processes which may affect exercise capacity may be of cardiovascular, pulmonary, hematologic, myogenic and neuropsychogenic origin. Whatever the reason, reduced exercise capacity impairs quality of life and increases tendency of individual to secondary diseases. These pathologies, alone or together, limit exercise capacity resulting in dyspneoea, pain and fatigue by causing defects in processes involved in oxygen and carbondioxide gases. In this review, pathological processes that impact exercise capacity will be discussed in a systematic manner and uncommon application areas of exercise tests will be mentioned.

Gökhan Metin; Mehmet Altan; Levent Öztürk

2007-01-01

294

Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author)

2006-01-01

295

Pathology Case Study: Renal Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a pediatric pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 19-month-old boy has a renal mass. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.; Christakos, Peter

2009-08-17

296

Aspect of Incidence of the Major Citrus Diseases Recently  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The percent of diseased fruit by Diaporthe citri was the most 16.8% in 2010 and the least 3.8% in 2005, andthe average was 8.8% from 2003 to 2012. The degrees of disease incidence were relatively high, 17.0, 22.6, 19.2and 18.9%, in 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2010, respectively. The percent of diseased fruit by Elsinoe fawcettii wasthe most 0.72% in 2004, and then gradually decreased to 0.08% in 2008, and the average was from 0.28%from 2004 to 2011. In case of canker by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, the percent of diseased fruit was themost 2.19% in 2004, and gradually decreased to 0.08 and 0.10% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The averagewas 0.81% from 2004 to 2012. The melanose by D. citri was most in south-east area of Jeju Island, and eastand west in case of canker. The melanose symptoms were initially appeared from mid June, mainly peakedlate of July to late August. The canker symptoms were initially produced on leaves of natsudaidai andgrapefruit cultivated in open field middle of June in 2010 and 2011 and late of May in 2012. The scab diseasewas firstly appeared approx. early or mid May and then rapidly increased late of May to middle of June. Theinoculum was mainly produced from dead twigs late June to early of August.

Jae-Wook Hyun; Pyoung-Ho Yi; Rok-Yeon Hwang; Kyung-Hwan Moon

2013-01-01

297

Recent additions to fundament aspects of quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems like those of Schroedinger's can comprise quantum systems as classical systems, the measurement process and reality. After a reviewing the history of interpretation of quantum mechanics it is shown how a generalized algebraic quantum theory (e.g. G.G. Emch 1986) can tackle these problems and paradoxes. This theory treats systems with infinite degrees of freedom and open systems. It is applicable both to quantum as to classical systems and thus to the measurement process with its irreversibility. The usual linear Schroedinger equation is replaced by a non-linear one where the nonlinear terms reflect the interaction of the system with its environment or with the measuring apparatus. (Quittner) To appear also in 'Naturwissenschaft und Weltbild', 1992

1991-01-01

298

Some recent aspects of relaxation line shapes in Moessbauer spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Theoretical development in the line shape calculation of Mossbauer resonance spectra involving spin relaxation effects is introduced. The ''eigenvalue'' procedure of calculating line shapes saves computational times by two orders of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This was illustrated by calculating the relaxation spectra of hemoglobin cyanide and a GAMMA8 quartet electronic state. The ''white noise approximation'' involved in all the relaxation theory is discussed, and its limitations are pointed out. The theory without such an approximation is used to analyze the data for Cs2NaYbCl6

1976-11-19

299

Pathogenetic aspects of uncomplicated urinary tract infection: recent advances.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urinary tract infections mostly are caused by Enterobacteriaceae; E. coli dominating in 80-90% for uncomplicated diseases. Microorganisms possessing the ability to colonize the uroepithelium (fimbriae/pili) and to cytotoxically damage cells and tissue (hemolysin) may initiate acute infection. Properties such as serum resistance, iron sequesteration, hydroxamate production and the presence of K-antigen are found in strains which persist in the host without initiating clinical symptoms. The ability of bacteria to adhere to cells of the epithelial boundary layer of the host organisms is of initial importance in the origin and progress of an infection. A variety of specific factors, e.g. glycolipids on the surface of the uroepithelium as well as cellular and humoral disorders of immunoreactions in the host determine the course of a disease. The immune response may ameliorate clinical symptoms and select urovirulent characteristics of the causative microorganism in recurrent diseases. PMID:9021235

Fünfstück, R; Smith, J W; Tschäpe, H; Stein, G

1997-01-01

300

Pathogenetic aspects of uncomplicated urinary tract infection: recent advances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urinary tract infections mostly are caused by Enterobacteriaceae; E. coli dominating in 80-90% for uncomplicated diseases. Microorganisms possessing the ability to colonize the uroepithelium (fimbriae/pili) and to cytotoxically damage cells and tissue (hemolysin) may initiate acute infection. Properties such as serum resistance, iron sequesteration, hydroxamate production and the presence of K-antigen are found in strains which persist in the host without initiating clinical symptoms. The ability of bacteria to adhere to cells of the epithelial boundary layer of the host organisms is of initial importance in the origin and progress of an infection. A variety of specific factors, e.g. glycolipids on the surface of the uroepithelium as well as cellular and humoral disorders of immunoreactions in the host determine the course of a disease. The immune response may ameliorate clinical symptoms and select urovirulent characteristics of the causative microorganism in recurrent diseases.

Fünfstück R; Smith JW; Tschäpe H; Stein G

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Psychiatric Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis and Recent Treatment Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder characterized by multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms related to multifocal lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). MS disrupt the conductance of action potential by effecting myelin coats of the neurons. Thus, many neurological symptoms and consequently disability may occur. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms accompanies in the course of MS as primary or secondary reasons. Mood disorders; especially depression, psychiatric disorders, chronic fatigue and cognitive impairment decrease the patient’s quality of life. Clinical course become more complicated because of the neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms co-occurrence. Multipl behavioral and affective alterations may arise due to location and extension of the plaques. Illness perception and the coping strategies may also effect life quality and consequently the prognosis. The treatment of MS includes corticosteroids and the immunosuppressive agents which have various psychiatric side effects. So management of MS patients requires a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. The purpose of this rewiev is the evaluation of psychiatric disorders and symptoms due to MS and its treatment and also their possible effects on clinical process, prognosis, patient’s compatibility, life quality depending on the actual literature. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2008; 45 Supplement: 37-43)

Aysu K. T?HAN

2008-01-01

302

RHIC SPIN PROGRAM: MACHINE ASPECTS AND RECENT PROGRESS.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. However, the acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian Snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian Snakes and polarimeters are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible.

ROSER,T.

1999-07-20

303

Recent progress and advances in iterative software (including parallel aspects)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the current state of iterative software packages. Of particular interest is software for large scale engineering and scientific applications, especially for distributed parallel systems. However, the authors will also review the state of software development for conventional architectures. This workshop will complement the other proposed workshops on iterative BLAS kernels and applications. The format for the workshop is as follows: To provide some structure, there will be brief presentations, each of less than five minutes duration and dealing with specific facets of the subject. These will be designed to focus the discussion and to stimulate an exchange with the participants. Issues to be covered include: The evolution of iterative packages, current state of the art, the parallel computing challenge, applications viewpoint, standards, and future directions and open problems.

Carey, G.; Young, D.M.; Kincaid, D. [and others

1994-12-31

304

Ketamine pharmacology: an update (pharmacodynamics and molecular aspects, recent findings).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For more than 50 years, ketamine has proven to be a safe anesthetic drug with potent analgesic properties. The active enantiomer is S(+)-ketamine. Ketamine is mostly metabolized in norketamine, an active metabolite. During "dissociative anesthesia", sensory inputs may reach cortical receiving areas, but fail to be perceived in some association areas. Ketamine also enhances the descending inhibiting serotoninergic pathway and exerts antidepressive effects. Analgesic effects persist for plasma concentrations ten times lower than hypnotic concentrations. Activation of the (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate [NMDA]) receptor plays a fundamental role in long-term potentiation but also in hyperalgesia and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The antagonism of NMDA receptor is responsible for ketamine's more specific properties. Ketamine decreases the "wind up" phenomenon, and the antagonism is more important if the NMDA channel has been previously opened by the glutamate binding ("use dependence"). Experimentally, ketamine may promote neuronal apoptotic lesions but, in usual clinical practice, it does not induce neurotoxicity. The consequences of high doses, repeatedly administered, are not known. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in chronic users of ketamine, as well as frontal white matter abnormalities. Animal studies suggest that neurodegeneration is a potential long-term risk of anesthetics in neonatal and young pediatric patients.

Mion G; Villevieille T

2013-06-01

305

Recent aspects of the subunit organization and dissociation of hemocyanins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. The hemocyanins of the arthropod phylum are built of multiples of hexamers consisting of 1,2,4,6 and 8 of such basic assemblies. Their molecular weights range from about 0.45 x 10(6) to 3.9 x 10(6) daltons. The basic hexameric unit consists of bean-shaped monomers organized in the form of two layers of trimers placed on top of one another. The subunits are heterogeneous, in most cases consisting of four or more electrophoretically different polypeptide chains. 2. Molluscan hemocyanins have an entirely different structure and pattern of assembly from the arthropodan hemocyanins. The basic assembly of the molluscan hemocyanins are decamers organized in the form of right-handed cylinders approximately 300 A in diameter and 140-190 A in height. Different species have one, two and sometimes more than two such assemblies forming correspondingly longer cylindrical particles with molecular weights ranging from about 3.3 x 10(6) to 13 x 10(6) daltons. Cephalopod and chiton hemocyanins consist of single decameric particles, while gastropods have hemocyanins organized of di-decamers or higher assemblies. The subunits of these hemocyanins are elongated protein chains with seven or eight folded globular domains, each housing a binuclear copper center capable of binding and delivering oxygen. 3. The dissociation behavior of the arthropod hemocyanin hexamers and di-hexamers with the hydrophobic urea series of reagents suggest polar and ionic interactions as the main sources of stabilization of the hexamers and the hexamer to hexamer contacts within the di-hexamers. 4. Dissociation studies with the same urea probes with the molluscan hemocyanins, however, suggest a different pattern of stabilization. The stabilization of the decamer to decamer contacts within the gastropod di-decamers appear to be predominantly polar and ionic with relatively few hydrophobic interaction sites. The dimer contacts within the decamers and the monomer to monomer contacts within the dimers observed in the octopus and chiton hemocyanins appear to be predominantly hydrophobic in nature. 5. The urea and the pH dissociation profiles of the single decameric assemblies of some of the octopus and chiton hemocyanins investigated by light-scattering molecular weight methods, have been fitted using either a two-species, decamer to dimer and decamer to monomer scheme of subunit dissociation or a three-species, decamer to dimer to monomer scheme of dissociation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Herskovits TT

1988-01-01

306

Meckel on developmental pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Before Schleiden and Schwann, Darwin and Mendel there passed briefly a towering giant, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), now glimpsed only fleetingly and obscurely through the mist of time and former controversies, who can nowadays easily and clearly be identified as the father of a "pre-modern" developmental biology. At his beginning this prodigiously gifted physician-scholar had, as one would say nowadays, an unfair advantage, his cradle having been rocked, as it were, by the preparators in his father's and grandfather's huge collection of normal and abnormal anatomical "specimens" in the home in which he was born and raised including his father's own skeleton (with two anatomical anomalies!). Initially reluctant to follow in the steps of his illustrious anatomist/physician grandfather and father, he nevertheless early demonstrated extraordinary gifts in anatomy and zootomy. Napoleon's conquest of his homeland notwithstanding, Meckel spent at least 2 extremely fruitful years in Paris, under the tutelage of Cuvier, but also in close contact with Geoffroy St. Hilaire (Etienne), Lamarck, and von Humboldt. He not only translated Cuvier's Leçons d'anatomie comparée into German but also greatly enriched this pivotal treatise with observations of embryonic and malformed fetuses and animals only of passing interest to his mentor. In his numerous publications, Meckel was the first to relate abnormal to normal development, define anomalies of incomplete differentiation (vestigia), but, most importantly, to relate those malformations known in humans to those that are normal adult developmental states in "lower" animals (atavisms). Thus, Meckel's three-fold parallelism of the scala naturae, normal ontogeny, and the malformations in humans and animals makes him a recapitulationist par excellence, however, without ever venturing into a fully articulated and explicit theory of descent. Today Meckel is remembered solely as the discoverer of the syndrome and cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction. PMID:16353245

Opitz, John M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

2006-01-15

307

Meckel on developmental pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Before Schleiden and Schwann, Darwin and Mendel there passed briefly a towering giant, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), now glimpsed only fleetingly and obscurely through the mist of time and former controversies, who can nowadays easily and clearly be identified as the father of a "pre-modern" developmental biology. At his beginning this prodigiously gifted physician-scholar had, as one would say nowadays, an unfair advantage, his cradle having been rocked, as it were, by the preparators in his father's and grandfather's huge collection of normal and abnormal anatomical "specimens" in the home in which he was born and raised including his father's own skeleton (with two anatomical anomalies!). Initially reluctant to follow in the steps of his illustrious anatomist/physician grandfather and father, he nevertheless early demonstrated extraordinary gifts in anatomy and zootomy. Napoleon's conquest of his homeland notwithstanding, Meckel spent at least 2 extremely fruitful years in Paris, under the tutelage of Cuvier, but also in close contact with Geoffroy St. Hilaire (Etienne), Lamarck, and von Humboldt. He not only translated Cuvier's Leçons d'anatomie comparée into German but also greatly enriched this pivotal treatise with observations of embryonic and malformed fetuses and animals only of passing interest to his mentor. In his numerous publications, Meckel was the first to relate abnormal to normal development, define anomalies of incomplete differentiation (vestigia), but, most importantly, to relate those malformations known in humans to those that are normal adult developmental states in "lower" animals (atavisms). Thus, Meckel's three-fold parallelism of the scala naturae, normal ontogeny, and the malformations in humans and animals makes him a recapitulationist par excellence, however, without ever venturing into a fully articulated and explicit theory of descent. Today Meckel is remembered solely as the discoverer of the syndrome and cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction.

Opitz JM; Schultka R; Göbbel L

2006-01-01

308

Pathologic and diagnostic considerations in onychomycosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the physiology and function of the nail unit and its potential avenues of invasion, and properly identifying invading organisms are two key aspects of using the newer therapies available for the treatment of onychomycosis. This article discusses the most common pathologies of onychomycosis, as classified by the sites of entry of the invading fungi. Susceptibility factors leading to infection are also discussed. Obtaining proper tissue samples, using appropriate tests and culture media, and accurately interpreting test results are all paramount to correct identification of the invading organism and, in turn, to effective prescribing. When fungal-growth results do not support the clinical symptoms, or if a more specific identification of the organism is required, additional diagnostic tests are available and are outlined here.

Lemont H

1997-11-01

309

Pathological love: impulsivity, personality, and romantic relationship.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Pathological love (PL)--behavior characterized by providing repetitive and uncontrolled care and attention to the partner in a romantic relationship--is a rarely studied condition, despite not being rare and causing suffering. This study aims at investigating impulsivity, personality, and characteristics related to the romantic relationship in this population. METHODS: Eighty-nine individuals (50 with PL; 39 individuals with no psychiatric disorder) were compared regarding impulsivity, personality, type of attachment, satisfaction with romantic relationship, and love style. RESULTS: Individuals with PL have higher levels of impulsivity (P<.001; Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), higher self-transcendence, that is, are more unconventional and hold sense of communion with a wider reality (P<.001; Temperament and Character Inventory) and keep dissatisfactory romantic relationships (P<.001; Adapted Relationship Assessment Scale). CONCLUSION: Individuals with PL present personality traits and relationship aspects that must be taken into account in devising assessment and therapeutic strategies for this population.

Sophia EC; Tavares H; Berti MP; Pereira AP; Lorena A; Mello C; Gorenstein C; Zilberman ML

2009-05-01

310

[Selenium and cardiovascular pathology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Selenium deficiency has established implications in cardiovascular diseases, particularly on cardiac muscle integrity. The essential trace element takes part not only in the direct protection of endothelial cells against the accumulation of aggressive oxygen species, but also in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid derivatives involved in platelet and leucocyte functions, or in the regulation of cholesterol. Moreover, it prevents toxic effects of cadmium and mercury, and modulates the active transport of calcium. Some clinical investigations have underlined its importance in the cardiac function and the prevention of coronary atherosclerosis, and several recent prospective epidemiological studies have attributed to selenium deficiency a greater incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Further studies should be devoted to the influence of marginal deficiency in this trace element whose optimal requirement does not seem to be met by the usual dietary intake.

Neve J

1989-12-01

311

Development of pathology in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i T?bbiye-i Adliye-i ?âhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “T?phane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i T?bbiye-i Adliyei ?âhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar), educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “?stanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and ?stanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in ?stanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in ?stanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

Alp USUBÜTÜN; Gökhan GED?KO?LU

2007-01-01

312

Current insights in renal cell cancer pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years molecular biologists and pathologists have described new entities of renal cell cancer (RCC) with a totally different morphology and biology among the histotypes of renal carcinoma, but always referring to the same renal cancer disease. The evidence of a distinct biological behavior and long-term prognosis among these makes the correct pathological diagnosis of renal cancer critically important for the clinician. Advances in understanding of the pathogenesis, behavior, and importance of prognostic factors for RCC have paved the way for a revision of its classification and staging. We reviewed the role of histological classification, microscopic tumor necrosis, microscopic venous invasion, lymph node involvement and, particularly, pathological stage. In our series of patients who underwent renal surgery for neoplasm, a retrospective study established the predictive role of tumor size on recurrence rate, compared with other known prognostic factors, and we conclude that histological grade, pathological stage and tumor size remain relevant prognosticators in early stage RCC patients. In order to optimize the management of patients with RCC it is necessary to develop an interdisciplinary approach (surgeon, radiologist, pathologist, oncologist) and find new prognostic parameters at molecular and cellular levels. Many efforts are ongoing to integrate molecular data (from tissue microarrays) and clinical data (traditional prognosticators) into a molecular integrated staging system. In the postgenomic era, new tumor-associated antigens and molecules can be identified at the protein level using proteomics, providing a major opportunity for screening and finding novel targets that are the basis of new emerging therapies for RCC.

Mancini V; Battaglia M; Ditonno P; Palazzo S; Lastilla G; Montironi R; Bettocchi C; Cavalcanti E; Ranieri E; Selvaggi FP

2008-05-01

313

When is the practice of pathology malpractice?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because of its complex nature, surgical pathology diagnosis has an appreciable degree of fallibility and is increasingly subject to legal scrutiny. In litigation, the first practical step is to explain why and how this adversity could happen, and the second is the question of apportionment of responsibility and its legal consequences. As pathologists, we have to provide a methodology of investigation allowing a clear distinction between reasonable and unacceptable pathology practice without the twist of hindsight. For that we need to examine the different steps from test ordering to the final report. The most critical aspect of the enquiry is the act of diagnosis itself. What can reasonably be expected and what precautions have normally to be taken? Experts are often requested to re-examine the slides. For that we need a well-devised protocol enabling blinded review. Tort law has two important interconnected goals: compensation for damages and prevention of the same slip ever being made again. We can only properly learn from our mistakes if we carry out an unbiased investigation. Poor normative judgement of diagnostic failures will backfire on the profession.

Giard RW

2010-11-01

314

Foundation and progress of Japanese society of toxicologic pathology*.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Japanese Society of Toxicologic Pathology (JSTP) has a differing conceptual framework from the Japanese Society of Pathology (JSP) and Japanese Society of Toxicology (JST) and was founded in 1985 by the leadership of late Dr. Yasukazu Nishiyama with the cooperation of several founding members and the support of JSP. The aim of the JSTP is to improve the human and animal health using an interdisciplinary scientific approach based on pathology and toxicology. In its development as a professional society, the JSTP has established society rules and activities. The JSTP has grown in terms of membership and financial aspects and is now recognized not only domestically but also internationally as a well-organized scientific society. To maintain the high professional standard and visibility of JSTP, we here provide the historical background of the society as a basis for current members to contribute to the continued improvement of our scientific organization.

Konishi Y; Enomoto M; Hayashi Y

2011-03-01

315

Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease.

Lohr, E.; Leder, L.D.

1987-01-01

316

Bulls and bears: the stock market and clinical pathology research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To analyse the level of funded research in clinical pathology in a recent bear and bull market to act as a predictor for future funding during the current global financial crisis. METHODS: The level of funding for research published in three clinical pathology journals in 2005 and 2008 to coincide with the bear market of March 2000 to October 2002 and with the subsequent bull market to October 2007 was determined using a Medline query. Other parameters examined were the type of article, affiliation of the first author and the pathology subspecialty. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of publications were funded and did not differ between the 2 years studied. Original research papers were more likely to be funded than case reports or reviews. Research from university departments of pathology was more likely to be funded than from hospital pathology departments but there were more publications from hospital pathology departments. The proportion of research in the different subspecialties that was funded did not differ significantly between each other and between 2005 and 2008. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data from the previous bear market, which was the longest and deepest of the post 1950 era, and the subsequent bull market, which led to the all-time high in the Dow Jones Industrial Index, funding for clinical pathology research does not seem to be affected by bull or bear markets.

Khong TY

2009-09-01

317

Regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy: signaling pathways and therapeutic targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a key risk factor for heart failure. It is associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, cell death and cardiac dysfunction. The progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy has long been considered as irreversible. However, recent clinical observations and experimental studies have produced evidence showing the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricle assist devices used in heart failure patients for bridging to transplantation not only improve peripheral circulation but also often cause reverse remodeling of the geometry and recovery of the function of the heart. Dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper can reverse pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Angiogenesis is essential and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a constitutive factor for the regression. The action of VEGF is mediated by VEGF receptor-1, whose activation is linked to cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 (PKG-1) signaling pathways, and inhibition of cyclic GMP degradation leads to regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Most of these pathways are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor. Potential therapeutic targets for promoting the regression include: promotion of angiogenesis, selective enhancement of VEGF receptor-1 signaling pathways, stimulation of PKG-1 pathways, and sustention of hypoxia-inducible factor transcriptional activity. More exciting insights into the regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy are emerging. The time of translating the concept of regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy to clinical practice is coming. PMID:22750195

Hou, Jianglong; Kang, Y James

2012-06-29

318

'One medicine---one pathology': are veterinary and human pathology prepared?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association have recently approved resolutions supporting 'One Medicine' or 'One Health' that bridge the two professions. The concept is far from novel. Rudolf Virchow, the Father of Modern Pathology, and Sir William Osler, the Father of Modern Medicine, were outspoken advocates of the concept. The concept in its modern iteration was re-articulated in the 1984 edition of Calvin Schwabe's 'Veterinary Medicine and Human Health.' The veterinary and medical pathology professions are steeped in a rich history of 'One Medicine,' but they have paradoxically parted ways, leaving the discipline of pathology poorly positioned to contribute to contemporary science. The time has come for not only scientists but also all pathologists to recognize the value in comparative pathology, the consequences of ignoring the opportunity and, most importantly, the necessity of preparing future generations to meet the challenge inherent in the renewed momentum for 'One Medicine.' The impending glut of new genetically engineered mice creates an urgent need for prepared investigators and pathologists.

Cardiff RD; Ward JM; Barthold SW

2008-01-01

319

Tau mediated neurodegeneration: an insight into Alzheimer's disease pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extracellular accumulations of A?, hyperphosphorylation of tau and intracellular neurofibrillary tangle formation have been the hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Although tau and its phosphorylation play a pivotal role in the normal physiology yet its hyperphosphorylation has been a pathological manifestation in neurodegenerative disorders like AD. In this review physiology of tau, its phosphorylation, hyperphosphorylation with the intervention of various kinases, aggregation and formation of paired helical filaments has been discussed. A brief account of various animal models employed to study the pathological manifestation of tau in AD and therapeutic strategies streamlined to counter the tau induced pathology has been given. The reasons for the failure to have suitable animal model to study AD pathology and recent success in achieving this has been included. The role of caspase cascade in tau cleavage has been emphasized. The summary of current studies on tau and the need for future studies has been accentuated.

Obulesu M; Venu R; Somashekhar R

2011-08-01

320

Tau mediated neurodegeneration: an insight into Alzheimer's disease pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracellular accumulations of A?, hyperphosphorylation of tau and intracellular neurofibrillary tangle formation have been the hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Although tau and its phosphorylation play a pivotal role in the normal physiology yet its hyperphosphorylation has been a pathological manifestation in neurodegenerative disorders like AD. In this review physiology of tau, its phosphorylation, hyperphosphorylation with the intervention of various kinases, aggregation and formation of paired helical filaments has been discussed. A brief account of various animal models employed to study the pathological manifestation of tau in AD and therapeutic strategies streamlined to counter the tau induced pathology has been given. The reasons for the failure to have suitable animal model to study AD pathology and recent success in achieving this has been included. The role of caspase cascade in tau cleavage has been emphasized. The summary of current studies on tau and the need for future studies has been accentuated. PMID:21509508

Obulesu, M; Venu, R; Somashekhar, R

2011-04-21

 
 
 
 
321

Renal mass size: concordance between pathology and radiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment selection of renal masses is informed largely by size. Furthermore, decisions regarding active surveillance involve closely monitoring growth kinetics. It is, therefore, important to understand the accuracy behind radiographic size as compared with pathologic. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of studies indicate computed tomography (CT) imaging overestimates pathologic size, albeit by a small amount. Smaller masses tend to be overestimated, but larger masses underestimated. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma masses are more likely to be overestimated. CT, ultrasound and MRI have similar concordance with pathologic size. SUMMARY: The differences between radiographic and pathologic size are small. Findings show good efficacy across CT, MRI and ultrasound. This may reduce reliance on CT imaging alone in the future.

Kathrins M; Caesar S; Mucksavage P; Guzzo T

2013-09-01

322

Adolescence and Eating Pathologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eating disorders have received growing attention by professionals aswell as mass media (Shorter, Quinton et al. 2007). The most recent ISTAT data (Italian Institute for Statistics) reveal that about 3 million people (5% of the Italian population) suffer from these disorders, 90-95% females with two peaks of onset at 14 and at 18. Especially at this age, socio-cultural factors are crucialto the development of ideals (Tylche, Subich 2002), cognitions and expectations concerning body image (Schilder, 2002), nutrition and weight (Halmi, 2003).These factors can be divided into four main categories: ‘the cultural pressure to acquire a thin body; the change in the woman’s social role; the mythical character granted to eating disorders; the prejudice against obesity’ (Dalle Grave, 2007). So far, the literature on this subject, however wide, has provided no conclusive data with reference to related issues, such as psychiatric comorbidities(Blinder et al, 2007). In particular, this study focused on the aspectof control, a significant feature of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder too, (Couturier, 2004) and on body-image disperception, peculiar to eating disorders (Neumark-Sztainer, 2000). To investigate co-morbidity between eating disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a questionnaire including items of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Dalle Grave, Ghisi, Calugi, 2006) was administered to a sample of adolescent students. The results provide significant correlations between Calculation Compulsions and the BSQ Behaviours variable, between Current MiscellaneousCompulsions and Body Image, between Current Miscellaneous Compulsionsand Body Shape/Self Esteem. Therefore the study provides further evidence in support of co-morbidity.

Valeria Caggiano

2010-01-01

323

[Psychological and psychotherapeutic aspects of grief  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Psychological theories on the significance and the process of mourning are discussed, and an approach to the psychotherapy of pathological grief is described. Bereavement behaviour refers to the total response pattern, psychological and physiological, displayed by an individual following the loss of a significant object, usually a loved person. Various theories on the nature and course of bereavement are reviewed. The following psychological aspects associated with bereavement are discussed in more detail: Shock, denial, searching, depression, guilt, aggression, anxiety, jealousy and reintegration. Specific conditions that might lead to pathological mourning are pointed out. At last, an implosive therapy approach to pathological mourning is described, which is based on the prolonged exposure to the painful stimuli until extinction of the severe emotional response occurs ("flooding"). The procedure is illustrated by examples from actual therapies.

Mittag O

1992-05-01

324

Antiparkinsonian medication and pathological gambling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parkinson's disease is a common condition, usually treated by dopaminergic agents, both ergot and non-ergot. Many behavioural abnormalities are associated with such usage, including impulse control disorders (ICDs), dopamine dysregulation syndrome and 'punding'. Pathological gambling, a form of ICD, comprises persistent and maladaptive gambling of various types that disrupts personal, family or occupational activity. Pathological gambling may be associated with other abnormal actions such as pathological shopping, hoarding and hypersexuality. The incidence varies widely from study to study but may be up to 7% of users of dopaminergic agents. Recognition of this problem has led drug regulatory agencies to add precautions concerning pathological gambling to official drug information for the entire class of antiparkinsonian medications. The literature is not entirely consistent and opinions differ greatly, but pramipexole (a dopamine D2 and D3 agonist), and perhaps ropinirole (also a D2/D3 agonist), may be especially likely to be associated with pathological gambling, although the precise nature of the relationship is unclear. Treatment involves reducing the dose of the medication or switching to another medication; unfortunately, the Parkinson's disease may worsen. The mechanism of this adverse effect is believed to be excessive dopaminergic stimulation but probably not specifically involving D3 receptors. A parallel to addictive behaviour with stimulant drugs has been noted.

Lader M

2008-01-01

325

The pathology of shin splints.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate experimental evidence describing the pathology associated with shin splints. Shin splints are defined as medial or posteromedial leg pain which is brought about by walking, running, or related activities and which decreases with rest. The evidence indicates that shin splints may be due to pathology of the posteromedial tibial cortex, the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia, or the crural fascia of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Research is needed to determine if increased pressure in the deep posterior compartment of the leg or pathology of the muscles, tendons, or interosseous membrane of the leg are associated with shin splints. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;12(3):115-121.

Kues JM

1990-01-01

326

The pathology of shin splints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate experimental evidence describing the pathology associated with shin splints. Shin splints are defined as medial or posteromedial leg pain which is brought about by walking, running, or related activities and which decreases with rest. The evidence indicates that shin splints may be due to pathology of the posteromedial tibial cortex, the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia, or the crural fascia of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Research is needed to determine if increased pressure in the deep posterior compartment of the leg or pathology of the muscles, tendons, or interosseous membrane of the leg are associated with shin splints. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;12(3):115-121. PMID:18796881

Kues, J M

1990-01-01

327

The neurobiology of pathological gambling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite relatively high prevalence rates and significant morbidity and mortality associated with pathological gambling (PG), our understanding of the neurobiological basis of PG lags in comparison to that for other psychiatric illnesses of comparable magnitude. An improved understanding of the neurobiology of PG would facilitate targeted investigations into more effective treatments. Emerging data suggest shared neurobiological features determine in part pathological gambling and substance use disorders. These findings both challenge current conceptualizations of addictions and provide a substantial basis of knowledge on which to design investigations into the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling. The findings that substance use disorders and the behavioral "addiction" of PG share common causative features raise the question as to what extent other compulsive disorders (eg, compulsive shopping, compulsive sexual behaviors, compulsive computer use) might be biologically related.

Potenza MN

2001-07-01

328

Investigation of the causes of pathology in games  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Until recently it was almost universally believed that searching deeper on a game tree would in general improve the quality of a decision. However, recent theoretical investigations by this author (1979, 1980) have demonstrated the existence of an infinite class of game trees for which searching deeper consistently degrades the quality of a decision. This paper extends the previous work in two ways. First, the existence of pathology is demonstrated in a real game (Pearl's game) using a real evaluation function. This pathological behavior occurs despite the fact that the evaluation function increases dramatically in accuracy toward the end of the game. Second, the similarities and differences between this game and a related nonpathological game are used as grounds for speculation on why pathology occurs in some games and not in others. 21 references.

Nau, D.S.

1982-11-01

329

Automatic indexing of pathology data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure for automated indexing of pathology diagnostic reports at the National Institutes of Health is described. Diagnostic statements in medical English are encoded by computer into the Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology (SNOP). SNOP is a structured indexing language constructed by pathologists for manual indexing. It is of interest that effective automatic encoding can be based upon an existing vocabulary and code designed for manual methods. Morphosyntactic analysis, a simple syntax analysis, matching of dictionary entries consisting of several words, and synonym substitutions are techniques utilized. PMID:10318395

Dunham, G S; Pacak, M G; Pratt, A W

1978-03-01

330

Automatic indexing of pathology data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A procedure for automated indexing of pathology diagnostic reports at the National Institutes of Health is described. Diagnostic statements in medical English are encoded by computer into the Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology (SNOP). SNOP is a structured indexing language constructed by pathologists for manual indexing. It is of interest that effective automatic encoding can be based upon an existing vocabulary and code designed for manual methods. Morphosyntactic analysis, a simple syntax analysis, matching of dictionary entries consisting of several words, and synonym substitutions are techniques utilized.

Dunham GS; Pacak MG; Pratt AW

1978-03-01

331

Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Rostami, Sassan

2009-02-17

332

Pathology Case Study: Mediastinal Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man complained of diaphoresis nausea and substernal chest pain through his left arm. Subsequent tests revealed a mediastinal mass with both fatty and solid components. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Fowler, Jason C.

2008-12-25

333

Pathology Case Study: Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man presented with a large range of symptoms from chills and fever to underdeveloped calf muscles. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Lee, Robert E.; Defrances, Marie C.

2008-05-14

334

Pathology Case Study: Renal Failure  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 36-year-old man has had two kidney transplants. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-27

335

Pathology Case Study: Testicular Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 18-year-old male with "painless enlargement of the right testes over a period of several months, initially attributed to a sports injury." Visitors are given admission data along with gross and microscopic description, including images and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Halpern, Melissa B.; Fowler, Jason C.

2008-08-19

336

Pathology Case Study: Renal Insufficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 74-year-old man has been referred to the hospital for renal insufficiency complicating scleroderma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in renal pathology.

Perry, Linda; Bastacky, Sheldon

2007-09-03

337

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older woman developed a renal mass without evidence of angiomyolipoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in endocrine pathology.

Hardy, Hunter T.

2008-10-16

338

Pathology Case Study: Lung Abscess  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 39-year-old man has died from lung abscess after treatment failed, and an autopsy was authorized. Visitors are given the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to identify the cause of death. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Lee, Robert E.; Graur, Octavia

2008-03-04

339

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Sinusitis  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man reported a history of chronic sinusitis that was not responding to nasal and antibiotic treatments. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of head and neck pathology.

Fowler, Jason C.; Becich, Michael J.

2008-04-28

340

Pathology Case Study: Pancreatic Mass  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Utah Department of Pathology in which a woman developed jaundice while on vacation. Subsequent testing revealed a pancreatic mass. Visitors can view both microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of autopsy pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-

2008-12-31

 
 
 
 
341

Pathology Case Study: Back Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 62-year-old woman who presented with two months of back pain. Visitors are given patient history, laboratory findings, along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pulmonary pathology.

Schoedel, Karen; Lu, Zhengbin

2009-04-17

342

Pathology Case Study: Transfusion Reaction  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a young woman experienced vomiting, dizziness, headaches, and change of mental status due to conjunctival petechiae. Visitors are given the transfusion reaction investigation, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

Triulzi, Darrell; Johnson, Douglas R.

2008-09-02

343

Pathology Case Study: Pigmented Lesion  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 69-year-old man has a pigmented lesion on his right ear. Visitors are given the patient history and microscopic description, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Ejadi, Samuel

2007-09-12

344

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-22

345

Biomass: recent economic studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book consists of the proceedings of a seminar on the socio-economic aspects of energy in agriculture which was held in Brussels, Belgium, 10-11 October 1985, under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities Directorate-General for Agriculture. This was a state of the art seminar and the papers presented are the results of the most recent studies in this area carried out in various member states. The contributions fall into two main sections, namely, micro and macroeconomic studies. Papers in the microeconomic section cover topics such as methodology for evaluating biomass production, applications and the results in some countries, and application in the glasshouse industry, and an application to marginal (i.e. polluted) land. The macroeconomic papers describe evaluation methodologies, as well as looking at biomass production in the context of the Common Agricultural Policy and the use of biomass or agricultural surpluses in the production of fuels such as ethanol. The book also includes chairmen's reports on the discussions that took place in each session and concludes with a general overview of the conclusions reached at the seminar.

Sourie, J.C.; Killen, L.

1986-01-01

346

Recent SLC developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is the fore-runner of a new generation of high energy accelerators. As such, it incorporates many novel features that must be fully exploited to achieve optimum performance. In this paper the author presents an overview of the frontiers of collider performance at SLC. Recent developments have centered on polarization, intensity and emittance preservation issues. A polarized source and spin transport system were successfully commissioned in 1992 and operated with high reliability. Practical intensity limits associated with rapid growth (s) bunch length instabilities have been observed in the damping rings. Ring RF voltage manipulations are used to suppress the instabilities. Emittance preservation technique development has focused on controlling system-wide instabilities and improving feedback and tuning procedures. Control of instabilities of all time scales, pulse to pulse, fast and slow, is one of the most challenging aspects of the collider. The challenge is met with (1) very high level of control and automation required for general tuning and optimization, (2) real-time transport line optical correction and monitoring, (3) coupled, high level, trajectory and energy feedback, (4) high order multipole optical correction and monitoring, (5) feedback-based linac beam emittance preservation, and (6) interaction region luminosity optimization. The common thread beneath all of these is the SLC control system which must provide a level of control, diagnosis and feedback not required for simpler machines

1993-01-01

347

Evaluation of pathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: Comparison with pathology on resected specimen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) observed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) were compared to pathological features of corresponding resected HCC specimens, to evaluate the ability of CEUS to depict the pathological features of HCC. We investigated 50 HCC nodules that were treated by surgical resection. All nodules had been examined by CEUS with intravenous contrast agent (Levovist) before surgery. CEUS findings were divided into three phases for evaluation and classification of enhancement patterns: two vascular phases (arterial phase and portal venous phase) and the delayed phase. Pathological examination focused on differentiation and on the presence or absence of a tumor capsule, intratumoral septum, and intratumoral necrosis. All 21 nodules that showed a linear or annular vessel around the tumor margin in the arterial phase had capsular formation. Of the 27 nodules that showed heterogeneous perfusion in the portal venous phase, 21 (77.8%) had an intratumoral septum and 23 (85.2%) showed intratumoral necrosis. All nodules that were depicted as a defect with an unclear margin in the delayed phase were well-differentiated HCCs, whereas all nodules that were depicted as a defect with a clear margin were moderately or poorly differentiated HCCs. From our observations, the arterial, portal venous, and delayed phases of CEUS could reflect different pathological aspects of HCC. Some pathological characteristics of HCC might be evaluated preoperatively and non-invasively, by means of combined analysis of three phases of CEUS findings.

2006-01-01

348

Aspectos celulares da cicatrização Cellular aspects of wound healing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O processo cicatricial compreende uma sequência de eventos moleculares e celulares que interagem para que ocorra a restauração do tecido lesado. Desde o extravasamento de plasma, com a coagulação e agregação plaquetária até a reepitelização e remodelagem do tecido lesado o organismo age tentando restaurar a funcionalidade tecidual. Assim, este trabalho abrange os diversos aspectos celulares envolvidos no processo cicatricial, bem como os principais medicamentos utilizados no tratamento de patologias relacionadas às deficiências na cicatrização. São abordados também, os aspectos econômicos referentes, sobretudo, às feridas crônicas de pés diabéticos.Wound healing is a dynamic interactive process that involves a sequence of molecular and cellular events. Recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have greatly expanded our understanding of the biological process involved in wound repair and tissue regeneration. From plasma extravasation, with coagulation and platelet aggregation, to reepithelialization and remodeling of injured tissue, the organism acts by trying to restore functionality tissue. Thus, the present study encompasses several cellular aspects involved in the wound healing process, as well as the main drugs used in treating the pathology related to wound healing complications. Economic aspects are also addressed, mainly related to chronic wounds of diabetic feet.

Ricardo José de Mendonça; Joaquim Coutinho-Netto

2009-01-01

349

[Chronic cholesteatomatous otitis media: the histopathological and clinical aspects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years the immunologic aspects of the normal and pathological ear have been studied by several authors, with particular attention given to the histopathologic aspects of the epidermis of the tympanic membranes of the outer ear canal and of the middle ear mucosa in normal physiologic as well as in inflammatory conditions. Such studies may help in giving a more precise definition to the pathogenesis and clinical behavior of middle ear cholesteatoma. In this paper we report the results of an immunohistopathologic study carried out using the immunohistochemical technique of monoclonal antibodies on cholesteatoma matrix samples taken during radical mastoidectomy or tympanoplasty. In particular, the presence of T-lymphocytes and Langerhans cells was evaluated using selective monoclonal antibodies and a relationship between the data collected and the clinical expression of the disease in each case was sought. In this study it was not possible to establish a close relationship between clinical behavior and immunohistopathological findings, which appeared rather similar in all the cases. The presence of Langerhans' cells may confirm the hypothesized role they play in phlogistic reactions and bone reabsorption due to the presence of the cholesteatoma in the middle ear. Yet, in order to evaluate their true role correctly, more detailed studies should be carried out on the spatial distribution of T-lymphocytes and Langerhans' cells in the cholesteatoma matrix as well as on their ultrastructural characteristics.

Marcato P; Giuritti P; Pozzo T; Vitiello R; Valente G; Giordano C; Sartoris A

1991-09-01

350

DEFINITIONS OF PATHOGENICITY AND VIRULENCE IN INVERTEBRATE PATHOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate definition and usage of terminology are critical to effective communication in science. In a recently published article, the clarity and consistency of the terms pathogenicity and virulence in invertebrate pathology were called into question, and a revision of these terms was proposed. Ou...

351

Rare temporal bone pathology of the Singa calvaria from Sudan.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence has recently accumulated that the Singa calvaria from Sudan probably dates from Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 (>130 ka). Morphological studies have indicated a mixture of archaic and more modern human traits, but such analyses are complicated by the possibility that the vault is pathologically def...

Spoor, F; Stringer, C; Zonneveld, F

352

[Syndromic autism: I. General aspects].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT: The diagnosis of autism is based on the identification of certain behavioural criteria, but there is no biological test that allows us to diagnose the disorder. Yet, a considerable number of cases of autism, estimated to be somewhere between 11 and 37%, are linked to specific syndromes that can be identified according to their clinical characteristics, or by means of some biological marker. These cases are known as syndromic autism or 'double syndromes'. There is a relation between autism and certain genetic and metabolic diseases, epilepsy, infections of the nervous system, intrauterine exposure to certain substances and perinatal pathologies. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this review is to guide the professional in the diagnosis of autistic children in order to rationalise the process by ruling out any underlying disease or syndrome related to the autistic condition. At the same time, we stress aetiological aspects of these syndromes, which make it easier to understand the biological bases of autism.

Artigas-Pallarés J; Gabau-Vila E; Guitart-Feliubadaló M

2005-01-01

353

Pediatric pathology services in Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Like other pathology services in developing settings, pediatric pathology in Africa is faced with major challenges such as limited access to resources and few opportunities for professional advancement. Additionally, the discrepancy between the large burden of pediatric diseases, many of which individually are rare enough to prove challenging to the general pathologist, and the amount of specialized training available compounds the underlying problems and makes the provision of a high-quality service difficult. Pediatric neoplasms in particular are a chief cause for concern among general pathologists practicing in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To provide relevant pediatric pathology information with an emphasis on pediatric malignancies to pathologists practicing in Africa, where children represent a very high proportion of the population and training in pediatric pathology is incomplete. DATA SOURCES: Authors' experience and relevant literature. CONCLUSIONS: The limitations inherent in working within a low-resource setting may be reduced by thoughtful and purposeful triaging of specimens, prudent use of cytology in facilitating rapid and inexpensive diagnoses, and collaboration within and outside of the continent. Increased investment in and advocacy for child health, including the creation of additional hospitals dedicated to the care of children, are likely necessary to significantly advance children's health in the region.

Kerr DA; Kaschula RO

2013-06-01

354

[TMJ pathology in hemophilia patients].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemarthrosis is one of the leading symptoms in congenital blood-clotting disorders. This condition leads to significant pain syndrome, joint deformation impaired function and diminished life quality. TMJ pathology showing all signs of hemophilic arthropathy is common in hemophilia patients.

Khokhrin DV; Gileva OS; Khaliavina IN; Nazukin ED

2012-01-01

355

CT features of jejunal pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The imaging of duodenal and ileal diseases is well documented in radiological literature but the jejunum has been relatively neglected. The aim of this review is to outline the current methods of investigation of the jejunum, and provide a comprehensive review of common pathologies affecting the jejunum, with particular emphasis on investigation by computed tomography.

Hyland, R. [Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hylander@doctors.net.uk; Chalmers, A. [Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom)

2007-12-15

356

CT features of jejunal pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The imaging of duodenal and ileal diseases is well documented in radiological literature but the jejunum has been relatively neglected. The aim of this review is to outline the current methods of investigation of the jejunum, and provide a comprehensive review of common pathologies affecting the jejunum, with particular emphasis on investigation by computed tomography.

2007-01-01

357

[Antioxidant micronutrients and human pathology].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The harmful oxidation by free radicals has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many illnesses, including, as the most significant from the epidemiological standpoint, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This paper reviews the physio-pathological foundations of this relationship and describes the possible usefulness of anti-oxidant therapy in these and other conditions.

Bretón Lesmes I; Camblor Alvarez M; de la Cuerda Compés MC; García Peris P

2000-01-01

358

RRSS Publications - Pathology/Biospecimen  

Science.gov (United States)

Weaver DL, Bocklage T, Key CR, Platz CE, Cronin K, Harlan LC, Ballard-Barbash R, Warren JL. Intra-observer variability in interpretation of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) reports as compared to variability in interpretation of slides. 90th Annual Meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Atlanta, Georgia, March 2001.

359

Segmentation of pathology microscopic images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The light microscopic analysis of the number and shape of cells in pathology is important for the diagnosis and assessment of clinical behavior of disease conditions. The fundamental step of this work is to separate the cells from the background. To segment objects from such uneven background images...

Zhu, H; Chan, FHY; Lam, FK; Lam, KY

360

Roentgenological atlas of hand pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atlas deals with roentgenological diagnostics of hand pathology. Developmental defects, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant and benign bone tumours, tumours of soft tissues, degenerative dystrophical injuries, traumatic injuries, foreign bodies penetrating into hand tissues, inflamatory diseases etc. are illustrated. Roentgenological semiotics and differential diagnostics are described.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

[Clinical aspects of corticobasal syndrome].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a distinct neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial accumulation of abnormal tau protein. The core characteristic clinical features of the disorder include progressive asymmetric akinetic-rigid syndrome with apraxia and features indicative of cortical dysfunction (e.g., cortical sensory loss, alien limb sign, and myoclonus) and basal ganglionic dysfunction (e.g., akinesia and dystonia). Pathological examinations of CBD patients have indicated that several proteinopathies, such as tauopathies, amyloidopathies, TDP-opathies, ?-synucleinopathies, and prionopathies, may underlie the same clinical phenotype. Because of this considerable clinicopathologic heterogeneity, experts use the term corticobasal syndrome (CBS) for patients with a clinical diagnosis of CBD, and reserve CBD for those whose conditions have been diagnosed on the basis of neuropathological analyses. In this review, we have focused on the clinical aspects of CBS, including its clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and pathological backgrounds that are difficult to predict on the basis of clinical presentation alone. Future studies need to further characterize the natural history of CBS patients by performing serial assessments of clinical, neuropsychological, laboratory, and neuroimaging features, since this information will be necessary for designing future disease-modifying therapies that specifically target dysfunction of the 4-repeat tau protein.

Shimohata T; Nishizawa M

2013-01-01

362

Would Virchow be a systems biologist? A discourse on the philosophy of science with implications for pathological research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research in pathology spans from merely descriptive work to functional studies, "-omics" approaches and, more recently, systems biology. The work presented here aims at placing pathological research into an epistemological context. Aided by Rudolf Virchow, we give an overview on the philosophy of science including the Wiener Kreis, Popper, Kuhn, Fleck and Rheinberger and demonstrate their implications for routine diagnostics and science in pathology. A focus is on the fields of "-omics" and systems pathology.

Stenzinger A; Klauschen F; Wittschieber D; Weichert W; Denkert C; Dietel M; Roller C

2010-06-01

363

Public health aspects of tuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article covers public health aspects of the investigation and management of people who are infected with tuberculosis (TB). It contains a brief overview of the recent epidemiology of TB in Scotland, focusing on changes in Scottish TB incidence and describing some epidemiological associations. We then describe the initial public health assessment of those with suspected TB and responses that should be initiated. It does not address issues relating to the clinical treatment of patients with TB.

Blatchford O; Cameron JC

2012-01-01

364

Public health aspects of tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article covers public health aspects of the investigation and management of people who are infected with tuberculosis (TB). It contains a brief overview of the recent epidemiology of TB in Scotland, focusing on changes in Scottish TB incidence and describing some epidemiological associations. We then describe the initial public health assessment of those with suspected TB and responses that should be initiated. It does not address issues relating to the clinical treatment of patients with TB. PMID:22953320

Blatchford, O; Cameron, J C

2012-01-01

365

Biomass: Recent economic studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents papers on the economic aspects of biomass. Topics considered include cultivation, short rotation forestry, socio-economic aspects of energy forestry, the implications of using biomass for energy, public investment, pig manure methanization, bio-ethanol production, agricultural production for energy purposes, mesoeconomic modeling, and energy conditions in the agricultural sector.

Sourie, J.C.; Killen, L.

1986-01-01

366

Digital photography in anatomical pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and educational purposes, and can be stored on and disseminated by CD-ROM. Total slide digitisation is now a reality and will replace glass slides to a large extent. Three-dimensional images of gross specimens can be assembled and posted on websites for interactive educational programmes. There are also applications in research, allowing more objective and automated quantitation of a variety of morphological and immunohistological parameters. Early reports indicate that medical vision systems are a reality and can provide for automated computer-generated histopathological diagnosis and quality assurance.

Leong F; Leong A

2004-01-01

367

Pathology Case Study: Cushing's Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case involves a 41 year-old woman experiencing the following symptoms for a period of 18 months: fatigue, weakness, lethargy, and decreased concentration. The patientâÂÂs history, description of CT scans, and images from histological examinations, which contributed to the conclusive diagnosis, are all provided here for your review. The contributing doctors provide a detailed discussion of the patientâÂÂs condition in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Dacic, Sanja; Rajan, Prabha B.

2009-08-27

368

Pathology Case Study: Postmenopausal Bleeding  

Science.gov (United States)

This gynecologic pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 57-year-old female with postmenopausal bleeding. The patientâÂÂs history, and results from a pelvic ultrasound are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Kanbour, Anisa; Chen, Lei; Kessinger, Rovena L.

2008-12-15

369

Pathology Case Study: Stillborn Fetus  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a 29 year old Hispanic woman who delivered a stillborn fetus with a estimated gestation of 29 weeks. Visitors are provided with patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in perinatal pathology.

Klatt, Edward C., 1951-; Mccune, Ryan

2008-12-08

370

Pathology Case Study: Respiratory Distress  

Science.gov (United States)

This cardiovascular pathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. A 72-year-old female experiencing respiratory distress is the focus of this case. The patientâÂÂs history, gross description, and microscopic description of test results are provided to aid readers in understanding the patientâÂÂs diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Ariyanayagam-Baksh, Shashi

2009-05-07