This paper examines the influence of gender relations and gendered domains on maize and squash varietal selection in a village in Yucatán State, southeast Mexico. Results of the exploratory study indicate that the traditional production spaces of homegardens and agricultural fields are complementary gendered domains of varietal maintenance for both crops although with different cropping patterns, while a `new¿ space, of land allocated to some families for future residential construction (terr...
Misiko, M.; Tittonell, P.A.; Ramisch, J.J.; Richards, P.; Giller, K.E.
The aim of this paper was to understand the process of selecting soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) promiscuous varieties by smallholders for soil fertility management in western Kenya. Eight varieties were screened on 2.5 m × 3 m plots that were managed according to farmers¿ practices and evaluated through participatory monitoring and evaluation approaches. Farmers selected preferred varieties and explained their reasons (criteria) for making the selections. Seven promiscuous varieties had bet...
Adeniji, OT.; Aloyce, A.
Participatory selection was conducted in 2008 through 2009 to identify farmers' preference for species and horticultural traits that may constitute future breeding objectives. Vegetable farmers were selected from Moshi and Arusha regions, test population comprised twenty-six accessions from four Solanum species (eggplant and relatives). Purposive sampling was used to select the farming communities with high African eggplant production activities; a multistage random sampling procedure was ado...
Full Text Available Participatory selection was conducted in 2008 through 2009 to identify farmers' preference for species and horticultural traits that may constitute future breeding objectives. Vegetable farmers were selected from Moshi and Arusha regions, test population comprised twenty-six accessions from four Solanum species (eggplant and relatives. Purposive sampling was used to select the farming communities with high African eggplant production activities; a multistage random sampling procedure was adopted to select farmers from three regions for participatory meeting. The focus group discussion sessions identified fruit shape, taste, earliness, medicinal properties, marketability and resistance to diseases as farmers' preferred traits in S. aethiopicum; taste and marketability for S. melongena, taste and medicinal properties among S. macrocarpon and S. anguivi. Fruits characterized by cream colour at commercial harvest are most preferred compared to green, to a lesser extent is purple. Interestingly high fruits per plant, fruits per cluster and fruit cluster per plant best described S. anguivi. Fruit yield was superior in Db3 (S. aethiopicum Gilo group, top five accessions for organoleptic properties are Db3, Ab2, MM 1619, S00052 and MM 1086. Characters indicated above may constitute breeding objectives and population identified may serve as pollen parents for development of new varieties in african eggplant. Intraspecific hybridization within S. aethiopicum Gilo cultigroup, hybridization among Gilo and Shum cultigroups and interspecific hybridization between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi may evolve new population aimed at improving fruit yield.
...false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2714 Section...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections...2714 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the...
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Sandra, Miranda; Rosa, Acosta; Dania, Vargas; R, Ortiz; H, Ríos; M, Ponce.
Full Text Available Se determinó el impacto de la selección participativa de variedades por agricultores, sobre la diversidad varietal de frijol común en ocho fincas de una comunidad rural cubana, empleando los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Weaver y riqueza de Margalef, los cuales permiten el análisis de las variaci [...] ones en el número de variedades y la importancia relativa de cada variedad en términos de área en las fincas. Para ello, se calcularon el número de variedades de frijol y el área dedicada a ellas durante cuatro siembras, dos de las cuales fueron posteriores a la introducción de nuevas variedades seleccionadas por los agricultores en la feria de diversidad. Se observa un incremento significativo de los valores del índice de Margalef en las fincas después de la feria, lo que se corresponde con el incremento significativo del número de variedades por finca para ambas siembras, con respecto a sus siembras homólogas previas a la feria. Por otro lado, los valores del índice de Shannon no presentaron un aumento significativo en la primera siembra después de la feria, como consecuencia de la desproporción entre las áreas de las variedades nuevas y antiguas, a diferencia de la segunda siembra, en la que los valores de este índice aumentaron significativamente, indicando el aumento de las áreas destinadas a las variedades nuevas. Estos resultados señalan que la feria de diversidad es un método eficiente para promover el incremento en las fincas de la diversidad varietal y de las áreas dedicadas a las nuevas variedades, y que el empleo de los índices de Shannon y Margalef constituye una alternativa complementaria y sencilla en el estudio del impacto de la selección participativa sobre la diversidad de cultivos agrícolas en el tiempo. Abstract in english The impact of farmers´ participatory varietal selection was determined on dry bean varietal diversity of eight farms from a Cuban rural community by using Shannon-Weaver diversity and Margalef richness indexes, allowing the analysis of variations in the number of varieties and relative significance [...] of each one in terms of farm area. Thus, the number of bean varieties and surface area devoted to this crop were calculated, two of them after introducing the new varieties selected by farmers in a diversity fair. There was an important increase of Margalef index values in farms after the fair, according to the significant increment of varietal number per farm for both sowings, compared to its equivalent seeding prior to the fair. On the other hand, Shannon index values did not have a remarkable increase during the first sowing after the fair, on account of a disproportion between the areas from the old and new varieties, differently of the second seeding, whose values increased significantly, indicating the increment of those farms devoted to new varieties. These results show that diversity fair is an efficient approach to increase varietal diversity farms and those devoted to new varieties; besides, the use of Shannon and Margalef indexes constitute a complementary and single choice to study the impact of a participatory selection on an agricultural crop diversity in time.
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Varietal types of dried prunes. 52.3182 Section 52...Dried Prunes Product Description, Varietal Types, Sizes, Grades § 52.3182 Varietal types of dried prunes. (a) Type I....
Adrienne C. Shelton
Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.
Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M
Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies. PMID:23669576
This presentation tries to answer the question: Are beneficial, happy accidents – serendipity – more likely to occur among more participatory Internet users? And among users with larger and more diverse social networks as well as more trust? It derives a research framework to relate digital serendipity, online trust, and participation on the Internet.
Garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) are often stored at room temperature between the time of harvest and either consuming or planting in the fall. The quality of these bulbs usually deteriorates within six months of harvest. We demonstrate that most varietal garlic bulbs stored at -3 ºC for 6 months ...
I. O., Oladele; T., Wakatsuki.
Full Text Available This paper examined the incidence of replacement adoption through varietal substitution among farmers adopting Sawah-ecotechnology rice production technology in Nigeria and Ghana. A simple random sampling was used to select 80 farmers in Nigeria and 70 farmers in Ghana. Data were collected in June 2 [...] 010 with a structured questionnaire in villages where Sawah rice production technology had been introduced. In Nigeria, 30 % of the farmers practice varietal substitution with the use of WITA 3, while in Ghana 40% practice varietal substitution using jasmine and sycamore. The results from the Probit model showed that significant variables include yield (t = 4.12) participation in on farm demonstration (t = 2.77) contact with Sawah agent (t = -1.93), varietal adaptability (t = -2.29), market price (t = 2.50), lodging proneness (t = 2.45), age (t = -3.35) and farming experience (t = 2.49) in Nigeria and Ghana. It therefore implies that the issues of varietal substitution must be viewed within the prevailing socio-economic and farming system milieu of farmers in order to enhance continuous adoption and sustained profit from Sawah technology
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type) labeling. 4.23 Section 4...Identity for Wine § 4.23 Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type...
Pesch, U.; Quist, J.N.
Participatory intervention methods can be seen as tools to solve the problems that are the results of locked-in institutional practices. To repair such institutional problems, participatory tools have to address three sets of questions.First, who to select as a participant, and what is the function of the selected participants? Second, how can learning of participants of a project expand to wider society? Third, what is the status of the future in a method? The method of backcasting is attend...
Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water condition is a research project under Program Research of Sustainable Production of High Yielding Irrigated Rice under Minimal Water Input (IRPA- 01-01-03-0000/ PR0068/ 0504). Several agencies were involved in this project such as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). The project started in early 2004 with approved IRPA fund of RM 275,000.00 for 3 years. The main objective of the project is to generate superior genotypes for minimal water requirement through induced mutation techniques. A cultivated rice Oryza sativa cv MR219 treated with gamma radiation at 300 and 400 Gray were used in the experiment. Two hundred gm M2 seeds from each dose were screened under minimal water stress in greenhouse at Mardi Seberang Perai. Five hundred panicles with good filled grains were selected for paddy field screening with simulate precise water stress regime. Thirty eight potential lines with required adaptive traits were selected in M3. After several series of selection, 12 promising mutant line were observed tolerance to minimal water stress where two promising mutant lines designated as MR219-4 and MR219-9 were selected for further testing under several stress environments. (author)
This study is a demand estimation and marketing plan for Varietize Technologies - a Vancouver based R&D company that is introducing its first product. Varietize recognized the market opportunity for its latest designed product, the "iTV" - a product that interfaces between the Internet and the TV to allow access for online TV content. The study begins with a demand analysis section that uses Prof. Meredith's model that categorizes different demand factors and determinants to look into dif...
Full Text Available Aquí se presentan los arreglos epistáticos que ocurren en la variedad de polinización libre, así como en la cruza varietal, el compuesto varietal y el sintético, de maíz (Zea mays L.) con base en el modelo de Holland. Para el análisis se involucran 2 loci con 2 alelos cada uno. Al comparar los rendi [...] mientos teóricos de la variedad contra la cruza varietal y el del compuesto varietal contra los sintéticos, la superioridad de la variedad y del compuesto varietal se debe principalmente a la mayor cantidad de efectos epistáticos dominantes heterocigóticos así como a las interacciones epistáticas en donde se encuentran involucrados. Abstract in english Epistatic effects are derived for the open-pollinated variety, the variety cross, the variety composite and the synthetic variety in maize (Zea mays L.), according to the Holland method. In this paper 2 loci and 2 alleles in each locus are considered. Comparisons showed that yield in the variety cro [...] ss is higher than in the variety, and that yield in the composite variety is higher than in the synthetic. These results are mainly attributed to a higher amount of epistatic dominant heterozygous effects in the variety cross and the variety composite, as well as to the epistatic interactions whenever they are involved.
Full Text Available Studies were carried out on varietal resistance of cotton against Earias spp. during cropping season 1999. The seeds of 12 cotton varieties viz., Green Red Okra, Qalandri, Red Okra-VI, Red Okra (Insect Resistant, AENS-1/82 VIII, Red Okra, TH-228/87, AENS-10/87, TH-3/83, Reshmi, AEC-78 13/89 and TH-41/83 were sown on April 22, 1999 in a completely randomized design with strip cropping, each strip measuring 20 x 35 feet with nine rows of each variety. Observations on infestation of Earias spp. were started 67 days after sowing and continued till complete disappearance of pest from the crop. Observations were taken at random at weekly interval from 20 plants. The results revealed that there was no significant difference of infestation amongst cotton varieties under present investigation. The minimum and the maximum infestation of 1.79 and 2.38% was recorded on Red Okra-VI and Green Red Okra varieties of cotton, respectively. The results also indicated that there was no significant effect of minimum and maximum temperature on percent infestation of Earias spp., whereas relative humidity had a significant (P<0.05 effect on infestation.
Clemente, Villanueva-Verduzco; Miguel Ángel, Sánchez-Hernández; Irma, Sánchez-Cabrera; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Gema, Parra-Benavides; Evert, Villanueva-Sánchez.
Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en Achichipico, Morelos, México con el fin de evaluar el avance genético in situ de cuatro ciclos de selección masal participativa con respecto de la variedad original en una población de calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), en la asociación maíz-calabaza, utilizan [...] do un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se estableció un surco de calabaza cada cuatro de maíz, en surcos de 20 m de largo espaciados a 0.9 m. Se estimó el avance genético por ciclo de selección y se hizo un análisis de varianza para catorce caracteres de planta, fruto y semilla. Se obtuvo ganancia genética por ciclo de selección en color de pulpa (14.1 %), sabor de pulpa (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por hectárea (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por planta (9.8 %), peso de fruto (6.5 %) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (5.1 %). El análisis de varianza detectó diferencias altamente significativas entre ciclos de selección para ancho de fruto, color y sabor de pulpa, El resto de caracteres no presentaron diferencias. Sin embargo, existió una clara tendencia numérica al incremento permanente en su magnitud. Abstract in english An experiment was conducted in Achichipico, Morelos, Mexico, to assess in situ the genetic gain of four cycles of participatory mass selection, with regard to the original variety, in a sweet squash population (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) intercropped with maize. The experimental design was a randomiz [...] ed block design with four replications. After every four rows of maize, one row of squash without maize was sown in rows 0.9 m apart and 20 m long. Genetic gain was calculated for each selection cycle and an analysis of variance was performed on data of fourteen plant, fruit and seed traits. Genetic gain per selection cycle in flesh color and flavor was 14.1 % and 11.8 %, respectively; in fruit yield per hectare (11.8 %), fruit yield per plant (9.8 %), fruit weight (6.5 %) and seed yield per hectare (5.1 %). The analysis of variance detected highly significant differences among selection cycles only for fruit width, flesh color and flavor, while the other traits were not statistically different. A clear upward numerical trend was observed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed attitude amongst experts on the other will continue to play a role even after closure.
Adams, Brian; Catchot, A; Gore, J; Cook, D; Musser, F; Dodds, D
A field experiment was conducted in Stoneville, MS, during 2010 and 2011 to investigate the impact of varietal maturity, planting date, and insecticide application on tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), populations and damage in cotton. Four planting dates were selected to encompass the cotton-planting period in Mississippi. An early and late maturing variety were planted at each planting date, and each variety and planting date combination was either sprayed or unsprayed for tarnished plant bugs. Plots were sampled weekly from first square until physiological maturity. Plots were harvested at the end of the season. Early planting dates had lower densities of tarnished plant bug and required fewer insecticide applications than the later planting dates. Mid-April to early May planting dates sustained less yield loss from tarnished plant bug than mid-May to late-May planting dates. Tarnished plant bug had less impact on yield of the early maturing variety than on the late maturing variety. The sprayed plots yielded more than unsprayed plots. These data demonstrate that later plantings of cotton in the Mississippi Delta are likely to experience yield losses from tarnished plant bug and need to be sprayed more compared with early cotton plantings. As a result, growers should manage their crop for earliness through planting date and varietal selection. PMID:24498737
Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper
The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter concludes with some guidance and recommendations for further reading. An introduction to Participatory Design is followed by explanations of how practitioners and researchers in the field understand participation and practice and how design is approached as a process driven by social interaction and engagement. The structure of the book is described, individual chapters introduced and further relevant publications listed. Essentially this chapter introduces, motivates, and grounds the book and the chapters that follow. It provides basic definitions of the core concepts of Participatory Design and explains both their origins and ongoing relations to the motivations and commitments of researchers and practitioners who use participatory approaches in their work. The chapter provides the foundation to account for the structure of the book: one section focusing on some of the different perspectives in the field and their particular contributions and challenges and another section that presents case studies of three outstanding applications of Participatory Design. If we are to design the futures we wish to live then we need those, whose futures they will be, to actively participate in their design. This is why it is so important that Participatory Design keeps developing the design processes, tools, techniques, and methods needed to enable full and active participation in all kinds of design activities.
This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. At a time when institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, increasingly seek participatory approaches in their development initative, this guide provides perspectives, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society.
Andersen, Tariq Osman
This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship between a patient¿s work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe patient work and non-work and thinking of what kind of working or non-working patients it implies.
We construct arithmetic toroidal compactifications of the moduli stack of principally polarized abelian varieties with parahoric level structure. To this end, we extend the methods of Faltings and Chai to a case of bad reduction. ----- Nous construisons des compactifications toroidales arithm\\'etiques du champ de modules des vari\\'et\\'es ab\\'eliennes principalement polaris\\'ees munies d'une structure de niveau parahorique. Pour ce faire, nous \\'etendons la m\\'ethode d...
Seleção varietal de Phaseolus vulgaris quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino com base em variáveis de crescimento / Selection of Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties for tolerance to salt stress based on growth variables
Cícero Antônio de Souza, Araújo; Hugo Alberto, Ruiz; José, Cambraia; Júlio César Lima, Neves; Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos, Freire; Fernando José, Freire.
Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar e selecionar variedades de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino e identificar, usando variedades de feijoeiro com diferentes graus de tolerância, variáveis que auxiliem na discriminagão de variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerânc [...] ia a esse tipo de estresse, independentemente do mecanismo apresentado pela planta. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetagão. Inicialmente foram avaliadas 48 variedades de P. vulgaris (alocadas nas subparcelas) em dois níveis de salinidade (distribuídos nas parcelas): solução nutritiva normal (SNN) a 0,81 dS m-1 e a teste (SNT) a 5,6 dS m-1, obtida pela adigão de NaCl no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetigões. A partir da massa seca da parte aérea calculou-se a relagão percentual de crescimento alcançada na SNT relativo à SNN das variedades, que variou de 138,7 a 54,1 %, discriminando-as de acordo com o critério de Scott-Knott em duas populagões: uma com 14 variedades mais "tolerantes" e outra com 34 variedades, onde ficaram agrupadas variedades "moderadamente tolerantes" e "sensíveis". Para identificar variáveis de crescimento que permitam selecionar feijoeiros quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino duas variedades tolerantes (Vermelho e CNF 5574), uma medianamente tolerante (FT 83-86) e uma sensível (LM 30074), classificadas no experimento anterior, foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com cinco níveis de salinidade (0,81; 2,7; 4,6; 6,5; e 8,4 dS m-1). Analisando-se a massa seca da raiz, do caule, do pecíolo, das folhas e da parte aérea, a área foliar e a área foliar específica, concluiu-se que a área foliar específica foi o índice que efetivamente mais contribuiu para a discriminação das variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerância à salinidade. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate and select varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for tolerance to salt stress and to identify, using bean varieties with different degrees of tolerance, variables to aid in the screening of salt-tolerant varieties, regardless of the mechanism used by the plant. The e [...] xperiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Initially, 48 P. vulgaris varieties were evaluated (allocated in subplots) at two salinity levels (distributed in the plots): normal nutrient solution (NNS) at 0.81 dS m-1 and test solution (TNS) at 5.6 dS m-1, which was obtained by adding NaCl in a randomized block design with four replications. The dry weight of aerial part was used to calculate the percentage of growth of the varieties achieved in TNS in relation to NNS, which ranged from 138.7 to 54.1%, discriminating them according to the Scott-Knott criterium in two populations: one with 14 more "tolerant" varieties and another with 34 varieties, which grouped "moderately tolerant" and "sensitive" varieties. To identify growth variables that allow selection of tolerant plants to salt stress, two tolerant (Vermelho and CNF 5574), a moderately tolerant (FT 83-86) and a sensitive (LM 30074) varieties, which were classified in a previous experiment, were grown in nutrient solutions with five levels of salinity (0.81, 2.7, 4.6, 6.5, and 8.4 dS m-1). Results of dry mass of root, stem, petiole, leaves and aerial part, leaf area and specific leaf area showed that the specific leaf area was the index that most effectively contributed to the discrimination of bean varieties for tolerance to salinity.
Said Mir Khan; Syed Faizullah
A research project was initiated to evaluate varietal resistance of gram against pod borer and to determine the comparative efficacy of three insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (Hb). Gram varieties Viz. NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91 and KARAK-1 were selected while three insecticides namely Thiodan 35 EC, Cymbush 10EC and Actelic 50 EC were applied. KARAK-1 variety of gram was found significantly least susceptible to the attack of gram pod borer, followed by NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91. All the tested inse...
Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared
Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about ‘users’ and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely to surface. Instead of the natural tendency to avoid these tensions, we demonstrate how tensions can be utilized by embodying them in provocative types (provotypes). Provotypes expose and embody tensions that surround a field of interest to support collaborative analysis and collaborative design explorations across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines for provotypes for participatory innovation.
Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine
Several case studies in literature and handbooks about participatory design (PD) suggest that the use of emerging methods to generate user information is common practice. However, these authors address practices in academia or in leading companies and not necessarily the practice of the majority of product development companies. The mentioned companies like for example Microsoft (Sanders, 2004) are in a privileged position, having the possibilities to spend time, manpower and budget on extensive user studies and explore participatory design projects. But how does the Small-to-Medium sized Enterprise (SME) fare in this respect? Some literature is known in this context, Heiskanen et al. (2007) provide many insights on working with SMEs, especially on technology oriented SMEs. De Lille et al. (2009) gives an overview of problems designers experience when conducting user studies. Asboe (2009) provides an anthropologists perspective on user studies within SMEs.
Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten
The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design.
Alberto Miele; Luiz Antenor Rizzon; Mauro Celso Zanus
This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine analysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA). The main results s...
Since soybean necrotic virus (SMV-N), which was identified as a strain of soybean mosaic virus (SMV), has severe effects on such leading varieties as Kwangkyo and Kangrim, mutation studies were aimed at obtaining mutants resistant to SMV-N, without causing drastic changes in other agronomic characters, from these varieties. Prior to mutation induction, inheritance of resistance was determined and it was found that resistance was conditioned by a single recessive gene. With this information, soybean seeds were irradiated with 15 and 25 kR of gamma rays. The mutants were screened for SMV-N resistance, both under natural infection pressure and artificial inoculation. Through the selections, five lines were selected as desirable mutants and, according to the objective of this study, these mutants were stocked in a gene pool. Meanwhile, another mutation was induced to obtain a small seeded mutant with higher yield potential from the exotic variety CB-27. Through the usual selections, one mutant was registered as a new leading variety for soybean sprouts and named Bangsa-kong. Apart from that, attempts were made to determine the mutation frequency and mutation sector in soybean. Plant height and the number of seeds in M1 plants were closely related to the mutation frequency of visible characters. The mutation sector of the irradiated seeds was not apparent in M2 plants regardless of radiation dose. It was found that all seeds harvested from SMV infected plants did not produce mottled seeds and all of the mottled seeds did not contain the virus. The soybean necrotic virus was not transmitted through the seeds of the variety Kwangkyo. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs
Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina
Abstract: Multispectral imaging is an emerging non-destructive technology. In this work its potential for varietal discrimination and identification of tomato cultivars of Nepal was investigated. Two sample sets were used for the study, one with two parents and their crosses and other with eleven cultivars to study parents and offspring relationship and varietal identification respectively. Normalized canonical discriminant analysis (nCDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze and compare the results for parents and offspring study. Both the results showed clear discrimination of parents and offspring. nCDA was also used for pairwise discrimination of the eleven cultivars, which correctly discriminated upto 100% and only few pairs below 85%. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was further used to classify all the cultivars. The model displayed an overall classification accuracy of 82%, which was further improved to 96% and 86% with stepwise PLS-DA models on high (seven) and poor (four) sensitivity cultivars, respectively. The stepwise PLS-DA models had satisfactory classification errors for cross-validation and prediction 7% and 7%, respectively. The results obtained provide an opportunity of using multispectral imaging technology as a primary tool in a scientific community for identification/discrimination of plant varieties in regard to genetic purity and plant variety protection/registration.
Fussy clustering classification to the varietal radiosensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out. According to their response to the radiation of gamma rays, 49 wheat varieties were classified into five groups: higher resistant, resistant, intermediate response, sensitive, and higher sensitive. The research presents a new approach for the classification of the varietal radiosensitivity of a certain plant species, and the result was valuable for choosing the adequate irradiated materials and determining the optimal dosage so as to enhance the mutagenic efficiency in wheat radiation breeding. The reliability and advantage of the Fussy clustering classification for the plant varietal radiosensitivity were briefly discussed
The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice. PMID:16124458
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian
While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text
Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus
Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?
Full Text Available In Ethiopia, so far, maize variety selection was without much consideration of farmers' interest. However, farmers have the ability for selecting crop varieties to suit their environments. Mother and baby methodology was adopted by International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT and used as a means for obtaining farmers input and feedback on the selection of new maize varieties that are in advanced stages of development. Elite Open Pollinated Varieties (OPVs, which were under a national performance test, were used. These varieties belong to the early and medium maturity group and are suited for the dry agroecologies. The result clearly showed a significant difference among both early and medium set varieties for most agronomic traits at both Wolenchiti and Melkassa in 2003 cropping season. The results also revealed that farmers' preferences in some cases coincide with the breeders' selection. However, in general farmers have shown their own way of selecting a variety for their localities. Hence, it is paramount important to include farmers in a variety selection process. The methodology used in the study was found useful to collect data and identifying new varieties for farmers use.
Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Aston, T.; Ewers, B.; Weinig, C.
Evaluating performance of agricultural varietals can support the identification of genotypes that will increase yield and can inform management practices. The biophysical limitations of photosynthesis are amongst the key factors that necessitate evaluation. This study evaluated how four biophysical limitations on photosynthesis, stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit, maximum carboxylation rate by Rubisco (Ac), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (Aj) and triose phosphate use (At) vary between four Brassica rapa genotypes. Leaf gas exchange data was used in an ecophysiological process model to conduct this evaluation. The Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) integrates the carbon uptake and utilization rate limiting factors for plant growth. A Bayesian framework integrated in TREES here used net A as the target to estimate the four limiting factors for each genotype. As a first step the Bayesian framework was used for outlier detection, with data points outside the 95% confidence interval of model estimation eliminated. Next parameter estimation facilitated the evaluation of how the limiting factors on A different between genotypes. Parameters evaluated included maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax), quantum yield (?J), the ratio between Vc-max and electron transport rate (J), and trios phosphate utilization (TPU). Finally, as trios phosphate utilization has been shown to not play major role in the limiting A in many plants, the inclusion of At in models was evaluated using deviance information criteria (DIC). The outlier detection resulted in a narrowing in the estimated parameter distributions allowing for greater differentiation of genotypes. Results show genotypes vary in the how limitations shape assimilation. The range in Vc-max , a key parameter in Ac, was 203.2 - 223.9 umol m-2 s-1 while the range in ?J, a key parameter in AJ, was 0.463 - 0.497 umol m-2 s-1. The added complexity of the TPU limitation did not improve model performance in the genotypes assessed based on DIC. By identifying how varietals differ in their biophysical limitations on photosynthesis genotype selection can be informed for agricultural goals. Further work aims at applying this approach to a fifth limiting factor on photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance.
Said Mir Khan
Full Text Available A research project was initiated to evaluate varietal resistance of gram against pod borer and to determine the comparative efficacy of three insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (Hb. Gram varieties Viz. NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91 and KARAK-1 were selected while three insecticides namely Thiodan 35 EC, Cymbush 10EC and Actelic 50 EC were applied. KARAK-1 variety of gram was found significantly least susceptible to the attack of gram pod borer, followed by NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91. All the tested insecticides significantly reduced the infestation of gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hb as compared to control plots. Thiodan (Endosulfan was found most effective than Actellic (Pirimiphos methyl and Cymbush (Permethrin.
Full Text Available Between 7,000 and 9,800 hectares of carrot are grown annually in Argentina. Major producing provinces are Mendoza, Buenos Aires, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Córdoba and San Juan, with differences in environmental conditions and cultivars adapted. Carrot cultivars can be classified in three ways: as annual or biennials, according to the root shape in several varietal types, and as hybrids or open-pollinated cultivars (OP. The aim of this study was to characterize the carrot cultivars supply in the major producing provinces of Argentina. Data from interviews and surveys to seed sellers, agents of Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, agronomists and service companies of the carrot chain were compiled and processed. Mendoza mainly has 91 % of its cultivated area with biennial cultivars, 76 % of cultivars type Flakkee and 92 % of OP cultivars. In Buenos Aires annual carrots are roughly not cultivated, the main varietal types are Flakkee (80 % and Nantes, and 21 % of its carrot surface is grown with hybrids. In Santiago del Estero almost the totality of the cultivars are OP, with 60 % of annual cultivars (“criolla” type. Santa Fe is characterized by the greatest use of hybrids (40 %, being all grown biennial cultivars and Nantes type. In Córdoba and San Juan exclusively OP cultivars are grown with high proportion of annual cultivars. Open-pollinated biennial cultivars of the Flakkee type are actually the most grown in Argentina.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- En Argentina se cultivan anualmente entre 7.000 y 9.800 hectáreas de zanahoria. Las principales provincias productoras son: Mendoza,Buenos Aires, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Córdoba y San Juan. Cada zona difiere en condiciones ambientales y cultivares adaptadas. Las cultivares de zanahoria pueden clasificarse según tres criterios: en anuales o bienales, según la forma de sus raíces en tipos varietales, y en híbridas o variedades de polinización abierta (VPA. Con el objetivo de caracterizar la oferta varietal de zanahoria en las principales provincias productoras de Argentina, se recopilaron y procesaron datos a partir de entrevistas y encuestas a distribuidores de semillas, agentes del Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, asesores profesionales y empresas de servicios de la cadena agroalimentaria de zanahoria. Mendoza tiene 91 % de su superficie con cultivares bienales, 76 % de cultivares tipo Flakkee y 92 % de VPA. En Buenos Aires no se cultivan prácticamente zanahorias anuales, los tipos varietales más utilizados son Flakkee (80 % y Nantesa, y la superficie con híbridoses de 21 %. En Santiago del Estero casi la totalidad de loscultivos son VPA, con 60 % de cultivares anuales (tipo “criolla”.Santa Fe se caracteriza por la mayor utilización de híbridos (40%, siendo la totalidad de sus cultivares bienales y del tipo Nantesa.En Córdoba y San Juan se cultivan exclusivamente VPA con alta participación de anuales. Las cultivares bienales de polinización abierta, tipo Flakkee, son actualmente las más cultivadas en Argentina.
Brian J. McNely
Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.
Henríquez-Aedo, Karem; Vega, Mario; Prieto-Rodríguez, Sonia; Aranda, Mario
Biogenic amines play important roles in many physiological functions, but when they are ingested in high concentrations may produce severe adverse effects. The aim of this research was to evaluate the biogenic amine content in Chilean reserve varietal wines. A high performance liquid chromatography method was optimized and validated to quantify histamine, tyramine, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine and phenylethylamine in Chilean wines. Derivatization and chromatographic conditions were optimized using a central composite design. Sixty reserve wines of the most important Chilean grape varieties were analyzed, i.e. Cabernet Sauvignon (n=11), Merlot (n=11), Carménère (n=11), Syrah (n=10) and Sauvignon Blanc (n=10), as well as organic wines (n=7). Biogenic amines content ranged from 2.19 to 65.09 mg L(-1), no significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carménère but all showed statistically higher (PSyrah wines showed no difference (P>0.05) with Cabernet Sauvignon, higher concentrations (P<0.05) than Sauvignon Blanc and lower than Merlot and Carménère. Regarding biogenic amines profile, putrescine showed the highest concentration in all grape varieties. PMID:22640936
Adolf, V I; Shabala, S
Aims This study aimed to assess varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity and to investigate physiological mechanisms conferring these differences. Methods Production of biomass in fourteen varieties grown under saline conditions was analysed in a pot experiment. For two contrasting varieties, the Danish variety Titicaca and the Bolivian variety Utusaya gas exchange, chlorophyll content index (CCI), fluorescence and ion relations were studied. Results Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties; least affected were two varieties from the Bolivian altiplano and a variety from Peru. Titicaca and Utusaya both had substantially increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap. But, Utusaya was much more efficient in restricting xylem Na+ loading. Xylem Na+ and K+ loading were found to be uncoupled. Utusaya maintained a relatively high stomatal conductance resulting in an only 25% NaCl-induced reduction in net CO2 assimilation compared to a 67% reduction in salt treated Titicaca plants. Maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII was not affected by salinity. Conclusion In addition to maintaining high gas exchange, tolerant varieties better control xylem Na+ loading. To what extent this control is related to radial root Na+ uptake or to the activity of Na+/H+-exchangers at the xylem parenchyma boundary remains to be studied.
Discussions about what makes a good school often overlook the importance of encouraging active student involvement in creating their own school environment. In the wake of September 11, surveys showed a drop in youth participation in traditional politics and participatory citizenship. In this article, the author observes how despite the fact that…
Catley, Andrew; Alders, Robyn G; Wood, James L N
Participatory epidemiology (PE) is an evolving branch of veterinary epidemiology which uses a combination of practitioner communication skills and participatory methods to improve the involvement of animal keepers in the analysis of animal disease problems, and the design, implementation and evaluation of disease control programmes and policies. This review describes the origins of PE and how the application of PE requires attention to both a participatory approach and participatory methods, supported by triangulation of data with conventional veterinary diagnostic methods. The review summarizes the various adaptations and uses of PE, including the design of primary veterinary service delivery systems, veterinary research and disease surveillance. In contrast to conventional data collection methods, an integral aspect PE is the concept of applying and evaluating new disease control programmes or surveillance systems in partnership with animal owners. In the developing regions where PE has been most commonly used, this action-orientated approach raises important challenges for veterinary institutions with limited financial resources. Information derived from PE studies can also question longstanding disease control policies and norms, nationally and internationally. PMID:21856195
Drill, Sabrina L.
Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…
Respuesta a la selección participativa en variedades de calabaza de la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México / Response to participatory selection in two varieties of squash from Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico
Miguel Ángel, Sánchez-Hernández; Clemente, Villanueva-Verduzco; César, Sánchez-Hernández; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Evert, Villanueva-Sánchez.
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Estado de México, durante 2001, con el objetivo de estimar en calabaza (Cucurbita pepo L.) la respuesta a la selección participativa in situ en caracteres de planta, calidad de fruto y rendimiento de semilla. Se evaluaron dos variedades de l [...] a Sierra Norte de Puebla seleccionadas in situ: Mazapa (ciclos de selección 1 a 3), La Libertad (ciclos de selección 1 a 3) y un testigo, a una densidad de 27,639 plantas·ha-1, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La mayor respuesta por ciclo de selección, en promedio de localidades, ocurrió en la variedad Mazapa para número de frutos por planta (0.29 frutos; 31.8%), altura (1.0 cm; 6.1%) y ancho de fruto (0.5 cm; 2.4%), grosor de pulpa (0.1 cm; 5.8%), altura (0.034; 1.6%) y ancho de semilla (0.001 cm; 0.11%). La variedad La Libertad destacó en peso de semilla por fruto (12 g·fruto-1; 21%) y en peso de frutos por planta (0.1 kg·fruto-1; 6.6%). El segundo ciclo de selección de la variedad Mazapa sobresalió en peso de fruto (3.77 kg), peso de semilla por planta (98 g), grosor de pulpa (2.6 cm), alto de fruto (23.6 cm), ancho de fruto (20.3 cm) y ancho de semilla (0.934 cm). El tercer ciclo de selección en Mazapa mostró los valores más altos en número de frutos por planta (1.49), peso de fruto por hectárea (123.5 t·ha-1) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (3.83 t·ha-1). Abstract in english A study was conducted at two sites near the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, State of Mexico, in 2001, in order to estimate the response in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) to in situ participatory selection in terms of fruit quality and seed yield. Two native varieties from Sierra Norte de Puebla, selected [...] in situ, were evaluated: Mazapa (selection cycles 1 to 3) and Libertad (selection cycles 1 to 3), plus a control, at a density of 27,639 plants·ha-1, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The best response per selection cycle, based on averaging the two locations, occurred in the Mazapa variety for number of fruits per plant (0.29 fruits; 31.8%), fruit height (1.0 cm; 6.1%), fruit width (0.5 cm; 2.4%), flesh thickness (0.1 cm; 5.8%), seed height (0.034 cm; 1.6%) and seed width (0.001 cm; 0.11 %). The Libertad variety was better in gain for seed weight per fruit (12 g·fruit-1; 21%) and fruit weight per plant (0.1 kg·fruit-1; 6.6%). The second selection cycle in the Mazapa variety had the best gain in fruit weight (3.77 kg), seed weight per plant (98 g), flesh thickness (2.6 cm), fruit height (23.6 cm), fruit width (20.3 cm), and seed width (0.934 cm). The third selection cycle in Mazapa showed the highest values for number of fruits per plant (1.49), fruit weight per hectare (123.5 t·ha-1), and seed yield per hectare (3.83 t·ha-1).
Full Text Available Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA. The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their gender based preference for Drought Tolerant maize variety and elucidated the reasons for preference. Three-stage stratified sampling technique was used. Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from a total of 48 farmers. Descriptive, Ranking and LSD were used to analyse the data collected. The result of the analysis showed that majority of the male and female farmers have primary education and are youths. The result of varietal preference differs between genders in some locations Male farmers identified big cobs with full grains, big seed, and multiple cobs as the main reasons for their preference while female farmers identified yellow colour of seed, nutrient fortified seed and big cobs with full grains as the main reasons for their preference. It is therefore recommended that effort should be made to involve male and female farmers in the varietal selection procedure as to facilitate easy adoption of hybrid maize. The women are more concerned with the food security of their family and hence are important segment in maize innovation that improve the food security of farming households and policies should not exclude female farmers.
The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2…
Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector
J. A. Pereira; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.; Casal, Susana; M.R. Alves
The fatty acid composition has been traditionally used to discriminate the different vegetable oils and confirm their authenticity. The aim of the present study was to check the possible use of the fatty acid profile to differentiate varietal olive oils of the three most important cultivars in Northeast Portugal (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal). Fifteen varietal olive oils from each of the three cultivars were collected to achieve that goal. Fatty acids were determined, as ...
Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.
This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…
Industry and public agencies increasingly adopt user-driven innovation and open innovation, as they realise that innovation cannot come solely from within an organisation. Innovation happens in the ‘breaking of the waves’ between people outside and people inside – because they have different stakes and perspectives. In academia, new breakthrough contributions to understanding innovation – and supporting it – will also emerge in the borderlands between disciplines that traditionally do not collaborate: between languages and design, and between management and anthropology for instance. The new discipline of Participatory Innovation gathers theories and methods across such academic fields that describe how people outside an organisation can contribute to its innovation. The many papers in this volume have in common that they identify ways for industry and the public sector to expand innovation through the participation of users, employees, suppliers, customers etc. – both on a strategiclevel, in concrete methods, and in the day-to-day interactions. PINC 2011 is a forum where participants from different disciplines and organisations can meet and challenge each other to develop the field of participatory innovation.
Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies
Pérez Jiménez, M.; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernández, Pilar
Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of ...
Radivojevi? Stevan ?.; Došenovi? Irena S.
Environmental factor (location) influenced sugar beet root yield, which was higher by 20.6% on Belgrade location than on Pan?evo location. However, when compared the genotype effect, smaller environmental influence was found for root yield, which was not expected. The investigated factors (variety and location) equally contributed to the variation in root sugar content. Significantly higher varietal influence was observed for granulated sugar yield, which was also unexpected. .
Šnuderl, Katja; Mocak, Jan; Brodnjak-Von?ina, Darinka; Sedlá?kova, Bibiana
The ways of application of multivariate data analysis and ANOVA to classification of white varietal wines are here demonstrated. Wine classification was performed using the following classification criteria: winevariety, year of production, wine producer, and wine quality, as found by sensorial testing (bouquet, colour, and taste). Subjective wine evaluation, made by wine experts, is combined with commonly used chemical and physico-chemical properties, measured in analytical laboratory. Impor...
Full Text Available This paper considers the social and scientific requirements for a citizen science monitoring programme on biodiversity in Arcachon Bay (France. The sociological study reveals tensions between different conceptions of what a citizen science programme should be: a means for storing oriented-data; a new way to co-create scientific knowledge; a political communication tool; a way to develop citizen stewardship; or a place for expressing activist environmental demands. Citizen science programmes also tend to reveal tensions between participatory governance and classical management of environmental issues. Despite a seeming consensus amongst actors on biodiversity conservation, in practice contests over different citizen science conceptions have the potential to re-define environmental issues, to re-specify relationships between science and society and outline new management priorities.
Santiago, Margarita; Gardner, Richard C
Three varietal thiols are important for the tropical fruit aromas of Sauvignon blanc: 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) and its acetylated derivative 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA). These thiols are produced by yeast during fermentation from precursors in grape juice. Here we identify genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are required for the transport and cleavage of two thiol precursors: cysteine-4MMP and glutathione-3MH. A full-length copy of IRC7 is absolutely required for the cleavage of both precursors in the tested strains; the deleted form of the enzyme found in most yeast strains is incapable of converting these compounds into detectable thiols. By using strains that overexpress full-length IRC7, we further show that the glutathione transporter OPT1 and the transpeptidase CIS2 are also required for conversion of glut-3MH to its varietal thiol. No transporter for cys-4MMP was identified: a strain deleted for all nine known cysteine transport genes was still capable of converting cys-4MMP to its varietal thiol, and was also able to take up cysteine at high concentrations. Based on these results, we conclude that cysteine and glutathione precursors make a relatively minor contribution to 3MH production from most grape juices. PMID:26038341
As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced
Guo, Bin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Daqing; Yu, Zhiwen; Chin, Alvin
With the development of mobile sensing and mobile social networking techniques, Mobile Crowd Sensing and Computing (MCSC), which leverages heterogeneous crowdsourced data for large-scale sensing, has become a leading paradigm. Built on top of the participatory sensing vision, MCSC has two characterizing features: (1) it leverages heterogeneous crowdsourced data from two data sources: participatory sensing and participatory social media; and (2) it presents the fusion of huma...
This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts.
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian
We introduce aesthetic inquiry as an important perspective to pursue in Participatory Design. Within the scope of tradition and transcendence we pursue aesthetic inquiry by tipping the scale towards transcendence and by staging offline loops for detached reflection by use of imaginative artefacts. Although aesthetic inquiry to some extent resides in most Participatory Design practice, we see the need for elaborating this perspective and to further build Participatory Design practice, tools and techniques that address this issue. The Fictional Inquiry technique is presented as an illustrating example of a design technique for pursuing aesthetic inquiry by using fictional narratives to temporarily by-pass the existing structures of meaning and expectations within a given practice. We illustrate how Fictional Inquiry was utilized in a participatory design project in which two design concepts for the Kattegat Marine Centre was developed.
Communication activities in participatory development programs include (1) theater for development in Africa; (2) workshops on cultural identity and politics in Colombia; and (3) Project DELSILIFE, improving the quality of life in Manila. (SK)
The general theme is democratic urban innovation and participatory design processes. The project aims at examining and assessing the possibi-lities for increa-sing public participation and citizenship in the urban development. Furthermore, the project aims at strengthening the understanding of the conditions necessary for estab-lishing urban social networks, and different methodologies for doing so are examined. As part of this, a study is done on electronic democracy, i.e., different forms of information and communi-cation technologies (IT/ICT, Internet) that are actually and potentially applicable to innovative urban community development. The project combines theories of communication, dialogue and innovation with theories of systems, information, media and decision making. The project involves a comparative study of selected projects in the capital regions of Den-mark (Copenhagen) and Japan (Tokyo). Theoretical inspiration comes from, e.g., Richard Sennett, Raymond Williams, Iris Marion Young, Johan Asplund, Oskar Negt, Hannah Arendt, Carole Pateman, Donald Schön, and Peter Checkland.
Naydene de Lange; Mart-Mari Geldenhuys
Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual meth...
Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey
This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community. PMID:25423239
Mitra, Sophie; Jones, Kris; Vick, Brandon; Brown, David; McGinn, Eileen; Alexander, Mary Jane
Recently, there have been advances in the development of multidimensional poverty measures. Work is needed however on how to implement such measures. This paper deals with the process of selecting dimensions and setting weights in multidimensional poverty measurement using qualitative and quantitative methods in a participatory framework. We…
Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.
Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…
In order to enrich the available germplasm of mungbean and blackgram, a mutation induction experiment was started using 60Co gamma rays. A number of promising mutants have been selected up to M4 generation. (author)
Salgado, Mariana; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna
In this paper we look at participatory activities as practiced by others, meaning practitioners not from the participatory design fields, and address the question whether we, as participatory design researchers and practitioners are still needed. By understanding what others do, we aim to better understand and articulate our own participatory practice and our own future role. The results of our inquiry show that participatory designers are needed, even in contexts where other participatory practitioners prevail, but that we should learn from them and collaborate with them.
Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.; Böhlen, M.
Although many observations in the hydrologic sciences are easy to obtain, requiring very little training or equipment, spatial and temporally-distributed data collection is hindered by associated personnel and telemetry costs. Lack of data increases the uncertainty and can limit applications of both field and modeling studies. However, modern society is much more digitally connected than the past, which presents new opportunities to collect real-time hydrologic data through the use of participatory sensing. Participatory sensing in this usage refers to citizens contributing distributed observations of physical phenomena. Real-time data streams are possible as a direct result of the growth of mobile phone networks and high adoption rates of mobile users. In this research, we describe an example of the development, methodology, barriers to entry, data uncertainty, and results of mobile phone based participatory sensing applied to groundwater and surface water characterization. Results are presented from three participatory sensing experiments that focused on stream stage, surface water temperature, and water quality. Results demonstrate variability in the consistency and reliability across the type of data collected and the challenges of collecting research grade data. These studies also point to needed improvements and future developments for widespread use of low cost techniques for participatory sensing.
Ebersohn, L. (Liesel); Ferreira, Ronel; Beukes, J.
Participatory methodologies are often favoured in education research. This study aimed to determine collaborative partnership trends between education researchers and teachers in order to understand the use of participatory theory and practice in education studies. Seven symposium presentations by education scholars from various higher education institutions were analysed using trend analysis from a community of practice theoretical framework. It emerged that participatory meth...
Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.
Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne
This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant
In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers.
Full Text Available Despite the extensive efforts of rainwater harvesting and management (RWHM interventions for moisture-stressed areas in Ethiopia, the adoption and wider dissemination of the newly introduced techniques have been generally meager. The objective of this study was, therefore, to develop appropriate RWHM techniques through a participatory planning process in the Central Rift Valley (CRV dry lands of Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, a combination of literature reviews, focus group discussions, questionnaire surveys, agro-meteorological analyses and field experimentations were undertaken. Perceived agro-meteorological challenges were determined through the questionnaire survey and validated through meteorological data analyses. Potential in situ RWHM techniques were selected in a participatory process and field-tested for two consecutive growing seasons to evaluate their performances. Those techniques which were selected in a participatory process showed statistically higher crop yields than the existing practices under both low and normal rainfall years. The result of this study implied that the introduction of new RWHM techniques can be successful when they are adjusted and modified in accordance with the existing tillage, hoeing and related land management practices. It was concluded that participatory planning of in situ RWHM techniques allows both the utilization of existing knowledge and opportunities while empowering the farmers to select and introduce new practices as per the existing socioeconomic and environmental settings. The new participatory planning approach will augment the recent efforts of promoting various types of RWHM techniques for improved rainfed agriculture in the vast dry lands of Ethiopia.
Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.
Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin / Discriminação de vinhos tintos brasileiros de acordo com a região vitícola, varietal e vinícola
Alberto, Miele; Luiz Antenor, Rizzon; Mauro Celso, Zanus.
Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou a composição físico-química de 171 vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados na safra de 2006, representados por 21 varietais. Os vinhos foram elaborados por 58 vinícolas localizadas em sete regiões vitícolas do País com latitudes variando de 9º a 31º Sul. A análise físico-química foi [...] feita em 2006 e a discriminação entre as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos varietais e as vinícolas foi realizada através da análise de componentes principais (ACP). Os principais resultados mostram que ao se considerar as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos elaborados em São Joaquim caracterizaram-se por valores mais elevados de A420, A520, A620, intensidade de cor, compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas e extrato seco, enquanto que os de Toledo apresentaram valores mais baixos dessas variáveis; os do Vale do São Francisco tiveram valores mais elevados de potássio, pH, densidade e acidez volátil; os da Serra do Nordeste A, maior acidez titulável; e os do Planalto Superior B, matiz mais elevado. No que se relaciona aos vinhos varietais, a ACP discriminou os vinhos feitos com as variedades Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera e Alfrocheiro. Com relação às vinícolas, vinte e duas delas foram discriminadas por apresentarem parâmetros mais elevados de determinadas variáveis, i.e., três delas por terem maior intensidade de cor; três, por seu matiz; oito, pelo teor de álcool; seis, por potássio, extrato seco, densidade e pH; e duas, pela acidez titulável. Abstract in english This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine anal [...] ysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA). The main results show that wines from São Joaquim had higher values of A420, A520, A620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from Toledo had lower values of these variables; those from Vale do São Francisco had higher values of potassium, pH, density, and volatile acidity; from Serra do Nordeste A, they had higher titratable acidity; and from Planalto Superior B, higher hue. Regarding the varietal wines, PCA mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera, and Alfrocheiro. In relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and pH; and two by titratablel acidity.
Naydene, de Lange; Mart-Mari, Geldenhuys.
Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary s [...] chools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.
Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine
Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441
The idea of social participatory sensing provides a substrate to benefit from friendship relations in recruiting a critical mass of participants willing to attend in a sensing campaign. However, the selection of suitable participants who are trustable and provide high quality contributions is challenging. In this paper, we propose a recruitment framework for social participatory sensing. Our framework leverages multi-hop friendship relations to identify and select suitable and trustworthy participants among friends or friends of friends, and finds the most trustable paths to them. The framework also includes a suggestion component which provides a cluster of suggested friends along with the path to them, which can be further used for recruitment or friendship establishment. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed recruitment framework in terms of selecting a large number of well-suited participants and providing contributions with high overall trust, in comparison with one-hop recruitment ...
A very limited number of varieties of jute is available in the cultivated species of Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius in Bangladesh. Use of gamma rays on seeds of the variety D-154 of the species capsularis resulted in a wide spectrum of variability, but there was only a narrow range of variability in the olitorius species. Treatment of the seeds of these species with chemical mutagens has not provided wide scope for selection. Crossing among mutants and mutants with varieties has added more variability in capsularis. A mutant, Atompat-38, of C. capsularis developed by using gamma rays on seeds of the variety D-154 has been released directly as a commercial variety (1988). It has a 12-15% higher fibre yield than the widely cultivated parent variety. It has a distinct genetic marker (hairy stipules modified into leaflets), and other additional advantages. A very promising line, C-443, developed through crossing Atompat-38 with CVL-1 of C. capsularis, is expected to be released very soon. This line has the combined features of the green petiole of CVL-1 and the modified leafy stipules of Atompat-38. It outyielded both the parents by 10-15% and has a good fibre quality, with less hard fibre at the bottom end of the stem. Other promising mutants are also undergoing advanced trials. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on broadening the genetic variability of the olitorius species through developing effective methods of treating seeds with chemical mutagens. 11 refs, 2 tabs
Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…
In this article, I argue that online social networking is anchored in surveillance practices. This gives us an opportunity to challenge conventional understandings of surveillance that often focus on control and disempowerment. In the context of online social networking, surveillance is something potentially empowering, subjectivity building and even playful – what I call participatory surveillance.
Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.
Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…
Kensing, Finn; Simonsen, Jesper; Bodker, Keld
Presents a conceptual framework and a coherent method for information-technology design in an organizational context within the participatory-design tradition. The MUST method, developed through projects in Danish and American organizations, is based on thorough participation with users and managers and combines the use of ethnographic techniques…
Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran
There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…
Pace, Larry A.; Argona, Dominick R.
Describes the Quality of Work Life (QWL) program at the North American Manufacturing Division of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. States that the story of QWL is a description of participatory action research. Notes that the process has become an integral and flexible approach to solving problems and…
Bárbara Panoff, Valário; Cláudio, Cavariani; José de Barros, França-Neto; Elisa Serra Negra, Vieira; Juliana Pereira, Bravo; Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da, Silva.
Full Text Available O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso da técnica de PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction) na caracterização de cultivares de soja. O estudo foi realizado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas / UNESP e do Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu-SP. Foram utiliza [...] das quatorze cultivares de soja comerciais, das quais seis foram selecionadas como reação positiva à peroxidase (BRS 320, BRS 284, BRS 232, BRS 7860RR, BRSMG 760SRR, BRS295RR), quatro como reação negativa (BRS 326, BRS 8160RR, BRSMG 800A (NutriSoy), BRS Valiosa RR) e quatro como reação positiva e negativa (BRS 8060, BRS 270RR, FTS Campo Mourão e BRS 239). Assim, as 14 cultivares foram submetidas ao ensaio bioquímico colorimétrico tradicional e os resultados obtidos foram comparados com o ensaio de PCR convencional. Para a análise de PCR, o DNA foi extraído de sementes inteiras, sendo que os primers foram testados por PCR e visualizados por eletroforese em gel de agarose. A combinação dos primers prx9 + prx10 confirmou a utilização da reação de PCR para caracterizar as cultivares de soja considerada duvidosa por teste convencional colorimétrico. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of the molecular biology technique of PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction) in the characterization of soybean cultivars. The study was performed at the Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences/ UNESP and Institute of Bioscience, Botucat [...] u-SP. Fourteen commercial soybean cultivars were used, of which six were selected as positive reaction to peroxidase (BRS 320, BRS 284, BRS 232, BRS 7860RR, BRSMG 760SRR, BRS295RR), four as negative reaction (BRS 326, BRS 8160RR, BRSMG 800A (NutriSoy), BRS Valiosa RR) and four as double reaction (BRSGO 8060, BRS 270RR, FTS Campo Mourão and BRS 239). Thus, the results attained by the traditional biochemical colorimetric test for the 14 cultivars were compared with the conventional PCR assay. For PCR analysis, DNA was extracted from whole seeds and the primers were tested, and subsequently PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed. The combination of primers prx9 + prx10 confirmed the use of the PCR reaction to characterize soybean cultivars considered doubtful by conventional colorimetric text.
Although the current advancement in biotechnology has tremendously change the modern breeding approach, the induced mutation techniques is still very much in use as complementary tools. MINT experiences in using the techniques for varietal development in ornamental plants has helped to increase genetic variabilities in several ornamental plant species, produced twelve new mutant cultivars as well as developed efficient tissue culture system for six ornamental plant species as tool for in vitro mutagenesis procedures and micropropagation. The technology and expertise that have been established are ready for transfer to the horticulture industry. Sharing of capability and capacity between research institutions and private sector is one possible way by improving and maintaining long-term sustenance of the floriculture industry. (author)
Ahsyee Salem R.
Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is an important forage legume in Libya. The genetic diversity of nine alfalfa domesticated varietal populations was studied using thirteen RAPD primer combinations. The number of polymorphic fragments detected per primer combination ranged from 8 to 46 bands with an average of 24 bands. The number of polymorphic bands detected was from 6 (Atalia population to 37 (Gabsia population. The lowest genetic distance was 0.058 and the highest was 0.655. The average genetic distance was (0.356. The dendrogram based on Ward’s minimum variance clustering method grouped the nine populations into the two main clusters. The first group included Fazania, Atalia, Masratia, Zawia, Denamo Ferade and Arezona. The second group was composed of Tagoria, Gabsia and Wade Alrabeh. The simplicity of RAPD assays for detection of genetic polymorphisms is confirmed in our study, and results can be utilized in breeding practice.
Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995–2005 period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for participatory resource mapping, fruit productivity estimation, and promotion of improved harvest techniques. Major challenges involved ensuring adequate incentives for monitoring activities that lead to benefits only over the longer term, such as monitoring of extraction and regeneration rates. Maintaining long-term participation and interest in the latter requires ensuring resource tenure.
Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves
Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation. PMID:25039987
Designers face a number of challenges in terms of when and how to design interactive systems with indigenous groups. Every layer of development faces obstacles from designing localized interfaces to facilitating prototype evaluations in the wild. This article argues for the importance of continuous user involvement and participatory design. This is highlighted through explaining ongoing research in the creation of a 3D visualization knowledge management system to support preservation of indigenous knowledge (IK) in Africa. Through the sharing of experiences from the field I underpin the importance of acknowledging users' expertise and knowledge about the design context. Through presentation of a selection of these challenges in localizing systems development I wish to raise awareness of an required sensitivity to cultural differences in IT.
Thirteen cassava (Manihot esculenta L Crantz) varieties from three successive annual harvests were screened for the mealiness of the cooked tuber, and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Six were selected for further studies based on their mealiness and the starch and dry matter contents were determined. The diameter of the starch granules of the selected varieties and those of an irradiated M1V2 population were measured. Microscopic examinations of the raw and cooked cells of the irradiated M1V2 population were made. Correlations among all the parameters were studied. Varietal and seasonal differences in cooking quality were observed. There was no consistent relationship between mealiness of the boiled tuber and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Varieties that were mealy were high in dry matter and starch content. The starch granules of mealy varieties were larger than those of nonmealy ones. There were no differences between mealy and non-mealy varieties in the arrangement of the cells or ‘cell condition’, of the raw tubers. However, the cells of the cooked tubers were held less cohesively, ie there was more ‘cell disorganisation’, in mealy varieties than in non-mealy ones
Ephias Gudyanga; Nomsa Matamba; Anna Gudyanga
This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18). Data on forms and prevalence ...
Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope with this kind of complexity in regards to technology development and design projects. Based on experiences and lessons learned from the project "The Digital North Denmark (DDN), the chapter reflects on participatory research in a complex organizational setting of researchers, stakeholders and users emphasising practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words.
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian
Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.
Esperanza Gómez Hernández
Full Text Available Since the nineties, participatory planning has emerged as a linking strategy for various social, political, economic and cultural sectors that assessed it as a potential for building consensus in the making of local processes forsocial improvement. Similarly, it was legitimized as a setting for practice for professionals trained in the social sciences, mainly Social Work. This article, from a geopolitical and geo-cultural perspective, presents contextual elements that determined the configuration of participatory planning in Latin America. These elements shall be staged in order to redefine diversity and the intercultural perspective that has been linked to this mobilizing strategy, against the institutionalized discourse of development and for the emergence of crisis and ruptures with this social paradigm from other practices and worldviews of life in the territories.
This dissertation offers a full understanding of the extent of participatory planning in Thai municipalities within the context of a highly centralized state and dominance of local business people in public decision determination. In this ‘alternative’ mode of planning, various interests groups determine their local development plans collectively. Essentially, such planning aims to provide a political sphere of different groups of interests within the current pluralistic society. The research...
Taillandier, Patrick; Chu, Thanh-Quang
Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a human actor directly plays...
Guo, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Daqing; Zhou, Xingshe
The research on the efforts of combining human and machine intelligence has a long history. With the development of mobile sensing and mobile Internet techniques, a new sensing paradigm called Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS), which leverages the power of citizens for large-scale sensing has become popular in recent years. As an evolution of participatory sensing, MCS has two unique features: (1) it involves both implicit and explicit participation; (2) MCS collects data from two ...
Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A. J. S.
We propose that participatory GIS (PGIS) activities including participatory urban planning can be made more efficient and effective if spatial reasoning rules are integrated with PGIS tools to simplify engagement for public contributors. Spatial reasoning is used to describe relationships between spatial entities. These relationships can be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively using geometrical algorithms, ontological relations, and topological methods. Semantic web services utilize tools and methods that can facilitate spatial reasoning. GeoSPARQL, introduced by OGC, is a spatial reasoning standard used to make declarations about entities (graphical contributions) that take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple or statement. GeoSPARQL uses three basic methods to infer topological relationships between spatial entities, including: OGC's simple feature topology, RCC8, and the DE-9IM model. While these methods are comprehensive in their ability to define topological relationships between spatial entities, they are often inadequate for defining complex relationships that exist in the spatial realm. Particularly relationships between urban entities, such as those between a bus route, the collection of associated bus stops and their overall surroundings as an urban planning pattern. In this paper we investigate common qualitative spatial reasoning methods as a preliminary step to enhancing the capabilities of GeoSPARQL in an online participatory GIS framework in which reasoning is used to validate plans based on standard patterns that can be found in an efficient/effective urban environment.
Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund
This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues that in such an assessment of power it is needed also to drawn in the social context because different social contexts will be more or less vulnerable to different mechanisms of power. The paper takes the stand the rural settings are especially vulnerable to dis-engagement of local citizens, sub-ordination of the rural by the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis of a Danish rural participatory planning project. The paper concludes that rural planning literature and analysis will benefits from paying attention to the three – in rural participatory planning projects – specific mechanisms of power ‘Institutionalising knowledge and competencies’; ‘Structuring of criticism’ and ‘Undermining the objectives of the others’
Full Text Available The complexity of explaining highly scientific information and juggling a plethora of social values is leading agencies and communities such as those in the Palouse Basin to explore the use of participatory modeling processes using system dynamics. Participatory system dynamics as a methodology creates a transparent nexus of science, policy options, social concerns and local knowledge that enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. The process of developing a systems model uses the tenets of scientific theory, hypothesis testing and clear statements of assumptions. A unique aspect of the Palouse basin project is the use of system dynamics to describe ground water dynamics in a sole source confined aquifer system. There are, as of yet, no standards for analyzing participatory modeling projects, therefore, we use case study analysis to describe the process, insights and qualitative measurements of success.
Matos, L.C.; Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J S; J. A. Pereira; Andrade, P.B.; Seabra, R.M.; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.
This paper evaluates the usefulness of three chemical parameters (compositions on tocopherols, sterols and fatty acids) as a tool to discriminate three varietal olive oils (Cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana), which are permitted cultivars for the production of ‘‘Trás-os-Montes olive oil’’, a Portuguese protected designation of origin (PDO) product. The olives were collected during the year crop 2000/2001 from the same orchard, in order to eliminate the geographical an...
Kiær, Lars PØdenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.
Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety mixtures relative to their component varieties. For this purpose, six variety mixtures of spring barley and 14 component varieties were grown in each of 17 trial environments. Atotal of 28 observed and a priori plant characteristics, including grain yield, disease severity and weed competitiveness, were derived for each component variety in each trial. The relationship between intervarietal diversity of each characteristic and the mixing effect on grain yield was analysed. Additionally, various types of yield stability were estimated and compared among mixtures and component varieties. One mixture out-yielded all of its component varieties in almost half of the trial environments. Inter-varietal diversity in grain yield potential correlated significantly with mixing effect, as did straw length diversity when weighted with weed pressure. The grain yields of most mixtures were more stable across environments than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.
Full Text Available This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18. Data on forms and prevalence of violence were collected from the students. The majority of the participants portrayed physical violence, vandalism and sexual harassment. It was recommended that schools must develop clear policies in an endeavor to reduce or eliminate violence. Schools Psychological Services must provide psychotherapy to individuals concerned. Visual participatory methodology, a new body of knowledge in Zimbabwe, is a vital tool for future researchers.
Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.
Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…
Full Text Available Participatory budgets are emerging as a paradigm for participation. However, there are many variants of such experiences suggesting a look of general methodology. Moreover there is a little use of ICT in this application context. We present a configurable architecture for e-participatory budget formation support.
Anyanwu, C. N.
Argues that community development is an appropriate arena for using participatory research techniques, since community development depends strongly on citizen involvement. Features a case study of use of the participatory research technique in a project aimed at attacking rural poverty in Nigeria. (CH)
Andrej A. LUKŠI? and Maja BAHOR
Full Text Available Authors in the first place reveal when and how participatory democracy entered the field of the European political debate. After that, they aim at conceptualizing its evolution and forms in the European political arena. More precisely, they focus on the period, when participatory democracy gained its attention in several papers and documents published by the main European institutions. On the basis of published documents and papers on the democratic gap between the rulers and the ruled by The Commission, the European economic and social committee, the European parliament and the Committee of the Regions, authors researched which main European institutions introduced the concept of participatory democracy as a source of their legitimacy. Because of the coincidation of several different aspects, the tendency towards participatory democracy became stronger at the time of The European Convention. During the work of The European Convention, when a new political and normative document was in an establishing phase, the participatory democracy gained its expression in the title »Democratic life of the Union«. Through the establishment of article 47 in the Constitutional Treaty and later 8b in the Lisbon Treaty, where participatory democracy gained its normative expression, authors show which forms of participatory democracy came to normative institutional design. At the end of the article authors speculate if the theory of participatory democracy could contribute to bridging the gap between the rulers and the ruled.
Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.
Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in the UK.
Bevin, Christopher J; Dambergs, Robert G; Fergusson, Allison J; Cozzolino, Daniel
This study outlines the use of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the varietal classification of commercial red and white table wines. Three red varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz and Merlot) and four white varieties (Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc and Viognier) were sourced from different wine regions in Australia. Wine samples were scanned in transmission on a FOSS WineScan FT 120 from wave numbers 926 to 5012cm(-1). All samples were sourced from the 2006 vintage and had not been blended with any other variety or wine from other regions. Spectral data were reduced to a small number of principal components (PCs) and LDA was then performed to successfully separate the wines into the different varieties. To test the robustness of the LDA models developed for the red wines, a set of red wines scanned in 2005 were used. Correct classification of over 95% was achieved for the validation set. PMID:18573365
Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Fernández-Fernández, Jose I; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B
Proanthocyanidins are important for wine quality since they participate in astringency, bitterness and color. Given the localization of proanthocyanidins in the berry (skin and seeds), different methods have been developed that help to modulate the release of these phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of two low prefermentative temperature techniques (cold soak and must freezing with dry ice) and the use of macerating enzymes has been studied during the vinification of three different varietal wines (Monastrell, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon) to assess their influence on wine proanthocyanidin concentration and composition. Syrah wines showed the lowest proanthocyanidin content, together with the lowest mDP and the highest percentage of galloylation in its proanthocyanidins. Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines showed similar proanthocyanidin concentration. The application of the low temperature prefermentative maceration (cold soak) was the most effective treatment, increasing the proanthocyanidin concentration in Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines although neither of the treatments had any effect on Syrah wines. As regards the effect of the different treatments on the proanthocyanidin composition, the results seem to indicate that the observed increases were mainly due to an increase in seed proanthocyanidins, even in the case of cold soak treatments, which occur in the absence of ethanol, suggesting that ethanol is not so crucial in the extraction of seed proanthocyanidins. PMID:20929231
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants such as grapevine (Vitis spp. display significant inter-cultivar genetic and phenotypic variation. The genetic components underlying phenotypic diversity in grapevine must be understood in order to disentangle genetic and environmental factors. Results We have shown that cDNA sequencing by RNA-seq is a robust approach for the characterization of varietal diversity between a local grapevine cultivar (Corvina and the PN40024 reference genome. We detected 15,161 known genes including 9463 with novel splice isoforms, and identified 2321 potentially novel protein-coding genes in non-annotated or unassembled regions of the reference genome. We also discovered 180 apparent private genes in the Corvina genome which were missing from the reference genome. Conclusions The de novo assembly approach allowed a substantial amount of the Corvina transcriptome to be reconstructed, improving known gene annotations by robustly defining gene structures, annotating splice isoforms and detecting genes without annotations. The private genes we discovered are likely to be nonessential but could influence certain cultivar-specific characteristics. Therefore, the application of de novo transcriptome assembly should not be restricted to species lacking a reference genome because it can also improve existing reference genome annotations and identify novel, cultivar-specific genes.
Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry
In co-design there seems to be a widespread understanding that innovation is a planned, goal-oriented activity that can be propelled forward through well-facilitated events in which company employees collaborate with external parties (users in particular) and the conversations aim at consensus about new product and service ideas. Conflict belonged to the 'old days' when participatory design played a part in the struggle between workers and management. Based on the theory of complex responsive processes of relating, we suggest a new way of understanding innovation as the emergence of new meaning in - often conflictual - conversations. We argue that the meeting of participants with different stakes is crucial precisely because crossing intentions can create new insight and movement of thought and action. We use improvised theatre to investigate what happens in industrial (and other) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and the barriers that prevent them. By analysing improvised scenes and the way the audience reacts, we characterize the quality of conversations that seems to allow new meaning to emerge and thus stimulates innovation. We suggest that we need to develop new formats of collaboration for large, complex contingents of stakeholders, where conflicting intentions are encouraged.
Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi
Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910
Full Text Available Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness.
A face oculta de um processo participativo para escolha de chefias de enfermagem / The hidden face of a participatory process for the selection of head nurses / La cara oculta de un proceso participativo para elección de jefes en enfermería
Gisela Maria Schebella Souto de, Moura; Ana Maria Müller de, Magalhães; Clarice Maria, Dall' Agnol; Louíse Viecili, Hoffmeister.
Full Text Available O estudo discute a articulação das equipes de enfermagem no desenvolvimento de um processo consultivo de escolha de chefias num hospital universitário. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo exploratória e descritiva. A coleta de dados deu-se por meio de entrevistas com profissionais de enfermage [...] m. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo do tipo temática. Através das manifestações dos profissionais, visualizaram-se duas vertentes que representam movimentos de integração e movimentos de separação na trajetória de cada equipe. Em algumas unidades o processo ocorre de forma integrada, norteado pela participação e relações democráticas. Já em outras, o funcionamento grupal é caracterizado pela divisão interna e por um conflito subjacente. Um olhar sobre a totalidade dos setores aponta que as equipes de enfermagem estão em diferentes estágios de evolução nos modos de participação e envolvimento na dinâmica da vida política institucional. Abstract in spanish El estudio hace una discusión sobre de la articulación de los equipos de enfermería en el desarrollo de un proceso consultivo de elección de los jefes en un hospital universitario. Estudio cualitativo, de tipo exploratorio y descriptivo. La recolección de datos se dio por medio de entrevistas con pr [...] ofesionales de enfermería. Los datos se analizaron utilizándose la técnica de análisis de contenido del tipo temática. A través de las manifestaciones de los profesionales, se visualizan dos vertientes que representan movimientos de integración y movimientos de separación en la trayectoria de cada equipo. En algunas unidades el proceso se realiza en forma integrada, guiado por la participación y las relaciones democráticas. En otras, el funcionamiento grupal se caracteriza por la división interna y por un conflicto subyacente. Una mirada sobre la totalidad de los sectores señala que los equipos de enfermería están en diferentes niveles de evolución en los modos de participación y envolvimiento en la dinámica de la vida política institucional. Abstract in english The study presents a discussion about the articulation of nursing staffs in the development of a consulting process for the selection of head nurses in a university hospital. This is an exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of interviews with nursing work [...] ers. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Through the workers' expressions, two lines were observed that represent integration movements and separation movements in the trajectory of each staff. In some departments, the process takes place in an integrated way, guided by participation and democratic relationships. However, in others, the functioning of a group is characterized by internal division and underlying conflict. An overview on the totality of departments indicates that nursing staffs are at different evolution stages regarding the ways they participate and get involved in the dynamics of political-institutional life.
Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine
While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.
References in Darwin's Origin of Species to competition between units of selection at and above the level of individual organisms are enumerated. In many cases these references clearly speak of natural selection and do not support the view that Darwin thought selection only occurred at the level of the individual organism. Darwin did see organismal selection as the main process by which varieties were created but he also espoused what is here termed community and varietal selection. He saw no essential difference between varieties and species and the references show that he also believed that selection could operate at the species level. PMID:26013643
Lund, Jens Friis; Saito-Jensen, Moeko
Based on case studies of two communities implementing participatory forestry in Tanzania and India, we revisit the issue of elite capture of participatory initiatives. Our cases illustrate how initial elite capture of the participatory initiatives is circumvented over time through various forms of resistance orchestrated by initially disadvantaged groups. Based on the cases we argue that studies of elite capture should be based on in-depth and longitudinal empirical investigations that carefully characterize forms and outcomes of elite capture and consider both the changing dynamics of social settings and the perceptions held by the people under study.
Monir Baradarn Eftekhari
Full Text Available Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: This study was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Thirteen community based programs related to health that were active for last five years were selected and assessed. Data analysis was based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach considering the predetermined structure according to study questions. Results: In this study, strengths points of community participatory health programs based on the locality of the implementation of the programs; governmental organization and nongovernmental organizations (NGO’s were evaluated. The main strengths of these programs were the presence of the spirit of empathy and high motivation in working for community, absorbing the community assistance, community empowerment, presence of female volunteers, using local volunteers, creation of social prestige and evidence based decision making for community problem solving. Conclusion: Capacity building of the community, NGOs and policymakers plays key role in participation mechanisms, partnership, team working and mobilizing of necessary resources in the promotion of participatory community based health programs.
Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.
Coughlan, E.; Suarez, P.; Mendler de Suarez, J.; Bachofen, C.
While the benefits of multi-disciplinary education have been extolled, there is more to success than producing students who are able to articulate the theorems of all pertinent disciplines. Here, we will describe case studies in which participatory scenario exercises and games can make the difference between memorizing information from an "outside" discipline, and actually internalizing the priorities and complications of the issue from an alien perspective. Case studies include teaching Red Cross community-based volunteers the Probability Distribution Function of seasonal rainfall forecasts, as well as requiring students of Columbia University's Master's Program in Climate and Society to study both natural and social aspects of climate. Games create a model system of the world, in which players assume a role and make decisions with consequences, facing complex feedback loops. Taking such roles catalyzes "AHA" moments that effectively bring home the intricacies of disciplinary paradigms outside of one's own.
Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus
The article discusses interviews as participatory reflexive observation. It is based on experiences of interviewing policymakers and researchers about knowledge and evidence in health promotion. This particular group of informants challenged an approach to interviews as getting informants to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process.
The author first outlines that reversibility is a technical as well as institutional stake. He recalls the Andra's definition of reversibility, and outlines some specific characteristics (retrievability, possibility of action on the disposal process, possibility to make the design evolve). He discusses some implications of reversibility in terms of technologies, of information and of debate organisation. He indicates aspects which are less taken into account nowadays in the field of technical means and information. He proposes instruments for the process of information of parties (archiving, documentarisation), for the debate (document sharing, debate tools based on participatory documentary spaces). He outlines the importance of documentarisation, indicates different information media (various types of databases) and proposes an example based on 'Folksonomies'
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte
As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.
In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes
The article present and discuss findings from a participatory development of new learning practices among intensive care nurses, with an emphasize on the role of place making in informal learning activities.
Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.
Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)
Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John
This paper describes a structured participatory process and associated evaluation protocol developed to detect systems learning by decision makers involved in the management of natural resources. A series of facilitated participatory workshops were conducted to investigate learning when decision makers and influencers were confronted with the multiple, complex interactions arising from decisions concerned with the nexus of water, food and energy security. The participatory process and evaluation of learning were trialled in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), where integrated scientific evidence was systematically presented to challenge existing beliefs concerned with the effectiveness of proposed policy actions and development investments. Consistent with theoretical propositions, individually held values, beliefs and attitudes were deployed as the primary factors (and psychometrics) that underpin and influence environmental management decision making. Observed and statistically significant changes in the three psychometrics expressed by decision makers in response to the facilitated presentation of scientific evidence during the participatory process, provided supportive evidence of systems learning and the evaluation protocol. PMID:25929196
Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.
Tulloch, David L.
The convergence of public participatory mapping and cybertography is having far-reaching impacts through a variety of creative applications. This paper presents three different types of Internet mapping applications — Google Earth and Google Map API, Common Census, and a design exercise in Second Life — with a public participatory geographic information system (PPGIS) and cybercartography perspective. Each of these examples empowers users in a different way. The spatial applications and the s...
Shannon Crawford Barniskis
Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solutions for oth...
Alison Bersani; Nora Dimmock; Nancy Fried Foster
At the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries we have included users in technology development with great success. "Participatory design" entails collaboration among designers, developers, and users from the earliest stages of conception through to implementation of websites and other technology. Using participatory methods, a project to redesign the library website began with workshops to identify user needs and preferences. The results of these workshops led to the identification ...
Brita Berglund 1958
Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Environmental agency personnel, however, often lack training in communication and conduct of participatory processes. How they interpret participation affects how it is practiced, which in turn affects the outcomes of participatory projects. This study explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) and how this interpretation affected implementation in two land restoration p...
K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the ...
Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila
Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.
C, VERGARA; D, VON BAER; C, MARDONES; L, GUTIÉRREZ; I, HERMOSÍN-GUTIÉRREZ; N, CASTILLO-MUÑOZ.
Full Text Available Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of antho [...] cyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated flavonols in wine in which they are present in free and conjugated forms. These compounds are responsible for important wine antioxidant properties. In the present work, using only the concentrations of free and conjugated quercetin and myricetin, differentiation between Carménère and Merlot varieties was better achieved. Flavonol profiles of wine produced in Chile were studied with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. An overview of the concentration range of flavonols present in 248 Chilean red wines is presented, finding that the mean concentration of the sum of total myricetin and total quercetin were higher in Carménère (81.5 mgL-1) and Merlot (78.9 mgL¹) than in Cabernet Sauvignon (53.9 mgL¹) wines. These mean levels were higher than the majority of the concentrations reported in the literature. The chemometric analysis shows that the ratio of total quercetin/total myricetin combined with the concentration of free myricetin allowed the varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines.
Rana et al.
Farmers? rice seed selection, acquisition and exchange practices, and their relationship with management of on-farm rice varietal diversity, were studied in two contrasting agro-ecosystems in Nepal. Data came from 135 households using questionnaires, focus group discussions and direct field observations. Seed selection is primarily for maintenance of productivity and purity of a variety. The rigor applied to selection is inversely related to access to quality seed from outside sources. Exclud...
Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Tsinakos, Avgoustos
The participatory culture of Web 2.0 and the implicit empowerment of the learners have not been yet associated with participatory design projects that involve learners in the design and development of the new mediating tools. In this paper, we examine students' projections of Web 2.0 in higher education. Ninety seven undergraduate students participated in 20 design sessions exploiting two needs' elicitation techniques with the aim of envisioning of a course website that meets their learning particularities, that incorporates and exploits their new technological habits and which can be harmoniously situated in the daily routine of a modern, active student. 583 needs were produced and their abstract categorization is presented. Students proved that they had refined views about the elements that can render successful the next wave of e-learning applications and provided directions that can help designers and researchers in developing more informed designs. Students are the main agents of educational change and, hence, they deserve a more active and contributive role in the knowledge society.
Full Text Available Participatory Design (PD is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems development. By recognizing the complementarities of the tools of these two approaches (SSM and QFD, we can enhance Participatory Design in systems development. Findings from literature review show that a comprehensive application of this concept is yet to be done in information systems development. The approach builds on the seven phases of Soft Systems Methodology by applying the Quality Function Deployment techniques to elicit information from complex and amorphous real-world situations to augment the Participatory Design process.Keywords: Participatory Design; Soft Systems Methodology; Quality Function Deployment; House of Quality
Zenker, Sebastian; Erfgen, Carsten
Purpose: This conceptual essay seeks to develop a participatory approach to place branding. In doing so, it offers guidance on how to implement a participatory place branding strategy within place management practice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on theoretical insights drawn from the combination of distinct literatures on place branding, general marketing, and collaborative governance. Findings: The paper highlights the importance of residents in the place branding process and argues that their special functions as ambassadors for the place constitute the most valuable assets in place branding. Thus, a participatory place branding approach involving residents is needed. To implement this approach, three stages are necessary: (stage 1) defining a shared vision for the place including core place elements; (stage 2) implementing a structure for participation; (stage 3) supporting residents in their own place branding projects. Originality/value: The inclusion of residents is often requested in contemporary place branding literature. Unfortunately, none of these articles offer a real strategy for participatory place branding so far. Thus, this conceptual essay provides a participatory place branding approach to help place managers implement such structure.
Full Text Available After the devastating Great Wenchuan Earthquake occured in May 2008, China responded rapidly to mitigate the losses caused. Post-earthquake reconstruction planning plays a crucial role to the future development of earthquake struck areas. The post-earthquake reconstruction planning work has demonstrated to be an immediate action and tends to be a much more open and participatory. Since the influence of long term planned economy in the past and its centralised administration system, planning in China is comparatively information-close to ordinary people. However, the post-earthquake reconstruction planning turns to be a much wider participatory and more open than before, though it is still immature and there still many obstacles need to be overcome. This paper firstly introduces the Great Wenchuan Earthquake and the quick response of reconstruction planning in China. It depicts the intensive work of the reconstruction planning. Then it reviews the concept of participatory planning and the history of participatory planning in China. Thirdly, it identifies three new trends that a more participatory planning has showed in the reconstruction planning. Lastly, this paper points out some problems still exist in the reconstruction planning.
Barreteau, O.; Bots, P.; Daniell, K.
Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory resea...
Katherine A. Daniell; Pieter W. G. Bots; Olivier Barreteau
Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory...
Nilza Patrícia Ramos
Full Text Available Em um sistema de produção de sementes, o limite de contaminação varietal em lotes de linhagens de milho é zero, de modo que a presença de apenas uma semente de genótipo estranho acarreta a reprovação do lote. Várias técnicas vêm sendo estudadas para determinar a pureza varietal, incluindo marcadores moleculares baseados em polimorfismo de DNA. Nessa pesquisa foi avaliada a sensibilidade da técnica de microssatélites para detectar a presença de sementes de outros genótipos em lotes de linhagens de milho. Utilizaram-se quatro linhagens (L1, L2, L3 e L4, onde as sementes da L2 eram contaminantes da L1 e, as da L4, contaminantes da L3. Para simulação de diferentes níveis de contaminação, 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 sementes do genótipo estranho foram misturadas a "bulks" de 100 sementes da linhagem comercial. Em seguida, efetuou-se a extração de DNA das amostras de sementes das quatro amostras preparadas. Por outro lado, para simular níveis inferiores de contaminação, foram misturados DNA do genótipo contaminante em níveis de 0,01; 0,013; 0,02; 0,04; 0,1; 0,2; 1; 2; 5; 10 e 100%. A amplificação dos microssatélites foi realizada utilizando o iniciador BNLG125 para a L1+L2 e o BNLG240 para L3+L4. Observou-se que os marcadores microssatélites foram eficientes para determinar a pureza varietal de lotes de sementes de linhagens de milho, utilizados neste estudo, com sensibilidade para detecção de concentrações de DNA iguais ou superiores a 0,01%, apresentando nitidez e repetibilidade, especialmente com a utilização de gel de poliacrilamida. Ao mesmo tempo, a presença de DNA estranho nas amostras constituídas por "bulks" foi detectada eficientemente por essa técnica, indicando a possibilidade de sua utilização em testes de rotina para avaliar a presença de outras cultivares, em lotes de sementes de milho.Genotype contamination in seed production of maize inbred seed lots is not tolerated, i.e. the presence of only one seed from another genotype in a lot is sufficient to discard this lot. Many procedures have been studied to detect genotype purity in different crops, including molecular markers based on DNA polymorphism. This research aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the microsatellite technique to detect the contaminating seeds in maize inbred lines. Four inbred lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4 were used. Samples of 100 seeds each of L1 were prepared considering L2 as a contaminant while seeds of L4 were contaminants in L3 seed lots. To simulate different contamination levels, 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 seeds of the foreign genotype were mixed with the inbred line and then DNA was extracted from each treatment. Successive DNA samples dilutions of 0.01; 0.013; 0.02; 0.04; 0.1; 0.2; 1; 2; 5; 10 and 100% were also realized with to simulate low contamination levels. For both analysis microsatellites amplifications were performed with the primers BNLG125 for L1+L2 and BNLG240 for L3+L4. The results showed that the microsatellite technique is efficient to determine the varietal purity of inbred maize used in this research. The sensitive technique is able to detect a 0.01% DNA contaminant level. Standardization and intensity were better when a polyacrylamide matrix was used. The presence of foreign DNA in the contaminated lots was efficiently detected with the microsatellite technique, indicating the usefulness of this procedure to detect the presence of foreign seeds within maize inbred lots.
Leida Fernández Prieto
Full Text Available A través de la figura del agrónomo y científico cubano Francisco B. Cruz, este artículo explora el cambio en el sistema de cultivo cañero a finales del siglo XIX debido, entre otros factores, al fracaso del modelo basado en la agricultura prodiga. Asimismo, se destaca la participación de la Estación Experimental en la puesta en marcha del programa global de la revolución varietal. En este sentido, se subraya el papel de Francisco B. Cruz y las conexiones con otros actores institucionales y privados con diversos intereses en la reorganización de la industria azucarera cubana. La investigación se basa en documentos de la etapa y, fundamentalmente, en la documentación de la Estación Central Agronómica, hoy en día Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical ‘Alejandro de Humboldt’.
previas a la feria. Por otro lado, los valores del índice de Shannon no presentaron un aumento significativo en la primera siembra después de la feria, como consecuencia de la desproporción entre las áreas de las variedades nuevas y antiguas, a diferencia de la segunda siembra, en la que los valores de este índice aumentaron significativamente, indicando el aumento de las áreas destinadas a las variedades nuevas. Estos resultados señalan que la feria de diversidad es un método eficiente, para promover el incremento en las fincas de la diversidad varietal y de las áreas dedicadas a las nuevas variedades, y que el empleo de los índices de Shannon y Margalef constituye una alternativa complementaria y sencilla, en el estudio del impacto de la selección participativa sobre la diversidad de cultivos agrícolas en el tiempo.
Mba Okechukwu Agwu
Full Text Available The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be primarily responsible for managing and controlling them. The core aspect of the study is the use of cross-sectional survey research design in generating the required primary data. The place of study is the bonny NLNG construction project while the duration of study is between March, 2012 and February, 2013. A sample of 396 (35 supervisors, 98 foremen and 263 workmen respondents determined at 5% level of significance for sample error, using Yamane’s formula, was selected from a population of 40,568 employees using stratified random sampling method for the purpose of questionnaire administration. The results indicated that reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is to a large extent dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the Bonny NLNG construction project as buttressed by the 82% and 81% large extent response rate respectively. It therefore recommends among others: regular site safety audits to identify/eliminate sub-causes of accident, regular staff training to improve their hazard identification skills, formation of health and safety committee to identify/eliminate potential hazards at the task level and making hazard identification/reporting everyone’s responsibility.
Zalk, D M
The introduction of ergonomics programs throughout the world requires an easy to understand and inexpensive process. Participatory ergonomic intervention techniques have proven to be beneficial in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. The participatory approach to ergonomics has also been found to be a useful application within industrialized (developed) countries and industrially developing countries (IDCs). Grassroots Ergonomics principles utilize expertise within a workforce that focuses on participatory ergonomics interpretations of quantitative and qualitative risk and exposure assessment information that in turn results in a peer-developed ergonomics training. Regardless of the intricacy of the exposure assessment tools, workers should fully assist in gathering and analyzing data, then in identifying and implementing solutions. A coordinated and multidisciplinary application of this approach within IDCs would succeed in the creation and sharing of job-specific ergonomics training information for high physical exposure professions, such as agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, and small-scale enterprises, to initiate ergonomics programs regionally. PMID:11378149
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm
We reconsider the role of participatory design approaches emphasizing the current context of the accreditation regime imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes specifying, realizing, and measuring effects from using an information technology. This approach aligns with much of the logic inherent in accreditation and it supports challenging parts of the accreditation process. Effects-driven IT development furthermore might support effects related to clinical evidence-based thinking. We describe and compare effects- driven IT development with accreditation and discuss the prospects and challenges for this approach to participatory design within the healthcare domain.
This paper explores the creation of fictional space in participatory design and relates the notion of fictional space to the more general conception of design space as a space created through the situated practices of participants. The notion of fictional space provides insights for understanding the process through which participants in participatory design create a design space in which established conventions of everyday practice are altered or suspended. With inspiration from literary theory, it is argued that the production of fictional space may be understood in terms of participants practicing games of make-believe mediated by props. The motivation for discussing fictional space is traced through ongoing work on designing new exhibition spaces for museums. Through a case study from a participatory design session, it is explored how games of make-believe progress and the role of props in this process.
Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde
Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.
Anwar Alam; Sabir Ihsan
The study was conducted to find out the role of participatory approach in community development. Barani Area Development Project is one of Govt: sponsored project, which was started in 2001. The aim of this project was to encourage community and ensure maximum participation to sustain the project in district kohat. Kalabat, Jangle Khail , Lachi ,Usterzo and Kachi were selected for this study. Proportion allocation method of sampling was used for the selection of respondents, 150 community mem...
The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection
Providing a critical view on user participation in design, disentangling decision making and power in design, this book uses fieldwork material from two large participatory design projects: one experimental in the field of urban planning, the other a product development project within health care. Addressing power issues in participatory design is critical to providing a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of participation. Design is decision-making: during a design process a huge number of decisions?taken before the designers end up with a design result - an artefact or system
Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv
Virtual organizations challenge the first line managers as they have to be able to manage from afar as distance managers. Investigating distance management in participatory multi-level interventions this paper presents a case study of four SMEs which have applied the multi-level participatory PoWRS program (Prevention of Work-Related Stress) over a six month period. Interviews were conducted with employees, in-house process facilitators, project managers and first line managers. The results show that distance managers are even more challenged in interventions especially regarding coordination of activities and ensuring commitment.
Participatory research is, in theory, an approach that is attractive and easy to apply. However, in practice this type of research poses numerous challenges. This article presents recent information on healthcare workers who have experienced a participatory organizational intervention aimed at reducing the work constraints and creating a healthy workplace. Three main challenges emerged from this experience: mobilizing the team and creating a relationship of trust among the participants; creating a healthy organization in partnership with those in other professions; and implementing the proposed changes. PMID:15577670
Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens
In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory research, design material.
Forrest, Stephanie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; He, Wenbo [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Groat, Michael [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Edwards, Benjamin [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Horey, James L [ORNL
Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.
Minkler, Meredith; Fadem, Pamela; Perry, Martha; Blum, Klaus; Moore, Leroy; Rogers, Judith
Participatory action research (PAR) is a collaborative approach to inquiry for education and social change that is gaining increasing prominence in health education. This case study explores the use of PAR by and with a community of people with disabilities in addressing a polarizing issue in that community: death with dignity or physician-assisted suicide legislation. Following a brief review of the debate within the community about this issue and the goals, methods, and findings of this project, the authors examine four key ethical challenges. These are dilemmas in issue selection when the community is deeply divided over a problem area, inclusion and exclusion in study team makeup and sample selection, insider/outsider issues, and how best to use findings in ways that can unite and strengthen the community. The implications of these issues for health educators and others engaged in community-based PAR efforts are presented. PMID:11822550
Lisa, Kissing; A, Pimentel; María, Valido.
Full Text Available La degradación mundial de la calidad del suelo y el agotamiento de las reservas de fertilizantes hechos a base de petróleo amenazan la seguridad alimentaria global. A pesar de que la investigación científica ha desarrollado soluciones técnicas para el mejoramiento del suelo con bajos insumos, los ag [...] ricultores que producen a pequeña escala no adoptan dichas prácticas frecuentemente. Con la meta de aumentar la implementación de prácticas que mejoran el suelo, un estudio de caso en la comunidad de San Andrés, Cuba, probó una metodología participativa para explorar el conocimiento local, identificar las tecnológicas que podían satisfacer las necesidades de la comunidad, e impulsar la innovación campesina con las tecnologías seleccionadas. A través de una investigación cualitativa, el estudio exploró el corpus, la praxis, y el kosmos que la comunidad tiene para conceptualizar, manejar y tomar decisiones sobre sus suelos. El análisis de etnopedología indicó que aunque los productores reconocen que la calidad de sus suelos está empeorando y que comparten una meta general sobre el mejoramiento de sus tierras a largo plazo, las estrategias existentes del manejo de la fertilidad son inadecuadas para satisfacer la demanda de los cultivos. Los resultados sugieren que la introducción de nuevas tecnologías a la comunidad podría acelerar la formación de una praxis más adecuada. Para satisfacer las necesidades de manejo de nutrientes, se seleccionaron abonos verdes y compost como las tecnologías más adecuadas para los sistemas de producción existentes. Es por ello que la “feria de fertilidad del suelo” reunió a investigadores y miembros de la comunidad, para experimentar con diferentes tipos de abonos verdes y compost, así como evaluar su comportamiento en contextos locales. El trabajo considera que la feria es una puerta de entrada al manejo sostenible del suelo por medio de la innovación campesina. Para guiar el futuro diseño del mejoramiento participativo del suelo, el trabajo expone las lecciones aprendidas de una experiencia que integró la etnopedología y las ferias del suelo. Abstract in english The degrading quality of soils worldwide and an uncertain supply of petroleum-based fertilizers are a threat to global food security. Although research has developed low-input technical solutions to improve soil resource, such technologies are rarely adopted by small farmers in the global south. Wit [...] h the goal of increasing farmer adoption of soil building practices, a case study in the community of San Andrés, Cuba, tested a participatory methodology to explore local knowledge, identify research technologies to meet community needs, and catalyze farmer innovation on the selected technologies. Through qualitative research, the study explored the corpus, praxis, and kosmos that the community held to conceptualize, manage, and make decisions about their soils. Analysis of ethnopedology indicated that although individuals recognized the degrading quality of their soils, and shared a wider goal of long-term land improvement, existing nutrient management strategies were inadequate to satisfy crop needs. Results suggested that introducing new technologies to the community could accelerate the formation of a more appropriate praxis. To satisfy nutrient management needs, green manures, and compost were identified as the technologies best suited to existing production systems. Then, a “soil fertility fair” joined researchers and community members, to experiment with green manures and compost, and evaluate the types most feasible to local conditions. The paper considers the fair as a gateway to sustainable soil management through farmer innovation. To help guide the future design of participatory soil improvement, the paper expounds lessons learned from the research experience with ethnopedology and soil fairs
Boef, W.S., de; Thijssen, M.H.
Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in field study assignments. The objectives of practising participatory tools in training on local agrobiodiversity management and related to that the objectives of this guide are many. However, the curre...
Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa
Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the ?(15)N and ?(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions. PMID:26041233
Grace, Delia; Monda, Joseph; Karanja, Nancy; Randolph, Thomas F; Kang'ethe, Erastus K
We carried out a participatory risk assessment to estimate the risk (negative consequences and their likelihood) from zoonotic Cryptosporidium originating in dairy farms in urban Dagoretti, Nairobi to dairy farm households and their neighbours. We selected 20 households at high risk for Cryptosporidium from a larger sample of 300 dairy households in Dagoretti based on risk factors present. We then conducted a participatory mapping of the flow of the hazard from its origin (cattle) to human potential victims. This showed three main exposure pathways (food and water borne, occupational and recreational). This was used to develop a fault tree model which we parameterised using information from the study and literature. A stochastic simulation was used to estimate the probability of exposure to zoonotic cryptosporidiosis originating from urban dairying. Around 6 % of environmental samples were positive for Cryptosporidium. Probability of exposure to Cryptosporidium from dairy cattle ranged from 0.0055 for people with clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in non-dairy households to 0.0102 for children under 5 years from dairy households. Most of the estimated health burden was born by children. Although dairy cattle are the source of Cryptosporidium, the model suggests consumption of vegetables is a greater source of risk than consumption of milk. In conclusion, by combining participatory methods with quantitative microbial risk assessment, we were able to rapidly, and with appropriate 'imprecision', investigate health risk to communities from Cryptosporidium and identify the most vulnerable groups and the most risky practices. PMID:22886443
Ayinde, O. E.; T. Abduolaye; G. Olaoye; J.A. Akangbe
Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA). The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their gen...
Full Text Available The valuation of multiple ecosystem services requires the design of valuation processes able to integrate different dimensions of value and to cope with complexity. Following the “value-articulating institution” framework, we note that three core problems arise: the cognitive, normative and composition problems. Combining valuation methods, such as contingent valuation and multicriteria analysis, with participatory and deliberative techniques is increasingly promoted as a means to address those fundamental problems. However, the quality and legitimacy of the valuation process then becomes dependent on how participation is framed. We note that numerous issues need to be taken into account, such as the roles assumed by participants, the differences in contribution among participants, the level of participatory impact and the level of democratization of the decision-making process. This paper proposes a detailed qualitative analysis of four case studies, each of them having implemented a specific valuation method in a participatory process. We analyze how those cases were handled in each of the dimensions considered and offer our conclusions about the added values and remaining challenges related to participatory environmental valuation.
Benson, Robyn; Samarawickrema, Gayani; O'Connell, Margaret
This paper examines the participatory approach used by a group of academic support staff in evaluating an academic professional development resource designed to support e-learning and teaching. The resource, titled Designing Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches (DELTA), showcases examples of electronic learning and teaching approaches…
Background: The emergence of a participatory culture, brought about mainly by the use of Web2.0 technology, is challenging us to reconsider aspects of teaching and learning. Adapting the learning-as-digital-game-building approach, this paper explores how new educational practices can help students build skills for the 21st century. Purpose: This…
Teaching math to reflect values of democracy has to begin with some consideration of how democracy is conceptualized. A review of various theories of democracy conducted by Hagen (1992) provides everyone with a good starting point as it identifies three primary forms of democracy: competitive, participatory, and dialogue. In this essay, the author…
Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy
This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…
Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux
This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…
McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.
Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…
Participatory methodologies are increasingly employed in research with young people. These practices stem from a desire to reduce problematic distributions of power in research and to construct knowledge with young people rather than for them. This paper examines research conducted with a small group of young people experiencing exclusion from…
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.
Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of “participation” is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land restoration projects. Our methods included semi-structured interviews with agency staff and involved stakeholders, participant observations, and document review. The findings showed that participation was seen as a method to accomplish the agency’s tasks, and the focus was primarily on the outputs, or products, of the participatory processes. This interpretation worked well and created positive outcomes as long as process factors, such as interaction with other stakeholders and shared influence, were adequately attended to and joint gains were assured, but other stakeholders expressed dissatisfaction when they were not. We conclude that, although tangible outcomes are necessary for environmental agencies, maintaining a balance between product and process focus in participatory projects is important for optimal results. To increase their ability to deal with process factors, environmental agencies, and ultimately environmental management, would benefit from enhancing their personnel’s understanding of participation, and capacity to conduct participatory processes. To facilitate participation, this understanding should also be integrated in the institutional framework the agencies work within.
Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.
This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…
Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry
Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…
Sitter, Kathleen C.
Using the new conceptual framework of participatory visual media as method, advocacy and voice (MAV), the author explores an action research study using an exemplar in which advocates from the disability community created and distributed a series of videos about love and sexuality as a critical human rights issue in the disability community. The…
Grushka, Kathryn Meyer; Bellette, Aaron; Holbrook, Allyson
This article focuses on the use of Photographic Participatory Inquiry (PPI) in researching the teaching and learning of photography in the e-learning environment. It is an arts-informed method drawing on digital tools to capture collective information as digital artefacts, which can then be accessed and harnessed to build critical and reflective…
Jorge Herman, BEHRENS; Maria Aparecida Azevedo P. da, SILVA.
Full Text Available Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling) foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ). Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, mate [...] riais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado. Abstract in english Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay) were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, t [...] heir respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and differences among the wine samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeters non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The collected data were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed a great difference within the sensory profile of Riesling and Gewürztraminer wines, whereas Chardonnay wines showed a lesser variation. PCA separated samples into two groups: a first group formed by wines higher in sweetness and fruitty flavor and aroma; and a second group of wines higher in sourness, adstringency, bitterness, alcoholic and fermented flavors.
Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings – The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.
In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used in a way that will be labeled as »interested«, rather than in a way labeled as »taking for granted«. It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction.
Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán
The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system. PMID:25991099
Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. PMID:25555777
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm
We revisit the role of participatory design approaches in the light of the accreditation regime currently imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes specifying, realizing, and measuring the effects from using an information technology. This approach aligns with much of the logic in accreditation but is distinguished by its focus on effects, whereas current accreditation approaches focus on processes. Thereby, effects-driven IT development might support challenging parts of the accreditation process and fit well with clinical evidence-based thinking. We describe and compare effects-driven IT development with accreditation, in terms of the Danish Quality Model which is used throughout the Danish healthcare sector, and we discuss the prospects and challenges of combining these two approaches.
Ursula Maier-Rabler; Stefan Huber
The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010) enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and edu...
Warner, J.F.; Oré, M.T.
Climate change is expected to lead to greater extremes (droughts and floods) in river regimes around the world. While the number of major calamities is predicted to rise, the efforts of the public sector, experts and local stakeholders are badly coordinated. Consequently, aid does not reach target groups, resulting in unnecessary losses. Hence, there is a need for more participatory and integrative approaches. To ensure a more concerted response to climate-induced disasters, stakeholders coul...
Teresa Holocher; Barbara Kieslinger; Claudia Magdalena Fabian
Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers...
Jeannette O. Andrews; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia
The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners’ readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 par...
Keywords: permanent land use, weeds, indigenous knowledge, integrated crop and soil management, participatory learning, co-researchWeeds constitute a major constraint to agricultural production in the Republic of Benin. Agricultural intensification and the evolution towards permanent cropping systems have 1ed to the emergence of novel weed problems. A diagnostic study identified speargrass (Imperata cylindricd) and the parasitic weed Striga spp. as major novel weeds. Both weeds are difficult ...
Broad-scale multi-stakeholder decision-aiding processes for complex water planning and management issues are typically organised or "co-engineered" by several agencies or actors. These participatory processes are therefore co-initiated, co-designed and co-implemented by a number of people. It is postulated here that this co-engineering can critically impact on both the participatory processes and their outcomes. Co-engineering has received scant attention in studies of participatory decision-...
Terence Wood; Warwick E Murray
This paper examines the participatory budgeting process that an increasing number of municipalities, primarily but not exclusively in Brazil, are using as a tool of governance. Background is provided on municipal governance in Brazil as well as on the Partido dos Trabalhadores, the political party primarily responsible for introducing participatory budgeting. This is followed by a comparison of the participatory budgets of two Brazilian cities: Porto Alegre and Belo Horizonte. From thi...
Shannon Crawford Barniskis
Full Text Available Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solutions for other librarians while furthering a theoretical research agenda.Methods – This example of embedded, participatory techniques used grounded theory methods based on the experiences of teens who participated in art programs at a public library. Fourteen teens participated in interviews, and six of them assisted in coding,analyzing, and abstracting the data, and validating the resulting theory.Results – Employing the teenagers within the research team resulted in a teen-validated theory. The embedded techniques of the practitioner-researcher resulted in a theory that can be applied to practice.Conclusions – This research framework develops the body of literature based on real world contexts and supports hands-on practitioners. It also provides evidence-based theory for funding agencies and assessment. In addition, practitioner-based research that incorporates teens as research partners activates teens’ voices. It gives them a venue to speak for themselves with support from an interested and often advocacy-minded adult.
Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; West, Cheryl; Punnett, Laura
The long-term care sector is characterized by high morbidity and employee turnover, along with associated costs. Effective health protection and health promotion are important to improve physical and psychosocial well-being of caregivers. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is an essential precursor to the successful implementation of workplace programs addressing work climate, structure of tasks and relationships, and other issues that may be perceived as challenging by some within the institution. This study qualitatively assessed readiness of five skilled nursing facilities for a participatory occupational health/health promotion intervention. Selection criteria were developed to screen for program feasibility and ability to conduct prospective evaluations, and information was collected from managers and employees (interviews and focus groups). Three centers were selected for the program, and the first year of formative evaluation and intervention experience was then reviewed to evaluate and modify our selection criteria after the fact. Lessons learned include adding assessment of communication and the structure of problem solving to our selection criteria, improving methods to assess management support in a concrete (potentially nonverbal) form, and obtaining a stated financial commitment and resources to enable the team to function. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is challenging, although necessary to implement effective and sustainable health promotion programs in specific organizations. PMID:25715335
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Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also...
Peppler, Kylie; Danish, Joshua; Zaitlen, Benjamin; Glosson, Diane; Jacobs, Alexander; Phelps, David
New technologies have enabled students to become active participants in computational simulations of dynamic and complex systems (called Participatory Simulations), providing a "first-person"perspective on complex systems. However, most existing Participatory Simulations have targeted older children, teens, and adults assuming that such concepts…
The recent study Polling for Justice (PFJ) used a multigenerational participatory action research approach with embodied methodologies to document youth experiences of education, criminal justice, and public health in New York City. Through an exploration of the PFJ project, this column demonstrates how participatory action research and embodied…
This paper focuses on measuring the capacity development within the participatory planning process of formulation of development strategy. It starts with the discussion of how individual, collaborative and governance capacities became a part of collaborative and consensus planning, and continues with proposing the mixed method approach. Quantitative methods have been used to measure the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction that participatory approach had o...
Tobias, Evan S.
Knowing how students engage with music outside school music programs can help music educators and their programs evolve. This article offers a look at music teaching and learning in terms of how people are increasingly interacting with music in participatory ways that involve digital technologies and media. This participatory culture offers a…
Bhandari, K. P.
Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.
Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter
Sustainable use of nontimber forest products (NTFP) in Amazonia, the World’s largest remaining contiguous rainforest, largely rests upon understanding patterns of resource use involving rural livelihoods to better inform conservation science. Brazil encompasses three-quarters of Amazonia, where non-indigenous semi-subsistence groups referred to as caboclos, outnumber native Amerindians by a factor of ten. The Brazilian government has committed to supporting participatory programs where monitoring biodiversity and co-management of natural resources are spearheaded by residents of sustainable-use protected areas. Notable among these initiatives is the Programa de Monitoramento da Biodiversidade e do Uso de Recursos Naturais em Unidades de Conservação Estaduais do Amazonas (ProBUC). ProBUC aims to 1) sensitize community residents to the importance of monitoring the state of natural resource use and establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects in three conservation units, including two extractive reserves. Extractive reserves, defined as forest areas inhabited by extractive populations granted long-term usufruct rights to forest resources which they collectively manage, are among the most important protected area types, accounting for one seventh of Brazilian Amazonia. Here, we present the results of a two-year participatory monitoring program of extractive activities by caboclos inhabiting one of ProBUC’s pilot areas, the Uacari Sustainable Development Reserve, as well as the Médio Juruá Extractive Reserve, both within the Juruá River basin of western Brazilian Amazonia. We discuss the most important extractive activities for ~100 households, how socio-economic factors influence NTFP extractive patterns across households, and the benefits and constraints of using participatory approaches to monitor extractivism in Amazonia.
Full Text Available In order to ensure the sustainable management of reef fisheries, it is necessary to obtain data about the effects of these fisheries on both fish resources and the ecosystems that sustain them. Ecosystem-based surveys provide this information, but are difficult to implement because of technical, financial and human resources requirements. In this regard participatory assessment methods have the potential to increase the amount of data collected at low cost, while taking advantage of local traditional ecological knowledge. In order to investigate the reef fishery of Toliara Bay, southwest Madagascar, we used participatory fish survey and interview data collected on site. These methods included: (i monitoring of catch landings during six months by wholesale fish merchants, (ii household surveys of fishing catch and effort and fish consumption conducted by school children, and (iii semi-structured interviews of reef users. One thousand five hundred and eighty six fishing trips were sampled between September 2006 and February 2007, 326 households were surveyed by trained school children in January 2007, and 70 reef users were interviewed in July/August 2006. Data collected by participants have been compiled and compared to reference values when available, allowing an assessment of the sustainability of the reef fishery. The results of this study confirm the unsustainable nature of resource exploitation and underline the need for rapid management responses in order to reverse this trend. It also highlights the great potential of participatory assessment methods for gathering large amounts of relevant information on the status and evolution of the ecosystem upon which the fishery depends, while promoting education and awareness about the protection and sustainable use of natural resources.
Full Text Available This chapter discusses the implementation of participatory development in the pesantren Maslakul Huda of Kajen, Pati, Central Java. It argues that participatory development in the pesantren Maslakul Huda has led to the creation of genuine participation in which local people are able to identify their own problems and potentials, and to create alternative solutions. The role of the kyai in this pesantren is limited to giving Islamic justification to the acceptance of participatory development, and program implementation is in the hands of senior santris and village facilitators. The use of participatory action research and the creation of the self-help group as a people’s forum enable them to express their own perspective on their problems without the kyai’s interference. However, the pesantren utilises participatory development to enhance its economic position among the local people.
Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.
Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne
In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have often failed to provide useful information in an adequate form for farmers in remote areas. Participatory Design (PD) assumes to be effective approach to overcome these challenges. However, due to its origin in the western countries, the capability of users, motivation and desire to participate and availability of resources are often taken for granted. This work identifies challenges for applying PD in rural Ethiopia and proposes method for ‘Early-Stage’ of PD.
We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers to participation conceptualised as various degrees of codetermination in organisations and in research processes?’ The anthology is part of a follow-up on an initiative taken in 2010 by Professor Werner Fricke, editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Action Research for many years. His vision was to create an academy of AR and PR.
Cristancho, María Yanire León
The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems. PMID:22317095
Mackenzie, John; Tan, Poh-Ling; Hoverman, Suzanne; Baldwin, Claudia
SummaryThis article describes the Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology used to trial and evaluate a suite of planning tools to improve the engagement process for statutory water planning in Australia, and assesses its value and limitations in the Australian context. We argue that the strength of this method is its consistency with a social learning and adaptive management approach. We owe the success of this research approach to five key factors: a high degree of access to the project setting; clear demarcation of roles and responsibilities between researchers and participants; considerable effort spent building and maintaining informal networks and relationships; sensitivity to the relationship between 'insiders' (the participants or owners of the issue i.e. government and community) and 'outsiders' (the research project team); and continual review of project planning and willingness to adapt timeframes and processes to suit the situation. The value and challenges of Participatory Action Research are discussed with key lessons emerging for improving its practice, as well as the transferability of this knowledge to engagement practice for water planning.
Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.
Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.
Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.
Butler, Cameron; Adamowski, Jan
Within the field of water resource management, Group Model Building (GMB) is a growing method used to engage stakeholders in the development of models that describe environmental and socioeconomic systems to create and test policy alternatives. While there is significant focus on improving stakeholder engagement, there is a lack of studies specifically looking at the experiences of marginalized communities and the barriers that prevent their fuller participation in the decision-making process. This paper explores the common issues and presents recommended improved practices, based on anti-oppression, related to the stages of problem framing, stakeholder identification and selection, workshop preparation, and workshop facilitation. For problem defining and stakeholder selection, the major recommendations are to engage diverse stakeholder communities from the earliest stages and give them control over framing the project scope. With regards to planning the model building workshops, it is recommended that the facilitation team work closely with marginalized stakeholders to highlight and address barriers that would prevent their inclusion. With the actual facilitation of the workshops, it is best to employ activities that allow stakeholders to provide knowledge and input in mediums that are most comfortable to them; additionally, the facilitation team needs to be able to challenge problematic interpersonal interactions as they manifest within conversations. This article focuses on building comfortability with political language so that the systemic oppression in which existing participatory processes occur can be understood, thus allowing GMB practitioners to engage in social justice efforts. PMID:25697902
Sonia M. N. Felipone
Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.
„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other people‘s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives – in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was – in order to understand why this was the case – I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking – the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students – we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis – I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations – complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; Mäyrä, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory – and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation. Further, I argue that this approach opens up promising way
Emnet for denne afhandling er design af engagerende interaktive miljøer, og afhandlingen er positioneret i krydsfeltet mellem participatory design, designteori og interaktionsdesign. Afhandlingens emne er blevet adresseret gennem et forskningsprogram vedrørende design af engagerende interaktive udstillingsrum på museer og oplevelsescentre. Afhandlingen består af syv forskningsartikler, sammenfattet i en generel oversigt, som sammenbinder argumenterne fra de inkluderede artikler og beskriver relateret arbejde og forskningsmetode. Bidraget afspejler et fokus på at forstå engagement i udstillingsrum og at forme designprocesser indenfor rammerne af ideen om engagerende interaktive miljøer. Den første del af bidraget relaterer sig til at konceptualisere aspekter af engagement i relation til interaktive miljøer. Begrebet participatory engagement præsenteres som et generelt perspektiv, der belyser hvordan individer og grupper investerer deres tid, evner og viden i interaktive miljøer. Indenfor dette overordnede perspektiv præsenteres means of engagement som de konkrete midler, der medierer engagement. Dette begreb rækker ud over individuelle teknologier og brugerflader og favner den mængde af elementer, der arrangeres gennem design, og som i sammenhæng medierer engagement. Gennem en diskussion af begrebet motivation argumenteres der for, at museer kan skabe engagement ved at mediere mellem de besøgendes hverdagspraksis og den faglige viden præsenteret på museet. Bidragets anden og største del beskæftiger sig med tilrettelæggelse af designundersøgelser. Denne del sammenfattes gennem begrebet fiktionsrum (fictional space), som er et perspektiv på skabelsen af designrum, hvori etablerede normer og konventioner ændres eller tilsidesættes indenfor participatory designundersøgelser. Motivationen for at skabe fiktionsrum i participatory design er at invitere deltagere i design til at gentænke eksisterende praksisser og forstille sig, hvordan deres praksis kunne være, hvis eksisterende konventioner blev ændret. Denne motivation gøres mere håndgribelig ved at relatere den til de designudfordringer, som museer står overfor. Der argumenteres for, at fiktionsrum skabes gennem games of make-believe, som er medieret af props, der bemyndiger forestillingsevnen og virker som både forankrende og transcenderende elementer. Begrebet om fiktionsrum udvikles med baggrund i designteori og udfoldes indenfor rammerne af participatory design. Fiktionsrum og de begreber, der præsenteres i relation til dette, er ikke metoder eller teknikker til at udføre designundersøgeler. Disse fordrer dog refleksion og handling i relation til især tre aspekter vedrørende designundersøgelser, der specifikt søger at ændre eller tilsidesætte etablerede konventioner. For det første belyser begrebet om fiktionsrum, hvordan designundersøgelser tilrettelægges, og specielt hvordan forskellige props bruges til både at forankre design aktiviteter i nuværende praksisser og til at transcendere disse praksisser. For det andet fordrer begrebet om fiktionsrum som et produkt games of make-believe refleksion over, hvordan specifikke designundersøgelser forløber, og hvordan deltagere ændrer og tilsidesætter elementer af etablerede praksisser. Dette giver mulighed for en mere nuanceret forståelse af, hvordan deltagere forstiller sig, at deres praksis kan ændres, iiiog hvilke aspekter der indeholder mest potentiale af modstand. For det tredje giver begrebet om fiktionsrum værktøjer, hvormed designere kan reflektere over, hvordan de ideer, scenarier eller modeller, der udvikles gennem specifikke designundersøgelser, er udtryk for deltagernes gentænkning af eksisterende praksisser.
Full Text Available Wheat varieties respond differently to phosphorus fertilization. Method of P application may influence the degree of responsiveness. Three varieties of wheat viz. Punjab-96, Inqelab-91 and Pasban-90 were grown after applying Nitrophos (23:23 @ 0 or 44 kg P ha-1 by two methods, (i broadcast and incorporation at sowing and (ii fertigation at first irrigation. Grain yield and total P uptake data obtained after crop harvest showed that wheat varieties differed significantly in grain and straw yield, harvest index and 1000- grain weight. Application of P by either method increased grain and straw yield as well as total P uptake over control. Method x P interaction effect was also significant for yield, indicating higher yield response due to fertigation compared to broadcast method of P application. Where P was applied by fertigation grain yield, total P uptake, agronomic and P fertilizer efficiency were all higher in cv. Inqelab-91 compared to cv. Pasban- 90. Thus application of phosphatic fertilizer by fertigation along with selection of an appropriate variety may contribute to improve P fertilizer efficiency and increase wheat grain yield.
In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was evaluated the initial material of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in accordance with the degree of accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 as well as there were revealed the sources for selection breeding with the minimal accumulation of radionuclides. In course of the study there were presented the parameters of adaptive ability, ecological stability and radionuclide content in varieties (Dokhodnyj; Talalikhin; Fakel; F1 Sozvezdie) and parthenocarpic lines of tomato. Research results showed the substantial variability in accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 by various varieties and lines. Hybrid F1 Sozvesdie, Talalikhin variety and parthenocarpic lines 1 and 7 proved the ability to accumulate minimal amount of radionuclides. It was not proposed to cultivate at the contaminated areas the tomato variety Fakel. As a result of study there was created a hybrid F1 Sozvesdie. Its cultivation on the contaminated areas made it possible to obtain ecologically safe products
Lima Vitor Lopes de Abreu
Full Text Available Eleven samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum from different Brazilian cultivars and six American varieties were compared for polymorphism, using primers for nine different STR loci. STR analysis of DNA from single grains of the Brazilian varieties showed that for most loci there was very little intra-cultivar polymorphism. The polymorphic variation observed for Brazilian cultivars was similar to that seen in the American varieties. For the Brazilian cultivars PCR analysis could be performed on only one half of a grain. The American samples required more seeds for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of five amplified microsatellites selected at random from the Brazilian samples were also determined and compared to those of the Chinese Spring variety. Although generally the dinucleotide sequence repeat was preserved for most loci, there were significant differences in sequences interspersed within the repeat domain. This result suggested that it may be possible to unequivocally identify the geographical origin of the cultivar by inspection of the DNA sequences of the repeat region.
Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko
Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins. PMID:25053003
Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.
Full Text Available After China’s collective forest right system reform, cooperation organizations have played an important role in the development of community forestry. In order to analyze the demands and attitudes of stakeholders of community forests, a participatory approach which included brainstorming, material collection, PRA tools, semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys, was used in a forest management survey involving four village cases. According to the application of the participatory approach it can be seen that the different types of stakeholders had different demands and attitudes toward community forest management. Farmers were more focused on economic benefit while forestry bureaus were more concerned about attaining the maximum level of forestry farmers’ ecological, economic and social efficiency. Cooperative members had more positive attitudes than non-cooperative members. According to all stakeholders, the harvest quota control system is the most unreasonable policy. In addition, based on the results of the SWOT strategy analysis matrix for forest management policies and systems at the level of forestry farmers, four strategy selections are proposed.
Linda, van Laren; Ronicka, Mudaly; Kathleen, Pithouse-Morgan; Shakila, Singh.
Full Text Available Participatory educational research is generally characterised by a commitment to making a difference in the lives of those who participate in the research and more broadly, to promoting social transformation. This suggests a potentially fruitful synergy between participatory educational research and [...] the multidisciplinary body of academic work on generativity as a human capacity that has at its core a desire to contribute to the well-being of others. As a research team of teacher educators from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, we seek to add an alternative dimension to current debates on participatory educational research by focusing on understanding the 'how' and 'what' of generativity in a participatory research process. The research question we address is: How does/can engagement in participatory educational research facilitate generativity? While participatory research literature often concentrates on collaboration between researchers and 'researched' communities, we are taking a reflexive stance by exploring our own participation in our dual roles as university community members and as researchers studying our colleagues' experiences in relation to integration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related issues in university curricula. We describe how our use of the visual method of storyboarding facilitated insight into generativity in participatory educational research. Building on an earlier concept of generativity, we identify and discuss significant generativefeatures ofparticipation, playfulness, passion, and perspicacity in our research process.
Repede, Elizabeth J
Dreaming is a universal phenomenon in human experience and one that carries multiple meanings in the narrative discourse across disciplines. Dreams can be collective, communal, and emancipatory, as well as individual. While individual dreaming has been extensively studied in the literature, the participatory nature of dreaming as a unitary phenomenon is limited. The concept of participatory dreaming within a unitary appreciative framework for healing is explored from perspectives in anthropology, psychology, and nursing. A participatory model of dreaming is proposed from a synthesis of the literature for use in future research using unitary appreciative inquiry. PMID:19858516
Full Text Available This article gives insights into the work of the self-help- and research-group of the "Projekt Selbstverständigung über Drogengebrauch" as an example of participatory research in psychology. In a first step the basics of the project will be discussed by distinguishing it from other approaches in drug research, positioning it within the field of participatory research and analyzing it in regard to its theoretical basics. In a second step the practical work of the project will be described to illustrate problems that emerged as well as first solutions that could be helpful for further development of participatory research.
Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde
Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.
Alberto, Miele; Luiz Antenor, Rizzon.
Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determin [...] adas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor des [...] criptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor descriptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determinadas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante.
de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens
It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and balancing power dynamics between participants; and the provision of information and decision-making power to all participants. Participatory processes initiated or facilitated by government bodies led to significantly less trust, information gain, learning, and flexible solutions. However, in these processes, decisions were more acceptable to and likely to be implemented by governments and by those who had to apply them on the ground. These findings provide a solid empirical basis for best practice in the design of participatory processes in SLM in a number of contexts internationally, which if followed, increase the likelihood of providing beneficial environmental and social outcomes for those involved.
Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil
Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira, figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral, existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente.During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit growers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine, fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.
Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.
Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH
Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.
Full Text Available The Institut für Gerontologische Forschung e.V. investigated the "Primary Prevention Effects of the Märkisches Viertel Network" in Berlin in a research project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The study integrates various participatory methods to investigate the health promotion effects of the volunteer Märkisches Viertel Network, an organisation that brings together different local actors working to assist and encourage older people to live independent lives. In this project participation was realised in two different levels: Firstly, in the cooperation between the team of investigators and the network, secondly, in the handling with the target group of (socially disadvantaged elderly people. The experiences in both processes will be explained and critically discussed after a brief overview about the project.
Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.
Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania are likely to be too small to satisfy current local wood demand.
Andersen, Lars Bo; Danholt, Peter
This article starts from the paradox that, although participation is a defining trait of participatory design (PD), there are few explicit discussions in the PD literature of what constitutes participation. Thus, from a point of departure in Actor-Network Theory (ANT), this article develops an analytical understanding of participation. It is argued that participation is a matter of concern, something inherently unsettled, to be investigated and explicated in every design project. Specifically, it is argued that (1) participation is an act overtaken by numerous others, rather than carried out by individuals and (2) that participation partially exists in all elements of a project. These traits are explicated in a design project called ‘Teledialogue’, where the participants are unfolded as networks of reports, government institutions, boyfriends, social workers and so on. The argument is synthesised as three challenges for PD: (1) participants are network configurations, (2) participation is an aspect of all project activities and (3) there is no gold standard for participation.
Wallerstein, Nina B; Duran, Bonnie
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the past decades as an alternative research paradigm, which integrates education and social action to improve health and reduce health disparities. More than a set of research methods, CBPR is an orientation to research that focuses on relationships between academic and community partners, with principles of colearning, mutual benefit, and long-term commitment and incorporates community theories, participation, and practices into the research efforts. As CBPR matures, tensions have become recognized that challenge the mutuality of the research relationship, including issues of power, privilege, participation, community consent, racial and/or ethnic discrimination, and the role of research in social change. This article focuses on these challenges as a dynamic and ever-changing context of the researcher-community relationship, provides examples of these paradoxes from work in tribal communities, discusses the evidence that CBPR reduces disparities, and recommends transforming the culture of academia to strengthen collaborative research relationships. PMID:16760238
Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the concept of participatory democracy in the European context. In the era of globalization, tools such as Internet filled the gap between civil society and political institutions. The new information and communication technologies contribute to the involvement of citizens in decision-making process. The democratic deficit is bridged through increasingly active participation of civil society at various levels of policy. Through e-democracy tools is realized a direct action of citizens, or even certain categories, which for various reasons do not have the possibility to be informed or have voice on political decisions. In addition, the European institutions, through mechanisms of “better regulation”, promote processes of simplification rules to find a remedy for an excessive law-making.
Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.
According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine the driving factors, evaluating if components of database are enough to present each process or not.
Lotta, Andersson; Johanna Alkan, Olsson; Berit, Arheimer; Anna, Jonsson.
Full Text Available A participatory methodology, based on dialogues between stakeholders and experts has been developed and tested in the drainage area to Kaggebo Bay in the Baltic Sea. This study is focused on the EU Water Framework Directive, with emphasis on reduction of eutrophication. The drainage area is included [...] in the WFD administrative area of the Motala Strom River basin. A similar approach is now applied in a recently initiated project in the Thukela River basin, with focus on impacts of climate change on water resources. The methodology is based on the idea that a catchment model serves as a platform for the establishment of a common view of present conditions and the causes behind these conditions. In the following steps, this is followed by model-assisted agreement on environmental goals (i.e. what do we want the future to look like?) and local agreement on a remedy or mitigation plans in order to reduce environmental impact (e.g. eutrophication); alternatively to adapt to conditions that cannot be determined by local actions (e.g. climate change). By involving stakeholder groups in this model-supported stepwise process, it is ensured that all stakeholder groups involved have a high degree of confidence in the presented model results, and thereby enable various actors involved to share a common view, regarding both present conditions, goals and the way to reach these goals. Although this is a process that is time- (and cost-) consuming, it is hypothesised that the use of this methodology is two-pronged: it increases the willingness to carry out remedies or necessary adaptations to a changing environment, and it increases the level of understanding between the various groups and therefore ameliorates the potential for future conflicts. Compared to traditional use of model results in environmental decision-making, the experts' role is transformed from a one-way communication of final results to assistance in the various steps of the participatory process.
Full Text Available Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that drove the networking process. The paper discusses cycles of the participatory process undertaken for the EE networking in Mafeteng schools, including identification of problems, problem solving, and reflective workshop and study tour. Finally the paper outlines issues that emerged in participatory EE networking, which include school governance, teachers’ existing knowledge, and communication, decision-making and power relations.
Graham, Reginald A.; And Others
Describes procedures for participatory examinations, a method for achieving student collaboration in marketing education. Suggests that the method teaches students group process, persuasion, teamwork, and other skills needed in the contemporary workplace. (SK)
Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre
The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together, these insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through structured discussion and thus bridge boundaries between different communities.
R. O. Yusuf
Full Text Available Inadequacy of environmental and infrastructural resources to satisfy basic needs results in deprivation among rural people which in most cases, rapid rural appraisal and other traditional survey methods rarely adequately capture. This paper employs therefore employs participatory rural appraisal (PRA techniques to analyse these phenomena in Borno state. The objectives are to determine the seasonality of basic needs deprivation, analyse the triggers of need deprivation, and, assess the coping strategies for deprivation. PRA techniques employed are Seasonal Calendar and Force Field Analysis and 300 systematically selected participants from 9 local government areas were the study frame. The findings are that basic need deprivation is an outcome of environmental scarcities, resource capture, and failure of socioeconomic infrastructure. Episodic drought, flood, and conflict over resources triggers loss of farm harvest and livestock hence food, income and other needs there from. The coping strategies include wild food foraging, migratory fishing and praying to God which lead to the conclusion that basic needs satisfaction among the studied rural dwellers in Borno state is below societal expectations. Recommendations for improvement were proffered.
A Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the varietal differences of wheat for shoot dry weight, 13C-discrimination, total N-yield and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Four wheat varieties were exposed to different watering regimes (i.e., W0 as normal irrigation of W1 as water stress) during the following growth periods: (i) from 3-leaf stage to third nod stage; (ii) from 3 nod stage to heading; and (iii) from heading to milk-dough stage. For drought recovery study, the experiment included another three water regime treatments induced by varying the irrigation of plants during the selected growth periods (i.e., W10, W100 and W010). The results indicated that water stress during the selected growth periods greatly decreased shoot dry weight, nabla value, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. The (i) and (ii) are considered critical growth periods as far as the above-mentioned parameters are considered. Expression of any tested parameter under water stress as percentage of that of the corresponding control indicated that Dalcahue, Sakha-69 and Bonadur were less sensitive to water stress than the other varieties at (i), (ii) and (iii) growth periods, respectively. On the other hand, Bonadur at (i) and (ii) growth periods and Sakha-69 at (iii) growth period were more sensitive than the other varieties. Exposing of wheat varieties to water stress during (i) and (ii) growth periods resulted in severe injury with regard to shoot dry weight, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Re-irrigation of the stressed wheat varieties, resulted in drought recovery with different magnitude depending on the variety and the growth period in which the plants were exposed to water stress. Generally, the results demonstrated that Bonadur has better capacity to recover from drought than the other varieties. Therefore, Bonadur may be considered a possible candidate for programs aimed at breeding wheat for drought recovery. (author). 34 refs, 10 tabs
Mba Okechukwu Agwu; Cletus Izunwanne Emeti
The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be primaril...
Liezel van Niekerk; Dewald van Niekerk
Participatory action research (PAR) is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, wit...
Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD), while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two wate...
With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used in the planning process, efficient geographic information gathering and relevant spatial analytical tools necessary to support the negotiation among the stakeholders are lacking. Besides, methods a...
Tiffany, Jennifer S.
This article reports on the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in participatory and community-based research. Participant-driven recruitment (PDR) retains all of the analytic capabilities of RDS while enhancing the role of respondents in framing research questions, instrument development, data interpretation, and other aspects of the research process. Merging the capabilities of RDS with participatory research methods, PDR creates new opportunities for engaging community members in resea...
Young, Juliette C.; Jordan, Andrew; Searle, Kate R.; Butler, Adam; Simmons, Peter; Watt, Allan D.
There is general acceptance that biodiversity management should be adapted to ecological scale but only recently has the precise role of scale in participatory biodiversity governance begun to be explored. We investigated stakeholder perceptions in three case studies of biodiversity management planning to understand the effect of framing a management response according to the ecological and social scale of the problem on (i) participatory processes and (ii) their social and ecological outcome...
In Bolivia, rights to increased political participation and the recognition of indigenous political systems are interrelated. The new constitution of 2009 defines Bolivia as a representative, participatory and communitarian democracy. It incorporates enhanced mechanisms and institutions for participatory democracy. Moreover, new social rights have been anchored in the constitution and a plurinational state is supposed to be constructed. The article raises the question of whether the new const...
Fuller Jeffrey; Hermeston Wendy; Passey Megan; Fallon Tony; Muyambi Kuda
Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnersh...
Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, I.J.M. de
The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production in the Netherlands. Participatory methods are used to facilitate the exchange of ideas, experiences and knowledge of all relevant stakeholders and to create a basis for implementation of the final...
Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.
Galais, Carolina; Font, Joan; Alarcón, Pau; Sesma, Dolores
In this article we analyse the effects of different data collection strategies in the study of local participatory experiences in a region of Spain (Andalusia). We examine the divergences and similarities between the data collected using different methods, as well as the implications for the reliability of the data. We have collected participatory experiences through two parallel processes: a survey of municipalities and web content mining. The survey of municipalities used two complementary ...
Kathryn J. Draeger; Brian Stenquist; Reich, Peter B.; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Kris A. Johnson; Laura K. Schmitt Olabisi
Both scenario visioning and participatory system dynamics modeling emphasize the dynamic and uncontrollable nature of complex socio-ecological systems, and the significance of multiple feedback mechanisms. These two methodologies complement one another, but are rarely used together. We partnered with regional organizations in Minnesota to design a future visioning process that incorporated both scenarios and participatory system dynamics modeling. The three purposes of this exercise were: fir...
Meike Duespohl; Sina Frank; Petra Doell
To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN) modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition,...
Transformational socio-economic changes during the last decades of the 20th century led to the abandonment of mountainous areas in western Mediterranean countries (Puigdefábregas and Mendizábal, 1998). This process was accelerated in the Ayora Valley (inland Valencia province, E Spain) by a major forest fire in 1979. Restoration and management actions were implemented through the 1990's to promote the recovery of the area affected by this fire. In 2010 these past actions were assessed using an integrated and participatory evaluation protocol (IAPro). The selected actions were shrubland regenerated after the fire (no-action); pine plantation over the shrubland; pine forest regenerated after the fire (no-action); and thinning of densely regenerated pines. The assessment involved the identification and engagement of a comprehensive and representative set of local and regional stakeholders who provided a baseline assessment, identified and prioritized essential indicators, considered data collected against those indicators, and participated in re-assessment of actions after an outranking multi-criteria decision aiding integration (MCDA) conducted by the expert team (Roy and Bertier, 1973). This process facilitated a collaborative integration of biophysical indicators (i.e. carbon sequestration, water and soil conservation, soil quality, biodiversity, fire risk and forest health) and socio-economic indicators (i.e. productive, recreational and touristic, aesthetic, and cultural values, cost of the actions, and impact on family finances). It was completed with activities for exchanging experiences and sharing knowledge with the platform of stakeholders. Stakeholder platform suggested that fire risk was the most important indicator, followed by water conservation and soil conservation. Least important indicators were cost of actions, aesthetic value, and recreational and touristic value. Data collected on each action showed the thinned pine forest action with the lowest value on the fire risk criterion; shrubland had a fire risk three times higher, whereas pine plantation and dense pine forest showed a fire risk four times higher than thinned pine forest. Thinned pine forest showed the highest impact on family finances, as well as productive, cultural, recreational and touristic, and aesthetic values. The best value on forest health corresponded to shrubland, and the worst were the dense pine forest and thinned pine forest. Pine plantation showed the highest cost, whereas no-actions had not direct costs. The rest of indicators showed low or inexistent differences between actions. The indicator priorities combined with data collected through the MCDA integration showed that the thinning of densely regenerated pine forest action, outranked the other actions in most of the criteria. The second action was pine plantation, whereas shrubland and dense pine forest obtained the lowest assessment. As conclusion, the participatory methodology was fundamental in understanding the impact of perceptions and stakeholders' priorities in a usually very technical and non-participatory process. Similar methodologies could enhance knowledge exchange between scientists, managers and stakeholders, while improve society-science collaboration in land management and restoration research and practice. Acknowledgements Inhabitants and other people related to the Ayora Valley kindly collaborated with our work. Some collaborators helped us in both field work and meetings with stakeholders. This research has been supported by the projects PRACTICE (EU grant number 226818), RECARE (EU grant number 603498) and GRACCIE (Consolider program, Spanish Ministry of Education and Science grant number CSD2007-00067). The CEAM Foundation is supported by Generalitat Valenciana. References Puigdefábregas, J. and Mendizábal, T. 1998. Perspectives on desertification: Western Mediterranean. Journal of Arid Environments 39: 209-224. Roy, B. and Bertier, P. 1973. La méthode ELECTRE II - Une application au média-planning. In: M. Ross (editor) OR'72. North-Holland Publis
Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.
Thakare, R. D.; Khode, P. P.; Sethi, H. N.
Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken at Nagarjun Medicinal Plants Garden from 1984 – 1987 with object to find out the suitable variety of palmarosa having high yield of foliage and oil. From the pooled analysis the variety IW – 3631 showed highest dry foliage yield (10271 KG / ha) which was significantly superior over all varieties i.e, IW 3632, IW-3630, IW RRL (B) – 65 and IW – 3629 except IW RRL (B) – 49. Oil contents and oil yield was also found to be more in variety IW 3631...
Saad-Sulonen, Joanna (ed.)
The thesis is a trans-disciplinary work on participatory e-planning. So far, participatory e-planning, as approached in the urban planning and e-planning fields, has only focused on conventional types of participation in urban planning, which are enhanced by the use of single pieces of software. This approach is not in tune with the realities of the emerging digital age and its emerging cultures of participation. These are cultures of information-centred and digitally mediated peer production...
Waade, Anne Marit
The Danish youth film ‘Lev Stærkt’ (Live strong) is recently shot in Aarhus, and as part of the release and marketing plan, the producers incorporate social media showing behind the scenes video clip as a way to include and engage the film’s target groups a year before the planned release. Using Facebook and the mobile, photo-based app Instagram as the main platforms, the producers of the movie are following the users and followers online closely to understand but also stage and direct their expectations in the relation to the movie. As such, the marketing of the movie is representing a new tendency within film and TV industry, in which behind the scene clips and comments are used in advantage to promote the product, as well as using social media as the main marketing channel (Caldwell, 2008; Gray, 2010; Johnson, 2012). Social media marketing is in itself representing a new field within branding and marketing, and there is a boom of new handbook literature describing “Everything You Need to Know to Get Social Media Working in Your Business” (Wollan & Nick Zhou, 2010). Social media makes it easy to engage the consumers as strategic communicators, it is cheap and fast compared to print and electronic media, and it demonstrates that the film company are fashion-conscious when it comes to new media and marketing tools. The history of ‘participatory culture’ might be seen in the light of digital online media, in which the boarders – following Habermas concepts - between lifeworld, public sphere and market, respectively, are getting blurred. Social media marketing illustrates this mixed culture in an excellent way. This new media culture is challenging the very understanding of media democracy in itself, and has caused a committed academic debate, of both critical and more optimistic viewpoints (e.g. Couldry, Livingstone & Markham, 2007; Gauntlet, 2011). ‘Participatory culture’ might also been seen in the light of culture policy, in which the concept of ‘cultural democracy’ and cultural citizenship – an important issue within Scandinavian social democratic culture policy history – describes a model focus on how to include and empower the citizens’ diverse cultures (Skot-Hansen, 2002). By using the online marketing strategy of Danish youth film as an example, I will discuss the different cultural values that are at stake at the same time and critically discuss how social media marketing is challenging the very concept of ‘participatory cultural citizenship’ in itself. References: Caldwell, John Thornton (2008): Production culture - Critical Practice in Film and Television, Duke University Press: London, Durham. Couldry, N., Livingstone, S. & Markham, T. (2007): Media consumption and public engagement: beyond the presumption of attention, New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan. Gray, Jonathan (2010): Show sold separately, New York: New York University Press Gauntlett, David (2011): Making is connecting: the social meaning of creativity from DIY and knitting to YouTube and Web 2.0, Cambridge, UK, Malden, MA: Polity Press. Johnson, Catherine (2012): Branding television, London: Routledge. Skot-Hansen, Dorte (2002) ‘Danish cultural policy--from Monoculture towards Cultural Diversity’, in: International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 197 - 210 Wollan, Robert Smith, Nick Zhou, Catherine (2010): Social Media Management Handbook: Everything You Need to Know to Get Social Media Working in Your Business, Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA
Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer
Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other groundwater basins in Jordan. This participatory management approach would also be useful in other parts of the world that are experiencing similar groundwater over-exploitation problems. La surexploitation des eaux souterraines prend de l'importance en Jordanie. Les demandes en concurrence ont augmenté face à des déficits permanents d'eau, situation qui a été exacerbée par la sécheresse de la dernière décennie. Cet article rend compte de l'aboutissement d'un projet dans lequel des options de gestion portant sur la surexploitation ont été développées pour l'un des principaux systèmes aquifères de Jordanie, le bassin d'Amman Zarqa. Des options pour aborder cette situation ont été développées grâce à une approche participative qui implique des fonctionnaires du gouvernement et des groupes d'intérêts variés des secteurs public et privé. Des efforts particuliers ont été faits pour impliquer les irrigants utilisant des puits, qui sont probablement ceux qui ont le plus fort impact sur les changements attendus permettant de remettre le système en équilibre. À partir des informations obtenues de campagnes rapides d'évaluation, telles que des réunions de communautés et des entrevues avec des experts techniques du gouvernement, un large jeu d'options a été identifié pour l'évaluation. Basées sur une analyse hydrogéologique, sociale et économique, cinq options complémentaires de gestion ont été recommandées pour la réalisation. Ce sont la création d'un Service Consultatif d'Irrigation, achetant les puits agricoles, fixant des limites fermes aux prélèvements des puits et aux zones irriguées, échangeant les eaux usées traitées avec des eaux souterraines, et la mise en place de mesures pour accroître l'efficacité des usages collectifs et industriels. Des combinaisons et des niveaux variés de ces options ont été regroupés en scénarios, présentant les stratégies possibles de mise en œuvre. Les scénarios ont été mis au point pour assister les décideurs, les propriétaires de puits et les autres acteurs pour atteindr
Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and individual levels. Teacher qualitative interviews monitor the intervention implementation process. Discussion Participatory approaches that actively involve parents have the potential to promote PA in ways that might be better tailored to local needs and more sustainable. Our mixed methods approach to assess the intervention efficacy and implementation employing both quantitative and qualitative measures within a cluster-randomized controlled trial may serve as a framework for evaluating public health interventions in preschool settings. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov No: NCT00987532
Hu, Mingyuan; Che, Weitao; Zhang, Qiuju; Luo, Qingli; Lin, Hui
Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment), and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1) spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2) multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3) dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales. PMID:25621604
Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales.
Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole
Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineersalike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants.
Full Text Available The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010 enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and educational characteristics as a prerequisite for e-participation and argues that social media literacy is indispensable for e-participation to be sustainable. Young people’s affinity spaces (Jenkins, et.al., 2006 can only lay down the foundations for social media literacy, but their further development depends on education. Political Education would be well advised to adapt innovative pedagogical approaches to the acquirement of new media literacy. This paper introduces an exemplary educational tool – predominately but not exclusively for political/civic education – namely the website PoliPedia.at. Teachers can use it to deliberately create a balanced space for collaboration between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives. PoliPedia – as a participative online tool – has the potential to facilitate participation experience in political/civic education and supports social media education. Thereby the embedding of technology in pedagogical and societal conceptualizations is crucial.
Gronvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo
The healthcare sector is undergoing large changes in which technology is given a more active role in both in-clinic and out-of-clinic care. Authoritative healthcare models such as compliance and adherence which relies on asymmetric patient doctor relationships are being challenged as society, patient roles and care contexts transforms, for example when care activities move into non-clinical contexts. Concordance is an alternative model proposed by the medical field that favours an equal and collaborative patient-doctor relationship in the negotiation of care. Similarly, HCI researchers have applied diverse models of engagement in IT design ranging from authoritative models (e.g. perceiving people as human factors to design for) to more democratic design processes (e.g. Participatory Design). IT design has also been crafted as on-going processes that are integrated parts of everyday use. Based on the best practice of participation from the medical and the HCI fields, we identify critical alternatives for healthcare design. These alternatives highlight opportunities with ongoing design processes in which the design of care regimens and care IT are perceived as one process.
Higgitt, D. L.
Singapore is a highly urbanised environment experiencing tropical monsoon hydrological regimes. A heavily engineered fluvial system has been developed over time to provide efficient drainage and reduce the area subject to flood risk. However, recent interest in ecosystem-based approaches to river management and the enhancement of the aesthetic and ecological 'quality' of riverine landscape, coupled with concerns about climate change, has challenged the prevailing engineering view. This is reflected in the Public Utility Board (PUB) ABC Waters Programme, which also seeks to develop community interest in riverine environments and engagement with water-related concerns. As part of a programme developing participatory GIS (PGIS) with school and university students, we have undertaken applications involving participant observation, reporting and analysis of water quality data and habitat quality based on a simplified version of the UK Environment Agency's River Habitat Survey. From an educational perspective, there is evidence that these PGIS initiatives raise environmental awareness and enhance geospatial thinking, particularly in relation to catchment management concepts. The extent to which participant-derived data can contribute to a citizen science of urban water quality and hence deliver some aspects of the community engagement sought after by the authorities, is a topic of debate.
Full Text Available In Madagascar – a biodiversity hotspot of international importance – the villagers depend on the forest first for its soil as a reserve of arable land as well as a shelter and a pasture for the herds, and second for the production of timber, charcoal and other forest products. Most of the currently proposed conservation management systems for forests do not take into consideration villagers’ needs, in Madagascar too; indeed degradation and deforestation have continuously occurred in places where the forest is under great pressure. In targeting the improvement of the livelihood of local populations and the maintenance of “multifunctionality”, especially the ecological value of the forest, the present project aims at developing scientific criteria for a sustainable management of forest landscapes in western Madagascar at a regional scale. A detailed inventory of resources and a specific understanding of stakeholder requirements and strategies will allow drawing an accurate picture of the human-forest interface. A participatory approach paves the way for realistic management criteria that are really adequate to the ecological and social situations. The management criteria will provide a tool for further discussions on landscape management in central Menabe.
Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris
The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263
Geoffrey Allan Plauché
Full Text Available This paper builds on the burgeoning tradition of Aristotelian liberalism. It identifies and critiques a fundamental inequality inherent in the nature of the state and, in particular, the liberal representative-democratic state: namely, an institutionalized inequality in authority. The analysis draws on and synthesizes disparate philosophical and political traditions: Aristotle’s virtue ethics and politics, Locke’s natural rights and idea of equality in authority in the state of nature (sans state of nature, the New Left’s conception of participatory democracy (particularly as described in a number of under-utilized essays by Murray Rothbard and Don Lavoie, and philosophical anarchism. The deleterious consequences of this fundamental institutionalized inequality are explored, including on social justice and economic progress, on individual autonomy, on direct and meaningful civic and political participation, and the creation and maintenance of other artificial inequalities as well as the exacerbation of natural inequalities (economic and others. In the process, the paper briefly sketches a neo-Aristotelian theory of virtue ethics and natural individual rights, for which the principle of equal and total liberty for all is of fundamental political importance. And, finally, a non-statist conception of politics is developed, with politics defined as discourse and deliberation between equals (in authority in joint pursuit of eudaimonia (flourishing, well-being.[Note: The following font file may be useful for viewing the Greek characters in the Word file above: SPIONIC_.TTF.
Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)
Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of sensor data verification in Participatory Sensing (PS systems using an air quality/pollution monitoring application as a validation example. Data verification, in the context of PS, consists of the process of detecting and removing spatial outliers to properly reconstruct the variables of interest. We propose, implement, and test a hybrid neighborhood-aware algorithm for outlier detection that considers the uneven spatial density of the users, the number of malicious users, the level of conspiracy, and the lack of accuracy and malfunctioning sensors. The algorithm utilizes the Delaunay triangulation and Gaussian Mixture Models to build neighborhoods based on the spatial and non-spatial attributes of each location. This neighborhood definition allows us to demonstrate thatit is not necessary to apply accurate but computationally expensive estimators to the entire dataset to obtain good results, as equally accurate but computationally cheaper methods can also be applied to part of the data and obtain good results as well. Our experimental results show that our hybrid algorithm performs as good as the best estimator while reducing the execution time considerably.
Grönvall, Erik; Kyng, Morten
Participatory design (PD) activities in private homes challenge how we relate to the PD process, compared to PD in professional settings. Grounded in a project related to chronic dizziness among older people, we identified four challenges when performing PD with ill, weak users in their private homes. The challenges are (1) designing for, and negotiating knowledge about, the home, (2) ill, weak users and their participation in PD, (3) divergent interests of participants and (4) usable and sustainable post-project solutions. These challenges have to be carefully addressed, and we use them to reflect upon differences between a home-based PD process with non-workers, such as ours, and work-place projects, such as Utopia. Through this reflection, the paper contributes to a more general discussion on PD in non-work settings with weak users. Indeed, differences do exist between traditional PD projects in work settings, such as Utopia, and home-based PD with weak users especially in relation to knowledge about settings and how to reconcile differences in interests. The home as a place for (technology-assisted) treatment and PD must be carefully analyzed. Diverse interests and roles as well as possibilities for post-project solutions should be negotiated among all stakeholders.
Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.
Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemplary cases that explore this focus on place and situated deliberation to further motivate research in that direction. The first case concerns the different qualities of in-situ reflection and action on proposed changes to the cityscape in contrast to ex-situ reflection and action on those changes. The second case focuses on providing immersive information about citizens’ own living environment on the spot for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.
Bovo, Barbara; Carlot, Milena; Fontana, Federico; Lombardi, Angiolella; Soligo, Stefano; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana
Nowadays grape marc represents one of the main by-product of winemaking. Many South Europe countries valorize this ligno-cellulosic waste through fermentation and distillation for industrial alcoholic beverage production. The storage of marcs is a crucial phase in the distillation process, due to the physicochemical transformations ascribed to microbial activity. Among the methods adopted by distillers to improve the quality of spirits, the use of selected yeasts has not been explored so far, therefore in this work we evaluated the selection criteria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for grape marc fermentation. The proposed selection procedure included three steps: characterization of phenotypical traits, evaluation of selected strains on pasteurised grape marc at lab-scale (100 g) and pilot-scale fermentation (350 kg). This selection process was applied on 104 strains isolated from grape marcs of different origins and technological treatment. Among physiological traits, ?-glucosidase activity level as quality trait seems to be only partially involved in increasing varietal flavour. More effective in describing yeast impact on distillate quality is the ratio higher alcohols/esters that indicates strain ability to increase positive flavours. Finally, evaluating grape marc as source of selected yeasts, industrial treatment rather than varietal origin seems to shape strain technological and quality traits. PMID:25475330
Stringer, L. C.; Fleskens, L.; Reed, M. S.; de Vente, J.; Zengin, M.
Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be recognised and considered in decision-making about SLM, whether it has been formally codified or not. The approach presented in this paper provided this opportunity and received positive feedback from stakeholders.
Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens
The key element in participatory innovation is to understand innovation as a social problem solving process between different stakeholders. The social dynamics amongst stakeholders are fundamental to the participatory process and outcome, and it’s therefore beneficial for facilitators and stakeholders themselves to understand their relations and what it means to participate. We argue that we can grasp these social dynamics of participatory innovation through play. From a management perspective we study how playing games helps us to understand these dynamics, while from an interaction design perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co-opetition where individual and group goals are conflicting. Drawing on observations and video data of the game being played by the participants of the conference, we study how different group compositions deal with novelty. From here we explain how the process of play can help to grasp the social dynamics of participatory innovation, and outline design strategies to do this.
Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne
This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????,Participatory Learning Process to Build Capacity of Families in Solving Alcohol Problems in Ban Sanpabong, Sanpamuang Sub-district, Muang district, Phayao Province
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Felt, Laurel J.; Vartabedian, Vanessa; Literat, Ioana; Mehta, Ritesh
This paper discusses the design and implementation of a participatory culture pedagogy in the context of a pilot after-school program at LAUSD's Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools. Ethnographic fieldnotes, instructor and student reflections, photographs, video recordings, and student work illustrate the program's culture of participatory…
Hujala, T.; Khadka, C.; Wolfslehner, B.; Vacik, H.
Aim of study: This review presents the state-of-art of using computerized techniques for problem structuring (PS) in participatory forest planning. Frequency and modes of using different computerized tool types and their contribution for planning processes as well as critical observations are described, followed by recommendations on how to better integrate PS with the use of forest decision support systems. Area of study: The reviewed research cases are from Asia, Europe, North-America, Africa and Australia. Material and methods: Via Scopus search and screening of abstracts, 32 research articles from years 2002-2011 were selected for review. Explicit and implicit evidence of using computerized tools for PS was recorded and assessed with content-driven qualitative analysis. Main results: GIS and forest-specific simulation tools were the most prevalent software types whereas cognitive modelling software and spreadsheet and calculation tools were less frequently used, followed by multi-criteria and interactive tools. The typical use type was to provide outputs of simulation–optimization or spatial analysis to negotiation situations or to compile summaries or illustrations afterwards; using software during group negotiation to foster interaction was observed only in a few cases. Research highlights: Expertise in both decision support systems and group learning is needed to better integrate PS and computerized decision analysis. From the knowledge management perspective, it is recommended to consider how the results of PS —e.g. conceptual models— could be stored into a problem perception database, and how PS and decision making could be streamlined by retrievals from such systems. (Author)
Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship
Rene, Loewenson; Walter, Flores; Abhay, Shukla; Maija, Kagis; Amuda, Baba; Ashraf, Ryklief; Clara, Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay, Kakde.
Full Text Available By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes re [...] sults of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.
Full Text Available Linking sociological, artistic, and participatory elements in research has far-reaching consequences for research practice on the whole. The artistic approach represents a difference to everyday and sociological manners of thinking and acting. This difference not only determines other questions and points of view, but also opens up special communication and reflection spaces in research fields. This, in turn, is of great value for both the participatory and the sociological approach. In this article I depict the relevance of the artistic approach for participatory practice in sociological research. My remarks are limited to the first phase of research. On the basis of a project example, I portray my own special research practice by reflecting on aspects of research design and aspects of communication among those involved.
Katherine A. Daniell
Full Text Available Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory research community. We also assume that the diversity of participatory forms of research is rarely considered by potential participants when they make their decisions about whether or not to participate in a proposed process. We specifically address how to avoid stakeholders’ reluctance to be involved in participatory research projects based on disillusion with past experiences. We argue that the disappointment experienced by stakeholders and other participants (i.e., researchers and policy makers can be avoided by being upfront and precise about how “participation” will be implemented, and what kind of involvement is expected from participants. Such a collective effort from the research community can also clarify the variety of possible implementations for potential participants. Building on earlier efforts to characterize and categorize the diversity of participatory research approaches, we develop a conceptual analytic procedural framework to make participants’ roles explicit in the implementation of different participatory research processes. This framework consists of three facets: (1 the flows of information among participants and the control over these flows for each step in a process, i.e., who will be expected to produce information, who will use this information, and who will receive the results; (2 the timing of the involvement of participants in the different steps of the research process, and the framing power that is associated with each process step; and (3 the organization of communication among participants for each information flow, i.e., in what configuration (bilaterally or as a group, mediated or face to face the interactions among researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers will take place. This framework can accommodate a wide variety of research methods, and highlights exactly how participants are involved in research processes. We are prescriptive in dealing with the need to be procedurally explicit when engaging in participatory research. We anticipate that using this framework will lead to more thoughtful acceptances or refusals to participate in proposed research processes. Our framework is based on various experiences with participatory research. It is intended to be used from the very beginning of a participatory research process as a conceptual guide for researchers. We suggest a protocol to transform it into more practical guidelines for communicating about upcoming participatory research processes. The leader of such processes should propose at each key stage an explicit, yet adaptive, plan for the following stages. This plan should also specify in what ways participants will be involved, and how the plan itself can be questioned and revised.
Full Text Available To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition, strengths and limitations of BNs are synthesized. We found that BNs were successfully applied for knowledge integration and identification of sustainable management strategies within participatory processes. Due to many favorable characteristics, BNs have the potential to become a core method of transdisciplinary knowledge integration in environmental management.
Full Text Available Dance, music, and oral narratives are an important and vibrant part of cultural practice and heritage in Timor-Leste. But while Timorese people have used such creative methods and processes during rituals, celebrations, and their fight for independence, today arts and artistic expression become an increasingly popular strategy in development cooperation. Especially diff erent forms of so-called participatory theater with origins in development cooperation, arts, and social movements, present themselves as innovative, participatory, and well applicable in terms of capacity building and stimulating positive social transformation. Based on the author’s experience and observations, this article critically examines the alliance between various stakeholders in Timor-Leste engaging with the fact that the current scene of participatory theater can hardly be seen as an independent grassroots or even social movement, rather than an initiated top-down process by donors with specific agendas.
Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita
The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation between experts from different (sub-)fields need to be situated and tailored to provide effective support even if the common aspects of the data need to be described by ontologies that are generic in respect to the sub-disciplines involved. To understand and approach this design problem, we apply a semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user's communication with herself, himself or other users of the software. Tailoring or “end-user development” – i.e. adapting the knowledge-management system to a specific (sub-)discipline, task or context – then refines both the message and adapts the structure of the interaction to the situated requirements. The essential idea of this paper is to define a new perspective for designing and developing interactive systems to support collaborative knowledge management. The key concept is to involve domain experts in participatory knowledge design for mapping and translating their professional models into the proper vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can be defined. Finally, the results of applying our approach to a real-world case in an archaeological context are presented.
Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.
The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.
Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M
Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215
Full Text Available Participation is a prominent feature of many decision-making and planning processes. Among its proclaimed benefits is its potential to strengthen public support and involvement. However, participation is also known for having unintended consequences which lead to failures in meeting its objectives. This article takes a critical perspective on participation by discussing how participation may influence the ways in which citizens can become involved. Participation unavoidably involves (1 restrictions about who should be involved and about the space for negotiation, (2 assumptions about what the issue at stake is, and (3 expectations about what the outcome of participation should be and how the participants are expected to behave. This is illustrated by a case study about the Dutch nature area, the Drentsche Aa. The case study demonstrates how the participatory process that took place and the restrictions, assumptions, and expectations that were involved resulted in six forms of citizen involvement, both intended and unintended, which ranged between creativity, passivity, and entrenchment. Based on these findings, the article argues that participation does not merely serve as a neutral place in which citizens are represented, but instead creates different categories of citizens. Recognizing this means reconceiving participation as performative practice. Such a perspective goes beyond overly optimistic views of participation as a technique whose application can be perfected, as well as pessimistic views of participation as repression or domination. Instead, it appreciates both intended and unintended forms of citizen involvement as meaningful and legitimate, and recognizes citizenship as being constituted in interaction in the context of participation.
Chin, George, Jr.
Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.
Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.
Wright Christopher D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are popular molecular markers in many plant species due to their stable and highly polymorphic nature. A number of analysis methods have been described but analyses of these markers are typically performed on cumbersome polyacrylamide gels or more conveniently by capillary electrophoresis on automated sequencers. However post-PCR handling steps are still required. High resolution melting can now combine detailed sequence analysis with the closed-tube benefits of real-time PCR and is described here as a novel way to verify the identity of plant varieties such as grapevine and olive. Results DNA melting profiles for various plant variety and rootstock samples were compared to profiles for certified reference samples. Two closely related grapevine rootstocks differing by as little as a single di-nucleotide repeat could be rapidly differentiated while there was high reproducibility of melting profiles for identical cultivars. Conclusion This novel microsatellite analysis method allows high sample throughput with greatly reduced time to results for varietal certification and is amenable to other microsatellite analyses.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs. Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data. Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different standard mapping file formats (e.g. ESRI, MapInfo, CSV. Discussion Based on the evaluation of Phase 1, the PD process has served both as a facilitator and a barrier. In terms of successes, the PD process identified two key components that are important to users: increased data/map sharing functionality and interoperability. Some of the challenges affected developers and users; both individually and as a collective. From a development perspective, this project experienced difficulties in obtaining personnel skilled in web application development and GIS. For users, some data sharing barriers are beyond what a technological tool can address (e.g. third party data. Lastly, the PD process occurs in real time; both a strength and a limitation. Programmatic changes at the provincial level and staff turnover at the organizational level made it difficult to maintain buy-in as participants changed over time. The impacts of these successes and challenges will be evaluated more concretely at the end of Phase 2. Conclusion PD approaches, by their very nature, encourage buy-in to the development process, better addresses user-needs, and creates a sense of user-investment and ownership.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out the role of participatory approach in community development. Barani Area Development Project is one of Govt: sponsored project, which was started in 2001. The aim of this project was to encourage community and ensure maximum participation to sustain the project in district kohat. Kalabat, Jangle Khail , Lachi ,Usterzo and Kachi were selected for this study. Proportion allocation method of sampling was used for the selection of respondents, 150 community members were selected out of 9000 population and 50 stockholders of Barani Project were selected out of 70 population for this study. The researcher used questionnaire for educated respondents and interview schedule for illiterate respondents. The study indicates that Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA is one of the most appropriate approaches for the identification of community problems and for understanding the socio-economic and cultural aspects of the community. The beneficiaries were well aware about participatory rural appraisal (PRA and its use because of the proper introduction and implementation in area by Barani Area Development Project (BADP. Due to PRA, the output of agriculture, livestock and forestry has risen, which has ultimately raised the socio-economic conditions of the community. The PRA training in agriculture is with special emphasis on land cultivation, preparations, fertilizer and pesticides usage has risen and helpful in producing more yields. In livestock sector they gave training on breed improvement in area and as a result livestock breed and milk products have improved in the area. In forestry sector they gave training on nursery raising and bee keeping etc to generate various ways for income. Thus through the PRA trainings and usage the community has a chance to earn more livelihoods and to satisfy their needs easily. Thus BADP used PRA approach in the area to empower the community through self-help and self-decision for participation in any developmental activities without any discrimination among the community members. The PRA tools used are helpful to the whole community, and they will easily identify their problems not only to agriculture sector but also in livestock and forestry sector. The community was satisfied from PRA role because they will ensure maximum participation through CBO/VO/WO etc. for the community development. The researcher recommended some suggestions to overcome the obstacles in front of PRA implementation and bringing Development in agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors through Barani Area Development Project.
Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Research and Training; Pollard, Simon; Twigger-Ross, Clare [National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, London (United Kingdom)
Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency.
Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency
Scantlebury, C E; Zerfu, A; Pinchbeck, G P; Reed, K; Gebreab, F; Aklilu, N; Mideksa, K; Christley, R
Epizootic lymphangitis (EZL) is reported to have a significant impact upon livelihoods within resource-poor settings. This study used a participatory approach to explore peoples' experiences of EZL and examine the perceived impact of disease, owner knowledge and understanding of EZL, lay management of disease and, attitudes and strategies towards disease prevention. Focus-group discussions were held with 358 cart-horse owners and drivers recruited from 7 towns attended by SPANA (Society for the protection of animals abroad) mobile veterinary clinics and 2 unexposed towns where no SPANA clinics were available. Focus group discussions explored four main research questions: (1) Is EZL recognised by animal owners, and is this considered an important disease in equids? (2) What factors do animal owners associate with the development of disease? (3) What happens to an animal with clinical disease and how does this impact upon the owner/community? (4) Are measures taken to reduce disease occurrence? These key areas were explored using photographs, disease ranking, matrices and open discussion. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The results are presented thematically and include: recognition and descriptions of EZL, treatment strategies used, disease priorities and ranking, impact of disease, disease transmission and attitudes and approaches to disease prevention. EZL was widely recognised and ranked highly as an important disease of equids. However, there was uncertainty around identifying early cases of EZL, and this could impact upon the timing of initiating treatment and separating potentially infectious animals. People had varying knowledge of effective methods for disease prevention and reported particular difficulties with isolating infected animals. The impact of EZL was multi-dimensional and encompassed effects upon the horse, the individual owner and the wider society. Working equids provide a vital utility and source of income to many people in resource-poor settings. Often, infection with EZL resulted in a reduction in working ability which had a direct impact upon the livelihoods of owners and their dependent family members. EZL also impacted upon the welfare of the horse as sick animals continued to be worked and, in advanced cases, horses were abandoned due to ineffective or unavailable treatment. This study conceptualises the importance of EZL due to the effects of the disease on the horse and its impact upon human livelihoods. Epizootic lymphangitis is a neglected disease that requires further investigation in order to develop practical and sustainable disease control strategies within endemic regions. PMID:25980831
Scolobig, A.; Bayer, J.; Cascini, L.; Ferlisi, S.
With escalating costs of landslide risk mitigation and relief, a challenge for local authorities is to develop landslide risk mitigation measures that are viewed as efficient, feasible and fair by the many stakeholders involved. Innovative measures and the participation of stakeholders in the decision making process are essential elements in developing effective strategies to deal with the ever-changing spatial and temporal patterns of landslide risk. A stakeholder-led policy process, however, can face many social and economic challenges. One of the most difficult is deciding between costly protection measures or relocating homes. Particularly in areas with high population density, protection works are often not built because of economic/environmental constraints or private interests of the local residents. At the same time it not always possible to relocate households even if the costs are deemed less than protecting them. These issues turned out to be crucial in a recent participatory process for selecting risk mitigation measures in the town of Nocera Inferiore, Southern Italy, which experienced a landslide in 2005 causing three fatalities. The paper reports on this process which was structured in a series of meetings with a group of selected residents and several parallel activities open to the public. The preparatory work included semi-structured interviews carried out with key local stakeholders and a public survey eliciting residents' views on landslide risk mitigation. After describing the background of the landslide risk management problem in Nocera Inferiore, the paper focuses on three packages of risk mitigation measures (each of them not exceeding a total cost of 7 million Euro, namely the available funds) and the key trade-offs that emerged during the meetings with the residents. The participants reached a unanimous consensus on fundamental priorities, i.e. the improvement of the warning system, the implementation of an integrated system of monitoring and territorial survey and the stabilization of the open slopes with naturalistic engineering works. Much more debate was devoted to the relocation of residents from the most endangered areas and/or the need to build passive structural works, especially on private properties. Notwithstanding the difficulties in reaching a shared "compromise solution" for risk mitigation, the results demonstrate the value of citizen participation in landslide risk mitigation decisions and highlight the role that participation can play in risk management more generally.
Participatory mapping attempts to engage youth in the generation of personalized maps, as a way to both harness the value of individual knowledge about geographic space, and to concurrently empower the research participants by inviting them to take an active stake in the representation and explication of their spatial environment. Engagement in…
Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Ceja-Adame, Maria De La Paz; Reyes-García, Victoria
Abstract Strengthening links between school and community is critical for improving people’s participation in environmental issues. However, Mexican education programmes are generally unrelated to rural students’ life experience and are planned without considering either teachers’ or students’ opinions. This paper describes the participatory construction of a preparatory school environmental education programme in Ixtlan de Juarez, a Mexican indigenous community internationally rec...
Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel
This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…
Capila, Anjali; Bhalla, Pragati
Youth constitute an important section of our society. They are the biggest reservoir of human resources and are the future of our country. Their development has direct affect on the development of the nation. Street Theatre is not a moment's act. It is a participatory approach which deals with fictional narratives and thus used for communicating…
This article describes Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) of measuring participants' reaction to the training. PATEM provides rich information; allows to document evaluation findings; becomes organic part of the training that helps participants process their experience individually and as a group; makes sense to participants; is an…
Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale
Purpose: This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents' competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents. Design and Methods: Seven unit-specific PAR…
Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan
Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study,…
Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike
This paper describes a joint investigation of a Herero wedding ceremony as a sample of cultural content to be digitalized. We have through participatory exploration scrutinized embodied media bias and representation with Herero elders in Namibia. One finding is that this method has enabled the elders to be active agents in the digital portrayal and construction of their culture.
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche
American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…
Goessling, Kristen; Doyle, Carol
This article describes how counseling psychology graduate students collaborated with high school students in a participatory action research project called, Thru the Lenz. This project was created in order to gain insight into the lives, experiences, and communities of the students. It utilized photography, creative processes, and a humanistic…
Sappington, Neil; Baker, Paul J.; Gardner, Dianne; Pacha, Joe
This study proposes participatory action research as a signature pedagogy for principal preparation programs. Signature pedagogies bring professional knowledge and core values together in distinctive teaching and learning arrangements. A rationale and learning results are presented that describe key components of action research intended to help…
This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…
Darroch, Francine; Giles, Audrey
Within Canada, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become the dominant methodology for scholars who conduct health research with Aboriginal communities. While CBPR has become understood as a methodology that can lead to more equitable relations of power between Aboriginal community members and researchers, it is not a panacea. In…
Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga
This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included in this paper along with future research directions.
Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…
Laing, A C; Cole, D C; Theberge, N; Wells, R P; Kerr, M S; Frazer, M B
A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory in which an ergonomics change team was formed, composed of members from management, the organized labour union and the research team. It was hypothesized that the participatory nature of this change process would result in enhanced worker perceptions of workplace communication dynamics, decision latitude and influence, which in conjunction with anticipated mechanical exposure reductions would lead to reduced worker pain severity. Utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group, a quasi-experimental design was employed with a longitudinal, repeat questionnaire approach to document pre-post intervention changes. Nine participatory activities (psychosocial interventions) were implemented as part of the process. Communication dynamics regarding ergonomics were significantly enhanced at the intervention plant compared to the referent plant. However, there were no significantly different changes in worker perceptions of decision latitude or influence between the two plants, nor did pain severity change. Possible explanations for these results include limited intervention intensity, context and co-intervention differences between the two plants, high plant turnover reducing the statistical power of the study and lack of sensitivity and specificity in the psychosocial measures used. Further research should include the development of psychosocial tools more specific to participatory ergonomic interventions and the assessment of the extent of change in psychosocial factors that might be associated with improvements in pain. PMID:17510824
Kapitan, Lynn; Litell, Mary; Torres, Anabel
When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced…
Barish, Diane J.
This study questions whether or not participatory action research is an effective and practical method for increasing learning transfer of recovery-based principles. The participants (N = 250) were ethnically and educationally diverse clinicians, in an urban state mental health institute. The Self-Assessment of Recovery-Based Behaviors survey ( n…
Pastoors, M.A.; Ulrich, Clara
The legitimacy of the scientific underpinning of European fisheries management is often challenged because of perceived exclusion of fishers knowledge and the lack of transparency in generating scientific advice. One of the attempts to address this lack of legitimacy has been through participatory knowledge development. In this paper, we will present the results of the JAKFISH project (Judgement and Knowledge in Fisheries Management involving Stakeholders) that focussed on the interplay between different actors in constructing the underpinning of policy decisions for sustainable fisheries. We tested participatory modelling as a tool to enhance mutual understanding and to increase legitimacy and found that it can be instrumental in developing a broader knowledge base for fisheries management and in building up trust between scientists and stakeholders. However, the participatory approach may not always work. Through social network analyses we found that the number of connections and the frequency of interactions between individuals in different groups (science, fisheries, eNGOs, policy) provides an important clue on the potential effectiveness of participatory approaches. We used three concepts to evaluate the role of scientific knowledge in policy making: salience, legitimacy and credibility. In situations with high stakes and high uncertainties, the evaluation of scientific analyses for policy decisions needs to involve a broader peer community consisting of scientists, policy-makers, NGOs and fisheries in order to increase legitimacy of results. When stakes are low and uncertainties are modest, the credibility of scientific results are sufficiently addressed through traditional scientific peer review
Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel
This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…
Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.
In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b work practice improvement, and c working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1 the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2 the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on measuring the capacity development within the participatory planning process of formulation of development strategy. It starts with the discussion of how individual, collaborative and governance capacities became a part of collaborative and consensus planning, and continues with proposing the mixed method approach. Quantitative methods have been used to measure the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction that participatory approach had on the actors. Evaluation has shown significant increase in actors’ capacities during the planning process. Qualitative methods aim to reach understanding of the actors’ perception of the results of the participatory planning process they were engaged in. Local actors recognized results as the following: opportunity for gaining a new knowledge, understanding of problems, importance of information and cooperation exchange, recognition of ‘others’, capability for evaluation of plans, understanding of different roles and responsibilities, importance of team work and bundling of knowledge from different sources in problem solving, and collective action and interaction. Thus, the participatory planning holds potential as a continual process of developing the capacities of actors.
Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John
Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…
This article observes that participatory action research (PAR), by nature of being collaborative, necessitates making explicit theories of change that may have otherwise gone unseen or unexamined. The article explores the limits of the reform/revolution paradox on actions and theories of change in PAR. Citing examples from two recent youth PAR…
Buettgen, Alexis; Richardson, Jason; Beckham, Kristie; Richardson, Kathy; Ward, Michelle; Riemer, Manuel
This article presents the perspective of both non-disabled and developmentally disabled people working together in a research project on poverty and disability. Our study used a participatory action research approach that challenges the norm of exclusion in the research process. Control of the research agenda has been inclusive and shared to…
Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria
Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project "Open Air…
María Laura Pagani
Full Text Available The conceptions of participatory phenomenon are wide and generate various positions. Several authors agree that municipal government, as the face of the State closer to its citizens, is the privileged place to develop participatory public policies, which contributes to make more transparent, efficient, inclusive and democratic the government management. This proximity would allow local actors to participate in communal development processes and would enable them to diagnose problems, participating in decision-making and public policies designing and its evaluation. Moreover, it is noticed that the State transfer its duties to the society through manipulation of participatory policies, which are used as artificial means to build consensus. This article explores the fundamentals, implementation methodologies and results in four cases of participatory budgeting (in La Plata, San Fernando, San Miguel and San Martín. The main lines of analysis focused on the characterization of the projects generated by this policy, the changes in local management and the type of social participation. This research used semi structured and in depth interviews, observations, documentary research with secondary sources of information generated by municipalities (website, laws, institutional documentation, brochures, statistics and academic works produced by other researchers.
Many commentators have become increasingly concerned that the imposition of harsh austerity measures in countries such as Greece have undermined democracy. Using evidence from Brazil and Germany, Marian Schreier argues that introducing participatory budgeting would be a way to increase the transparency of austerity and help to initiate a nation-wide conversation about Greece’s future.
Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (recentralization of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.
Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s, and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.
Griffiths, Bryan S; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik
A glasshouse experiment was undertaken to provide baseline data on the variation between conventional maize (Zea mays L.) varieties and genetically modified maize plants expressing the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Bt, Cry1Ab). The objective was to determine whether the variation in soil parameters under a range of conventional maize cultivars exceeded the differences between Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. Variations in plant growth parameters (shoot and root biomass, percentage carbon, percentage nitrogen), Bt protein concentration in shoots, roots and soil, soil nematode abundance and soil microbial community structure were determined. Eight paired varieties (i.e. varieties genetically modified to express Bt protein and their near-isogenic control varieties) were investigated, together with a Bt variety for which no near-isogenic control was available (NX3622, a combined transformant expressing both Bt and herbicide tolerance) and a conventional barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety which was included as a positive control. The only plant parameter which showed a difference between Bt varieties and near-isogenic counterparts was the shoot carbon to nitrogen ratio; this was observed for only two of the eight varieties, and so was not attributable to the Bt trait. There were no detectable differences in the concentration of Bt protein in plant or soil with any of the Bt-expressing varieties. There were significant differences in the abundance of soil nematodes, but this was not related to the Bt trait. Differences in previously published soil nematode studies under Bt maize were smaller than these varietal effects. Soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, was strongly affected by plant growth stage but not by the Bt trait. The experimental addition of purified Cry1Ab protein to soil confirmed that, at ecologically relevant concentrations, there were no measurable effects on microbial community structure.
Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a newly developed model can actually be tested in a stakeholder process. Therefore the gap between stakeholders and modelers persists or is even growing. A main reason for this probably lies in the way that the work of scientists (modelers) is evaluated. What counts is the number of journal articles produced, while applicability or societal impact is still not a measure of scientific success. A good journal article on a model requires an exemplary validation but only very rarely would a reviewer ask if a model was accepted by stakeholders. So why should a scientist go through a tedious stakeholder process? The stakeholder process might be a requirement of the research grant, but whether this is taken seriously, can be questioned, as long as stakeholder dialogues do not lead to quantifiable scientific success. In particular for researchers in early career stages who undergo typical, publication-based evaluation processes, participatory research is hardly beneficial. The discussion in this contribution is based on three pillars: (i) a comprehensive evaluation of the literature published on participatory modeling and scenario development, (ii) a case study involving the development of an integrated model for water and land use management including an intensive stakeholder process and (iii) unstructured, personal communication - with mainly young scientists - about the attractiveness of multidisciplinary, applied research.
Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.
Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)
In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology (MUPARMIBO), some particular bioenergy options were recommended for each study village in two districts. The participatory approach was extended to the selection of possible projects that villagers may implement using their own resources. Some of these projects include production and marketing of improved stoves, improved fish smoking and drying ovens, and planting of multi-purpose tree species. Where villagers keep cattle under the zero-grazing system and can afford initial costs, biogas plants were recommended. The need for information on available technologies, development of skills and financing mechanisms were seen as critical elements for the adoption of bioenergy options 56 refs, 12 figs, 7 tabs
Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.
Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.
Full Text Available Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings. A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD. Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr–1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr–1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD ?107 to ?1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.
Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte
For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating communities of practice, and in what way do they promote the negotiation of a shared understanding? •Which commonalities can be derived from the participatory design of a "third space" community among communities of practice through participation in the Danish seed industry? The work will be based on preliminary field research including qualitative semi-structured interviews staging the local concept to knowledge and innovation quantified by large-scale questionnaires. A random target group will work with imaging, tagging and categorising their personal experience and thoughts of knowledge and innovation through advanced online photo diaries. The outcomes will be presented in a 3-step workshop series with representatives from the involved communities of practice. A "future workshop" will focus on commonalities and contradictions between the involved domains and how they redefine shared knowledge from their previous experience. A second workshop will focus on hands-on user experience based on a prototype predesigned from the preliminary research findings. The final workshop will build up a common knowledge discourseamong its participants, and work towards an overall requirement specification for a preferred future knowledge innovation method in the Danish seed industry. The three workshops will be recorded by video and subsequently hermeneutically analysed to determine relevant boundary objects and commonalities between the participating communities of practice.
Full Text Available This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics. The teaching itself explicitly aimed at general educational objectives, i.e., fostering students’ communication and evaluation abilities as essential components for preparing young people for active participation in society. Participatory Action Research has been used as a collaborative strategy of cyclical curriculum innovation and research. Using past experiences and selected results from accompanying research, this project and its methodology will be reflected upon from the viewpoint of the chemistry group taking part in the project. Core issues reflected upon include how the project contributed to the creation of feasible curriculum materials, how it led to innovative structures in practice, and whether it supported experienced teachers’ ongoing professional development. General considerations for the process of curriculum innovation will also be derived.
Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Nielsen, Oystein Juul
The introduction of participatory forest management (PFM) may involve the exclusion of previous forest users from accessing forest resources. This is the case for PFM in the two Ethiopian pioneer sites, Dodola and Chilimo that represent two distinct PFM approaches in Ethiopia. This paper analyses how PFM, after controlling pre-PFM differences, affects members of forest user groups (FUGs) and non-members' total annual incomes, forest incomes, expenditures and livestock asset holdings. Income and asset data were collected from 635 randomly selected households. Data were analysed using propensity score matching models. Results show that in Dodola, where commercial timber harvest is allowed, the introduction of PFM means that FUGs have higher livestock assets and forest income than non-members. The average total income and the expenditure for members and nonmembers, however, were not significantly different. In Chilimo site, the result is the opposite —the introduction of PFM means that FUG members have lower total incomes and assets than non-members. Based on our findings we recommend that the PFM scaling up approaches in Ethiopia, which currently allow FUGs only subsistence use from forest resources, need to be revised.
Abad, Enrique; Gil, Julia
A game based on student-generated multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was used to promote participatory learning and as a knowledge assessment tool in the framework of an elementary course in Photonics. Under the instructor's guidance, students were asked to author MCQs, including both question stems and four possible answers (three distractors and one correct answer). They were told that good enough questions would enter a repository from which MCQs for the final exam could be drawn. The student-generated MCQs were then reviewed by the instructor, who discarded unsuitable questions and made amendments to ensure quality standards. The resulting repository (with the key to the correct answers) was made available to the students, whereupon a subset of questions were selected by the instructor to set the MCQ test for the final exam (consisting of a MCQ test based on student-generated questions and a problem-solving part set entirely by the instructor). The MCQ repository was large enough to ensure that rote learnin...
Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason
Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others and discovering shared interests, but not necessarily changing their own view, behaviour or institutional practice. We conclude the paper with a discussion of two learning aspects of the participatory modelling process for which conflicting results were obtained: the question of depth of model scrutiny and the question of trust in the model, in the modeller and between the participants. References Krueger, T, Inman, A, Chilvers, J. 2012. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling. Paper Number EGU2012-5958. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, April 22nd-27th: Vienna, Austria.
Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George
The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction/Management (DRR and DRM). Participatory surveys (and participatory monitoring) elicit local people's knowledge about the specifics of the hazard concerning frequency, timing, warning signals, rates of flow, spatial extent, etc. And significantly, only this local knowledge from informants can reveal essential information about different vulnerabilities of people and places, and about any coping or adjustment mechanisms that local people have. The participatory methods employed in Mleta included historical discussions with key informants, village social transects, participatory mapping with children, semi-structured interviews with inhabitants, and VCA (Vulnerability & Capacity Analysis). The geolomorphological map produced on the base of the local geology has been realized with ArcGIS. This allowed the assessment of the areas at risk and the relative maps. We adapted and tested the software programme CyberTracker as a survey tool, a digital device method of field data collection. Google Earth, OpenStreetMap, Virtual Earth and Ilwis have been used for data processing.
J.K. Getchell; Vatta, A.F.; P.W. Motswatswe; R.C. Krecek; R. Moerane; A.N. Pell; T.W. Tucker; S. Leshomo
A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...
Maria F. Jorge-Monteiro; Beatrice Sacchetto; Rita Aguiar; José Ornelas
Objective: The purpose of this article is to offer a theoretical review on community based research, namely about collaborative processes and qualitative participatory methodologies, and to present an application of this framework to the research design. Method: It is provided a review on community-based research methodology, university-community partnerships, and is described the qualitative participatory methodology used in one collaborative study. Conclusion: following the partnership guid...
Monir Baradarn Eftekhari; Katayoun Falahat; Masoumeh Dejman; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Hossein Malek Afzali; Noot Heydari; Arash Mirabzadeh
Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: This study was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Thirteen community based programs related to health that were active for last fi...
Sánchez, Albert Acedo
Nowadays, participatory processes attending the need for real democracy and transparency in governments and collectives are more needed than ever. Immediate participation through channels like social networks enable people to give their opinion and become pro-active citizens, seeking applications to interact with each other. The application described in this dissertation is a hybrid channel of communication of questions, petitions and participatory processes based on Public Par...
Ndegwa, Joseph Mutitu
This thesis is concerned with development of improved management practices in indigenous chicken production systems in a research process that includes participatory approaches with smallholder farmers and other stakeholders in Kenya. The research process involved a wide range of activities that included on-station experiments, field surveys, stakeholder consultations in workshops, seminars and visits, and on-farm farmer participatory research to evaluate the effect of some improved managemen...
Bautista, Susana; Zucca, Claudio; Urghege, Anna M.; Ramón Vallejo, V.
The participation of stakeholders and the integration of scientific and local knowledge in the assessment of environmental problems and potential solutions have been increasingly demanded by international institutions. Participatory assessment has the potential to engender social learning among all stakeholders, including scientists, which then has the potential to increase collaboration and the probability for adoption of good practices. Using PRACTICE participatory assessment tool, IAPro, a number of assessment criteria were identified, selected and weighted by local stakeholder platforms (SHPs) and scientists in 18 dryland sites distributed across 11 countries. These criteria were then applied to the assessment of a variety of local land management actions. In total, around 50 criteria were proposed by the SHPs, ranging from 6 to 14 per platform. The proposed criteria represented a wide variety of social, economic, cultural, and environmental aspects. Many of them were proposed by many of the SHPs, stressing their potential as universal assessment criteria across drylands. In most cases, these repeatedly proposed criteria were the same criteria proposed by the scientific panel. The relative importance given to the variety of criteria by each SHP was evenly distributed among the economic wealth criterion and each of the main categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, supporting & regulating, and cultural). In general, African and American sites where local people economies heavily rely on natural lands gave higher weights than European sites to "economic-wealth", "provision of goods", and "supporting and regulating services" criteria, and also to "socio-cultural services". All European SHPs selected and gave great importance to criteria that are related to security, such hydrogeological hazard, flood prevention, and fire risk. The participatory assessment process in IAPro facilitated social learning among the stakeholders, including scientists, and promoted knowledge exchange at multiple levels. The change between the initial and final perspectives on the assessment criteria and the quality of the management actions assessed was considered to be a metric of the learning gained through the IAPro process. A decrease in the variability of weights and rates given by the stakeholders to each criteria and management action reflects the consensus building process that takes place during the discussion sessions.
The policy challenges associated with climate impacts, nuclear risks and an emergence of public preferences for fuel mixes have prompted many contemporary societies to adopt participatory approaches for managing energy matters. The extent to which and just how participatory approaches can work has however remained under-researched. This paper develops a normative framework for participatory governance to examine, analyse, and understand nuclear policy making processes and outcomes, with a particular reference to a case study of the UK nuclear consultation exercise in 2007. By comparing the actual consultation practice in the UK and our normative content–process–outcome framework, we found that the government approach paid insufficient attention to trust and some other normative values underpinning participatory governance, contributing to undesirable outcomes relating to policy legitimacy and public distrust. Our findings suggest that the UK government needs to pay more attention to the interaction that can occur between different rationales for participation and the processes and consequences of participatory exercises. - Highlights: • A three dimensional content–process–outcome evaluative model is developed. • We examine the limitations of the 2007 consultation. • Public distrust and three trust destroying process were found to be critical. • Complex interactions between different rationales affected participatory processes
Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira
This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain. PMID:22317739
Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the use and the consequences of Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS in a Mexican local community. A multilevel framework was applied, mainly influenced by two theoretical lenses – structurationist view and social shaping of technology – structured in three dimensions – context, process and content – according to contextualist logic. The results of our study have brought two main contributions. The first is the refinement of the theoretical framework in order to better investigate the implementation and use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT artifacts by local communities for social and environmental purposes.The second contribution is the extension of existing IS (Information Systems literature on participatory practices through identification of important conditions for helping the mobilization of ICT as a tool for empowering local communities.
Onaindia, Miren; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Peña, Lorena; Madariaga, Iosu; Ametzaga, Ibone
This work develops an approach that integrates scientific knowledge on ecosystem services and stakeholders demands to get guidelines for landscape planning strategies in the region of Biscay (Basque Country, northern Spain). In the conducted participatory process, forest multi-functionality was considered as a practicable good alternative. This process identified also a knowledge gap on the synergies and trade-offs between biodiversity, timber production and carbon storage, guiding the directions of the research actions. The results from developed spatial analysis converged with those from the participatory process in the adequacy of promoting, where possible and appropriate, natural forest ecosystems restoration. The ongoing stepwise learning strategy is already showing its effectiveness for decision making, with concrete examples of how the results obtained with the applied approach are being included in planning and decision-making processes.
Full Text Available This article reflects on how sharing documentation of subjective viewpoints on complex participatory projects can contribute to end-user development in or generativity of projects. We will discuss the documentation approaches of some participatory projects that combine the development of software and hardware in a cultural, social or health context with groups of participants with an eye on generating ongoing participation. We will also describe how we, inspired by these projects, developed 1. a “thick documentation” approach, based on a collaborative mapping method called MAP-it 2. that provides a dynamic view, revealing the diverse subjective perspectives on the project; 3. that motivates different types of makers and participants to participate in documenting; 4. that aims for generativity. We evaluated our approach on these 4 goals and propose future challenges.
Full Text Available Adopting Rancière’s principles of equality, his concepts of aesthetics and le partage du sensible as an intellectual toolbox, this paper examines how practices of participation in informal settlement development might encourage one to think differently about the relationship between politics, design and the city – contributing thus to the debate about participatory urbanism.A critical reflection of the Thai programme Baan Mankong (secure housing and its regional counterpart Asian Coalition for Community Action (ACCA – an entity aimed at creating an alternative development process in which people that were previously ignored and marginalized are engaged at the centre of a process of transforming their lives, spaces and position in the city – sheds light on such relationship in order to promote a re-conceptualisation of the role of architecture and design in the process of socially just urban development, participatory urbanism and the struggle for democracy.
Full Text Available Generative design processes have been the focus of current architectural research and practice largely due to the phenomenon of emergence explored within self-organisation, generative grammars and evolutionary techniques.These techniques have been informing participatory urban design modalities, which are investigated in this paper by critically reviewing theories, practices, and (software applications that explore multi-player online urban games, with respect to not only their abilities to facilitate online trans-disciplinary expert collaboration and user participation but also to support implementation of democratic ideals in design practice.The assumption is that even if generative and participatory parametric frameworks for multi-player design games may not replace politics as a discipline concerned with the study of government and policies of government, they may reduce the bureaucratic apparatus supporting government by establishing a direct interface between experts such as politicians, urban planners, designers, and users.
Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; Natale, Julianne
In this study we report on the economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process undertaken at a clothing manufacturer in Southwestern Ontario, Canada that employs approximately 300 workers. We undertake a cost-benefit analysis from the company perspective. Intervention costs amounted to $65,787 and intervention benefits $360,614 (2011 Canadian dollars). The net present value was $294,827, suggesting that the intervention was worth undertaking based on the costs and consequences over the measurement period spanning more than four years. Based on these costs and benefits, the benefit-to-cost ratio is 5.5. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that participatory ergonomics interventions can be cost beneficial from the company perspective. Even though the changes were typically low-cost and low-tech interventions implemented by the plant mechanics and maintenance personnel, benefits were realized on both the health and financial fronts. PMID:23237231
Gustafson, Diana L; Brunger, Fern
We consider the work of research ethics boards and funding models for research that at times are incompatible with the relationship building required for feminist participatory action research with a disability community. We explore the barriers that emerged for university- and community-based partners as they asserted individual and collective identities, and negotiated boundaries, access, and power relations in the process of designing and conducting research. This critical reflection contributes to our understanding of the structures of academic research funding, ethics approval, and how problematic conceptualizations of vulnerability embedded in the Tri-Council Policy Statement and research ethics board practices impact on relationship building and the research process. Recommendations for change will be helpful to researchers studying disability, those using participatory action research, and individuals serving on ethics review boards. PMID:24872327
Public participation has become an important element of governance in many Western European countries. However, among scholars and practitioners there is a recognition that participatory governance processes tend to produce systematic exclusions. Knowledge about 'who' participates and 'how' they participate can enhance our understanding of participatory processes. This paper presents some characterisations of citizens based on a review of the literature on participation. In addition, examples of how to tailor participation for different type of citizens are provided based on studies of urban regeneration programmes and local environmental initiatives in Denmark. The paper concludes that in order to broaden the inclusion of affected citizens, public authorities need to be tailor participation processes by applying distinct approaches to different types of citizens
Maria Vieira Silva
Full Text Available Historically, democratic and participatory processes in the Brazilian society, and specifically in school, have been permeated by intermittences, weaknesses and resistances caused by multiple determinations. The text focuses on aspects concerningthe organization of education work through two lines of analysis: the first angle refers to the social constructs of structural and organic nature linked to relations of power andanti-democratic practices of the society in general. The second angle reference to a kindof ethnographic research, conducted within a public school in the Minas Gerais state. We seek to grasp the challenges on building practices and strategies in support of the participatory processes of the school community in the pedagogic project design and in the operation of the school board. We propose, with these analyses, to contribute withreflections on the status of teachers, as a subject, in the school organization throughconnections with work activities related to their everyday practice.
Zegaye Seifu Wubishet
Full Text Available The success of Free Open Source Software (FOSS has resulted in thousands of robust and ubiquitous products such as Linux, Firefox and Apache. However, the usability of many other FOSS products is often poor, and the most successful projects are the ones where the user and the developer are one and the same. The lack of broader participation is worrying, because it threatens the entire production model of FOSS. In this paper we investigate the reasons for this situation, drawing extensively from research on participatory design and commons based peer production (CBPP, and on a case study of three FOSS projects. Potential lessons are also drawn from the CBPP model in general, and the FOSS approach in particular, to mitigate the challenges facing distributed participatory design (DPD.
Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara
Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show implications of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD from the specificities, in line with recent debate contributions.
Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard
Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...
XinQi Dong; E-Shien Chang; Melissa Simon; Esther Wong
The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR) places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and dema...
Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian
The principles of community-based participatory research were applied to an exploratory sexual health study that examined “cruising for sex” among men on a college campus. In the context of a study seeking a broad interpretation of the health implications of cruising, and when faced with methodological challenges, the researchers found these principles to provide invaluable guidance. A review of the research process is offered and the manner in which the principles of community-based particip...
Jean-Laurent Pfund; Robin Bourgeois; Yves Laumonier
The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory develo...
In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (ga...
van Manen, S. M.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.; de Moor, M. J.
Communication is key to disaster risk management before, during and after a hazardous event occurs. In this study we used a participatory design approach to increase disaster preparedness levels around Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in collaboration with local communities. We organised five participatory workshops in communities around Turrialba volcano, 2 in February 2014 and a further 3 in May 2014. A total of 101 people attended and participants included the general public, decision makers and relevant government employees. The main finding of the workshops was that people want more information, specifically regarding 1) the activity level at the volcano and 2) how to prepare. In addition, the source of information was identified as an important factor in communication, with credibility and integrity being key. This outcome highlights a communication gap between the communities at risk and the institutions monitoring the volcano, who publish their scientific results monthly. This strong and explicitly expressed desire for more information should be acknowledged and responded to. However, this gives rise to the challenge of how to communicate: how to change the delivery and/or content of the messages already disseminated for greater effectiveness. In our experience, participatory workshops provide a successful mechanism for effective communication. However, critically evaluating the workshops reveals a number of challenges and opportunities, with the former arising from human, cultural and resource factors, specifically the need to develop people's capacity to participate, whereas the latter is predominantly represented by participant empowerment. As disasters are mostly felt at individual, household and community levels, improving communication, not at but with these stakeholders, is an important component of a comprehensive disaster resilience strategy. This work provides an initial insight into the potential value of participatory design approaches for communication of hazard information.
Tira Foran; John Ward; Eric J. Kemp-Benedict; Alex Smajgl
Narratives that explore uncertain events are central to a variety of future-oriented approaches ranging from planning to community visioning. Techniques to create interesting narratives, however, have been overlooked in the peer-reviewed environmental foresight literature. We describe a participatory, multidimensional, pragmatic technique to generate qualitative foresight ("scenario") narratives. We applied this technique in the Mekong region of Southeast Asia during 11 workshops conducted in...
María Marta, Albicette-Bastreri; Marta, Chiappe-Hernández.
Full Text Available Los enfoques participativos para el desarrollo y la investigación e innovación en el sector agrario han buscado respuestas adaptadas a las necesidades de los productores utilizando diferentes metodologías, entre las que se encuentra la investigación participativa (IP). Entre 2006 y 2009 tuvo lugar e [...] n Uruguay un proceso denominado Desarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones (DPI), llevado adelante por investigadores del Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA) y productores orgánicos hortícolas, focalizado en tecnología de abonos verdes; siendo el primer caso de IP iniciado y finalizado en el sector agrario uruguayo. En este ensayo se describe una investigación evaluativa del DPI a partir de entrevistas en profundidad a productores y técnicos participantes. Se analizan fortalezas y debilidades, aprendizajes y resultados del DPI, aportando sugerencias para un próximo ciclo o para su aplicación en otros procesos participativos. Como resultado del proceso fue posible introducir la metodología en INIA, progresar en su implementación, compartir saberes entre investigadores y productores y lograr innovación con la tecnología, permitiendo aprendizaje y apropiación social del conocimiento. Abstract in english Participatory approaches for development, and research and innovation in the agricultural sector have sought answers adapted to the needs of producers using different methodologies, among them participatory research (PR). Between 2006 and 2009, a process took place in Uruguay called Participatory In [...] novation Development (PID, Desarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones), carried out by researchers in the National Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute (Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, INIA) and organic vegetable producers, focused on green fertilizer technologies; this was the first case of PR that began and was finished in the Uruguay agrarian sector. In this essay, we describe the evaluative research of PID, contributing suggestions for the next cycle or to apply in other participatory processes. As a result of the process, it was possible to introduce the INIA methodology, make progress in its implementation, share knowledge between researchers and farmers, and achieve innovation with technology, allowing learning and social appropriation of the knowledge.
Volkery, Axel; Ribeiro, Teresa
Participatory processes in scenario development have received increasing attention throughout the last years. Combining qualitative stakeholder and quantitative expert information (i.e. modelling) offers unique opportunities to mix good data, scientific rigour, imagination and expertise from different perspectives. However, this task is all but easy as it requires a careful balancing of approaches and an acceptance of different levels of knowledge and trust in different methods across disciplinary boundaries. In spite of a growing body of literature we are still in the early stages of learning how to deal effectively with participatory scenario development. In the PRELUDE project of the European Environment Agency a relatively far-reaching participatory approach to scenario development was applied: a group of stakeholders from across Europe was given full responsibility to develop long-term alternative land use scenarios in cooperation with experts and modellers. The scenarios have been used in a formal outreach process with key clients and stakeholders at the European and Member State level afterwards. The aim of this paper is to document the methods used, analyse their strengths and weaknesses and draw some general conclusions regarding participatory processes in scenario development. This paper argues that in future scenario development more attention needs to be paid to strengthen the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis. A set of compelling and coherent storylines can effectively trigger strategic conversations among policy-makers and key stakeholders about potential future developments and related response strategies. A weak integration with quantitative results can undermine this outcome, which is one of the ultimate objectives of any scenario exercise.
Schurr, Carolin; Segebart, Dörte
This paper deals with the challenges of doing fieldwork as a Western researcher in the “Global South” after the (feminist) postcolonial turn. Debates within developmental geography have addressed the politics of fieldwork, questions of positionality and collaborative, participatory ways to produce knowledge. We intend to enter this discussion to find constructive ways of conducting feminist postcolonial research. Drawing on our own experiences as German researchers and development practitione...
Mørch, Anders I.; Engen, Bård Ketil; Hansen Åsand, Hege-René; Brynhildsen, Camilla; Tødenes, Ida
Over a 2-year period, we have participated in the introduction of e-learning in a Norwegian service company, a gas station division of an oil company. This company has an advanced computer network infrastructure for communication and information sharing, but the primary task of the employees is serving customers. We identify some challenges to introducing e-learning in this kind of environment. A primary emphasis has been on using participatory design techniques during the planning stages and...
While mainstream academic literature tends to emphasise the place of ‘participatory democracy’ as key to realising the public interest in planning policy, this paper argues that the statutory framework as well as a fair judicial system both need to underpin the ideal of the public interest in planning development. The legal cases analysed in this paper illustrate why citizen participation have failed to change values or practices in Japanese planning, even in recent years. The paper demonstra...
Chao, Dingding; Kanno, Taro; Furuta, Kazuo
Before traveling, tourists need to ensure that they will have a well-organized trip, which mainly involves a smooth flow of visits to different tourist attractions by themselves or following a pre-designed plan made by tourism service providers. The present study examined how the sequence of visiting tourist attractions influences tourist satisfaction at the expectation and experience levels. Participatory simulation with a virtual environment platform was employed in the experiments to asses...
Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Guangsheng; Xin NING; Jin LUO
Agriculture informationization is the inevitable trend of the world modern agricultural development, at present it is the most main bottleneck that rural informationization progress is slow in the course of Chinese rural informationization development, the last kilometer becomes a difficult problem to solve urgently. Based on the theory of participatory rural community, this article lead to analyze the core reason why exits the endocardial power deficiency of the last kilometers problem in Ch...
Ali Mohammed Oumer; Wudineh Getahun Tiruneh; Chilot Yirga Tizale
Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG) can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholder f...
Rene Loewenson; Walter Flores; Abhay Shukla; Maija Kagis; Amuda Baba; Ashraf Ryklief; Clara Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay Kakde
By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews ...
Ng Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Ismi Arif Ismail; Gede Pramudya Ananta; Zailina Hashim; Irwan Syah Mohd Yusoff; Baba Md. Deros; Shahriman Abu Bakar; Azmin Sham Rambely
Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms? fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and cust...
Naoko OKA; Junji KOIDE; Mostafa, Harby; Satoshi SAKATA; Mekonnen B. WAKEYO; Naoya FUJIMOTO
The identification of water rights is essential to the application of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) policies. Water and agricultural land have traditionally had strong relationships. We must clarify land tenure conditions and their relationships with water rights. This paper presents the results of studies focused on the relationships between agricultural land systems and water use in several African and Asian countries. It describes different situations related to land systems an...
Abstract The purpose of the research presented in this thesis was to explore experiences from studies on participatory ergonomics methods conducted during a period of seven years. The phenomenon of interest was participative methods for implementation of best practices in order to improve conditions in different work environments. The posed research questions dealt with the usefulness and applicability of the assessed ergonomics methods/tools. One question concerned the change agents, wha...
Giupponi, Carlo; MYSIAK, Jaroslav; Crimi, Jacopo
This paper deals with the comparative analysis of different policy options for water resources management in three south-eastern Mediterranean countries. The applied methodology follows a participatory approach throughout its implementation and is supported by the use of three different software packages dealing with water allocation budget, water quality simulation, and Multi Criteria Analysis, respectively. The paper briefly describes the general objectives of the SMART project and then pre...
Islam, K.K.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Ullah, M.O.; Sato, N.
In the Forest Department of Bangladesh, a Participatory Agroforestry Program (PAP) was initiated at a denuded Sal forests area to protect the forest resources and to alleviate poverty amongst the local poor population. We explored whether the PAP reduced poverty and what factors might be responsible for poverty alleviation. We used three poverty measurement methods: the Head Count Index, the Poverty Gap Index and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index to determine the extent poverty reduction. We u...
Bugs, Geisa Tamara
This study concerns about the contributions of Web 2.0 tools to Public Participation Geographic Information System (PPGIS) and of PPGIS to participatory planning. Web 2.0 tools are increasingly occupying an important role in the universe of geographic information consciousness. Both Web 2.0 and PPGIS are about decentralization, public mapping, and local knowledge, encouraging throughout productive results. The project develops a Web 2.0 PPGIS mashup application through free, easy-...
Rambaldi, G.; Manila, A.C.
When brought at community level, Geographic Information System (GIS) applications are hardly manageable and replicable and strongly depend on outsiders¿ skills and facilities. As pointed out by Peter van Treffelen at the last GISDECO 2000 Conference held in Los Baños, Philippines, GIS facilities have been and still remain ¿islands of privilege¿. This paper focuses on Participatory Three-Dimensional Modeling (P3DM), which may effectively be considered as a bridge between the public and GIS. P3...
Hull, Pamela C.; Canedo, Juan R.; Reece, Michelle C.; Lira, Irma; Reyes, Francisco; Garcia, Erandi; Juarez, Paul; Williams, Elizabeth; Husaini, Baqar A.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers great potential for increasing the impact of research on reducing cancer health disparities. This article reports how the Community Outreach Core (COC) of the Meharry-Vanderbilt-Tennessee State University (TSU) Cancer Partnership has collaborated with community partners to develop and implement CBPR. The COC, Progreso Community Center, and Nashville Latino Health Coalition jointly developed and conducted the 2007 Hispanic Health in Nashvill...
Participatory plant breeding (PPB) seeks to involve farmers more closely in crop improvement in order to improve breeding impact. While PPB aims to reform breeding practice, there has been little analysis of the current practice breeding institutions. Such an analysis is necessary, both to understand why a breeding programme works the way it does, and to assess the possibilities of for reforms. This paper develops theories of path-dependency, social construction of technology, and actor-netwo...
David B. Resnik; Kennedy, Caitlin E
Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between scientific and community interests in several differe...
Ishak, Siti Nurul Hayatie; Nordin, Ariza
This paper presents the conceptual framework for sequencing of Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology with the implementation of i* modeling framework in capturing multiple roles requirements. There are multiple roles involved in the development of information system, thus it involves with difference users requirements and preferences, context as well as the demands which become a challenge in development of system. This is due to these roles where information of th...
Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C.; Hallberg, N.; Eriksson, H.; Lindblom, P.; Hedblom, P.; Svensson, B.; Marmolin, H.
This paper outlines a Computer-Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) system for primary care and presents from its participatory design process time consumption, costs, and experiences. The system integrates a hypermedia environment, a computerized patient record, and an electronicmessage system. It is developed to coordinate organizational learning in primary care from micro to macro levels by connecting strategic planning to monitoring of patient routines. Summing up design experiences, critic...
van der Woerd, Kimberly Ann
Research on alcohol and substance use for First Nations populations frequently describes the problem (nature and severity, risk factors), but does not often address intervention and what works well for clients who engage in treatment. This thesis provides a comprehensive participatory evaluation of the six-week residential ‘Namgis Treatment Centre (NTC) program in Alert Bay, British Columbia. Client intake files (n = 218) were reviewed for clients who participated in 17 different six-week ses...
Emerson Sebastião; Kelechi Ibe-Lamberts; Julie Bobitt; Andiara Schwingel; Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko
Introduction. Older African American women are particularly vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases and conditions. This study explored older African American women's perception of physical activity as well as facilitators of and barriers to being physically active in their local environment. Methods. Using a participatory research approach, a total of 7 women aged 65 years and over had their PA level assessed objectively thro...
Wagemakers, Annemarie; Corstjens, Renée; Koelen, Maria; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Van't Riet, Hilda; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte
Although it is recognized that community health promotion succeeds or fails by level of participation, effectiveness and benefits of community programs are underestimated, because participation is seldom monitored and evaluated. In the Dutch "Healthy Lifestyle Westerpark" program in Amsterdam, participation was both the main working principle and the main goal.Between 2003 and 2006, the Municipal Health Service (MHS) carried out a qualitative study on the background of overweight in Turkish and Moroccan women aged 25 to 45 years and on possibilities for promoting health with and for the target group. The aim of the program was to increase the women's participation and to evaluate participation levels in all phases. The research aim of this paper is to contribute to the development of participatory methods.Needs assessment and intervention development phases resulted in implementation of aerobic lessons and nutrition interventions. In the evaluation phase, participation levels were measured using Pretty's typology in focus groups.Results show that women appreciate participating in the program. Increase in physical activity was not measured. Women's knowledge about healthy food increased, women changed behavior by buying healthier food ingredients and women continued to participate.Participatory approaches facilitate participation at the desired level in the different phases of the program. Participatory approaches are time-consuming but worthwhile. Pretty's typology is useful to measure degree of participation, although methods can be improved and the meaning of participation should be reconsidered.The added value of this article is twofold: 1. it demonstrates that participatory methods and tools both facilitate and evaluate participation, and 2. it shows how to evaluate the degree of participation. PMID:19066234
Oden, Kristin; Hernandez, Brigida; Hidalgo, Marco A.
The disability community has experienced a long history of segregation and exclusion. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, discriminatory attitudes and behaviors would no longer be tolerated under law. In recent decades, disability researchers have also experienced a shift in how research projects are designed and conducted, with participatory action research (PAR) playing a prominent role. This paper provides an overview of these shifts and presents a qualitative ...
R. O. Yusuf
Inadequacy of environmental and infrastructural resources to satisfy basic needs results in deprivation among rural people which in most cases, rapid rural appraisal and other traditional survey methods rarely adequately capture. This paper employs therefore employs participatory rural appraisal (PRA) techniques to analyse these phenomena in Borno state. The objectives are to determine the seasonality of basic needs deprivation, analyse the triggers of need deprivation, and, assess the coping...
Akpo, E.; Vissoh, P.V.; Tossou, R.C.; Crane, T.; Kossou, D.K.; Richards, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Struik, P.C.
A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed system (OPSS) was conducted along a gradient of rainfall and distance to the oil palm research centre across the oil palm growing belt of Benin. The objective was to identify, jointly with key actors, the constraints in the OPSS and to assess the performance of the OPSS from a farmers’ perspective. The methodology included introductory community meetings, group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, field vi...
Theresa J. Hoeft; Burke, Wylie; HOPKINS, Scarlett E.; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B.; James, Rosalina D.; Bert B. Boyer
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR proje...
Kannapa Pongponrat; Naphawan Jane Chantradoan
Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for th...
Nilufar Matin; Maja Schlüter; Stefan Liersch; Raffaele Giordano; Geraldine Abrami; Darya Hirsch
Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provid...
Chantler, T; Cheah, PY; Miiro, G; Hantrakum, V; Nanvubya, A; Ayuo, E; Kivaya, E; Kidola, J; KALEEBU, P; M.Parker; Njuguna, P; Ashley, E; Guerin, PJ; Lang, T.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors' and investigators' experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. RESEARCH DESIGN: A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 in...
Calvache Maria-Camila; Mucciarone Danielle; Ross Laurie; Downs Timothy J; Taylor Octavia; Goble Robert
Abstract Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1) How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household enviro...
Full Text Available This paper develops a reflexive approach on the relations between research and action in works on participatory democracy; a topic in which bridges are numerous between academic, political and activist fields. It aims at analyzing the impact of the close links between sociologists and actors on the methods and results of research and, reciprocally, the role of sociology in developing participatory practices. Relying on Michael Burawoy’s reflection on “public sociology”, our own research experience in an association, and other research studies conducted in Europe, we define five ways sociologists carry out research on participatory democracy in collaboration with the actors. Beyond a reflection on the social reception of our research, the challenge is to develop a critical and committed sociology on participatory democracy with a view to contributing to the political debate and public action from a critical viewpoint.
Este artículo desarrolla un enfoque reflexivo sobre las relaciones entre investigación y acción en los trabajos sobre democracia participativa, una temática en la que los vínculos entre los campos académicos, políticos y militantes son numerosos. El objetivo es analizar el impacto de las estrechas relaciones entre sociólogos y actores sociales en los métodos y resultados de la investigación y, al mismo tiempo, el papel de la sociología en el desarrollo de las prácticas participativas. Apoyándose en la reflexión de Michael Burawoy sobre la “sociología pública”, en nuestra propia experiencia de investigación en una asociación y en otras investigaciones en Europa, se definen cinco posturas de sociólogos que trabajan en colaboración con los actores sociales sobre la democracia participativa. Más allá de una reflexión sobre la receptividad social de nuestras investigaciones, el desafío consiste en desarrollar una sociología a la vez crítica y comprometida sobre la democracia participativa, para contribuir al debate político y a la acción pública a partir de una capacidad de distancia crítica.
The concept of participation has become important in the struggle to improve the effectiveness of both the 'management of organisations' and the 'management of development'. However, NGOs may be confused about these two different though related applications of the term. The first part of the paper seeks to clarify this distinction. The author first disaggregates a range of complex issues surrounding the concept of participatory management and attempts to clarify the term. Secondly, the paper ...
OTTO, H.; Fourie, L M
Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995). What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communicati...
Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L
Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors. PMID:25904467
Zemits, Birut; Maypilama, Lawurrpa; Wild, Kayli; Mitchell, Alice; Rumbold, Alice
In the process of developing short films with women in Australian Aboriginal (Yol?u) communities in northeast Arnhem Land, questions arose about how the content and the process of production were defined and adjusted to suit both parties. This research examines how filmmakers take roles as health educators and how Yol?u women as the "actors" define and direct the film. It explores ways that the filmmakers tried to ensure that Yol?u identity was maintained in a biomedical agenda through the use of storytelling in language. An important dialogue develops regarding ownership and negotiation of health information and knowledge, addressing this intersection in a way that truly characterizes the spirit of community-based participatory research. Although the filmmaking processes were initially analyzed in the context of feminist and educational empowerment theories, we conclude that Latour's (2005) theory of actor networks leads to a more coherent way to explore participatory filmmaking as a health education tool. The analysis in this work provides a framework to integrate health communication, Indigenous women's issues, and filmmaking practices. In contrasting participatory filmmaking with health promotion and ethnographic film, the importance of negotiating the agenda is revealed. PMID:25411999
Full Text Available In this paper I analyse the potential that participatory action research holds for educating pre-service teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. I also describe the rationale for and process of engaging pre-service teachers in their teacher education programme. Involvin [...] g these candidate teachers in participatory action research (PAR) projects may provide opportunities for aspiring teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledge, examine their beliefs about teaching, and gain confidence in addressing social justice issues. More than merely exposing them to applying the technique of action research, the PAR project encouraged them to become more socially conscious, critical, imaginative and argumentative as teacher-researchers. In the project I used a participatory approach in action research to prepare the pre-service teachers to become emancipatory action researchers. Supporting and fostering inquiring practices is a strategy to help pre-service teachers move beyond just receiving hand-outs in a teacher education programme and beginning to focus on their work with learners and challenges in the real school environment.
Full Text Available Participation of stakeholders in planning processes is increasingly seen as an essential element in adaptive and integrated water management and sometimes a policy requirement from higher-level governance bodies. Despite an extensive literature on the advantages and disadvantages of public participation and criteria for effective participation, not much is known about how water managers should proceed in a given context. Water-management agencies have to face the challenge of effectively involving stakeholders in developing their water-management plans and must design and implement a balanced process approach among the available time, finances, organization, and facilitation without compromising their authority. This article presents a participatory planning process designed and implemented at Water Board "Hoogheemraadschap De Stichtse Rijnlanden" (HDSR in the center of The Netherlands. For a period of 2 yrs, these three groups were involved in various ways, participating in different types of meetings and workshops, using a range of participatory tools and techniques. The process and results of the three groups were monitored and evaluated using a tailored evaluation strategy. This paper analyzes the way the design and implementation of the process is perceived by both the conveners and participants and suggests practical lessons for water managers. Based on our case, it is argued that a careful process design, a thorough and continuous stakeholder analysis, building reflective workshops within and after the process, and ensuring experienced and qualified process leaders can greatly enhance the adaptive capacity and successful outcome of the participatory planning process.
Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual appeal. This research focuses on developing and testing a set of evaluation criteria for public participation. The advantages and limitations of these criteria are discussed in the light of a specific participatory modeling initiative. Modeling work was conducted in the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain, where uncontrolled groundwater extraction is responsible for wetland degradation and conflicts between farmers, water authorities, and environmentalists. Finding adequate solutions to the problem is urgent because the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive requires all aquatic ecosystems to be in a “good ecological state” within a relatively short time frame. Stakeholder evaluation highlights the potential of Bayesian networks to support public participation processes.
A conceptual framework for a coherent understanding of knowledge as a socially constructed resource in flux over boundaries when innovating with others is constructed. Starting with an overview of different perspectives on innovation, showing a development towards a more iterative social process perspective on innovation. Then, a similar development in the field of knowledge and knowing is presented, where the perspective changes from a divisional systemthinking towards a more relational view of complementing combinations of knowledge and knowing, recognizing the challenge of boundaries. Further, relating, cognitive social capital and the justification of knowledge are described as different but interdependent dimensions of transforming knowledge across boundaries in participatory innovation. A multi-level concept of social dynamics of participatory innovation is proposed, and a model that illustrates the generic process of how new knowledge moves between individuals, and groups within organizations when itis transformed across boundaries is offered. Next, limitations are presented, and future research is discussed, pointing towards play and games as conceptually and practically promising approaches towards grasping the social dynamics of participatory innovation.
Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L.
Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.
Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M; Jackson, Nia T; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K
The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN's primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships' priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships' adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners' perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability. PMID:25863014
Chan, T.; Ross, H.; Hoverman, S.; Powell, B.
A participatory approach was used to develop a Bayesian network model for assisting integration of water resource management in the Kongulai catchment in the Solomon Islands. This catchment provides 40-60% of the water for Honiara, the capital, and management is complex, with sparse data and many competing uses including drinking, domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses for both water and land in the catchment, as well as a range of threats from pollution, increasing population, changing land use, and variable hydrogeology. There are socioeconomic considerations including customary landownership and overlapping institutional responsibilities. A participatory process involving representative stakeholders of three main groups, the customary landowners, the government, and nongovernmental organizations, was central to analyzing the system and building trust in the model development process and model outcomes, and additionally facilitated relationship building between the different groups affecting, and affected by, the catchment. A conceptual model of the Kongulai system with respect to water was developed with all stakeholders. Further elicitation of quantitative aspects took place with a subset of water management professionals for development into a working Bayesian network model. Stakeholder representatives were then presented with the model, some analysis, and scenarios for discussion and feedback. The model provided a number of recommendations that support local management decision making, which were accepted by the wider stakeholder group. The process demonstrates the worth of a well-designed participatory approach to enhance stakeholder contributions and confirms the appropriateness of Bayesian networks for use in developing country contexts where capacity and data may be scarce.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite several years of implementation, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programmes in many resource poor settings are failing to reach the majority of HIV positive women. We report on a data driven participatory quality improvement intervention implemented in a high HIV prevalence district in South Africa. Methods A participatory quality improvement intervention was implemented consisting of an initial assessment undertaken by a team of district supervisors, workshops to assess results, identify weaknesses and set improvement targets and continuous monitoring to support changes. Results The assessment highlighted weaknesses in training and supervision. Routine data revealed poor coverage of all programme indicators except HIV testing. Monthly support to all facilities took place including an orientation to the PMTCT protocol, review of local data and identification of bottlenecks to optimal coverage using a continuous quality improvement approach. One year following the intervention large improvements in programme indicators were observed. Coverage of CD4 testing increased from 40 to 97%, uptake of maternal nevirapine from 57 to 96%, uptake of infant nevirapine from 15 to 68% and six week PCR testing from 24 to 68%. Conclusion It is estimated that these improvements in coverage could avert 580 new infant infections per year in this district. This relatively simple participatory assessment and intervention process has enabled programme managers to use a data driven approach to improve the coverage of this important programme.
Ana Flávia P, Teodoro; Rosa de BN, Alves; Leandro B, Ribeiro; Karina, Reis; Francisco José B, Reifschneider; Maria Esther de N, Fonseca; Joseane P da, Silva; Tânia da S, Agostini-Costa.
Full Text Available Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense) ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética). O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acesso [...] s de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses resultados evidenciam a diversidade dessa coleção de C. chinense para os teores de vitamina C. Abstract in english Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers) accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found). The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers [...] of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.
Época de aplicación y toxicidad varietal del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar, en Veracruz, México / Application time and varietal toxicity of the herbicide amicarbazone in sugarcane in Veracruz, Mexico
V.A., Esqueda-Esquivel; E., Rosales-Robles.
Full Text Available Durante el ciclo primavera-verano 2005, se establecieron tres experimentos en Úrsulo Galván, Ver., México, con el objetivo de determinar la mejor época de aplicación del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar en condiciones de riego e identificar la susceptibilidad de las tres principales varie [...] dades cultivadas en el estado a este herbicida. En un experimento, se evaluó el control de malezas con amicarbazone a 0,7, 1,05 y 1,4 kg ha?1 aplicado en cuatro épocas: preemergencia antes del riego de germinación, preemergencia después del riego de germinación, postemergencia temprana y postemergencia tardía. En los otros experimentos, se evaluó la toxicidad de amicarbazone a 0, 0,7, 1,4 y 2,1 kg ha-1, aplicado en preemergencia y postemergencia en las variedades de caña de azúcar Mex 69-290, CP 72?2086 y Mex 79-431. El quelite rastrero (Amaranthus lividus) fue mejor controlado con aplicaciones postemergentes de amicarbazone, a partir de 0,7 kg ha-1. Por su parte, el control del zacate Guinea (Megathyrsus maximus) fue bajo en todas las épocas de aplicación. En aplicaciones preemergentes, el amicarbazone hasta 2,1 kg ha-1 fue altamente selectivo a todas las variedades evaluadas, mientras que, cuando fue aplicado en postemergencia, ocasionó ligera toxicidad a las tres variedades de caña de azúcar, la cual fue mayor conforme se incrementó la dosis. Sin embargo, los daños desaparecieron entre los 30 y 45 días después de la aplicación y no ocasionaron reducción permanente en la altura de las plantas. Abstract in english During the 2005 Spring-Summer growing cycle, three experiments were established in Ursulo Galvan, Ver., Mexico, to determine the best time of application of the herbicide amicarbazone in irrigated sugarcane, and the susceptibility of the three main varieties grown in this state to this herbicide. In [...] one experiment, weed control of amicarbazone at 0.7, 1.05 and 1.4 kg ha-1 applied at four stages (pre-emergence before germination irrigation, pre-emergence after germination irrigation, early post-emergence and late post-emergence) was evaluated. In the other experiments, the toxicity of amicarbazone at 0, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.1 kg ha-1 was evaluated when applied at pre-emergence and post-emergence on sugarcane varieties Mex 69-290, CP 72-2086 and 79 Mex-431. Amaranthus lividus was better controlled with post-emergence applications of amicarbazone, starting at 0.7 kg ha?1. Control of Guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) was low with amicarbazone at all stages. In pre-emergence applications, amicarbazone up to 2.1 kg ha-1 was highly selective to all varieties evaluated, whereas when applied in post-emergence, it caused slight toxicity to the three sugarcane varieties, increasing as the dose increased. However, the damages disappeared between 30 and 45 days after application, without causing a permanent reduction in plant height.
Manoel Messias Pereira da, Silva; Hernan Maldonado, Vasquez; Ricardo Enrique, Bressan-Smith; José Fernando Coelho da, Silva; Eleonora D' Avila, Erbesdobler.
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos, a massa foliar específica (MFE) e as curvas de eficiência fotossintética em resposta a luz solar em oito genótipos de capim-elefante (cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 e CNPGL [...] 91-10-2) selecionados de acordo com o nível de produtividade estabelecido na época das águas. As concentrações de clorofila a (CHA), clorofila b (CHB) e carotenóides (CRT) mostraram relação altamente positiva, bem como as relações de clorofilas a/b (RAB) e de clorofila total/carotenóides (RCC). Os teores de CHA e CHB foram mais altos no genótipo taiwan A-146. Os valores de MFE observados indicaram menor acúmulo de matéria seca por unidade de área foliar para os genótipos CNPGL 91-27-5 e CNPGL 91-27-1. O estudo das curvas de eficiência fotossintética dos genótipos possibilitou a determinação da taxa respiratória no escuro (Rd), da irradiância de compensação (Ic), do rendimento quântico (f) e da assimilação fotossintética do carbono (Amax) na saturação luminosa. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e mineiro apresentaram, respectivamente, cerca de 18 e 11% mais capacidade carboxilativa que os demais genótipos avaliados. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e CNPGL 91-27-5 apresentaram valores de rendimento quântico (f) próximos aos valores médios citados para plantas C4. A Rd oscilou entre 1,64 e 3,48 mmol m-2 s-1 e o Ic, entre 26,39 e 54,97 µmol m-2 s-1 nos oito genótipos. Constatou-se que, sob condições de irradiância e temperatura não-limitantes, o genótipo taiwan A-146 apresentou maior potencial fotossintético. Abstract in english Photosynthetic pigment content, specific leaf mass (SLM) and carboxilative efficiency curves were obtained in response to sunlight in eight genotypes of elephantgrass selected according to productivities during the rainy season: cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A- [...] 146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 and CNPGL 91-10-2. Photosynthetic pigments were highly correlated, as well as chlorophyll a/b ratio (ABR) and chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio (CCR). Chlorophyll a and b contents were highest in taiwan A-146 genotype. SLM values indicated smaller dry matter accumulation by unit area for CNPGL 91-27-5 and CNPGL 91-27-1. Establishment of carboxilative efficiency curves of the genotypes allowed the determination of dark respiration rate (Rd), light compensation point (Ic), quantum yield (f) and maximum carbon photosynthetic assimilation (Amax) in light saturation. The taiwan A-146 and mineiro genotypes presented, respectively, about 18% and 11% more carboxilative capacity that the other genotypes. Genotypes taiwan A-146 and CNPGL 91-27-5 showed values of quantum yield (f) close to the average values reported for plants C4. Dark respiration rates varied between 1.64 and 3.38 µmol m-2 s-1 and Ic varied from 26.39 to 54.97 µmol m-2 s-1 in the eight genotypes. This study revealed that, under non limiting irradiance and temperature conditions, genotype taiwan A-146 presented highest photosynthetic rates.
Manoel Messias Pereira da Silva
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos, a massa foliar específica (MFE e as curvas de eficiência fotossintética em resposta a luz solar em oito genótipos de capim-elefante (cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 e CNPGL 91-10-2 selecionados de acordo com o nível de produtividade estabelecido na época das águas. As concentrações de clorofila a (CHA, clorofila b (CHB e carotenóides (CRT mostraram relação altamente positiva, bem como as relações de clorofilas a/b (RAB e de clorofila total/carotenóides (RCC. Os teores de CHA e CHB foram mais altos no genótipo taiwan A-146. Os valores de MFE observados indicaram menor acúmulo de matéria seca por unidade de área foliar para os genótipos CNPGL 91-27-5 e CNPGL 91-27-1. O estudo das curvas de eficiência fotossintética dos genótipos possibilitou a determinação da taxa respiratória no escuro (Rd, da irradiância de compensação (Ic, do rendimento quântico (f e da assimilação fotossintética do carbono (Amax na saturação luminosa. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e mineiro apresentaram, respectivamente, cerca de 18 e 11% mais capacidade carboxilativa que os demais genótipos avaliados. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e CNPGL 91-27-5 apresentaram valores de rendimento quântico (f próximos aos valores médios citados para plantas C4. A Rd oscilou entre 1,64 e 3,48 mmol m-2 s-1 e o Ic, entre 26,39 e 54,97 µmol m-2 s-1 nos oito genótipos. Constatou-se que, sob condições de irradiância e temperatura não-limitantes, o genótipo taiwan A-146 apresentou maior potencial fotossintético.Photosynthetic pigment content, specific leaf mass (SLM and carboxilative efficiency curves were obtained in response to sunlight in eight genotypes of elephantgrass selected according to productivities during the rainy season: cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 and CNPGL 91-10-2. Photosynthetic pigments were highly correlated, as well as chlorophyll a/b ratio (ABR and chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio (CCR. Chlorophyll a and b contents were highest in taiwan A-146 genotype. SLM values indicated smaller dry matter accumulation by unit area for CNPGL 91-27-5 and CNPGL 91-27-1. Establishment of carboxilative efficiency curves of the genotypes allowed the determination of dark respiration rate (Rd, light compensation point (Ic, quantum yield (f and maximum carbon photosynthetic assimilation (Amax in light saturation. The taiwan A-146 and mineiro genotypes presented, respectively, about 18% and 11% more carboxilative capacity that the other genotypes. Genotypes taiwan A-146 and CNPGL 91-27-5 showed values of quantum yield (f close to the average values reported for plants C4. Dark respiration rates varied between 1.64 and 3.38 µmol m-2 s-1 and Ic varied from 26.39 to 54.97 µmol m-2 s-1 in the eight genotypes. This study revealed that, under non limiting irradiance and temperature conditions, genotype taiwan A-146 presented highest photosynthetic rates.
Full Text Available This paper describes the architecture of an agent-based music service that generates dynamic playlists based on suggestions from multiple users. The system employs a number of agents capable of autonomy, mobility, scalability, collaboration and platform independence. In the system, agents are classified into two groups: requesters and music service team. Requesters work on behalf of their users, and bring music suggestions from the users to a DJ agent (DJ which is part of the service team. The DJ has a reasoning component responsible for music selection and negotiation. Music selection is the result of negotiation among agents in sealed-bid auctions. The bidding strategy is specified by users. The amount of a bid implies the value of a song for a specific user; the DJ will evaluate this amount to determine the winner of the auction, whose song will be placed on the playlist. All agents interact with each other using an interaction/negotiation protocol, through agent messaging. A proof of concept implementation of this architecture shows that agents in the A-DJ system automatically perform tasks and collaborate with each other under the proposed protocol. The implementation appears to be scalable up to approximately 800 customers on a generalpurpose computer system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527
Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Thibon, Cécile; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Babin, Pierre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Degueil, Marie; Desbat, Bernard; Jussier, Christophe; Bennetau, Bernard; Dubourdieu, Denis; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine
4-Methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (1; 4MSP) provides a characteristic aroma compound of wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc. 4MSP has a strong box-tree odor with a very low perception threshold and is derived from the cysteinylated precursor S-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxobutyl)cysteine (4; P-4MSP). P-4MSP is transformed into 4MSP during alcoholic fermentation and is an excellent marker of varietal aroma potential. An improved synthesis of P-4MSP as well as of its deuterium-labeled analogue [D(6)]-P-4MSP is described. Several analytical methods (NMR, IR, LSI-MS, GC/MS, ESI-MS(n)) were combined to elucidate spontaneous reversible structural changes of P-4MSP at different pH values. At low pH, P-4MSP has a linear keto form. The keto-enol tautomerism was observed at neutral pH. At pH 8, the formation of N-substituted intramolecular hemiaminal was characterized by ESI-MS and ESI-MS(n) experiments. The hemiaminal loses H(2)O at high pH to produce a cycloimine, which is easily opened by acid hydrolysis. The keto-enol tautomerism explained the incorporation of only six D-atoms during the preparation of the P-4MSP deuterated standard even if [D(10)]mesityl oxide was used. Derivatization conditions for GC/MS analysis strongly affected the ratio of the monosilylated intramolecular cyclic form and the disilylated linear form of P-4MSP. The structural changes of P-4MSP may have a considerable impact on the development of methods of measuring varietal aroma potential. PMID:18493966
de Schutter, Anton
In participatory research, education and learner participation are directly connected. The document analyzes the role of a participatory research method in the basic education of rural adults. The different phases of the Participant Research method are presented, along with a profound analysis of both research and participation. The claim is that…
This article reports new ethnographic research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City. Noting the value of an ethnographic approach, the study investigated whether commonalities discovered in practitioners’ approaches are significant enough to constitute a generalisable participatory arts methodology, transcending significant contextual differences, and recognisable across national boundaries. Shared characteristics emerged in practitioners’...
Divergência genética entre acessos de cenoura pertencentes a grupos varietais distintos utilizando caracteres morfológicos / Genetic divergence among carrot accessions belonging to different varietal groups using morphologic characters
Jairo Vidal, Vieira; Giovani Olegário da, Silva; Leonardo S, Boiteux; Philipp W, Simon.
Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos de cenoura tem aumentado consideravelmente na última década no Brasil. Estudos de determinação de divergência genética entre genótipos têm sido ferramentas de grande importância em programas de melhoramento, auxiliando na identificação de genitores com potencial heterótico. [...] No entanto, pouco ainda se sabe sobre a capacidade combinatória de acessos de cenoura adaptados às regiões tropicais. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: (1) estimar parâmetros genéticos, (2) estimar a importância relativa de quatro caracteres morfológicos na discriminação de grupos varietais de cenoura e (3) obter indicação, a partir deste conjunto de dados morfológicos, de combinações promissoras para cruzamentos, visando utilização prática da heterose. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, nas primaveras de 2000 e 2001, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições. Foram avaliadas quinze plantas competitivas em cada parcela para os caracteres comprimento de folha, tamanho da raiz, diâmetro de raiz e massa fresca de raiz. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de variância, de dissimilaridade e da importância relativa dos caracteres. Todos os caracteres apresentaram valores de herdabilidade e da relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental de medianos a altos. Os caracteres comprimento e diâmetro de raiz foram os que mais contribuíram para a diferenciação dos genótipos. O grupo mais divergente foi 'Imperator'. Desta forma, cruzamentos deste grupo com os demais acessos tendem a proporcionar maior efeito da heterose. Os acessos pertencentes ao grupo 'Brasília', podem ser cruzados com a maioria dos acessos (exceto para aqueles derivados dos grupos varietais 'Chantenay' e 'Danvers'), com probabilidade de geração de populações superiores em relação à heterose. Abstract in english The utilization of carrot hybrids has increased in the last decade in Brazil. The estimative of genetic divergence among genotypes is a tool to identify superior parents for heterotic hybrid production in breeding programs. However, little is known about the combining ability of tropical-adapted car [...] rot germplasm. The objectives of the present work were: (1) to estimate genetic parameters, (2) to estimate the relative importance of set of four morphological traits in the discrimination of carrot accessions belonging to distinct varietal groups and, (3) to use this morphological dataset combined with clustering techniques to group distinct carrot accessions in order to identify the most promising hybrid combinations. Two experiments were carried out in the field, in the springs of 2000 and 2001, in random block design with two replications. Fifteen competitive plants per accession were evaluated at 90 days after planting for the following traits: leaf length (cm), root length (cm), root diameter (mm), and fresh root weight (g). Analysis of variance as well as dissimilarity analysis and relative importance of each morphological characteristic for accession discrimination were calculated for the traits under study. All four traits displayed either medium or high heritability values as well as ratio of genetic and environmental variation coefficients. The traits root length and root diameter presented the highest contribution to discriminate accessions. The 'Imperator' group was the most divergent one. Therefore, crosses involving this variety group with the remaining accessions would result in progenies with the highest heterotic effects. Tropical-adapted accessions belonging to the 'Brasília' group could be crossed with the majority of the accessions (except for the ones corresponding to the 'Chantenay' and 'Danvers' groups) with a high probability of generating superior populations and/or heterotic gains.
Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.
Ali Mohammed Oumer
Full Text Available Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholder farmers using a case study from Ethiopia. Through the participatory intervention, women farmers have enhanced their skills and knowledge of improved agricultural technologies as well as their collective capacity (social capital in accessing input and output markets. As a result, the number of FRG members increased from 25 women farmers organized in one FRG in 2006 to 253 women farmers organized in 11 village-level Farmers Research Extension Groups (FREGs in 2013. The participatory intervention in the study area has improved women’s productivity of seed potatoes and marketing; enabled them to earn cash an average of Ethiopian Birr (ETB 11 000 per year only from the sale of seed potatoes; and this has created more options to improve the livelihoods of women farmers and their households by diversifying into higher-value farm and off-farm work. Consequently, women decision making in the household as well as in the community has been enhanced. Women farmers are now heard at national level for their innovative experiences and have become one of the national seed potato and knowledge sources. There is a need to replicate this model approach to enhance the productivity of smallholder women farmers and subsequently empower them to facilitate exit pathways out of poverty and ensure sustainable development.
Full Text Available Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of narrative socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993–2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e. through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC. After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also discussed. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale
Purpose:?This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents’ competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents.?Design and Methods:?Seven unit-specific PAR groups, each consisting of 4–7 residents, 1–2 family members, and 1–3 staff, met 1 hour per week for 4 months in their nursing home or assisted livi...
Some might argue that reception analysis is a remnant of the past in an age where “people formerly known as the audience” (Rosen, 2006) are producing and circulating content on a diversity of interactive and participatory media platforms. Far from being the case, reception research must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored as an empirical reality. Knowing about the meanings produced and circulated on social media can help us better understand the participatory media culture that has established itself over the past decade. To properly address the question of meaning, however, reception research needs to be adapted to the current media landscape. Taking my point of departure in the multi-dimensional model of reception developed by Kim Schrøder (2003, 2000), I suggest a revision of the model and its dimensions in light of notions such as produsage (Bruns, 2008), convergence (Jenkins, 2008), participation (Carpentier, 2011) and networked culture (Castells, 1996). The model suggested by Schrøder is itself an elaboration, establishing both continuity and critique with Hall’s original suggestion (1973/1980). In the same spirit, I wish to build on the multidimensional model for it offers a systematic approach to the complexity of sense-making processes surrounding media use. Yet I wish to develop the model for its potential to provide a portrait of the participatory media culture that stands in contrast to its understanding as exploitation of labor (Scholz, 2013) or as a business model (van Dicjk, 2013) disguised as false consciousness. The paper will revisit the five dimensions of the model (motivation, comprehension, discrimination, position, implementation) for their relevance and explanatory power in today’s media landscape, suggesting new interpretations and new formulations. A revision of reception research does not only concern the notion of reception itself, but also that of the text, which appears increasingly complex, multi-formed and integrated to the audience. The original dimensions of Schrøder’s model need to be looked at with reference to both reception and circulation (Jenkins et al., 2013), and to the network that binds participatory media culture. It appears that with media 2.0, phenomena which traditionally fell under the labels of interpretation or reception are increasingly taking part in the media text itself. As audiences become textual matters, they contribute to set a new agenda for media research.
In innovation networks, participatory foresight activities can typically have several functions. They can be seen as a tool for supporting decision-making on science and technology (S&T) priorities, but they can also be expected to contribute to the structures of a network beyond the scope of decision making. Foresight activities are often limited by tight timeframes, budgets and they need to be synchronized with other S&T processes. In this setting there is a need for tools that reflect fore...
Chao, Dingding; Kanno, Taro; Furuta, Kazuo
Before traveling, tourists need to ensure that they will have a well-organized trip, which mainly involves a smooth flow of visits to different tourist attractions by themselves or following a pre-designed plan made by tourism service providers. The present study examined how the sequence of visiting tourist attractions influences tourist satisfaction at the expectation and experience levels. Participatory simulation with a virtual environment platform was employed in the experiments to assess their experience. The research reveals that the contrast bias has significant influence on the assessment. PMID:25674403
Full Text Available Critical Participatory Looping (CPL (cf. Falout and Murphey 2010; Murphey and Falout 2010 involves returning processed data from surveys or assignments back to students for further reflection and analysis in small groups. CPL affords dialogical interaction among class members (including the teacher, which can encourage them all as agents developing their own self-determination through action—otherwise known as agencing (cf. Murphey 2010, Nelson and Murphey, 2011. In this paper we first describe the kinds of customization that invite agency, then for CPL provide three examples of teaching and researching with it, theorize on its processes and potential, and discuss its correlates with other domains and mass customization.
The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants considered that with flexibility of data collection to account for the preferences of Aboriginal members, then the method was appropriate in cross-cultural contexts for the difficult discussions that are needed to improve partnerships. Conclusion Critical reflection showed that the preconditions for difficult discussions are, first, that partners have the capacity to engage in such discussions, second, that partners assess whether the effort required for these discussions is balanced by the benefits they gain from the partnership, and, third, that “boundary spanning” staff can facilitate commitment to partnership goals.
Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C; Hallberg, N; Eriksson, H; Lindblom, P; Hedblom, P; Svensson, B; Marmolin, H
This paper outlines a Computer-Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) system for primary care and presents from its participatory design process time consumption, costs, and experiences. The system integrates a hypermedia environment, a computerized patient record, and an electronicmessage system. It is developed to coordinate organizational learning in primary care from micro to macro levels by connecting strategic planning to monitoring of patient routines. Summing up design experiences, critical issues for making CSCW systems support cost-effectiveness of health care are discussed. PMID:8563401
Beamish, W; Bryer, F
A study of programme quality of early intervention in a large governmental early special education service in Queensland, Australia employed a collaborative methodology of participatory action research. The approach has been encouraged strongly for disability-focused research, but the approach is demanding and few examples have been reported. In this multistage 4-year project, indicators of programme quality were generated from staff and parents in the service, validated throughout the service, and generalized across the nation. Examples of the implementation of this methodology across these stages are reported, and benefits and compromises are examined. PMID:10547708
Christopher, Suzanne; Saha, Robin; Lachapelle, Paul; Jennings, Derek; Colclough, Yoshiko; Cooper, Clarice; Cummins, Crescentia; Eggers, Margaret J; Fourstar, Kris; Harris, Kari; Kuntz, Sandra W; Lafromboise, Victoria; Laveaux, Deborah; McDonald, Tracie; Bird, James Real; Rink, Elizabeth; Webster, Lennie
This case study of community and university research partnerships utilizes previously developed principles for conducting research in the context of Native American communities to consider how partners understand and apply the principles in developing community-based participatory research partnerships to reduce health disparities. The 7 partnership projects are coordinated through a National Institutes of Health-funded center and involve a variety of tribal members, including both health care professionals and lay persons and native and nonnative university researchers. This article provides detailed examples of how these principles are applied to the projects and discusses the overarching and interrelated emergent themes of sharing power and building trust. PMID:21633218
Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer
We address the challenge of creating intersections between children’s everyday engagement and museum exhibitions. Specifically, we propose an approach to participatory design inquiry where children’s everyday engagement is taken as the point of departure. We base our discussion on a design workshop – Gaming the Museum – where a primary school class was invited to participate in creating future exhibition spaces for a museum based on their everyday use of computer games and online communities. We reflect on the results of the workshop and discuss more broadly the qualities of design inquiries that use the everyday engagement of children as point of departure for designing interactive museum exhibitions.
Tymoczko, Julianna S.
Regular nilpotent Hessenberg varieties form a family of subvarieties of the flag variety arising in the study of quantum cohomology, geometric representation theory, and numerical analysis. In this paper we construct a paving by affines of regular nilpotent Hessenberg varieties for all classical types, generalizing results of de Concini-Lusztig-Procesi and Kostant. This paving is in fact the intersection of a particular Bruhat decomposition with the Hessenberg variety. The n...
Tymoczko, J S
Regular nilpotent Hessenberg varieties form a family of subvarieties of the flag variety which arise in the study of quantum cohomology, geometric representation theory, and numerical analysis. In this paper we construct a paving by affines of regular nilpotent Hessenberg varieties for all classical types. This paving is in fact the intersection of a particular Bruhat decomposition with the Hessenberg variety. The nonempty cells of this paving and their dimensions can be identified by a combinatorial condition on roots. We use this paving to prove these Hessenberg varieties have no odd-dimensional homology.
Leonardo Moraes, Menezes.
Full Text Available Uma característica marcante das mídias eletrônicas na atualidade torna-se evidente pela celebração do potencial de participação da audiência, quando produtores profissionais, inclusive de suportes considerados tradicionais, desenham diferentes estratégias de engajamento do produtor amador. O conceit [...] o de participação nas narrativas audiovisuais pode ser pensado como um procedimento diferenciado de produção. Uma suposta coautoria seria um dos aspectos mais importantes na caracterização desse modo de criação e produção audiovisual. Como essa coautoria, caso exista, se configura nos discursos documentais participativos? Estas possíveis transformações na paisagem midiática nos fazem refletir sobre as facetas participativa e autoral das organizações contemporâneas da produção audiovisual. Abstract in english A striking characteristic of today's electronic media is their potential for audience participation when producers, including those from traditional mass media, devise different audience engagement strategies. In this context, the concept of participation in audiovisual narratives can be seen as a d [...] ifferentiated production procedure. A presumed co-authorship would be one of the most important aspects of this mode of audiovisual creation and production. However, if such co-authorship actually exists, how does it appear in participatory documental discourses? These possible changes in the media scene lead us to reflect upon the authorial and participatory aspects of today's audiovisual organizations.
Yoshikawa, Toru; Ogami, Ayumi; Muto, Takashi
Industry-specific primary prevention measures for promoting mental health of workers were undertaken in 2008 and 2009 as a result of participatory training involving 130 supervisory employees in workplaces of the financial industry. These measures included the following five points suggested to be effective in the industry: 1) proper opportunities for training and career building, 2) control of work time and improving work organization, 3) standardization of tasks, 4) job rotation for sharing work responsibilities, and 5) increasing communication and mutual support. A post-training follow-up survey revealed that participatory, action-oriented training facilitated sharing of feasible measures and mutual support, leading to the development of measures easily introduced and established at each workplace. We concluded that mutually supportive group work of teams composed of members who held similar duty positions and were engaged in similar operations, using the Mental Health Action Checklist as a guiding tool, was effective for realizing implementation of optimally practical and specific measures. PMID:25647945
Kathryn J. Draeger
Full Text Available Both scenario visioning and participatory system dynamics modeling emphasize the dynamic and uncontrollable nature of complex socio-ecological systems, and the significance of multiple feedback mechanisms. These two methodologies complement one another, but are rarely used together. We partnered with regional organizations in Minnesota to design a future visioning process that incorporated both scenarios and participatory system dynamics modeling. The three purposes of this exercise were: first, to assist regional leaders in making strategic decisions that would make their communities sustainable; second, to identify research gaps that could impede the ability of regional and state groups to plan for the future; and finally, to introduce more systems thinking into planning and policy-making around environmental issues. We found that scenarios and modeling complemented one another, and that both techniques allowed regional groups to focus on the sustainability of fundamental support systems (energy, food, and water supply. The process introduced some creative tensions between imaginative scenario visioning and quantitative system dynamics modeling, and between creating desired futures (a strong cultural norm and inhabiting the future (a premise of the Minnesota 2050 exercise. We suggest that these tensions can stimulate more agile, strategic thinking about the future.
MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Low, Eleanor
Drawing on the results of community-based research with a local hospice organisation, this article addresses the need to enhance social support for caregivers of people with life-threatening illnesses. The goal of the research was to involve palliative care stakeholders in the identification, prioritisation and implementation of social support interventions for caregivers who provide palliative care support as hospice volunteers and as family members of those at end-of-life. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, primary data were collected from 39 volunteer and family member caregivers through four focus groups and nine personal diaries in July 2008. Content analysis and modified constant comparison techniques resulted in emergent themes and priorities relating to challenges, existing coping strategies and resources, and potential support interventions. The findings revealed communication, emotional support, education, advocacy and personal fatigue as the most important challenges to be addressed through support interventions at the organisational (professional support, volunteer mentoring and continuing education) and household levels (caregiver assessments, telephone support and follow-up). There was convergence in how caregivers perceived and access existing social supports, yet a crucial divergence in the availability of resources among volunteers and family members. The findings are discussed in the light of the capacity for hospices to implement social supports and the potential efficacy of the community-based participatory research approach for enhancing social support for caregivers in other parts of health-care and social care. PMID:21978371
Lykes, M Brinton
This article reports on a small set of community-based participatory projects designed collaboratively by and for survivors directly affected by armed conflict in Guatemala and some of their family members in the North (i.e., in New Orleans, Louisiana, and New England). Local protagonists deeply scarred by war and gross violations of human rights drew on indigenous beliefs and practices, creativity, visual performance arts, and participatory and action research strategies to develop and perform collaborative community-based actions. These initiatives constitute a people's psychosocial praxis. Through their individual and collective narratives and actions, Mayan and African American women and Latinas perform a psychology from the "two-thirds world," one that draws on postcolonial theory and methodology to retheorize trauma and resilience. These voices, creative representations, and actions of women from the Global South transform earlier, partial efforts to decenter EuroAmerican epistemologies underlying dominant models of trauma that reduce complex collective phenomena to individual pathology, refer to continuous trauma as past, are ahistorical, and universalize culturally particular realities. PMID:24320677
Sanders, Elizabeth B.-N.; Brandt, Eva
The field of Participatory Design (PD) has grown rapidly over the last 20 to 30 years. For more than two decades non-designers have been increasingly involved in various design activities through a large number of participatory design projects all over the world. The project aims in PD have developed from being mainly about ICT development to today include, for instance, space design, product development, industrial design, architecture, service- and transformation design. As every project is unique, it is necessary to decide which design approach(es), methods, tools and techniques to use in a specific project. Thus many practices for how to involve people in designing have been used and developed during the years. There is some confusion as to which tools and techniques to use, when, and for what purpose. Therefore we are proposing a framework to help organize the proliferation of tools, techniques and methods in hopes that the PD community will benefit by discussing relevant applications and identifying potential areas for further exploration.
Highlights: ? Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. ? Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. ? Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. ? A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. ? Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.
This paper presents the results of an ergonomic intervention conducted within a blast furnace plant. As part of its risk prevention program, the company decided to set up an action plan, in a participatory manner, by setting up working groups to solve health & safety issues. This field mission involved 230 employees, 80 of whom participated actively by being incorporated into working groups. After four months of intervention, a questionnaire survey has been conducted among employees to study the effects of participation on the safety climate. The results seem promising and show that the benefits of participation are numerous: a more positive safety climate associated to safer attitudes and behaviors. However, rather than just participation, it seems to be the employee involvement in the working groups and the satisfaction they derive from their participation that guarantee these positive results. Hence, participatory ergonomics seems to be an effective way to decrease the number of unsafe behaviors at work, provided that the type of participation has been previously well defined and organized according to the specific context of each organization. PMID:22317217
Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P2O5 ha-1 and 60N + 60P2O5 ha-1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions
Full Text Available Dean Blevins1,2,3, Bridget Morton4, Rene McGovern5,61South Central Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (SC-MIRECC, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System; 2University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; 3University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus, Little Rock, AR; 4Northeast Missouri Health Network, Kirksville, MO; 5A.T. Still University/Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, Kirksville, MO; 6Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OHAbstract: The purpose of this evaluation was to explore the collaborative nature of partners in a rural mental health program for the elderly, and to test an adapted method of assessing the collaborative process. Sixteen collaborative partners were interviewed to explore ratings of collaboration across 6 domains identified as critical to participatory research. Results indicate that the context of rural Missouri and uniqueness of the program necessitated an approach to collaboration that began with a top-down approach, but greater community responsibility developed over time. Partners recognized the efforts of the program’s directors to seek input. Most were satisfied with their roles and the degree of success achieved by the program, although several wanted to have more input in the future in some domains, but not in others. Interviews revealed numerous barriers to achieving sustainability. Methods to improve the assessment of collaboration are discussed and areas for improvement are offered.Keywords: community-based participatory research, elderly, mental health, older adults, rural
Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A
This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. PMID:24668583
Chigozie Jesse Uneke
Full Text Available In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP. The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health.
Michael W. Kpessa
Full Text Available Ghana has been experimenting with the participatory policy making approach that allows citizenry engagement in the formulation and implementation of public policies in recent times. In many ways the approach enhances the opportunity structures for consolidating the country’s democratic credentials by allowing citizens to share in the ownership of governance decisions. In this paper, we draw illustrations from the participatory strategies used by an adhoc body known as the Constitution Review Commission (CRC established to study and make recommendations for the amendment of Ghana’s 1992 Constitution. The paper shows that although the idea of citizenry participation has intrinsic nation-building value for which reason it can be instrumental in kneading multi-ethnic countries together, paradoxically, against the innovative and comprehensive strategies adopted by the CRC, the approach was hindered by a series of inherent challenges that serve to perpetuate existing socio-political inequalities by privileging educated, urban, and relatively organized Ghanaians over their underprivileged and traditionally marginalized counterparts, especially those in the rural areas.
The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators andessfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.
Hansen, Sandra Burri Gram; Ryberg, Thomas
This paper explores, analyses and discusses the potential of applying Danish theologian and philosopher K.E. Løgstrup’s ontological approach to ethics, when planning and conducting participatory design activities. By doing so, ethical considerations, will transform from being a summative evaluation perspective typically included at the end of a design process, to becoming a more formative and constructive perspective which influences the entire process. The approach presented in this paper will support on-going research within the field of Value Sensitive Design with theoretically based principles. These are principles that practitioners may consider when planning e.g. workshops in order to ensure that the activities facilitate both the design process and establish an ethical foundation for the design process. In addition to the theoretical contribution of the paper, the notion of constructive ethics is exemplified in practice by on-going research in the cross field between persuasive design and learning, carried out in collaboration with the Danish Military. Previous research has suggested that both participatory design and ethics may be essential to persuasive design in theory and in practice. However, considering the impact interactive technologies have on users in general, the principles exemplified through this case are relevant in a much broader perspective and to many other design traditions.
Afifi, Rema A; Makhoul, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T
Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon. First, a needs assessment, including quantitative and qualitative data collection was carried out with children, parents and teachers. The second phase was identification of a priority health issue and analysis of determinants. The final phase in the construction of the logic model involved development of an intervention. The process was iterative and resulted in a more grounded depiction of the pathways of influence informed by evidence. Constructing a logic model with community input ensured that the intervention was more relevant to community needs, feasible for implementation and more likely to be sustainable. PMID:21278370
Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn
Drawing on a study of community-managed forest reserves in southern Tanzania, this article discusses how community members engage and shape inclusive protected area management practices to produce outcomes that were not intended by external implementers. The article shows how a participatory natural resource monitoring scheme operating in the area becomes part of the villagers' collective and individual efforts to assert their claims to territory and resources vis-a-vis the state, other communities, and other community members. By altering the monitoring procedures in subtle ways, community members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate theterrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management.
Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.
Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom
This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural transect, problem-tree analysis and focus-group discussion. The paper concludes by categorizing the barriers identified at different levels: micro (roughly the individual level at which the lack of knowledge and motivation are significant barriers), meso (roughly the school level at which the lack of teachers and computers are significant barriers) and macro (roughly the national level at which the lack of government planning and the lack of training of teachers are significant barriers). Finally, the paper also concludes that applied participatory learning and action-oriented techniques showed potential to provide researchers and local practitioners with situated insights that could not just have been lifted out of existing research literature.
Tokyo Institute of Technology, in charge of the 21st century COE program to establish innovative nuclear energy systems for sustainable development of the world, organized the COE-INES international symposium on participatory decision-making for final disposal site on September 6, 2007. About 110 participants gathered to study how the final disposal site in Japan should be determined from an objective or neutral standpoint. The symposium consisted of three plenary lectures: (1) The French siting process for a high-level and intermediate-level long lived radioactive waste geological repository--a step-wise politically-driven approach taking stock of lessons learnt as on-going, (2) Participatory decision-making for final disposal---The viewpoint of a local elected representative, (3) The French and nuclear wastes, each given by French specialists (ANDRA and CNRS) followed by a panel discussion among the lecturers and Japanese representatives from various fields. The report includes all the lectures with diagrams and the records of questions and answers. (S. Ohno)
Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.
Full Text Available The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.
Art education is a systemic and extensive network within which children, youth, and adults make and learn about material culture. This lecture considers three sites of theory and practice that I see as ascendant in circulating through this network. These sites are sustainability, participatory culture, and performing democracy. I argue that…
O'Neill, Geraldine; McMahon, Sinead
Traditional student feedback mechanisms have been criticised for being teacher-centred in design and, in particular, for their absence of transparent follow-up actions. In contrast, this study describes the process and the evaluation of a participatory research and action (PRA) approach used in an undergraduate physiotherapy degree. This approach…
Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva
In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles and practices; by extension, this case offers examples of how these challenges may be explored and addressed through IT-based participatory initiatives. We present a range of such activities carried out during the past ten years, and present the main lessons from the project, based on interviews with three key stakeholders. These lessons focus on how to make participation work in practice, how to align different paradigms of inquiry and practice in a project of this scale, and how to capture and anchor the insights from participatory events to inform the ongoing design process.
Gubo, Qi; Xiuli, Xu; Ting, Zuo; Xiaoyun, Li; Keke, Chen; Xiaowei, Gao; Miao, Ji; Lin, Liu; Miankui, Mao; Jingsong, Li; Yiching, Song; Zhipu, Long; Min, Lu; Juanwen, Yuan; Vernooy, Ronnie
This article describes and reflects on a novel course developed at China Agricultural University to introduce Community-Based Natural Resource Management at the postgraduate level. This course, part of a larger educational renewal initiative addressing the current reform of China's higher education system, was developed through a participatory…
Cammarota, Julio; Romero, Augustine
The authors discuss how participatory action research (PAR) informs the pedagogy and epistemology of the social justice education. PAR facilitates students' engagement in their social context and acquisition of knowledge to initiate personal and social transformation. The scope of research contains knowledge about social justice issues negatively…
Full Text Available A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis, parasites (both external and internal, chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods.
Riecken, Ted; Conibear, Frank; Michel, Corrine; Lyall, John; Scott, Tish; Tanaka, Michele; Stewart, Suzanne; Riecken, Janet; Strong-Wilson, Teresa
This article focuses on a participatory research project designed to promote student use of digital video to explore conceptions of health and wellness. We have viewed aspects of student resistance through the cultural perspectives that guide the Aboriginal education programs involved with the study. In presenting this piece, we have experimented…
Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil
This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation (P-PE) strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project.…
Full Text Available Water governance debates have increasingly recognized the importance of adaptive governance for short- and long-term sustainability, especially with respect to increasing climate unpredictability and growing urbanization. A parallel focus on enhancing community participation pervades international development recommendations and policy literature. Indeed, there are often implicit and explicit connections made between the participatory character of water governance institutions and their adaptive capacity. The social-ecological systems literature, however, has also urged caution with respect to embracing panaceas, with increasing calls to be attentive to the limitations of proposed “solutions.” We discuss the parallels between the adaptive governance, comanagement, and participatory resource governance literatures and analyze efforts to encourage such participation in urban water governance through Local Water Boards in Accra, Ghana. Drawing on interview data, participant observations, and a survey of 243 individuals, we explored what participatory spaces have been opened or foreclosed as well as the possibilities for adaptive urban water governance in Accra. Applying insights from recent debates about panaceas, we argue that discerning the potential and limits for sustainable resource governance and associated development goals requires that participatory mechanisms be subjected to systematic and contextual analysis.
Full Text Available Although there has been a growing body of literature on post-disaster participatory reconstruction, a shared understanding on a participatory approach is insufficient. A design charrette is a participatory planning that is particularly suitable for situations in which multidisciplinary professionals and non-professional stakeholders collaborate to accomplish target tasks in a short period of time. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of design charrette as a methodology in the context of post-disaster reconstruction in Japan. This will be achieved through a participatory observation on a design charrette in Minamisoma City, Japan, after the Fukushima accident. The charrette includes the participation of multiple stakeholders in intercultural, intergenerational and interdisciplinary exchanges. The contributions and constraints of the charrette are analyzed on the basis of the authors’ observation, and a strategy to improve post-disaster reconstruction charrette is thereby proposed. This study shows that the charrette is a useful method for communication and collaboration in the post-disaster context. Furthermore, it also demonstrates that assuring the participation of all key stakeholders, improving the training of participants and introducing resource analysis during the charrette’s preparatory stage are the essential conditions for the legitimacy and policy compliance of the final result.
Reese, Donna J.
This paper describes the use of a participatory action research model to teach undergraduate social work research and statistics. Strategies of the model include (1) integration with social work education, (2) policy analysis, (3) literature review, (4) collaboration with practitioners, (5) collaboration with the target population through…
The article explores the limitations of applied drama interventions promising integration and inclusion against the material realities of urban disenfranchisement and misrecognition. Through reflection on a participatory theatre project facilitated with young women in an urban secondary school in London, social and moral agendas emerge which…
Arcidiacono, Caterina; Procentese, Fortuna
Inspired by the impact of an increase in tourism in the Old Center of Naples, Fondazione Laboratorio Mediterraneo, a nonprofit organization that promotes sustainable town development and encourages participation, has undertaken the participatory action research described in this article. The inhabitants' sense of community (McMillan & Chavis,…