WorldWideScience
 
 
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Farmer participatory varietal selection in groundnut - a success story in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farmer participatory varietal selection trials in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India identified ICGV 91114 as the most productive groundnut cultivar. This cultivar was adopted for large-scale production, giving higher pod and haulm yields and comparable shelling outturn compared with the control cultivar TMV 2.

SN Nigam

2005-12-01

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La selección participativa de variedades (SPV) en el cultivo del tomate / Participatory varietal selection in tomato crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La participación de los productores en la selección de variedades de la especie Solanum lycopersicum L., adaptadas a las características agroecológicas de sus fincas, requiere que estos cuenten con herramientas metodológicas que les permitan realizar dichas tareas con eficiencia y calidad. Para dar [...] respuesta a esa necesidad, se tomaron en cuenta los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en las áreas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), San José de las Lajas, provincia La Habana, y el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones en Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT), provincia de Camagüey; también se trabajó en las fincas de los productores de la CCS “Juan Benito Ruiz” en Batabanó. En el primer caso, se realizaron ensayos comparativos de rendimiento, tal y como está establecido por los métodos tradicionales de mejoramiento genético de las plantas, mientras que en el segundo, se celebraron ferias de agrobiodiversidad, una de las herramientas de los nuevos métodos de mejora que se conoce como fitomejoramiento participativo. Los resultados de los ensayos se compararon con los de las ferias, donde la variedad Mara y las líneas 1, 35 y 44 mostraron buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y estuvieron entre las más seleccionadas en la feria de agrobiodiversidad de La Habana; sin embargo, la línea 43 no presentó buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y fue la que obtuvo mayor número de votos en la feria. Las variedades Lignon, Campbell-28 y Tropical C-28-V alcanzaron los mayores valores en el ensayo comparativo de Camagüey; no obstante, solo Lignon fue la más seleccionada en la feria, superada por la línea 38 e igualada por la 43 en el total de votos. Estos resultados demuestran que la selección definitiva de variedades de tomate deben hacerla los productores en sus propias fincas. Abstract in english Producers´ participation in the varietal selection of Solanum lycopersicon L. species, adapted to their farm agro-ecological characteristics, requires they should have available methodological tools to perform these tasks efficiently and qualitatively. To face this demand, results from research stud [...] ies performed in the areas of INCA, San José de las Lajas, Havana province, and INIVIT, Camagüey province, must be taken into account, besides other works that were also carried out in «Juan Benito Ruiz» CCS, Batabanó. In the first case, comparative yield trials were conducted, as it was established by traditional plant breeding, whereas in the second one, some agro-biodiversity fairs were celebrated, as one of the tools from the new improvement methods known as participatory plant breeding. Trial results were compared with those from the fairs, in which Mara cv. and lines 1, 35 and 44 showed good performances in the comparative test and were among the most selected ones in the agro-biodiversity fair from Havana; however, line 43 did not show good performance in the comparative test, but it obtained the highest vote number in the fair. Lignon, Campbell-28, C-28 and Tropical-V varieties achieved the greatest values in the comparative test of Camaguey; nevertheless, just Lignon was the most selected one in the fair, surpassed by line 38 and equal to line 43 in the amount of votes. These results prove that final tomato varietal selection must be done by producers in their own farms.

C, Moya; Marta, Álvarez; C, de la Fe; Marilyn, Florido; M, Ponce; Dagmara, Plana; F, Dueñas; J, Rodríguez; J, Arzuaga; J, Hernández; A, Caballero.

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Participatory varietal selection and village seed banks for self-reliance: lessons learnt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmers have been collecting, selecting and saving the seeds of harvested crops for use as seed to meet their planting requirement in the following season. In the past four decades, the management of seed production and supply have undergone a drastic change. Hybrid technology has increased the productivity significantly, but at the same time, the farmers' dependence on external agencies has gone up. With the objective of ensuing the supply of quality seeds of improved/high yielding varieties...

2006-01-01

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Participatory varietal selection and village seed banks for self-reliance: lessons learnt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farmers have been collecting, selecting and saving the seeds of harvested crops for use as seed to meet their planting requirement in the following season. In the past four decades, the management of seed production and supply have undergone a drastic change. Hybrid technology has increased the productivity significantly, but at the same time, the farmers' dependence on external agencies has gone up. With the objective of ensuing the supply of quality seeds of improved/high yielding varieties, ICRISAT-led Watershed Consortium made an attempt to promote the concept of village seed banks. An in-depth study of the seed villages at the Asian Development Bank (ADB and Tata-ICRISAT sites of Vidisha and Guna Districs, Madhya Pradesh, documented successful community initiatives providing valuable insights into the concept. This paper elucidates case studies on the community initiatives for establishing and running seed banks through ADB-funded project in the Madhya Pradesh and documents the process of scaling up the same through APRLP-funded project in Andhra Pradesh.

Sreenath Dixit

2006-08-01

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Genetic diversity of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in iron and zinc content as impacted by farmers' varietal selection in Northern India.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the last few years a debate has been continuing over the issue of malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries. The present article investigates the importance of participatory varietal selection in the development of a suitable cultivar of mungbean along with the nutritional content and the agronomic traits of the cultivars selected by farmers in participatory varietal selection. A combination of the conventional survey strategy, participatory varietal selection, molecular markers, and chemical analysis were used to carry out the study, and results revealed that the farmers have the capacity to utilize available genetic resources to manage disease, and they can identify the disease at early stages of plant development. The genetic diversity was studied using 23 inter-simple sequence repeat marker, which shows that the extent of genetic diversity ranges from 65% to 87%, while chemical analysis of selected mungbean cultivars shows a moderate amount of iron (3.9 mg/100 g) and zinc (2.5 mg/100 g). PMID:23445393

Singh, Renu; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Kumar, Ram; Visser, Richard G F; Yadav, Ram C

2013-01-01

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Integrating new soyabean varietes for soil fertility management in smallholder systems through participatory research: Lessons from western Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper was to understand the process of selecting soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) promiscuous varieties by smallholders for soil fertility management in western Kenya. Eight varieties were screened on 2.5 m × 3 m plots that were managed according to farmers¿ practices and evaluated through participatory monitoring and evaluation approaches. Farmers selected preferred varieties and explained their reasons (criteria) for making the selections. Seven promiscuous varieties had b...

2008-01-01

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Farmer's Knowledge of Horticultural Traits and Participatory Selection of African Eggplant Varieties (Solanum aethiopicum) in Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory selection was conducted in 2008 through 2009 to identify farmers' preference for species and horticultural traits that may constitute future breeding objectives. Vegetable farmers were selected from Moshi and Arusha regions, test population comprised twenty-six accessions from four Solanum species (eggplant and relatives). Purposive sampling was used to select the farming communities with high African eggplant production activities; a multistage random sampling procedure was ado...

Adeniji, Ot; Aloyce, A.

2012-01-01

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Farmer's Knowledge of Horticultural Traits and Participatory Selection of African Eggplant Varieties (Solanum aethiopicum in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory selection was conducted in 2008 through 2009 to identify farmers' preference for species and horticultural traits that may constitute future breeding objectives. Vegetable farmers were selected from Moshi and Arusha regions, test population comprised twenty-six accessions from four Solanum species (eggplant and relatives. Purposive sampling was used to select the farming communities with high African eggplant production activities; a multistage random sampling procedure was adopted to select farmers from three regions for participatory meeting. The focus group discussion sessions identified fruit shape, taste, earliness, medicinal properties, marketability and resistance to diseases as farmers' preferred traits in S. aethiopicum; taste and marketability for S. melongena, taste and medicinal properties among S. macrocarpon and S. anguivi. Fruits characterized by cream colour at commercial harvest are most preferred compared to green, to a lesser extent is purple. Interestingly high fruits per plant, fruits per cluster and fruit cluster per plant best described S. anguivi. Fruit yield was superior in Db3 (S. aethiopicum Gilo group, top five accessions for organoleptic properties are Db3, Ab2, MM 1619, S00052 and MM 1086. Characters indicated above may constitute breeding objectives and population identified may serve as pollen parents for development of new varieties in african eggplant. Intraspecific hybridization within S. aethiopicum Gilo cultigroup, hybridization among Gilo and Shum cultigroups and interspecific hybridization between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi may evolve new population aimed at improving fruit yield.

Adeniji, OT.

2012-01-01

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Participatory Privacy: Enabling Privacy in Participatory Sensing  

CERN Document Server

Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...

De Cristofaro, Emiliano

2012-01-01

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Participatory Surprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation tries to answer the question: Are beneficial, happy accidents – serendipity – more likely to occur among more participatory Internet users? And among users with larger and more diverse social networks as well as more trust? It derives a research framework to relate digital serendipity, online trust, and participation on the Internet.

Christoph Lutz

2013-01-01

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Selection of New Varieties through Participatory Research, the Case of Corn in South Mali  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On-farm trials in South Mali, combined with a survey of farmer s' criteria, both men's and women's, show that the properties of the new corn varieties do not correspond well to their selection criteria. A better understanding of farmers' objectives is therefore essential in selecting new varieties.

Kamara, A.

1996-01-01

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Inter- and intra-varietal genetic variability in Malvasia cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The DNA molecular analyses together with ampelography, ampelometry, and biochemistry are essential for grapevine identification and investigation of genetic differences among the Vitis vinifera L. cultivars and clones. Ten Malvasia cultivars (i.e., Istrian Malvasia; M. delle Lipari; M. bianca di Candia; M. di Candia Aromatica; M. del Lazio; M. bianca lunga, also known as Malvasia del Chianti; M. nera di Brindisi/Lecce; M. di Casorzo; M. di Schierano, and M. nera di Bolzano) were analyzed using molecular approaches to study the genetic inter-varietal variability. Thirty Istrian Malvasia genotypes (i.e., 8 Italian clones, such as ISV 1, ISV F6, VCR 4, VCR 113, VCR 114, VCR 115, ERSA 120, ERSA 121, and 22 autochthonous grapevine accessions grown in Istrian Peninsula, Croatia) were investigated to evaluate the morphological and genetic intra-varietal variability. DNA analysis allowed discrimination of all Malvasia genotypes at molecular level using AFLP, SAMPL, and M-AFLP markers. Italian clones and autochthonous Croatian accessions of Istrian Malvasia were grouped according to their different geographic origins. These results showed the great genetic variability of Malvasia genotypes suggesting the need for the preservation of autochthonous grapevine biotypes found on different areas to approve the correct choice and selection of the grape multiplication materials. PMID:21688040

Meneghetti, Stefano; Poljuha, Danijela; Frare, Enrica; Costacurta, Angelo; Morreale, Giacomo; Bavaresco, Luigi; Calò, Antonio

2012-03-01

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Participatory telerobotics  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

2013-05-01

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The Concept and Development of Participatory Research in Adult Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes selected critical issues concerning participatory research in adult education. Defines participatory research and looks at its development. Links this with the significance and rationale of the participatory approach in adult education and focuses on the problems of this approach. (JOW)

Mtonga, Harry L.

1986-01-01

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Inter and Intra-Varietal Variations in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Under Saline Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three wheat varieties (Kharchia-65, KRL1-4 and Alexandria were tested for their salt tolerance at 125 mol m-3 NaCl salinity. Inter- and intra-varietal variations in these wheat varieties were also investigated for ion contents (Na+, K+, Cl- , K+/Na+ ratio, yield and yield components under saline conditions. Although environmental conditions were uniform , but variability within varieties was found to higher than the variability between varieties. KRL1-4 was found salt tolerant than Kharchia-65 and Alexandria under saline conditions. These inter- and intra-varietal variations suggested that improvement for salt tolerance might be achieved through selection from within already existing varieties and, or by crossing salt tolerant and salt sensitive wheat genotypes.

M. Ahsan

1998-01-01

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Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water condition is a research project under Program Research of Sustainable Production of High Yielding Irrigated Rice under Minimal Water Input (IRPA- 01-01-03-0000/ PR0068/ 0504). Several agencies were involved in this project such as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). The project started in early 2004 with approved IRPA fund of RM 275,000.00 for 3 years. The main objective of the project is to generate superior genotypes for minimal water requirement through induced mutation techniques. A cultivated rice Oryza sativa cv MR219 treated with gamma radiation at 300 and 400 Gray were used in the experiment. Two hundred gm M2 seeds from each dose were screened under minimal water stress in greenhouse at Mardi Seberang Perai. Five hundred panicles with good filled grains were selected for paddy field screening with simulate precise water stress regime. Thirty eight potential lines with required adaptive traits were selected in M3. After several series of selection, 12 promising mutant line were observed tolerance to minimal water stress where two promising mutant lines designated as MR219-4 and MR219-9 were selected for further testing under several stress environments. (author)

2010-10-12

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Demand estimation and marketing plan for Varietize Technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is a demand estimation and marketing plan for Varietize Technologies - a Vancouver based R&D company that is introducing its first product. Varietize recognized the market opportunity for its latest designed product, the "iTV" - a product that interfaces between the Internet and the TV to allow access for online TV content. The study begins with a demand analysis section that uses Prof. Meredith's model that categorizes different demand factors and determinants to look into dif...

Fawwaz, Mazen

2007-01-01

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Demand estimation and marketing plan for Varietize Technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is a demand estimation and marketing plan for Varietize Technologies ? a Vancouver based R&D company that is introducing its first product. Varietize recognized the market opportunity for its latest designed product, the ?iTV?? a product that interfaces between the Internet and the TV to allow access for online TV content. The study begins with a demand analysis section that uses Prof. Meredith?s model that categorizes different demand factors and determinants to look into diff...

Fawwaz, Mazen

2007-01-01

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Varietal improvement of dahlia by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tubers of fourteen leading varieties of dahlia were irradiated with gamma rays with doses from 1-8 krad. The results indicated that with the increase in doses from 2 krad there was decrease in growth of tubers. While a sharp decrease was observed at 4 krad, 6 and 8 krad doses were found to be lethal. Although LD-50 was found between 3-4 krad, the optimum dose for the induction of mutation was found from 2-3 krad. Mutation frequency varied with dose as well as variety and the maximum number of mutants were found at 2 krad dose. Besides growth reduction, various types of physiological anomalies were noticed in growth and leaf characters. A total of 19 types of propagable mutants were isolated mostly for flower colours, with a maximum number in the variety 'Kenya'. Out of these 19 mutants, 11 mutants have been named for release and it is expected that these will find a place in varietal improvement programme of dahlia. (auth.)

1980-03-01

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Respuesta a la selección masal participativa en calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) / Response to participatory mass selection in sweet squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento en Achichipico, Morelos, México con el fin de evaluar el avance genético in situ de cuatro ciclos de selección masal participativa con respecto de la variedad original en una población de calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), en la asociación maíz-calabaza, utilizan [...] do un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se estableció un surco de calabaza cada cuatro de maíz, en surcos de 20 m de largo espaciados a 0.9 m. Se estimó el avance genético por ciclo de selección y se hizo un análisis de varianza para catorce caracteres de planta, fruto y semilla. Se obtuvo ganancia genética por ciclo de selección en color de pulpa (14.1 %), sabor de pulpa (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por hectárea (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por planta (9.8 %), peso de fruto (6.5 %) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (5.1 %). El análisis de varianza detectó diferencias altamente significativas entre ciclos de selección para ancho de fruto, color y sabor de pulpa, El resto de caracteres no presentaron diferencias. Sin embargo, existió una clara tendencia numérica al incremento permanente en su magnitud. Abstract in english An experiment was conducted in Achichipico, Morelos, Mexico, to assess in situ the genetic gain of four cycles of participatory mass selection, with regard to the original variety, in a sweet squash population (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) intercropped with maize. The experimental design was a randomiz [...] ed block design with four replications. After every four rows of maize, one row of squash without maize was sown in rows 0.9 m apart and 20 m long. Genetic gain was calculated for each selection cycle and an analysis of variance was performed on data of fourteen plant, fruit and seed traits. Genetic gain per selection cycle in flesh color and flavor was 14.1 % and 11.8 %, respectively; in fruit yield per hectare (11.8 %), fruit yield per plant (9.8 %), fruit weight (6.5 %) and seed yield per hectare (5.1 %). The analysis of variance detected highly significant differences among selection cycles only for fruit width, flesh color and flavor, while the other traits were not statistically different. A clear upward numerical trend was observed.

Villanueva-Verduzco, Clemente; Sánchez-Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Cabrera, Irma; Sahagún-Castellanos, Jaime; Parra-Benavides, Gema; Villanueva-Sánchez, Evert.

 
 
 
 
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Participatory Communication : A Practical Guide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. At a time when institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, increasingly seek participatory approaches in their development initative, this guide provides perspectives, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society.

Tufte, Thomas

2009-01-01

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Seleção varietal de Phaseolus vulgaris quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino com base em variáveis de crescimento / Selection of Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties for tolerance to salt stress based on growth variables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar e selecionar variedades de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino e identificar, usando variedades de feijoeiro com diferentes graus de tolerância, variáveis que auxiliem na discriminagão de variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerânc [...] ia a esse tipo de estresse, independentemente do mecanismo apresentado pela planta. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetagão. Inicialmente foram avaliadas 48 variedades de P. vulgaris (alocadas nas subparcelas) em dois níveis de salinidade (distribuídos nas parcelas): solução nutritiva normal (SNN) a 0,81 dS m-1 e a teste (SNT) a 5,6 dS m-1, obtida pela adigão de NaCl no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetigões. A partir da massa seca da parte aérea calculou-se a relagão percentual de crescimento alcançada na SNT relativo à SNN das variedades, que variou de 138,7 a 54,1 %, discriminando-as de acordo com o critério de Scott-Knott em duas populagões: uma com 14 variedades mais "tolerantes" e outra com 34 variedades, onde ficaram agrupadas variedades "moderadamente tolerantes" e "sensíveis". Para identificar variáveis de crescimento que permitam selecionar feijoeiros quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino duas variedades tolerantes (Vermelho e CNF 5574), uma medianamente tolerante (FT 83-86) e uma sensível (LM 30074), classificadas no experimento anterior, foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com cinco níveis de salinidade (0,81; 2,7; 4,6; 6,5; e 8,4 dS m-1). Analisando-se a massa seca da raiz, do caule, do pecíolo, das folhas e da parte aérea, a área foliar e a área foliar específica, concluiu-se que a área foliar específica foi o índice que efetivamente mais contribuiu para a discriminação das variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerância à salinidade. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate and select varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for tolerance to salt stress and to identify, using bean varieties with different degrees of tolerance, variables to aid in the screening of salt-tolerant varieties, regardless of the mechanism used by the plant. The e [...] xperiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Initially, 48 P. vulgaris varieties were evaluated (allocated in subplots) at two salinity levels (distributed in the plots): normal nutrient solution (NNS) at 0.81 dS m-1 and test solution (TNS) at 5.6 dS m-1, which was obtained by adding NaCl in a randomized block design with four replications. The dry weight of aerial part was used to calculate the percentage of growth of the varieties achieved in TNS in relation to NNS, which ranged from 138.7 to 54.1%, discriminating them according to the Scott-Knott criterium in two populations: one with 14 more "tolerant" varieties and another with 34 varieties, which grouped "moderately tolerant" and "sensitive" varieties. To identify growth variables that allow selection of tolerant plants to salt stress, two tolerant (Vermelho and CNF 5574), a moderately tolerant (FT 83-86) and a sensitive (LM 30074) varieties, which were classified in a previous experiment, were grown in nutrient solutions with five levels of salinity (0.81, 2.7, 4.6, 6.5, and 8.4 dS m-1). Results of dry mass of root, stem, petiole, leaves and aerial part, leaf area and specific leaf area showed that the specific leaf area was the index that most effectively contributed to the discrimination of bean varieties for tolerance to salinity.

Cícero Antônio de Souza, Araújo; Hugo Alberto, Ruiz; José, Cambraia; Júlio César Lima, Neves; Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos, Freire; Fernando José, Freire.

23

Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. PMID:25053028

Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

2015-01-01

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Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin Discriminação de vinhos tintos brasileiros de acordo com a região vitícola, varietal e vinícola  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine analysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA). The main results...

Alberto Miele; Luiz Antenor Rizzon; Mauro Celso Zanus

2010-01-01

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Induced mutations for varietal improvement in soybean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since soybean necrotic virus (SMV-N), which was identified as a strain of soybean mosaic virus (SMV), has severe effects on such leading varieties as Kwangkyo and Kangrim, mutation studies were aimed at obtaining mutants resistant to SMV-N, without causing drastic changes in other agronomic characters, from these varieties. Prior to mutation induction, inheritance of resistance was determined and it was found that resistance was conditioned by a single recessive gene. With this information, soybean seeds were irradiated with 15 and 25 kR of gamma rays. The mutants were screened for SMV-N resistance, both under natural infection pressure and artificial inoculation. Through the selections, five lines were selected as desirable mutants and, according to the objective of this study, these mutants were stocked in a gene pool. Meanwhile, another mutation was induced to obtain a small seeded mutant with higher yield potential from the exotic variety CB-27. Through the usual selections, one mutant was registered as a new leading variety for soybean sprouts and named Bangsa-kong. Apart from that, attempts were made to determine the mutation frequency and mutation sector in soybean. Plant height and the number of seeds in M1 plants were closely related to the mutation frequency of visible characters. The mutation sector of the irradiated seeds was not apparent in M2 plants regardless of radiation dose. It was found that all seeds harvested from SMV infected plants did not produce mottled seeds and all of the mottled seeds did not contain the virus. The soybean necrotic virus was not transmitted through the seeds of the variety Kwangkyo. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

1988-01-01

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Varietal Performance of Gram and Comparative Effectiveness of Three Insecticides Against Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hb.).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A research project was initiated to evaluate varietal resistance of gram against pod borer and to determine the comparative efficacy of three insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (Hb). Gram varieties Viz. NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91 and KARAK-1 were selected while three insecticides namely Thiodan 35 EC, Cymbush 10EC and Actelic 50 EC were applied. KARAK-1 variety of gram was found significantly least susceptible to the attack of gram pod borer, followed by NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91. All the test...

Said Mir Khan; Syed Faizullah

1999-01-01

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Complexity of indica-japonica varietal differentiation in Bangladesh rice landraces revealed by microsatellite markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the genetic diversity and indica-japonica differentiation in Bangladesh rice varieties, a total of 151 accessions of rice varieties mostly Bangladesh traditional varieties including Aus, Boro, broadcast Aman, transplant Aman and Rayada varietal groups were genotyped using 47 rice nuclear SSRs. As a result, three distinct groups were detected by cluster analysis, corresponding to indica, Aus and japonica rice. Among deepwater rice varieties analyzed some having particular morphological features that mainly corresponded to the japonica varietal group. Some small seeded and aromatic varieties from Bangladesh also corresponded to the japonica varietal group. This research for the first time establishes that the japonica varietal group is a prominent component of traditional varieties in Bangladesh, particularly in deepwater areas. PMID:23853518

Wang, Mumu; Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Fu, Yongcai; Sun, Chuanqing; Cai, Hongwei

2013-06-01

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PARTICIPATORY DEPRESSION. A CAVEAT FOR PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH APPROACHES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory approaches have become de rigueur in research for development. A goal of many participatory projects is to generally empower beneficiaries, beyond the scope of the immediate project. The technical and organizational learning, the social contacts, and the prestige that result from participation continue to serve beneficiaries after the end of a project. These benefits would accrue more in projects with higher levels of participation. However, in the event of a premature end or an...

Vaughan, Gregory; Lanc?on, Jacques

2010-01-01

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El panorama varietal del cultivo de zanahoria en Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between 7,000 and 9,800 hectares of carrot are grown annually in Argentina. Major producing provinces are Mendoza, Buenos Aires, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Córdoba and San Juan, with differences in environmental conditions and cultivars adapted. Carrot cultivars can be classified in three ways: as annual or biennials, according to the root shape in several varietal types, and as hybrids or open-pollinated cultivars (OP. The aim of this study was to characterize the carrot cultivars supply in the major producing provinces of Argentina. Data from interviews and surveys to seed sellers, agents of Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, agronomists and service companies of the carrot chain were compiled and processed. Mendoza mainly has 91 % of its cultivated area with biennial cultivars, 76 % of cultivars type Flakkee and 92 % of OP cultivars. In Buenos Aires annual carrots are roughly not cultivated, the main varietal types are Flakkee (80 % and Nantes, and 21 % of its carrot surface is grown with hybrids. In Santiago del Estero almost the totality of the cultivars are OP, with 60 % of annual cultivars (“criolla” type. Santa Fe is characterized by the greatest use of hybrids (40 %, being all grown biennial cultivars and Nantes type. In Córdoba and San Juan exclusively OP cultivars are grown with high proportion of annual cultivars. Open-pollinated biennial cultivars of the Flakkee type are actually the most grown in Argentina.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- En Argentina se cultivan anualmente entre 7.000 y 9.800 hectáreas de zanahoria. Las principales provincias productoras son: Mendoza,Buenos Aires, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Córdoba y San Juan. Cada zona difiere en condiciones ambientales y cultivares adaptadas. Las cultivares de zanahoria pueden clasificarse según tres criterios: en anuales o bienales, según la forma de sus raíces en tipos varietales, y en híbridas o variedades de polinización abierta (VPA. Con el objetivo de caracterizar la oferta varietal de zanahoria en las principales provincias productoras de Argentina, se recopilaron y procesaron datos a partir de entrevistas y encuestas a distribuidores de semillas, agentes del Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, asesores profesionales y empresas de servicios de la cadena agroalimentaria de zanahoria. Mendoza tiene 91 % de su superficie con cultivares bienales, 76 % de cultivares tipo Flakkee y 92 % de VPA. En Buenos Aires no se cultivan prácticamente zanahorias anuales, los tipos varietales más utilizados son Flakkee (80 % y Nantesa, y la superficie con híbridoses de 21 %. En Santiago del Estero casi la totalidad de loscultivos son VPA, con 60 % de cultivares anuales (tipo “criolla”.Santa Fe se caracteriza por la mayor utilización de híbridos (40%, siendo la totalidad de sus cultivares bienales y del tipo Nantesa.En Córdoba y San Juan se cultivan exclusivamente VPA con alta participación de anuales. Las cultivares bienales de polinización abierta, tipo Flakkee, son actualmente las más cultivadas en Argentina.

Gabriel, E.L.

2011-01-01

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Technology support for participatory budgeting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?

Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus

2010-01-01

31

Varietal Differences in Lodging Resistance of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To identify resistant genotypes to lodging in African rice (Oryza glaberrima, 6 genotypes, three of which were selected by prescreening for the resistance and the remaining three were used in an interspecific breeding program at WARDA, were tested in terms of resistance to lodging. The trial was conducted in rainfed upland in 2005 and in irrigated lowland in 2006 and all genotypes showed higher yield and larger plant length in 2006 than in 2005. There was a clear varietal difference in lodging incidence of the O. glaberrima genotypes at maturity, which was ranged from 0.0 to 91.0% and from 68.6 to 99.7% in 2005 and 2006, respectively. In 2005, four O. glaberrima genotypes, TOG 7235, IRGC Accession Code 104038, CG 14 and CG 20, depicted the resistance at maturity since their lodging incidences were from 0.0 to 6.7%. With heavier panicles by higher yield and larger plant length in 2006, however, two of those four genotypes almost completely lodged at maturity. The remaining two genotypes, TOG 7235 and CG 14, showed moderately low lodging incidences of 74.1 and 68.6%, respectively. However, those rates are still very high as a commercial variety and further screening for lodging resistance is necessary.

K. Futakuchi

2008-01-01

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Varietal Response of Lycopersicon esculentum L. to Callogenesis and Regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The varietal response of Feston and Nagina was tested using hypocotyl and leaf disc as explant source. The callus formation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D and on MS medium supplemented with Napthalene Acetic Acid (NAA and Benzylamino Purine (BAP from both explant sources. Shoot formation from calli of Feston and Nagina were successfully obtained on different hormonal levels of BAP & NAA on MS medium. Maximums shoot percentages of calli derived from hypocotyl (56.00% and leaf disc (42.30% was achieved on MS medium with 0.05mg/l IAA and 4.0mg/l BAP for Feston. For Nagina, maximum shoot percentage was obtained from leaf explant (39.13% and hypocotyl (32.00% on similar medium. Shoot regeneration produced 3.137 and 2.353 mean number of shoots/explants for hypocotyl and leaf disc of Feston whereas Nagina responded with 2.187 and 1.783 mean number of shoots/explant for leaf disc and hypocotyl respectively.

Zubeda Chaudary

2001-01-01

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Varietal differences of quinoaâ??s tolerance to saline conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims This study aimed to assess varietal differences of quinoaâ??s tolerance to salinity and to investigate physiological mechanisms conferring these differences. Methods Production of biomass in fourteen varieties grown under saline conditions was analysed in a pot experiment. For two contrasting varieties, the Danish variety Titicaca and the Bolivian variety Utusaya gas exchange, chlorophyll content index (CCI), fluorescence and ion relations were studied. Results Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties; least affected were two varieties from the Bolivian altiplano and a variety from Peru. Titicaca and Utusaya both had substantially increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap. But, Utusaya was much more efficient in restricting xylem Na+ loading. Xylem Na+ and K+ loading were found to be uncoupled. Utusaya maintained a relatively high stomatal conductance resulting in an only 25% NaCl-induced reduction in net CO2 assimilation compared to a 67% reduction in salt treated Titicaca plants. Maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII was not affected by salinity. Conclusion In addition to maintaining high gas exchange, tolerant varieties better control xylem Na+ loading. To what extent this control is related to radial root Na+ uptake or to the activity of Na+/H+-exchangers at the xylem parenchyma boundary remains to be studied.

Adolf, V I; Shabala, S

2012-01-01

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Varietal Performance of Gram and Comparative Effectiveness of Three Insecticides Against Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hb..  

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Full Text Available A research project was initiated to evaluate varietal resistance of gram against pod borer and to determine the comparative efficacy of three insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (Hb. Gram varieties Viz. NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91 and KARAK-1 were selected while three insecticides namely Thiodan 35 EC, Cymbush 10EC and Actelic 50 EC were applied. KARAK-1 variety of gram was found significantly least susceptible to the attack of gram pod borer, followed by NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91. All the tested insecticides significantly reduced the infestation of gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hb as compared to control plots. Thiodan (Endosulfan was found most effective than Actellic (Pirimiphos methyl and Cymbush (Permethrin.

Said Mir Khan

1999-01-01

35

Rice mutation breeding for varietal improvement in Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four mutant rice varieties were officially released for commercial production in Myanmar. One of the mutant varieties, Shwe War Tun, released in 1980, has been grown as the second largest variety in terms of growing area. Two new mutant varieties with desired quality characters and resistance to bacteria blight disease and white-backed plant hoppers were released in 2005. Rice is the major crop and is grown throughout the country under different agro-ecosystems in Myanmar. The annual total rice growing area is 6 million hectares, with 4 million hectares of monsoon rice and 2 million hectares of summer rice. The rice yield in Myanmar doubled in a 30 year period, that is, from 8 million metric tons in the 1960's to about 16 million tons in the 1990's. Development and adoption of improved rice varieties has significantly contributed to the increase of rice production. The national rice varietal improvement program has been undertaken at the Department of Agricultural Research, Yezin (formerly the Central Agricultural Research Institute until January 2004). Mutation breeding is one of the most effective ways of inducing genetic variability and new mutant lines with desirable traits. In Myanmar, rice improvement using induced mutation was initiated in the early 1970's, and the first mutant rice variety Shwe War Tun (a mutant of IR 5) developed through gamma irradiation was released in 1974. Another mutant variety, Shwe Thwe Tun (a mutant of IR 24), was released in 1980. Since then, Mutant variety Shwe War Tun has been grown as the second largest rice variety in terms of occupying area in the country; it performed particularly well in rainfed lowland regions. During 1980 - 1990, induced mutation was used, attempting to improve some traditional rice varieties. However, no mutant lines with desirable traits were obtained. In this paper, breeding and performance of two new mutant varieties are reported. (author)

2006-05-01

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Influência varietal e do solo no estado nutricional na cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp) pela análise foliar / Varietal and soil influence on nutritional status of sugarcane (Saccharum spp) as determined by foliar analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de se estudar o comportamento varietal e do solo na concentração de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-de--açúcar e, ao mesmo tempo, executar o levantamento do estado nutricional das variedades através da análise foliar, instalaram-se ensaios em quatro Grandes Grupos de Solos cultivan [...] do 16 plantadas sob idênticas condições de clima, adubação, tratos culturais, idade, estado de sanidade e procedência de mudas. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos ao acaso com 16 tratamentos (variedades) e 4 repetições. Realizou-se a amostragem foliar aos 4 meses de idade, tomando-se os 20 cm centrais da folha +3 (20 por parcela), desprezando-se a nervura principal. Determinaram-se os macronutrientes (nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio e enxofre) os quais foram expressos em percentagem de matéria seca. Os ensaios foram colhidos aos 18 meses de idade, sendo que para cada um deles determinou-se as produtividades em toneladas por pol/ha. Abstract in english Trials were established on four soil types (Latosolic B Terra Roxa - LR; Ortho Dark Red Latosol - LE and Red Yellow Podzolic Laras variation - PVls in the state of São Paulo and Textural B Terra Roxa - TE in Parana to study varietal and soil effects on macronutrient composition of sugarcane leaves a [...] nd to do a nutritional survey of varieties by foliar analysis. A randomized block designwas used with four replications of 16 varieties (CB 41-76; CB 45-155; CB 47-355; CB 49-260; CB 56-171; CB 61-80; IAC 50/134; IAC 51/205; IAC 52/150; IAC 52/326; Co 740; Co 775; CP 51-22 and NA 56-62). Varieties were planted under the same conditions of climate, fertilization, tillage and age, sanitation and source. A central 20 cm portion of each +3 leaf was taken (except for midrib for determining amounts of N, R, K, Ca, Mg and S, expressed -on a dry weight basis. Leaf samplesof 20 leaves per plot were selected at four months of age, for analysis. From the results obtained it was conclued that: a) There is a varietal effect on leaf composition of major elements, independent of soil type; b) Soil type has an influence on leaf composition of different varieties; c) The higher nutrient levels in the leaves did not always result in the highest production intpol/ha; d) Because of soil and varietal influence on leaf composition it is rifficult to generalize critical nutrient, levels obtained from foliar diagnosis; e) Critical levels of nutrients obtained from foliar diagnosis for une variety do not represented the same levels for all varieties.

Haag, Henrique Paulo; Orlando Filho, José.

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Gender and Innovation in Agriculture: A Case Study of Farmers’ Varietal Preference of Drought Tolerant Maize in Southern Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA. The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their gender based preference for Drought Tolerant maize variety and elucidated the reasons for preference. Three-stage stratified sampling technique was used. Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from a total of 48 farmers. Descriptive, Ranking and LSD were used to analyse the data collected. The result of the analysis showed that majority of the male and female farmers have primary education and are youths. The result of varietal preference differs between genders in some locations Male farmers identified big cobs with full grains, big seed, and multiple cobs as the main reasons for their preference while female farmers identified yellow colour of seed, nutrient fortified seed and big cobs with full grains as the main reasons for their preference. It is therefore recommended that effort should be made to involve male and female farmers in the varietal selection procedure as to facilitate easy adoption of hybrid maize. The women are more concerned with the food security of their family and hence are important segment in maize innovation that improve the food security of farming households and policies should not exclude female farmers.

O.E. Ayinde

2013-12-01

38

German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2…

Ulbrich, Christiane

2013-01-01

39

75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica...varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan to be imported into the United States...

2010-03-10

40

75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica...varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan into the United States is the same as...

2010-10-22

 
 
 
 
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Cohomologie des fibr\\'{e}s en droites sur les vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s magnifiques de rang minimal  

CERN Multimedia

R\\'{E}SUM\\'{E} : Le th\\'{e}or\\`{e}me de Borel-Weil-Bott d\\'{e}crit la cohomologie des fibr\\'{e}s en droites sur les vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s de drapeaux. On g\\'{e}n\\'{e}ralise ici ce th\\'{e}or\\`{e}me \\`{a} une plus grande classe de vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s projectives : les vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s magnifiques de rang minimal. ABSTRACT : The Borel-Weil-Bott theorem describes the cohomology of line bundles over flag varieties. Here, one generalizes this theorem to a wider class of projective varieties : the wonderful varieties of minimal rank.

Tchoudjem, A

2005-01-01

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Nutrient balances at farm level in Machakos (Kenya), using a participatory nutrient monitoring (NUTMON) approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 74 farms were selected from Machakos, Mwingi and Makueni districts in Kenya, using participatory techniques and classified in three categories on the basis of soil fertility management (low level, medium and high level). Soil fertility management was monitored, using the NUTrient MONitoring methodology, which appears a suitable and appropriate tool for the diagnostic phase of Farming System Analysis and Design in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya. The participatory inventory and mo...

Gachimbi, L. N.; Keulen, H.; Thuranira, E. G.; Karuku, A. M.; Jager, A.; Nguluu, S.; Ikombo, B. M.; Kinama, J. M.; Itabari, J. K.; Nandwa, S. M.

2005-01-01

43

Respuesta a la selección participativa en variedades de calabaza de la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México / Response to participatory selection in two varieties of squash from Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio en la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Estado de México, durante 2001, con el objetivo de estimar en calabaza (Cucurbita pepo L.) la respuesta a la selección participativa in situ en caracteres de planta, calidad de fruto y rendimiento de semilla. Se evaluaron dos variedades de l [...] a Sierra Norte de Puebla seleccionadas in situ: Mazapa (ciclos de selección 1 a 3), La Libertad (ciclos de selección 1 a 3) y un testigo, a una densidad de 27,639 plantas·ha-1, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La mayor respuesta por ciclo de selección, en promedio de localidades, ocurrió en la variedad Mazapa para número de frutos por planta (0.29 frutos; 31.8%), altura (1.0 cm; 6.1%) y ancho de fruto (0.5 cm; 2.4%), grosor de pulpa (0.1 cm; 5.8%), altura (0.034; 1.6%) y ancho de semilla (0.001 cm; 0.11%). La variedad La Libertad destacó en peso de semilla por fruto (12 g·fruto-1; 21%) y en peso de frutos por planta (0.1 kg·fruto-1; 6.6%). El segundo ciclo de selección de la variedad Mazapa sobresalió en peso de fruto (3.77 kg), peso de semilla por planta (98 g), grosor de pulpa (2.6 cm), alto de fruto (23.6 cm), ancho de fruto (20.3 cm) y ancho de semilla (0.934 cm). El tercer ciclo de selección en Mazapa mostró los valores más altos en número de frutos por planta (1.49), peso de fruto por hectárea (123.5 t·ha-1) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (3.83 t·ha-1). Abstract in english A study was conducted at two sites near the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, State of Mexico, in 2001, in order to estimate the response in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) to in situ participatory selection in terms of fruit quality and seed yield. Two native varieties from Sierra Norte de Puebla, selected [...] in situ, were evaluated: Mazapa (selection cycles 1 to 3) and Libertad (selection cycles 1 to 3), plus a control, at a density of 27,639 plants·ha-1, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The best response per selection cycle, based on averaging the two locations, occurred in the Mazapa variety for number of fruits per plant (0.29 fruits; 31.8%), fruit height (1.0 cm; 6.1%), fruit width (0.5 cm; 2.4%), flesh thickness (0.1 cm; 5.8%), seed height (0.034 cm; 1.6%) and seed width (0.001 cm; 0.11 %). The Libertad variety was better in gain for seed weight per fruit (12 g·fruit-1; 21%) and fruit weight per plant (0.1 kg·fruit-1; 6.6%). The second selection cycle in the Mazapa variety had the best gain in fruit weight (3.77 kg), seed weight per plant (98 g), flesh thickness (2.6 cm), fruit height (23.6 cm), fruit width (20.3 cm), and seed width (0.934 cm). The third selection cycle in Mazapa showed the highest values for number of fruits per plant (1.49), fruit weight per hectare (123.5 t·ha-1), and seed yield per hectare (3.83 t·ha-1).

Miguel Ángel, Sánchez-Hernández; Clemente, Villanueva-Verduzco; César, Sánchez-Hernández; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Evert, Villanueva-Sánchez.

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Does resource complementarity or prevention of lodging contribute to the increased productivity of rice varietal mixtures in Yunnan, China?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We conducted an experiment in Gejiu, Yunnan Province of China during the wet season of 2002 to examine the importance of resource complementarity and prevention of lodging in the fast-spreading practice of growing rice varietal mixtures in China to suppress rice blast disease and its associated damage. The hybrid rice variety Shanyou 63 and the glutinous or sticky rice variety Huangkenuo were used to study intra- and inter-varietal competition in the rice intercropping system. The experiment ...

2009-01-01

45

Promoting Participatory Research by Family Physicians  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the past, researchers have inadvertently caused stigmatization of various populations, first by not involving community members and then through publishing negative findings. In contrast, participatory research, which is based on a partnership between researchers and those affected by the issue being studied, promotes the voice of those being researched. This essay highlights key principles, processes, complexities, and challenges of participatory research and outlines when participatory r...

2007-01-01

46

Rekindling Values in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant that different approaches and conceptualization exist in this field today. We argue that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in PD. This requires focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

2010-01-01

47

Participatory Design of Academic Libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory design is a process by which the people who will use a space, a service, or a tool are involved in its conceptualization and development. Traditionally, a narrow range of experts, such as architects, engineers, or computer scientists, decided what people needed and how it would be built. Even today, library buildings and especially catalogs and other library technology are built in this traditional way, and this is why they are often so hard to use. The alternative is to conside...

Foster, Nancy

2011-01-01

48

Varietal characterization of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) by GC-MS analysis of hop cone extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach is described for use in the varietal characterization of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) varieties. The study focuses on commercial hop varieties and was timed to coincide with the 2008 commercial hop harvest in Tasmania, Australia. Analysis of hop extracts was performed using GC-MS. A 60 m capillary column was employed to increase efficiency to permit the use of a quadrupole mass spectrometer in place of a time of flight mass spectrometer that is more commonly used for this type of analysis. A set of characterization functions were derived from discriminant analysis which were highly suitable for varietal characterization of the eight commercial varieties included in the study, namely Willamette, Victoria, Pride of Ringwood, Cascade, Southern Hallertau, Millennium, Southern Saaz, and Super Pride. PMID:20029908

Shellie, Robert A; Poynter, Samuel D H; Li, Jianfeng; Gathercole, Jessica L; Whittock, Simon P; Koutoulis, Anthony

2009-11-01

49

Varietal and environmental influence on the yield and the end-use quality of sugar beet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental factor (location influenced sugar beet root yield, which was higher by 20.6% on Belgrade location than on Pan?evo location. However, when compared the genotype effect, smaller environmental influence was found for root yield, which was not expected. The investigated factors (variety and location equally contributed to the variation in root sugar content. Significantly higher varietal influence was observed for granulated sugar yield, which was also unexpected. .

Radivojevi? Stevan ?.

2006-01-01

50

Varietal Response and Estimates of Heritability of Resistance to Meloidogyne javanica in Carrots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With methods developed in this study, varietal responses to M. javanica were evaluated and heritability of resistance of two promising carrot cultivars was estimated. More egg masses were found on root systems inoculated with eggs added to the soil in three holes in 250 cm³ cups than by mixing the inoculum with soil in the cups. A resistant breeding line, CNPH 1437, was discriminated from susceptible cultivar Nova Kuroda with inoculum levels higher than 2,000 eggs per cup. Greenhouse and fie...

Huang, S. P.; Vecchia, P. T. Della; Ferreira, P. E.

1986-01-01

51

The Participatory Turn: Participatory Budgeting Comes to America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory Budgeting (PB) has expanded to over 1,500 municipalities worldwide since its inception in Porto Alege, Brazil in 1989 by the leftist Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers’ Party). While PB has been adopted throughout the world, it has yet to take hold in the United States. This dissertation examines the introduction of PB to the United States with the first project in Chicago in 2009, and proceeds with an in-depth case study of the largest implementation of PB in the United State...

Gilman, Hollie Russon

2012-01-01

52

Values-Led Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities in PD. Drawing from the authorsâ?? own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

2012-01-01

53

Participatory Inovation Conference 2011 Proceedings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Industry and public agencies increasingly adopt user-driven innovation and open innovation, as they realise that innovation cannot come solely from within an organisation. Innovation happens in the â??breaking of the wavesâ?? between people outside and people inside â?? because they have different stakes and perspectives. In academia, new breakthrough contributions to understanding innovation â?? and supporting it â?? will also emerge in the borderlands between disciplines that traditionally do not collaborate: between languages and design, and between management and anthropology for instance. The new discipline of Participatory Innovation gathers theories and methods across such academic fields that describe how people outside an organisation can contribute to its innovation. The many papers in this volume have in common that they identify ways for industry and the public sector to expand innovation through the participation of users, employees, suppliers, customers etc. â?? both on a strategiclevel, in concrete methods, and in the day-to-day interactions. PINC 2011 is a forum where participants from different disciplines and organisations can meet and challenge each other to develop the field of participatory innovation.

Buur, Jacob

2011-01-01

54

Varietal improvement of mungbean and blackgram through mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to enrich the available germplasm of mungbean and blackgram, a mutation induction experiment was started using 60Co gamma rays. A number of promising mutants have been selected up to M4 generation. (author)

1982-02-01

55

From Citizen Participation to Participatory Governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper identifies types of citizen participation in local government in Australia, in particular focusing on the past two decades when local government systems have been the focus of intense reform. The paper considers the extent to which contemporary views of participatory governance have taken root at local and sub-local levels and concludes that despite reforms intended to engage local citizens more in local government activity, citizen participation has yet to develop significantly into arrangements that reach the level of participatory governance. It also argues that for participatory governance to be further developed, leadership may often have to come from organisations outside institutional local government.

Chris Aulich

2009-01-01

56

Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audienceâ??s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts.

Heinrich, Falk

2014-01-01

57

Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre-established handbooks for the selection of stakeholders often conduct instrumental participation, limited to information dissemination. On the other hand, in some cantons participatory processes characterized by normative rationales take place. Here the goals of participatory processes are not limited to outcomes (e.g. acceptance of the project), but value the process of participation in itself. In these cantons actors are selected via social connections and the claimed 'common sense' of cantonal project officers. Here, the opportunity of public debate opens up, the inclusion of actors often start earlier in the decision-making processes and objectives are defined publicly and collectively. Cantonal authorities involved in river management do not all consider participatory processes as important. The acknowledgment of participatory processes is less related to an authority's recognition of the importance of participation and more to specific local experience.

Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

58

PEPSI: Privacy-Enhanced Participatory Sensing Infrastructure.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory Sensing combines the ubiquity of mobile phones with sensing capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks. It targets pervasive collection of information, e.g., temperature, traffic conditions, or health-related data. As users produce measurements from their mobile devices, voluntary participation becomes essential. However, a number of privacy concerns -- due to the personal information conveyed by data reports -- hinder large-scale deployment of participatory sensing applications. ...

Cristofaro, Emiliano; Soriente, Claudio

2011-01-01

59

COINCIDENCIA EN LA SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE TOMATE Y LA SELECCIÓN POR RENDIMIENTO EN UNA FERIA DE AGROBIODIVERSIDAD / COINCIDENCE IN PARTICIPATORY VARIETY SELECTION OF TOMATO AND SELECTION IN A FAIR PERFORMANCE AGROBIODIVERSITY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se muestra la coincidencia en la selección de los productores en una feria de diversidad del cultivo del tomate y la selección practicada sobre la base del rendimiento real de cada una de las variedades expuestas en la feria. Para la realización del estudio, se sembró una parcela dem [...] ostrativa con 11 variedades de tomate en áreas de la Cooperativa de Producción Agropecuaria (CPA) “17 de Mayo”, ubicada en el Valle de Caujerí, San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo. Mayoritariamente las variedades sembradas se corresponden con las obtenidas a partir de los programas de mejoramiento genético ejecutados por diferentes instituciones científicas del país. Una vez que el cultivo arribó a la madurez fisiológica, se celebró la feria de diversidad, durante la cual cada productor pudo seleccionar libremente las variedades que consideraba más adecuadas a sus intereses y necesidades muy específicas. A lo largo del trabajo se presenta la comparación entre la selección realizada por los productores y el rendimiento para diferentes presiones de selección. Entre otros resultados, se pudo constatar la predilección de los productores por las variedades con altos rendimientos y su capacidad para seleccionarlas entre un conjunto más o menos amplio de variedades Abstract in english This research study shows the coincidence of growers´ selection in a tomato diversity fair with the one based on the actual yield of each of the varieties presented in it. To conduct the study, a demonstrative plot was seeded with 11 tomato varieties in the areas of “17 de Mayo” Agricult [...] ural Production Cooperative (CPA), located in Valle de Caujerí, San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo. Most of the varieties sown match with those obtained by the breeding programs carried out at different scientific institutions of our country. Once the crop reached its physiological maturity, the diversity fair was celebrated, during which every grower could freely select the most adequate varieties according to their interests and specific needs. In the course of the experiment, there was a comparison between growers´ selection and yield for different selection pressures. Among other results, growers´ favorite high-yielding varieties became evident, besides showing their ability to select them within a rather large collection

de la Fe, C; Moya, C; Arzuaga, J; Fonseca, E.

60

Population Dynamics of Cassava Green Mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae as Influenced by Varietal Resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The population dynamics of Mononychellus tanajoa as influenced by varietal resistance of cassava was determined over two cassava planting seasons (dry and wet season, using biweekly samples from 11 cassava genotypes in Ibadan, Nigeria. The population size of M. tanajoa and the damage scores were higher during dry than wet season. In 1993, there was a higher mite population and damage peak in January than in March, while in 1994, the peak occurred only in April. Mite population and damage generally varied significantly among genotypes and sampling dates, and decreased as the plant aged. High relative humidity rainfall, and low temperature inhibited the mite population growth. During dry season, the rate of mite increase was higher on the susceptible cassava genotype than on the resistant genotypes while situation was reverse in wet season. The study showed that varietal resistance of cassava had a significant effect on the population growth rates of M. tanajoa. January was the favourable period for screening cassava genotypes for resistance to M. tanajoa in Ibadan, Nigeria regions.

E.N. Nukenine

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ethyl propiolate derivatisation for the analysis of varietal thiols in wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Varietal thiols [3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP)] have been extensively studied in the recent literature. Nonetheless the hardest obstacle for research focussing on this class of compounds is the lack of quick, user-friendly and sensitive analytical methods. The current paper presents the use of ethyl propriolate (ETP) as a novel derivatising agent to quantify varietal thiols and the first time quantification of the thiol-ETP adducts via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Method optimisation including choice of the best SPE cartridge, derivatisation pH and adducts stability is presented. Validation of the method via stable isotope dilution was carried out. Detection limits in both model wine (4MMP 7.2ng/L, 3MHA 40.0ng/L and 3MH 91.2ng/L) and white wine (4MMP 24.5ng/L, 3MHA 120.9ng/L and 3MH 194.6ng/L) for the novel ETP-based method were lower than those obtained with the p-HMB method. Finally, 14 New Zealand Sauvignon blanc were analysed with both the new method and the organo-mercury based procure: good correlations were obtained for 3MH and 3MHA. Detection limits obtained with the new methods, its rapidity and reproducibility make this protocol perfectly suitable for oenological purposes. PMID:24034138

Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Piano, Federico; Duhamel, Nina; Barker, David; Fedrizzi, Bruno

2013-10-18

62

Influence of grape-harvesting steps on varietal thiol aromas in Sauvignon blanc wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intense tropical fruit aroma of Sauvignon blanc wines has been associated with the varietal thiols 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH), derived from odorless precursors in the grape, and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), arising from 3MH during fermentation. Grapes and juice were sourced from five locations in Marlborough, New Zealand, taking hand-picked grapes and samples at four stages during the mechanical harvesting process and pressing, which were then fermented in replicated 750 mL bottles. With each set of juices, the highest concentrations of Cys-3MH and Glut-3MH were found in the juices pressed to 1 bar, but these juices produced wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. With three of the juices, there was an increase in varietal thiol content for wines made from juices that had been machine harvested compared to the hand-picked samples, which matched earlier findings of lower 3MH and 3MHA levels in wines made from hand-picked grapes. Juices that were more oxidized, and which showed a higher absorbance at 420 nm, were found to produce wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. PMID:21854044

Allen, Thomas; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Girault, Melanie; Butler, Paul; Logan, Gerard; Jouanneau, Sara; Nicolau, Laura; Kilmartin, Paul A

2011-10-12

63

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual meth...

Naydene de Lange; Mart-Mari Geldenhuys

2012-01-01

64

Varietal improvement in jute through induction and use of mutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A very limited number of varieties of jute is available in the cultivated species of Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius in Bangladesh. Use of gamma rays on seeds of the variety D-154 of the species capsularis resulted in a wide spectrum of variability, but there was only a narrow range of variability in the olitorius species. Treatment of the seeds of these species with chemical mutagens has not provided wide scope for selection. Crossing among mutants and mutants with varieties has added more variability in capsularis. A mutant, Atompat-38, of C. capsularis developed by using gamma rays on seeds of the variety D-154 has been released directly as a commercial variety (1988). It has a 12-15% higher fibre yield than the widely cultivated parent variety. It has a distinct genetic marker (hairy stipules modified into leaflets), and other additional advantages. A very promising line, C-443, developed through crossing Atompat-38 with CVL-1 of C. capsularis, is expected to be released very soon. This line has the combined features of the green petiole of CVL-1 and the modified leafy stipules of Atompat-38. It outyielded both the parents by 10-15% and has a good fibre quality, with less hard fibre at the bottom end of the stem. Other promising mutants are also undergoing advanced trials. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on broadening the genetic variability of the olitorius species through developing effective methods of treating seeds with chemical mutagens. 11 refs, 2 tabs

1990-06-18

65

Varietal identification of coffee seeds by RAPD technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed the identification of cultivars and/or lines of Coffea arabica of commercial interest, using PCR-RAPD markers. The DNA of ground seeds lots of 12 cultivars and/or lines were evaluated with five primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16, and OPX 09 were obtained from a selection of 56 primers. The electrophoretic profiles allowed distinction among eight cultivars and/or lines as well as heterogeneity between and within lots of IAPAR59.Classicamente, a identificação de cultivares do cafeeiro utiliza descritores morfológicos da semente e da planta em crescimento. O uso de marcadores moleculares, além de permitir uma identificação genética precisa, possibilita a caracterização dos genótipos com menor custo de mão-de-obra e de tempo, pois a descrição é realizada com pequenas quantidades de DNA genômico, extraído em qualquer etapa de crescimento da planta. Este estudo visou a identificação de cultivares/linhagens de Coffea arabica, de interesse comercial para o IAPAR, utilizando-se marcadores do tipo PCR-RAPD. O DNA de sementes moídas de 12 lotes de cultivares e/ou linhagens foi avaliado com cinco primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16 e OPX 09 obtidos de uma pré-seleção de 56 primers. Os perfis eletroforéticos mostraram diferenças entre oito cultivares/linhagens e uma baixa heterogeneidade foi detectada dentro de um lote de IAPAR59 e entre dois lotes deste mesmo cultivar.

Maria Lúcia Crochemore

2004-03-01

66

Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne

67

Mutation induction as a tool for varietal development in ornamental plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the current advancement in biotechnology has tremendously change the modern breeding approach, the induced mutation techniques is still very much in use as complementary tools. MINT experiences in using the techniques for varietal development in ornamental plants has helped to increase genetic variabilities in several ornamental plant species, produced twelve new mutant cultivars as well as developed efficient tissue culture system for six ornamental plant species as tool for in vitro mutagenesis procedures and micropropagation. The technology and expertise that have been established are ready for transfer to the horticulture industry. Sharing of capability and capacity between research institutions and private sector is one possible way by improving and maintaining long-term sustenance of the floriculture industry. (author)

2000-10-17

68

Online Social Networking as Participatory Surveillance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, I argue that online social networking is anchored in surveillance practices. This gives us an opportunity to challenge conventional understandings of surveillance that often focus on control and disempowerment. In the context of online social networking, surveillance is something potentially empowering, subjectivity building and even playful – what I call participatory surveillance.

Albrechtslund, Anders

2008-01-01

69

Participatory capacity building in action in Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The south-western Colombian department of Nariño has developed an innovative, demand-led and participatory initiative for the local integration of IDP s. The long-term sustainability of such partnerships between local administrations and grassroots communities hinges on ability to influence national and international financial flows.

Josep Zapater

2007-07-01

70

Can Public Education Coexist with Participatory Culture?  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory culture has many mechanisms to support peer-to-peer learning as young people enter interest-driven and friendship-driven networks. In this article, the authors argue that school librarians can help bridge the gap between the excitement of having students experiment with new forms of social learning and new digital-media practices,…

Losh, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Henry

2012-01-01

71

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene de Lange

2012-01-01

72

FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of anthocyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated fla...

Vergara, C.; Von Baer, D.; Mardones, C.; Gutie?rrez, L.; Hermosi?n-gutie?rrez, I.; Castillo-mun?oz, N.

2011-01-01

73

A Trust-based Recruitment Framework for Multi-hop Social Participatory Sensing  

CERN Multimedia

The idea of social participatory sensing provides a substrate to benefit from friendship relations in recruiting a critical mass of participants willing to attend in a sensing campaign. However, the selection of suitable participants who are trustable and provide high quality contributions is challenging. In this paper, we propose a recruitment framework for social participatory sensing. Our framework leverages multi-hop friendship relations to identify and select suitable and trustworthy participants among friends or friends of friends, and finds the most trustable paths to them. The framework also includes a suggestion component which provides a cluster of suggested friends along with the path to them, which can be further used for recruitment or friendship establishment. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed recruitment framework in terms of selecting a large number of well-suited participants and providing contributions with high overall trust, in comparison with one-hop recruitment ...

Amintoosi, Haleh

2013-01-01

74

Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety mixtures relative to their component varieties. For this purpose, six variety mixtures of spring barley and 14 component varieties were grown in each of 17 trial environments. Atotal of 28 observed and a priori plant characteristics, including grain yield, disease severity and weed competitiveness, were derived for each component variety in each trial. The relationship between intervarietal diversity of each characteristic and the mixing effect on grain yield was analysed. Additionally, various types of yield stability were estimated and compared among mixtures and component varieties. One mixture out-yielded all of its component varieties in almost half of the trial environments. Inter-varietal diversity in grain yield potential correlated significantly with mixing effect, as did straw length diversity when weighted with weed pressure. The grain yields of most mixtures were more stable across environments than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.

Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.

2012-01-01

75

Evaluation of a Participatory Resource Monitoring System for Nontimber Forest Products: the Case of Amla (Phyllanthus spp. Fruit Harvest by Soligas in South India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995–2005 period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for participatory resource mapping, fruit productivity estimation, and promotion of improved harvest techniques. Major challenges involved ensuring adequate incentives for monitoring activities that lead to benefits only over the longer term, such as monitoring of extraction and regeneration rates. Maintaining long-term participation and interest in the latter requires ensuring resource tenure.

Tamara Ticktin

2008-12-01

76

Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagersâ?? motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagersâ?? motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

2014-01-01

77

A Participatory Perspective on Cross-Cultural Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Designers face a number of challenges in terms of when and how to design interactive systems with indigenous groups. Every layer of development faces obstacles from designing localized interfaces to facilitating prototype evaluations in the wild. This article argues for the importance of continuous user involvement and participatory design. This is highlighted through explaining ongoing research in the creation of a 3D visualization knowledge management system to support preservation of indigenous knowledge (IK) in Africa. Through the sharing of experiences from the field I underpin the importance of acknowledging users' expertise and knowledge about the design context. Through presentation of a selection of these challenges in localizing systems development I wish to raise awareness of an required sensitivity to cultural differences in IT.

Rodil, Kasper

2014-01-01

78

Does participatory governance hold its promises?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"With the ratification of the Reform Treaty, the European Union will be based on two complementary principles: the principle of representative democracy and the principle of participatory democracy. Even though the two respective sub-headings in the draft Constitutional Treaty (Article I, 46 and Article I, 47) have been omitted, the Intergovernmental Conference did not introduce any change in substance. Article 11 of the Reform Treaty pledges to give citizens and representat...

Kohler-koch, Beate; Larat, Fabrice; Universita?t Mannheim, Mannheimer Zentrum Fu?r Europa?ische Sozialforschung

2008-01-01

79

Participatory action research approaches and methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book, published as part of Routledge’s Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR). In three major sections, beginning and ending with ‘Reflections’ that bracket the ‘Action’ section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.

Nancy Gibson

2010-01-01

80

Participatory action research approaches and methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book, published as part of Routledge’s Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR. In three major sections, beginning and ending with ‘Reflections’ that bracket the ‘Action’ section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.

Nancy Gibson

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Using Participatory Paradigm to Learn Human Behaviour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a human actor directly plays...

2009-01-01

82

From Citizen Participation to Participatory Governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper identifies types of citizen participation in local government in Australia, in particular focusing on the past two decades when local government systems have been the focus of intense reform. The paper considers the extent to which contemporary views of participatory governance have taken root at local and sub-local levels and concludes that despite reforms intended to engage local citizens more in local government activity, citizen participation has yet to develop significantly in...

2009-01-01

83

De novo transcriptome characterization of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina unveils varietal diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants such as grapevine (Vitis spp. display significant inter-cultivar genetic and phenotypic variation. The genetic components underlying phenotypic diversity in grapevine must be understood in order to disentangle genetic and environmental factors. Results We have shown that cDNA sequencing by RNA-seq is a robust approach for the characterization of varietal diversity between a local grapevine cultivar (Corvina and the PN40024 reference genome. We detected 15,161 known genes including 9463 with novel splice isoforms, and identified 2321 potentially novel protein-coding genes in non-annotated or unassembled regions of the reference genome. We also discovered 180 apparent private genes in the Corvina genome which were missing from the reference genome. Conclusions The de novo assembly approach allowed a substantial amount of the Corvina transcriptome to be reconstructed, improving known gene annotations by robustly defining gene structures, annotating splice isoforms and detecting genes without annotations. The private genes we discovered are likely to be nonessential but could influence certain cultivar-specific characteristics. Therefore, the application of de novo transcriptome assembly should not be restricted to species lacking a reference genome because it can also improve existing reference genome annotations and identify novel, cultivar-specific genes.

Venturini Luca

2013-01-01

84

A Bridge Between Communities: Video-making using principles of community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health educators can play a critical role in bringing together the partners and resources to successfully make videos using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). This article is a "how-to" guide for making videos using community-based participatory research principles. The authors describe video-making and CBPR, then outline six steps on how to make a video using principles of CBPR: (a) engaging stakeholders, (b) soliciting funding and informed consent, (c) creation of shared ownership, (d) building cross-cultural collaborations, (e) writing the script together, and (f) pulling it all together: editing and music selection. Still photographs and key themes from the video A Bridge Between Communities are presented as a running case study to illustrate these steps. The article concludes with implications for health promotion research and practice. PMID:15358912

Chávez, Vivian; Israel, Barbara; Allen, Alex J; DeCarlo, Maggie Floyd; Lichtenstein, Richard; Schulz, Amy; Bayer, Irene S; McGranaghan, Robert

2004-10-01

85

Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

Bozalek, Vivienne

2011-01-01

86

Revisiting the issue of elite capture in participatory initiatives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on case studies of two communities implementing participatory forestry in Tanzania and India, we revisit the issue of elite capture of participatory initiatives. Our cases illustrate how initial elite capture of the participatory initiatives is circumvented over time through various forms of resistance orchestrated by initially disadvantaged groups. Based on the cases we argue that studies of elite capture should be based on in-depth and longitudinal empirical investigations that carefully characterize forms and outcomes of elite capture and consider both the changing dynamics of social settings and the perceptions held by the people under study.

Lund, Jens Friis; Saito-Jensen, Moeko

2013-01-01

87

Scandinavian Participatory Design : Dialogic curation with Teenagers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

2012-01-01

88

A Concept for Testing Decision Support Tools in Participatory Processes Applied to the ToSIA Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ToSIA (Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment offers a transparent and consistent methodological framework to assess impacts of changes (technological, policy, management, etc. in the forest-based sector. This tool is able to facilitate the decision making process within and between diverse groups of stakeholders (e.g., forest managers and policymakers as it provides a neutral, transparent and data-driven platform for stakeholder interaction and communication. To test these capabilities of ToSIA, a practical approach to test if a decision support system is suitable for participatory processes was developed based on a set of evaluation criteria for participatory processes. ToSIA’s performance was assessed and discussed in different categories against a selection of criteria for successful participatory processes: six criteria were fulfilled by ToSIA, in nine, ToSIA is potentially helpful, in two, criteria ToSIA has no influence, and for three criteria, no experiences exist until now. As a result, ToSIA’s conceptual suitability as a participatory decision support system was confirmed for two interlinked roles: as a decision support system to assess alternative scenarios, and as a communication platform for stakeholder interaction.

David Edwards

2013-04-01

89

The Main Advantages of Community Based Participatory Health Programs: An Experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: This study was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Thirteen community based programs related to health that were active for last five years were selected and assessed. Data analysis was based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach considering the predetermined structure according to study questions. Results: In this study, strengths points of community participatory health programs based on the locality of the implementation of the programs; governmental organization and nongovernmental organizations (NGO’s were evaluated. The main strengths of these programs were the presence of the spirit of empathy and high motivation in working for community, absorbing the community assistance, community empowerment, presence of female volunteers, using local volunteers, creation of social prestige and evidence based decision making for community problem solving. Conclusion: Capacity building of the community, NGOs and policymakers plays key role in participation mechanisms, partnership, team working and mobilizing of necessary resources in the promotion of participatory community based health programs.

Monir Baradarn Eftekhari

2013-01-01

90

Foresight Analysis at the Regional Level - A Participatory Methodological Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural development. The specific region is in front of a great challenge referring to the potential location of a large infrastructure (airport, which can drive a considerable socio-economic restructuring, affecting mostly the agricultural sector due to the land loss and the pressures exerted from competitive land uses around the airport area.

Anastasia Stratigea

2013-05-01

91

Researches on China Preschool Education Teachers’ Participatory Training Mode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the concept of participatory training has been disseminated to pedagogy area, traditional preschool teacher training continuously conflicts with such training of modern mode. In China, in the field of preschool education, participatory training for teachers has been established gradually. This mode is centered on group dynamics to form a constant group dynamics system under the interactive checks and balances of three mechanisms of driving force: the driving force, the cohesive force and the binding force. This thesis mainly elaborates the basic key elements of group structure on the basis of the participatory training mode’s dynamics structure and operation mechanism, and in detail analyzes the main guarantee conditions for healthy operation of the participatory training mode.

Yunyan LIU

2014-04-01

92

The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

2005-05-01

93

Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews 'Revolutionizing education', a deeply reflective and retrospective book of scholarship on critical questions about youth participatory action research. The book contains a series of case study chapters that examine how youth participatory action research transforms young people and the social contexts in which they live as well as the learnings and implications yielded from this research. The book examines youth participatory action research both for its radical and revolutionary challenge to 'traditional research' practices but also for its active focus on research as a vehicle for increasing critical consciousness, developing knowledge for 'resistance and transformation' and for creating social change. It represents an important contribution to the field of youth participatory action research and community-based research.

Katie Richards-Schuster

2010-11-01

94

Report literature research geo-visualization and participatory spatial planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of geo-visualization for participatory planning purposes is a challenging field of research. Reason for this is that researchers involved with the subject currently lack a common rationale for the integration of the two complementary domains: participatory planning and geo-visualization. Consequently existing knowledge still needs to be extracted from various relevant sub-domains of research. Therefore a literature research was conducted to make an inventory of aspects that influence ...

Bloemmen, M. H. I.; Fransen, H.; Hoogerwerf, T. C.; Ligtenberg, A.; Lammeren, R. J. A.

2005-01-01

95

Performance Monitoring and Evaluation TIPS: Conducting a Participatory Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory evaluation provides for the active involvement in the evaluation process of those with a stake in the program: providers, partners, beneficiariies, and any other interested parties. Participation takes place throughout all phases of the evalution. This document describes the characteristics of participatory evaluation, and explains why and how to use this approach. This resource is intended for use by novice evaluators and professional evaluators in a workshop or conference.

Binnendijk, Annette

1996-01-01

96

Community-Based Participatory Research for Improved Mental Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using a participatory approach involving a community of experts, this cours...

Smikowski, Jane; Dewane, Sarah; Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Bruss, Catherine; Roberts, Laura W.

2009-01-01

97

Augmenting the Participatory Design Concept in Systems Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory Design (PD) is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems ...

Indeje Wanyama; Qin, Zheng

2010-01-01

98

Learning from participation: Quick scan of Participatory Action:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Projects using innovative concepts in coastal defence -like ComCoast- can benefit greatly from participatory action. It can lead to innovative solutions with a broad societal support base, as is shown in the plan for water storage in the Overdiepse polder and the inundation compensation scheme for farmers in the upper River Dinkel region. This is one of the main lessons learned in the report Learning from participation, a quick scan of participatory action in the Netherlands relevant for ...

Pol, C.; Glasius, A.; Winnubst, M.

2005-01-01

99

The Power of Ambiguity: How Participatory Budgeting Travels the Globe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From its inception in Brazil in the late 1980s, Participatory Budgeting has now been instituted in over 1500 cities worldwide. This paper discusses what actually travels under the name of Participatory Budgeting. We rely on science studies for a fundamental insight: it is not enough to simply speak of “diffusion” while forgetting the way that the circulation and translation of an idea fundamentally transform it (Latour 1987). In this case, the travel itself has made PB into an attractive ...

Ganuza, Ernesto; Baiocchi, Gianpaolo

2012-01-01

100

Cute Cats to the Rescue? Participatory Media and Political Expression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory media technologies like weblogs and Facebook provide a new space for political discourse, which leads some governments to seek controls over online speech. Activists who use the Internet for dissenting speech may reach larger audiences by publishing on widely-­?used consumer platforms than on their own standalone webservers, because they may provoke government countermeasures that call attention to their cause. While commercial participatory media platforms are often resilien...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

2014-07-01

102

Evaluation criteria for participatory research: insights from coastal uruguay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution. PMID:24748238

Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

2014-07-01

103

Participatory forest management in ethiopia: learning from pilot projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time-before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term. PMID:24488085

Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H O; Lemenih, Mulugeta

2014-04-01

104

Francisco B. Cruz: de la ‘agricultura pródiga’ a la revolución varietal azucarera en Cuba, 1878-1930  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A través de la figura del agrónomo y científico cubano Francisco B. Cruz, este artículo explora el cambio en el sistema de cultivo cañero a finales del siglo XIX debido, entre otros factores, al fracaso del modelo basado en la agricultura prodiga. Asimismo, se destaca la participación de la Estación Experimental en la puesta en marcha del programa global de la revolución varietal. En este sentido, se subraya el papel de Francisco B. Cruz y las conexiones con otros actores institucionales y privados con diversos intereses en la reorganización de la industria azucarera cubana. La investigación se basa en documentos de la etapa y, fundamentalmente, en la documentación de la Estación Central Agronómica, hoy en día Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical ‘Alejandro de Humboldt’.

Leida Fernández Prieto

2013-03-01

105

The use of P-32 for determining varietal resistance of rice to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens stal)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The resistance was assessed uased on the feeding activities of the insect on 15-day old seedling of six test varietes namely TN 1, Asahan, Brantas, Citarum, Serayu and Mudgo. A level of 175 ?Ci per seedling appeared to give sufficiently high absorption of radiophosphorus by the brown planthoppers. The level of radioactivity in the brown planthopper fed for 24 hours on labelled rice plants appeared to be correlated with the susceptibility of the rice plant to brown planthopper. The radioactivity in the honeydew of those hoppers was less correlated with the rice susceptibility. The promising resistance screening method using P-32 tracer is thus more reliable when the radioactivity is detected in the insect rather than in the honeydew. (author)

1981-07-01

106

Sensibilidade dos microssatélites para determinar a pureza varietal em sementes de milho / Microsatellite markers to determine maize inbred seed purity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em um sistema de produção de sementes, o limite de contaminação varietal em lotes de linhagens de milho é zero, de modo que a presença de apenas uma semente de genótipo estranho acarreta a reprovação do lote. Várias técnicas vêm sendo estudadas para determinar a pureza varietal, incluindo marcadores [...] moleculares baseados em polimorfismo de DNA. Nessa pesquisa foi avaliada a sensibilidade da técnica de microssatélites para detectar a presença de sementes de outros genótipos em lotes de linhagens de milho. Utilizaram-se quatro linhagens (L1, L2, L3 e L4), onde as sementes da L2 eram contaminantes da L1 e, as da L4, contaminantes da L3. Para simulação de diferentes níveis de contaminação, 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 sementes do genótipo estranho foram misturadas a "bulks" de 100 sementes da linhagem comercial. Em seguida, efetuou-se a extração de DNA das amostras de sementes das quatro amostras preparadas. Por outro lado, para simular níveis inferiores de contaminação, foram misturados DNA do genótipo contaminante em níveis de 0,01; 0,013; 0,02; 0,04; 0,1; 0,2; 1; 2; 5; 10 e 100%. A amplificação dos microssatélites foi realizada utilizando o iniciador BNLG125 para a L1+L2 e o BNLG240 para L3+L4. Observou-se que os marcadores microssatélites foram eficientes para determinar a pureza varietal de lotes de sementes de linhagens de milho, utilizados neste estudo, com sensibilidade para detecção de concentrações de DNA iguais ou superiores a 0,01%, apresentando nitidez e repetibilidade, especialmente com a utilização de gel de poliacrilamida. Ao mesmo tempo, a presença de DNA estranho nas amostras constituídas por "bulks" foi detectada eficientemente por essa técnica, indicando a possibilidade de sua utilização em testes de rotina para avaliar a presença de outras cultivares, em lotes de sementes de milho. Abstract in english Genotype contamination in seed production of maize inbred seed lots is not tolerated, i.e. the presence of only one seed from another genotype in a lot is sufficient to discard this lot. Many procedures have been studied to detect genotype purity in different crops, including molecular markers based [...] on DNA polymorphism. This research aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the microsatellite technique to detect the contaminating seeds in maize inbred lines. Four inbred lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4) were used. Samples of 100 seeds each of L1 were prepared considering L2 as a contaminant while seeds of L4 were contaminants in L3 seed lots. To simulate different contamination levels, 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 seeds of the foreign genotype were mixed with the inbred line and then DNA was extracted from each treatment. Successive DNA samples dilutions of 0.01; 0.013; 0.02; 0.04; 0.1; 0.2; 1; 2; 5; 10 and 100% were also realized with to simulate low contamination levels. For both analysis microsatellites amplifications were performed with the primers BNLG125 for L1+L2 and BNLG240 for L3+L4. The results showed that the microsatellite technique is efficient to determine the varietal purity of inbred maize used in this research. The sensitive technique is able to detect a 0.01% DNA contaminant level. Standardization and intensity were better when a polyacrylamide matrix was used. The presence of foreign DNA in the contaminated lots was efficiently detected with the microsatellite technique, indicating the usefulness of this procedure to detect the presence of foreign seeds within maize inbred lots.

Ramos, Nilza Patrícia; Brunelli, Katia Regiane; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Marcos Filho, Julio.

107

Effect of a Participatory Intervention to Reduce the Number of Unnecessary Cesarean Sections Performed in Shahrekord of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research the role of participatory people in decreasing cesarean frequency has been investigated. For this purpose 171 pregnant women randomly selected from all pregnant women in Shahrekord. A participator team including housewives, teachers, sales, health communicators` physicians, midwifes and nurses were responsible for educating the selected women about the indication of cesarean section and benefits of vaginal birth. The contexts of the educated women were evaluated by a questionnaire from before and after education. In this research about 70% of the women were satisfied with the education program. Also frequency of cesarean which were 63% before intervention and after education decreased to 51% as a result of the education. The result of this study indicated that in health subjects such a cesarean which is related to society and human culture, participatory interventions can yield satisfactory results.

Forouzan Ganji

2006-01-01

108

Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved socially and politically. The PAREU model empowers the community to take action from the research they, themselves, conducted, and enables them to carry out future research. Finally, many of these communities (and the general public) lack the understanding of the nature of science, which leads to ignorance on the part of citizens in areas of science such as climate change. By participating in science/social science research, community members gain a better understanding of the nature of science, making them more informed citizens. The PAREU model is theoretically grounded in decades of research in social science and documented impacts of student research experiences. In addition to providing practical benefits for communities with needs solvable by scientific research, the model builds on and expands student skills gained from traditional REU programs Deep and sustained engagement among scientists, social scientists, and community leaders is expected to create better informed citizens and improve their ability to solve problems.

Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

2013-12-01

109

The Influence of Context on Participatory E-Government Applications: A Comparison of E-government Adoption in Romania and South Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article assesses how contextual factors influence participatory applications of e-government.While the pursuit of participatory e-government projects is increasingly advocated, little research to date hasattempted to investigate whether such applications of e-government are feasible across all national contexts.In particular, this research will focus upon assessing how the political, economic, and social characteristics ofa particular government’s context influence the introduction of participatory applications of e-government.To explore the relationships between contextual factors and applications of e-government, we compareparticipatory e-government applications in Romania and South Korea. These nations were selected becausethey possess important similarities and differences related to their political, social, and economic contexts. Asan attempt to fill this dearth in existing literature, the research question this study investigates is how certaincontextual features serve to influence the adoption of participatory applications of e-government. Ourfindings suggest that the success of participatory e-government projects is to a large extent contingent uponpolitical and economic contexts, while being less related to social contexts.

Greg Porumbescu

2012-05-01

110

Türkiye’de Kat?l?m Bankalar?n?n Tercih Edilme Sebepleri: Ampirik Bir Tetkik(Reasons for Preference of Participatory Banks in Turkey: An Empirical Investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interest-Free/Islamic Banking or Participatory Banking has been increasing its share in the world financial market. Although many researches about the reasons for preference of interest-free banks abroad Turkey have been conducted so far, the number of the studies related to the reasons for preference of participatory banks in Turkey is comparatively very low. This study is intended to contribute to the literature in question. To this effect; a sample of 217 participants was selected among the customers of three participatory banks in Bolu province in Turkey. The data was collected through conducting a survey. An exploratory factor analysis was run on the data. According to our findings, the principal factor affecting the participants’ preference of participatory banks is “Product/Service Quality”. “Image and Trust”, “Personnel Quality”, “Religious/Environmental Motivations” are the succeeding ones.

?smail ÖZSOY

2013-01-01

111

Awareness and Learning in Participatory Noise Sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments.

Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sirbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

2013-01-01

112

Rural Development Practice in Nigeria: How Participatory and What Challenges?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory rural development has evolved in the past 60 years as a development process and discourse that should encapsulate a wide range of views, voices and stakeholder contributions. How has this approach been followed in Nigeria?s rural development practice? This paper reviews the practices and challenges of participatory rural development in Nigeria from a historical perspective emphasizing on the colonial system and post-colonial military and civilian governance. The paper observes that participatory development has not been practiced in the real sense of the concept in rural development in Nigeria. While highly centralized and top-down exploitative rural development practice dominated the colonial system up to the period of post-independence military dictatorship, not much significant difference have been observed within the current civilian democratic experiment. The paper argues that while long years of military rule in Nigeria have made it impossible for the development of effective institutional arrangements that could sustain true participatory democratic culture, a lack of citizens? capacity to participate in development intended for their benefit has posed the greatest challenge in achieving sustainable participatory rural development.

Nseabasi S. Akpan

2012-09-01

113

POST-EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION: TOWARDS A MUCH MORE PARTICIPATORY PLANNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the devastating Great Wenchuan Earthquake occured in May 2008, China responded rapidly to mitigate the losses caused. Post-earthquake reconstruction planning plays a crucial role to the future development of earthquake struck areas. The post-earthquake reconstruction planning work has demonstrated to be an immediate action and tends to be a much more open and participatory. Since the influence of long term planned economy in the past and its centralised administration system, planning in China is comparatively information-close to ordinary people. However, the post-earthquake reconstruction planning turns to be a much wider participatory and more open than before, though it is still immature and there still many obstacles need to be overcome. This paper firstly introduces the Great Wenchuan Earthquake and the quick response of reconstruction planning in China. It depicts the intensive work of the reconstruction planning. Then it reviews the concept of participatory planning and the history of participatory planning in China. Thirdly, it identifies three new trends that a more participatory planning has showed in the reconstruction planning. Lastly, this paper points out some problems still exist in the reconstruction planning.

Sheng YING

2009-04-01

114

Augmenting the Participatory Design Concept in Systems Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory Design (PD is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems development. By recognizing the complementarities of the tools of these two approaches (SSM and QFD, we can enhance Participatory Design in systems development. Findings from literature review show that a comprehensive application of this concept is yet to be done in information systems development. The approach builds on the seven phases of Soft Systems Methodology by applying the Quality Function Deployment techniques to elicit information from complex and amorphous real-world situations to augment the Participatory Design process.Keywords: Participatory Design; Soft Systems Methodology; Quality Function Deployment; House of Quality

Zheng QIN

2010-06-01

115

Images and the Ethics of Inclusion and Exclusion: Learning through Participatory Photography in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research methods directly engage with the topics that they set out to address. It is therefore no surprise that participatory research practice on the topic of educational inclusion and exclusion raises ethical issues for the participatory researcher that are themselves about inclusion and exclusion. This paper describes and analyses…

Kaplan, Ian; Miles, Susie; Howes, Andy

2011-01-01

116

Participatory Bean Breeding with Women and Small Holder Farmers in Eastern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Ethiopian national bean program traditionally followed conventional approaches in bean improvement for smallholder farmers. The relative effectiveness and efficiency of Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB compared to conventional approaches is not fully understood. The study was initiated to evaluate participatory plant breeding in bean improvement to disseminate more acceptable and productive bean varieties for poor farmers. The study was conducted in eastern Ethiopia. Breeders and farmer selectors evaluated and then selected lines on-station from a diverse germplasm pool. The breeders followed a conventional approach, while farmers evaluated their selected lines on their farm. The germplasms included bush and climbing beans in its selections. The selection demonstrated that farmers were capable of making significant contributions in identification of superior cultivars within a relatively short period. They effectively evaluated and selected from large numbers of fixed lines. They applied up to 40 distinct selection criteria indicating the complexity of the user needs and production conditions. However, yield tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, drought, earliness, marketability, cooking characteristics, seed colour and size and growth habit were considered key criteria. Involving farmers in the selection process had several impacts, not only on farmer perceptions and skill building but also on the formal breeding process, farmer acceptance, farmer production and income, farmer-held diversity, farmer breeding and seed processes, farmer empowerment and costs. A new formal-led breeding scheme incorporating farmer participation is also developed. Lack of an effective seed delivery system and supporting policy is likely to constrain release and rapid dissemination of PPB varieties.

Teshale Assefa

2005-11-01

117

Cycles de codimension 2 et H^3 non ramifi\\'e pour les vari\\'et\\'es sur les corps finis  

CERN Document Server

\\`A toute vari\\'et\\'e projective et lisse X sur un corps fini on associe son troisi\\`eme groupe de cohomologie non ramifi\\'ee \\`a coefficients Q/Z(2). On passe en revue les liens entre ce groupe, le groupe de Chow des cycles de codimension 2 sur X, et certaines conjectures locales-globales pour l'existence d'un z\\'ero-cycle de degr\\'e 1 sur les vari\\'et\\'es d\\'efinies sur un corps global de caract\\'eristique positive. On discute la structure et la taille du troisi\\`eme groupe de cohomologie non ramifi\\'e. Ceci am\\`ene \\`a conjecturer sa finitude. Nous conjecturons que ce groupe est nul pour les vari\\'et\\'es de dimension 3 g\\'eom\\'etriquement unir\\'egl\\'ees. ----- To every smooth projective variety X over a finite field is associated its third unramified cohomology group with coefficients Q/Z(2). We review the links between this group, the second Chow group of X and certain local-global conjectures for the existence of a zero-cycle of degree 1 on varieties defined over a global field of positive characteristic...

Colliot-Thélène, Jean-Louis

2011-01-01

118

The construction of fictional space in participatory design practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores the creation of fictional space in participatory design and relates the notion of fictional space to the more general conception of design space as a space created through the situated practices of participants. The notion of fictional space provides insights for understanding the process through which participants in participatory design create a design space in which established conventions of everyday practice are altered or suspended. With inspiration from literary theory, it is argued that the production of fictional space may be understood in terms of participants practicing games of make-believe mediated by props. The motivation for discussing fictional space is traced through ongoing work on designing new exhibition spaces for museums. Through a case study from a participatory design session, it is explored how games of make-believe progress and the role of props in this process.

Dindler, Christian

2010-01-01

119

Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be primarily responsible for managing and controlling them. The core aspect of the study is the use of cross-sectional survey research design in generating the required primary data. The place of study is the bonny NLNG construction project while the duration of study is between March, 2012 and February, 2013. A sample of 396 (35 supervisors, 98 foremen and 263 workmen respondents determined at 5% level of significance for sample error, using Yamane’s formula, was selected from a population of 40,568 employees using stratified random sampling method for the purpose of questionnaire administration. The results indicated that reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is to a large extent dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the Bonny NLNG construction project as buttressed by the 82% and 81% large extent response rate respectively. It therefore recommends among others: regular site safety audits to identify/eliminate sub-causes of accident, regular staff training to improve their hazard identification skills, formation of health and safety committee to identify/eliminate potential hazards at the task level and making hazard identification/reporting everyone’s responsibility.

Mba Okechukwu Agwu

2013-08-01

120

Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease prevention, and other health issues in California. The survey is used for policy and program development, advocacy, and research. Methods The development of the California Health Interview Survey involves more than 145 people from more than 60 state and local policymaking bodies, public health agencies, advocacy groups, research organizations, and health care organizations. They participate as volunteers in an advisory board, on technical advisory committees, and in work groups that interact with California Health Interview Survey research staff in an accountable advisory process that shapes survey topics, measures, and sample design and determines languages selected for translation. Survey results and data are provided to the communities involved in the survey. Results California Health Interview Survey data have been widely used by local, state, and national public health leaders, policymakers, advocates, and researchers to improve access to health insurance and health care services and to develop and target prevention programs for obesity and chronic illnesses. Conclusion The California Health Interview Survey participatory research model has been an effective approach to planning and implementing a health survey and should be considered by developers of other large health surveys.

E. Richard Brown, PhD

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Actionable Ethnography in Participatory Innovation: A Case Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory research, design material.

Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens

2011-01-01

122

Participatory tools working with crops, varieties and seeds. A guide for professionals applying participatory approaches in agrobiodiversity management, crop improvement and seed sector development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in field study assignments. The objectives of practising participatory tools in training on local agrobiodiversity management and related to that the objectives of this guide are many. However, the cur...

2007-01-01

123

Development of a Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the process of developing a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy for a Kenyan youth-based NGO. The iterative nature of the study including the process of narrowing down indicators to measure and methods to monitor/evaluate these is well documented. A discussion on the extent to which the process achieved…

Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Forde, Sarah; Theobald, Sally

2006-01-01

124

Requirements for Participatory Framework on Governmental Policy Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.

Birut? PITR?NAIT?

2012-06-01

125

The implied producer investigating an emergent typology in participatory culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Whereas many good things can be said about the ability of digital media to facilitate the public access to cultural material, there has been no significant development in the theoretical understanding of ubiquitous digital media's potential for participatory culture -- and what human typologies emerges from this reconfiguration? The small Swedish Biennale, Electrohype run an impressively straight line of investigations into the participatory spaces of art -- thereby also facilitating the dissemination of the, at that time, almost unnoticed field of media art. It appears, from the Electrohype Biennales, that we are not 'just' dealing with a 'new' genre or style within the art category; on the other hand we are not dealing with a pure commercial culture either (the abstract notion of 'the user' has its limits); what is becoming evident is that the 'implicit' roles of the participatory 'actors' in culture and art are being transformed. This paper investigates this emergent 'persona' in the post-digital participatory culture, and names it 'the implicit producer'.

Søndergaard, Morten

2012-01-01

126

Quick scan of Participatory Action, Summary, conclusions and recommendations:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Projects using innovative concepts in coastal defence -like ComCoast- can benefit greatly from participatory action. It can lead to innovative solutions with a broad societal support base, as is shown in the plan for water storage in the Overdiepse polder and the inundation compensation scheme for farmers in the upper River Dinkel region.

2005-01-01

127

Replicating participatory devices: the consensus conference confronts nanotechnology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Describes two examples (in France and in the US) of replication of the Danish procedure of the consensus conference for public participation in nanotechnology, and argues that emphasis on the evaluation of the participatory procedure should not be made at the expense of richer analysis of the problematisation of public participation fostered by such policy instruments.

Laurent, Brice

2009-01-01

128

Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

2012-01-01

129

China Earthquake Relief: Participatory Action Work with Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…

Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux

2011-01-01

130

Investigating the Design Process : Participatory Design in Agile Software Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose â?? This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach â?? Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings â?? The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.

Kautz, Karlheinz

2011-01-01

131

Community-Based Participatory Research: How Do Academicians Rate Success in Iran?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the com­munity. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs. We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sec­tional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1 were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory re­search. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such pro­jects, namely community and stakeholders.

H Malekafzali

2009-03-01

132

Meta-evaluation of baseline studies of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy Expansion Project: a participatory and formative approach Meta-avaliação dos estudos da linha de base do Projeto de Expansão da Estratégia Saúde da Família no Brasil: uma abordagem formativa e participativa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A participatory, formative meta-evaluation of baseline studies in Brazil is presented. International standards recommended by associations of evaluators were used, along with "specificity" criteria built up using the terms of reference for proposals for the selection of studies. The methodological approach combined a "peer review" of baseline study reports, with a participatory (self) assessment for "primary" evaluators, the average of which provided the final score. Results revealed a classi...

Ana Cláudia Figueiró; Zulmira Maria de Araújo Hartz; Luiz Claudio Santos Thuler; André Luiz Freitas Dias

2010-01-01

133

Cohomologie non ramifi\\'ee en degr\\'e trois d'une vari\\'et\\'e de Severi-Brauer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soit K le corps des fractions d'une surface projective et lisse, g\\'eom\\'etriquement int\\`egre, d\\'efinie sur un corps fini F. Soit C/K une conique. Parimala et Suresh ont montr\\'e que le groupe de cohomologie non ramifi\\'ee en degr\\'e trois de K(C) \\`a coefficients de torsion est nul. Dans cette note on \\'etend leur r\\'esultat aux vari\\'et\\'es de Severi-Brauer associ\\'ees \\`a une alg\\`ebre centrale simple dont d'indice l est premier et diff\\'erent de char F.

Pirutka, Alena

2011-01-01

134

The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins human consumption and large-scale cultivation.

Burbano C.

1999-01-01

135

Values-led Participatory Design - Mediating the Emergence of Values  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can potentially

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah

2012-01-01

136

Doing participatory action research in a racist world.  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploration of the racial power dynamics in a participatory action research project with women who had experienced intimate partner violence discusses the challenges inherent in doing participatory action with antiracist intent and offers suggestions for overcoming these challenges. To engage in this type of research, explicit commitment to the goals of an antiracist intent needs to be shared as widely as possible. Fostering such shared commitment demands that the social locations of all involved be interrogated continuously. Such interrogation, however, needs to be prefaced with understanding that individuals are not representative of particular power positions or social identities or locations and with critical attention to how language and social structures shape racism and other forms of dominance. Being inclusive must be understood as complex and the influence of diverse agendas and perspectives acknowledged and taken into account. In the face of such complexity, "success" in research may need redefinition. PMID:16829636

Varcoe, Colleen

2006-08-01

137

PARTICIPATORY EXTENSION PROCESSES AS CATALYST FOR CHANGE IN SOCIAL DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL POOR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As agricultural education based on participatory approaches expand, knowledge is needed about the impact it has on the daily lives of participants beyond farming gains. The study explores how involvement in the participatory extension practice “Farmer Field Schools (FFS)” results in shifting world views among participants and to what extent it has an impact on peoples' sense of well-being and agency in society. The paper discuss how transformative learning in participatory research and ex...

Friis-hansen, Esbern; Duveskog, Deborah; Taylor, Edward W.

2010-01-01

138

Killer Fashion Revolution: Combining peace education with participatory art and design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Killer Fashion Revolution points out connecting nodes between peace education and participatory art and design practices both in theory and in practice. In theory this thesis gives an overview on how peace educational organizations in need of engaging campaigns can find inspiration in participatory art practices like hacktivism, craftivism and fashion hacktivism. Killer Fashion Revolution is as well an example of how participatory design research and a combination of various mediums; workshop...

2010-01-01

139

Co-engineering participatory modelling processes for water planning and management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Broad-scale multi-stakeholder decision-aiding processes for complex water planning and management issues are typically organised or "co-engineered" by several agencies or actors. These participatory processes are therefore co-initiated, co-designed and co-implemented by a number of people. It is postulated here that this co-engineering can critically impact on both the participatory processes and their outcomes. Co-engineering has received scant attention in studies of participatory decision-...

Daniell, K. A.

2008-01-01

140

Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (Pbesnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. PMID:23149306

Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Participatory rural appraisal of spate irrigation systems in eastern Eritrea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Sheeb area in eastern Eritrea a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out in two villages, one upstream and one downstream of the ephemeral rivers Laba and Mai-ule. The objectives of the study were to obtain a better understanding of farmer-managed spate irrigation systems and to enable the local people to perform their own farming system analysis. This paper describes the various PRA activities, such as mapping, diagramming and ranking of problems, that were undertaken with ...

Tesfai, M.; Graaff, J.

2000-01-01

142

On Sensor Data Verification for Participatory Sensing Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we study the problem of sensor data verification in Participatory Sensing (PS) systems using an air quality/pollution monitoring application as a validation example. Data verification, in the context of PS, consists of the process of detecting and removing spatial outliers to properly reconstruct the variables of interest. We propose, implement, and test a hybrid neighborhood-aware algorithm for outlier detection that considers the uneven spatial density of the users, the number...

Diego Mendez; Labrador, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

143

Integrating online and traditional involvement in participatory budgeting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory Budgeting aims to increase democracy in city districts by permitting citizens to participate in the spending of public budgets and in the making of important decisions regarding public life. Until today, such participation was made available mostly through physical meetings organized by public administrations (off-line meetings). Only in recent years has software been developed in order to enable people to ?gather? using ICT methodologies (on-line meetings). The paper...

Miori, Vittorio; Russo, Dario

2011-01-01

144

Involving, Sharing, Analysing—Potential of the Participatory Photo Interview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article discusses the photo interview method used in a participatory inter- and transdisciplinary research setting. The photo interview has proven particularly useful for sustainability and environmental studies in which eliciting community points of view is crucial to the research effort. Based on experiences in several countries, the author describes and analyses the photo interview process and its three phases—involving, sharing and analysing—and explores potential influences on d...

Kolb, Bettina

2008-01-01

145

Community Capacity Assessment in Preventing Substance Abuse: A Participatory Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to address health issues. Few evidence exist to indicate how builds the capacity of communities to function as health promoter and what resources are required to promote successful efforts. This article presents the result of a capacity assessment for preventing drug abuse through CBPR, which working with rather than in communities, to strengthen a community's problem-solving capacity. For exploring the perce...

Kh, Shahandeh; Majdzadeh, R.; Jamshidi, E.; Loori, N.

2012-01-01

146

Communicating citizenship - social positioning in participatory decision making  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"The proposed presentation has two aims: (a) It will outline a theoretical understanding of 'citizenship' that is rooted in sociological systems theory and in sociolinguistic approaches. With this approach it tries to develop a sociological supplement to the more normative notions of governance and citizenship in the legal and political sciences. (b) It will apply these theoretical considerations to a comparative view on forms of citizenship, which can be observed in participatory procedures ...

Bora, Alfons; Hausendorf, Heiko; Rehberg, Karl-siegbert

2006-01-01

147

Participatory Digital Design:A Study with Teenagers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This master thesis explores Participatory Design where teenagers get the opportunity to participate in the public discussion of cultural heritage using their language and their own media. This study focuses on bringing teenagers as users, testers and informants into the technology design process. The roles user, tester and informants are based on Allison Druins roles of children in a technology design process. The research done for this thesis have taken place at Trosterudklubben. This yout...

Heyerdahl, Ida Margrethe

2007-01-01

148

Embedded, Participatory Research: Creating a Grounded Theory with Teenagers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solutions for other librarians while furthering a theoretical research agenda.Methods – This example of embedded, participatory techniques used grounded theory methods based on the experiences of teens who participated in art programs at a public library. Fourteen teens participated in interviews, and six of them assisted in coding,analyzing, and abstracting the data, and validating the resulting theory.Results – Employing the teenagers within the research team resulted in a teen-validated theory. The embedded techniques of the practitioner-researcher resulted in a theory that can be applied to practice.Conclusions – This research framework develops the body of literature based on real world contexts and supports hands-on practitioners. It also provides evidence-based theory for funding agencies and assessment. In addition, practitioner-based research that incorporates teens as research partners activates teens’ voices. It gives them a venue to speak for themselves with support from an interested and often advocacy-minded adult.

Shannon Crawford Barniskis

2013-03-01

149

Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection.

Sheng, Grant; Yam, Kevin; Hassas, Aranak [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies

2001-07-01

150

Mortality in Chicks Associated with Economic Impact and Prospect of Layer Chick Rearer Package Programme of the Participatory Livestock Development Project in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Participatory Livestock Development Project (PLDP) has been implemented in Bangladesh for the alleviation of poverty through livestock production, employment, income generation and intake of nutrition in rural people. The management and disease problems with cost-benefit analysis of the layer chick rearer package programme of the PLDP have been evaluated in randomly selected 10 layer chick rearing units (n=3100 chicks) from day-old chicks up to 60 days to marketing of Muktagacha areas in ...

Islam, M. T.; Samad, M. A.

2004-01-01

151

Etude de la cohomologie de certaines varietes de Shimura non compactes. (On the cohomology of certain non-compact Shimura varieties.)  

CERN Document Server

The goal of this paper is to calculate the trace of the composition of a Hecke correspondence and a (high enough) power of the Frobenius at a good place on the intersection cohomology of the Satake-Baily-Borel compactification of certain Shimura varieties, to stabilize the result for Shimura varieties associated to unitary groups over $\\mathbb{Q}$ and to give applications of this calculations using base change from these unitary groups to $GL_n$. ----- Le but de ce texte est de calculer la trace d'une correspondance de Hecke composee avec une puissance (assez grande) du Frobenius en une bonne place sur la cohomologie d'intersection de la compactification de Satake-Baily-Borel de certaines varietes de Shimura, de stabiliser le resultat obtenu pour les varietes de Shimura associees aux groupes unitaires sur $\\mathbb{Q}$, et de donner des applications de ces calculs en utilisant le changement de base de ces groupes unitaires a $GL_n$.

Morel, S

2008-01-01

152

Varietal differences in wheat yield and phosphorus use efficiency as influenced by method of phosphorus application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wheat varieties respond differently to phosphorus fertilization. Method of P application may influence the degree of responsiveness. Three varieties of wheat viz. Punjab-96, Inqelab-91 and Pasban-90 were grown after applying Nitrophos (23:23 @ 0 or 44 kg P ha-1 by two methods, (i broadcast and incorporation at sowing and (ii fertigation at first irrigation. Grain yield and total P uptake data obtained after crop harvest showed that wheat varieties differed significantly in grain and straw yield, harvest index and 1000- grain weight. Application of P by either method increased grain and straw yield as well as total P uptake over control. Method x P interaction effect was also significant for yield, indicating higher yield response due to fertigation compared to broadcast method of P application. Where P was applied by fertigation grain yield, total P uptake, agronomic and P fertilizer efficiency were all higher in cv. Inqelab-91 compared to cv. Pasban- 90. Thus application of phosphatic fertilizer by fertigation along with selection of an appropriate variety may contribute to improve P fertilizer efficiency and increase wheat grain yield.

Mohammad Akhter

2003-05-01

153

Studying the features of radionuclides entering depending on varietal tomato composition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was evaluated the initial material of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in accordance with the degree of accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 as well as there were revealed the sources for selection breeding with the minimal accumulation of radionuclides. In course of the study there were presented the parameters of adaptive ability, ecological stability and radionuclide content in varieties (Dokhodnyj; Talalikhin; Fakel; F1 Sozvezdie) and parthenocarpic lines of tomato. Research results showed the substantial variability in accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 by various varieties and lines. Hybrid F1 Sozvesdie, Talalikhin variety and parthenocarpic lines 1 and 7 proved the ability to accumulate minimal amount of radionuclides. It was not proposed to cultivate at the contaminated areas the tomato variety Fakel. As a result of study there was created a hybrid F1 Sozvesdie. Its cultivation on the contaminated areas made it possible to obtain ecologically safe products

2010-01-01

154

The Effect of Participatory Education on Attitude of School Personnel Towards HIV/AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School personnel`s knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS have a great role in students` knowledge of and attitude to this infection. Studies in Iran show that students and teachers have not adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS .The aim of this study is to assess the effect of participatory education on attitudes of personnel of schools toward HIV/AIDS. One hundred and fourteen school personnel were selected randomly to participate in an interventional study. The participants took part in a three-day workshop on HIV/AIDS prevention program in schools. The workshop content included the principles of HIV/AIDS and procedures for its control and prevention; the methods used were group discussion and group work for presentation of a HIV/AIDS prevention programme at schools through a logical framework method. A questionnaire was given to the participants to evaluate their knowledge of and attitude toward HIV/AIDS before and after the interventions. The mean age of participants was 40.87 (SD = 6.58. There was no significant relationship between gender/official post/length of service and attitude before or after the workshop. There was a significant change in personnel`s attitude to HIV/AIDS after the workshop. There was a significant correlation between the increase of personnel�s knowledge of and attitude to HIV/AIDS after the workshop introducing methods such as participatory education and asking participants to suggest a program for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in their fields are useful for increasing knowledge and changing their attitude toward HIV/AIDS.

2007-01-01

155

Moving beyond Utilitarian Perspectives of Infant Participation in Participatory Research: Film-Mediated Research Encounters  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on Thomas, Whybrow and Scharber's four participatory perspectives, this paper describes and complicates endeavours to move beyond utilitarian perspectives of infant participation in participatory research. It proposes that film-mediated encounters between researchers and infants have the potential to be more than sites that privilege…

Elwick, Sheena; Sumsion, Jennifer

2013-01-01

156

Networked Participatory Scholarship: Emergent Techno-Cultural Pressures toward Open and Digital Scholarship in Online Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…

Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

2012-01-01

157

BeeSim: Leveraging Wearable Computers in Participatory Simulations with Young Children  

Science.gov (United States)

New technologies have enabled students to become active participants in computational simulations of dynamic and complex systems (called Participatory Simulations), providing a "first-person"perspective on complex systems. However, most existing Participatory Simulations have targeted older children, teens, and adults assuming that such concepts…

Peppler, Kylie; Danish, Joshua; Zaitlen, Benjamin; Glosson, Diane; Jacobs, Alexander; Phelps, David

2010-01-01

158

Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowing how students engage with music outside school music programs can help music educators and their programs evolve. This article offers a look at music teaching and learning in terms of how people are increasingly interacting with music in participatory ways that involve digital technologies and media. This participatory culture offers a…

Tobias, Evan S.

2013-01-01

159

Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

2010-01-01

160

Inhibition of IgE-mediated Secretion from Human Basophils with a Highly Selective Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase, Btk, Inhibitor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of receptor-mediated signaling in human basophils is often limited by the availability of selective pharmacological agents. The early signaling reaction mediated by Fc?RI aggregation is thought to require the activity of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (btk), an enzyme that has been identified as important in B cells signaling because mutations lead to X-linked agammaglobulinemia. This study uses the btk selective irreversible inhibitor, PCI-32765, to explore the role of btk in a variet...

Macglashan, Donald; Honigberg, Lee; Smith, Ashley; Buggy, Joseph; Schroeder, John T.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Participatory GIS for Soil Conservation in Phewa Watershed of Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.

Bhandari, K. P.

2012-07-01

162

Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira, figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral, existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente.During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit growers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine, fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

Wilson Barbosa

2003-08-01

163

Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors / Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determin [...] adas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor des [...] criptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.

Alberto, Miele; Luiz Antenor, Rizzon.

164

Paper Prototyping as a Rapid Participatory Design Technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes participatory activities with university lecturers to design an online community. The objective of this study is to engage the users of an online community to collaboratively design their ...

Aznoora Osman; Hanif Baharin; Mohammad Hafiz Ismail; Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2009-01-01

165

The Dangerous Museum : Participatory practices and controversy in museums today  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Whereas museums shunned controversy in the past, this article argues that as museums embrace the new trend of audience participation some have also opted to introduce "hot topics" into museum exhibitions. Museum professionals who have adopted this particular form of museum practice predict that it has the potential to reform museums as we know them and to turn museums into active agents for democratic change in society. In a bid to understand and scrutinize the implications of this development in museums, the article consults critiques raised by art critics writing about a related development in contemporary art, i.e. relational and participatory art forms.

2014-01-01

166

Changing Minds A Guide to Facilitated Participatory Planning  

CERN Document Server

This book draws on the work of thinkers and doers throughout the world who have grappled with the challenge of planning complex institutions, especially health systems and development projects. Their problem: Conventional planning methods often do not work. The solution: Involve all the key stakeholders in making the plan. The challenge: Devise a planning system that the principals and stakeholders can trust, and that is inclusive, balanced, and dynamic. Facilitated participatory planning (or FPP) is a new way of planning for a world that is complex, competitive, and fast-changing; a world whe

Dodge, Cole P

2011-01-01

167

A participatory action research study of key account management changes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pure Participatory Action Research projects in the IMP research tradition are rather rare. This paper describes both the process and the outcomes of such a project carried out for a major business to retail firm in the UK. The issue at hand was, and is, Key Account Management, defined in a very broad way. The process is one of changing the ways in which the actors in the firm at different levels work together to try to coordinate the long term strategy and short term operations in relation to...

2006-01-01

168

Applying Participatory Methods to Address Motivational Aspects in Informal Workplace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.

Teresa Holocher

2011-02-01

169

Healthcare for migrants, participatory health research and implementation science-better health policy and practice through inclusion. The RESTORE project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: This is a time of unprecedented mobility across the globe. Healthcare systems need to adapt to ensure that primary care is culturally and linguistically appropriate for migrants. Evidence-based guidelines and training interventions for cultural competence and the use of professional interpreters are available across European healthcare settings. However, in real-world practice migrants and their healthcare providers 'get by' with a range of informal and inadequate strategies. RESTORE is an EU FP7 funded project, which is designed to address this translational gap. Objectives: The objective of RESTORE is to investigate and support the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural consultations in selected European primary care settings. Design: RESTORE is a qualitative, participatory health project running from 2011-2015. It uses a novel combination of normalization process theory and participatory learning and action research to follow and shape the implementation journeys of relevant guidelines and training initiatives. Research teams in Ireland, England, the Netherlands, Austria and Greece are conducting similar parallel qualitative case study fieldwork, with a complementary health policy analysis led by Scotland. In each setting, key stakeholders, including migrants, are involved in participatory data generation and analysis. Expected results: RESTORE will provide knowledge about the levers and barriers to the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives in European healthcare settings and about successful, transferrable strategies to overcome identified barriers. RESTORE will elucidate the role of policy in shaping these implementation journeys; generate recommendations for European policy driving the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare systems. PMID:24467319

MacFarlane, Anne; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; Dowrick, Christopher; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel Baumgarten, Evelyn; Lionis, Christos; Clissmann, Ciaran

2014-06-01

170

A hierarchical participatory methodology for tactical decision-making based on a decision-analytic model for balancing timber stock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A methodology is presented which solves local management problems by combining a timber procurement model with decision analysis and heuristic optimization. A hierarchical participatory method resolves the difficulties of the timber-flow model based on dynamics and system balance theories applying to the tactical management process of policy selection. The methodology was developed for team group decision-making on the assumptions of bounded rationality, imperfect mill service information and lagged inventory adjustment. The experiments analyze the logistics of timber-flow changes. Although the most important objective of the tactical policy of an organization has been to satisfy the timber demand of the mills at minimum cost, the work group in this study was also able to decide utilizing the criteria of the mill service: (1) local managers responsible for transportation preferred a larger roadside inventory stock; and (2) a manager responsible for supervision of logistics preferred a higher level of aggregate inventory turnaround. In the first participatory stage of the method, the criteria for aspiration levels, which determined the group managers' goal as a combined aspiration point, were described. In the second stage, to avoid problems, participatory inventory models and a decision boundary were used in the management process. In this tradeoff analysis, heuristics provided equal hierarchical consideration and commensurate goals. Since the experiments showed that consideration of local managers' needs in predicting feasible buffer stocks may reduce possible conflicts in decision-making, the applied theories and the methodology of this study were useful in establishing balanced policies for tactical management situations.

Palander, T. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry

1999-07-01

171

Assessing Participatory and Dialogue Approaches. Deliverable 15  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of work carried out ARGONA project. The main objective has been to gain some appreciation of the success, or otherwise, of several public involvement approaches associated with radioactive waste disposal facility siting in general and of various involvement activities and techniques in particular, especially any that appear to be novel in their content and/or application. The main focus of the analysis has been to examine three case studies. Firstly the use of stakeholder panels as part of the consultation about the BPEO (Best Practicable Environmental Option) study for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at Britain's former centre for fast reactor research and development at Dounreay in northern Scotland; secondly, the series of subsequent 'drop-in' meetings held to communicate information about the development of the agreed solution for these wastes (namely a near-surface disposal facility); thirdly, work carried out by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez (NRI) in the Czech Republic, as part of ARGONA WP5.1, involving a series of stakeholder meetings to examine radioactive waste management in the context of plans for the management of spent fuel. In order to evaluate the success or usefulness of the approaches, techniques and meetings involved, we have developed a participation process 'Evaluation Matrix'. This has involved the use of criteria against which particular approaches and activities may be judged. In order to develop these we have adapted criteria developed as part of the RISCOM II project and developed a parallel set of descriptions to enable us to examine each activity through the 'lens' of an appropriate Evaluation Matrix. We have then conducted an evaluation using these 'ARGONA criteria' for the three separate case studies. It is recognised that the literature currently fails to offer a methodology for comparing approaches and allowing selection of appropriate techniques for use in particular circumstances. The methodology adopted here has shown that it is however possible to map approaches and techniques against RISCOM-type criteria using a range of information, including feedback forms, questionnaires and interviews. This can inform about how particular approaches are perceived by both sides and assist in development of more suitable methods for the future. Evaluation of the different activities and techniques employed in the three case studies has allowed insight into several common factors, such as timing, purpose of the involvement, scale of the involvement, and development of suitable discussion arenas. We consider that this work makes a contribution to responding to the absence of a comparison methodology by proposing the development of a 'knowledge base' as a basis for reporting participation studies in a manner that would facilitate comparisons and selection of methods appropriate to particular issues. We consider that the resulting knowledge base should be developed in the form of a library of relevant approaches (techniques, meeting types etc) that can be 'indexed' in terms of what the desired end result might be (a requirement for advice; development of societal consensus; provision of clarity regarding a contentious issue etc) and cross referenced as to their suitability at different stages of an involvement process. The intention would then be that a 'customer' agency could consult the knowledge base and identify possible approaches and techniques that would be suitable for use (and adaptation) in the particular situation and at the relevant process stage in question. The approach could be developed more widely to include a large number of processes and a large number of 'requirement criteria' as components in the knowledge base. It should be emphasised, however, that such an approach should be used for communication about what it means to use certain processes, and not as a calculation tool to decide on which method to use in a simple objective manner

2009-01-01

172

Empirical study on voting power in participatory forest planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential. PMID:17395363

Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J

2008-07-01

173

Play. Learn. Innovate : Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

â??Play. Learn. Innovate. â?? Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovationâ?? the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes â?? which always entail change â?? were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge â?? but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy â?? I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other peopleâ??s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives â?? in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was â?? in order to understand why this was the case â?? I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking â?? the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students â?? we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis â?? I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that â?? in innovation settings â?? the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations â?? complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; Mäyrä, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory â?? and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation.

Sproedt, Henrik

2012-01-01

174

Starting with ourselves in deepening our understanding of generativity in participatory educational research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Participatory educational research is generally characterised by a commitment to making a difference in the lives of those who participate in the research and more broadly, to promoting social transformation. This suggests a potentially fruitful synergy between participatory educational research and [...] the multidisciplinary body of academic work on generativity as a human capacity that has at its core a desire to contribute to the well-being of others. As a research team of teacher educators from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, we seek to add an alternative dimension to current debates on participatory educational research by focusing on understanding the 'how' and 'what' of generativity in a participatory research process. The research question we address is: How does/can engagement in participatory educational research facilitate generativity? While participatory research literature often concentrates on collaboration between researchers and 'researched' communities, we are taking a reflexive stance by exploring our own participation in our dual roles as university community members and as researchers studying our colleagues' experiences in relation to integration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related issues in university curricula. We describe how our use of the visual method of storyboarding facilitated insight into generativity in participatory educational research. Building on an earlier concept of generativity, we identify and discuss significant generativefeatures ofparticipation, playfulness, passion, and perspicacity in our research process.

Linda, van Laren; Ronicka, Mudaly; Kathleen, Pithouse-Morgan; Shakila, Singh.

175

Application of Participatory Approach in Community Forest Resource Management Based on a Case Study Performed in Fujian Province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After China’s collective forest right system reform, cooperation organizations have played an important role in the development of community forestry. In order to analyze the demands and attitudes of stakeholders of community forests, a participatory approach which included brainstorming, material collection, PRA tools, semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys, was used in a forest management survey involving four village cases. According to the application of the participatory approach it can be seen that the different types of stakeholders had different demands and attitudes toward community forest management. Farmers were more focused on economic benefit while forestry bureaus were more concerned about attaining the maximum level of forestry farmers’ ecological, economic and social efficiency. Cooperative members had more positive attitudes than non-cooperative members. According to all stakeholders, the harvest quota control system is the most unreasonable policy. In addition, based on the results of the SWOT strategy analysis matrix for forest management policies and systems at the level of forestry farmers, four strategy selections are proposed.

Yilei Hou

2013-01-01

176

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Sonia M. N. Felipone

2013-09-01

177

Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements : The Strengths and Challenges of Participatory Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.

Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde

2014-01-01

178

Participatory research with youth: Idealising safe social spaces or building transformative links in difficult environments?  

Science.gov (United States)

Freire's theory of social change informs analysis of youth-focused participatory research, with researchers describing links between participation and young people's critical thinking. There is less analysis of how youth move from the safe social space of a participatory research project to take health-promoting action in difficult real-world contexts. This article analyses a project conducted with Papua New Guinean youth, disrupting assumptions that critical thinking inevitably leads to critical action on health. Findings suggest the need to shift the focus of participatory research from supporting 'safe social spaces' to supporting 'transformative action in context' to concretely contribute to improving youth health. PMID:24058110

Vaughan, Cathy

2014-01-01

179

Varietal differences of wheat for 13C-discrimination and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Final report for the period 1 January 1993 - 31 December 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the varietal differences of wheat for shoot dry weight, 13C-discrimination, total N-yield and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Four wheat varieties were exposed to different watering regimes (i.e., W0 as normal irrigation of W1 as water stress) during the following growth periods: (i) from 3-leaf stage to third nod stage; (ii) from 3 nod stage to heading; and (iii) from heading to milk-dough stage. For drought recovery study, the experiment included another three water regime treatments induced by varying the irrigation of plants during the selected growth periods (i.e., W10, W100 and W010). The results indicated that water stress during the selected growth periods greatly decreased shoot dry weight, nabla value, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. The (i) and (ii) are considered critical growth periods as far as the above-mentioned parameters are considered. Expression of any tested parameter under water stress as percentage of that of the corresponding control indicated that Dalcahue, Sakha-69 and Bonadur were less sensitive to water stress than the other varieties at (i), (ii) and (iii) growth periods, respectively. On the other hand, Bonadur at (i) and (ii) growth periods and Sakha-69 at (iii) growth period were more sensitive than the other varieties. Exposing of wheat varieties to water stress during (i) and (ii) growth periods resulted in severe injury with regard to shoot dry weight, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Re-irrigation of the stressed wheat varieties, resulted in drought recovery with different magnitude depending on the variety and the growth period in which the plants were exposed to water stress. Generally, the results demonstrated that Bonadur has better capacity to recover from drought than the other varieties. Therefore, Bonadur may be considered a possible candidate for programs aimed at breeding wheat for drought recovery. (author). 34 refs, 10 tabs

1993-01-01

180

Participatory rural energy planning in India - a policy context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problems of fuel insufficiency, over exploitation of biomass resources and poor reliability and quality of energy services available to the rural masses of India continues despite numerous initiatives by the government. These initiatives have largely been in the form of national level rural and renewable energy programmes aimed at improving people's quality of life and reducing the existing pressure on the natural resource base. The programmes have met with limited success on account of several reasons. One of these is the absence of a mechanism for ensuring the genuine participation of the local inhabitants. With this weakness in mind, the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) and the University of Waterloo (UW) undertook a joint research project (1994-1997), aimed at developing participatory planning and intervention design methodologies and tools to facilitate public participation and feature a meaningful role for women in rural energy planning. This paper presents the policy implications and recommendations of the work. (Author)

Neudoerffer, R. Cynthia [Guelph Univ., School of Rural Planning and Development, Guelph, ON (Canada); Malhotra, Preeti [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India); Ramana, P. Venkata [Winrock International, New Delhi (India)

2001-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Local renewable energy planning: a participatory multi-criteria approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources today can provide a promising alternative to conventional power generation, provided some economic, institutional, social and technical barriers could be overcome, and the appropriate planning instruments for their deployment are developed. In Greece, contemporary practice seems inadequate to address the multiple character of renewables and the need to 'open up' the decision-making process to actively include all stakeholders. A number of case studies has been examined in order to formulate a new regulatory framework. The results suggested that participatory multi-criteria decision aiding techniques can capture renewable energy and local stakeholders values as reflected in the weights and criteria. A new framework is established and proposed as a complement to current practice. (author)

Heracles Polatidis; Dias Haralambopoulos [University of the Aegean Mytilene (Greece). Dept. of Environmental Studies

2004-11-15

182

Design Anthropology in Participatory Design : From Ethnography to Anthropological Critique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions between research and design. This half-day workshop invites participant to discuss and explore opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical.

Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

183

Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

2007-07-01

184

How does the context and design of participatory decision-making processes affect their outcomes? Evidence from sustainable land management in global drylands.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and balancing power dynamics between participants; and the provision of information and decision-making power to all participants. Participatory processes initiated or facilitated by government bodies led to significantly less trust, information gain, learning, and flexible solutions. However, in these processes, decisions were more acceptable to and likely to be implemented by governments and by those who had to apply them on the ground. These findings provide a solid empirical basis for best practice in the design of participatory processes in SLM in a number of contexts internationally, which if followed, increase the likelihood of providing beneficial environmental and social outcomes for those involved.

de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens

2014-05-01

185

Cooperative Learning: The Benefits of Participatory Examinations in Principles of Marketing Classes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes procedures for participatory examinations, a method for achieving student collaboration in marketing education. Suggests that the method teaches students group process, persuasion, teamwork, and other skills needed in the contemporary workplace. (SK)

Graham, Reginald A.; And Others

1997-01-01

186

Does Participatory Planning Foster the Transformation Toward More Adaptive Social-Ecological Systems?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need for social-ecological systems to become more adaptive is widely acknowledged. Social effects generated by participatory planning have been claimed to contribute to this transformation, but little empirical evidence is available that backs up or opposes this notion. We aimed to offer some insights regarding questions as to which social effects are formed in participatory planning processes and at what costs, and to then discuss their contribution to the transformation toward more adap...

Susanne Menzel; Matthias Buchecker

2013-01-01

187

Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory action research (PAR) is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, wit...

2009-01-01

188

Participatory democracy at the regional scale in Europe : size vs. politics ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The settlement of tools and devices of participatory democracy at the regional level in Europe, for few years, has been the occasion to wonder about the “scale” issue in the modern democracy. Indeed, in the specific case of French regions, the problem of a too larger scale, which could be argue against the idea of a regional active citizenship, is overcome thanks to two key resources: methodological “market” of participatory democracy and regional politics. Based on this empirical exa...

Gourgues, Guillaume

2009-01-01

189

The Best of Two Worlds? Methodology for the Participatory Assessment of Community Water Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords: domestic water supply, community management, gender, poverty, program planning, program evaluation, monitoring, water policy, participatory methods, sustainability, useThe Methodology for Participatory Assessment, or MPA, is a new, multi-level instrument to combine sustainability analysis of community-managed domestic water services with the analysis of gender and poverty perspectives. Communities, projects, and programs have used, or are using, the methodology to evaluate processes...

Wijk-siebesma, C.

2001-01-01

190

Economic aspects in landscape decision-making: a participatory planning tool based on a representative approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we develop a method for spatial decision support that combines economic efficiency â¿¿ measured by the concept op willingness to pay â¿¿ with a participatory planning tool, that allows for an active collaboration among the actors involved, in such a way that decision makers can draw on the outcomes in their spatial planning and design process. The method is called RITAM, a Dutch acronym for spatially explicit, participatory and interdisciplinary trade-off meth...

Heide, C. M.; Blaeij, A. T.; Heijman, W. J. M.

2008-01-01

191

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems...

André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios

2011-01-01

192

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems...

André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios

2008-01-01

193

Using a participatory scenario development toolbox: added values and impact on quality of scenarios  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To capture a system's uncertainty, a participatory, integrated approach is a prerequisite of many scenario development projects. Increasingly, a toolbox of methods is employed to facilitate stakeholder input. In this paper we evaluate four potential added values of using a toolbox of methods and the effect on the quality of resulting scenarios. Ten case studies within a large project (SCENES), that set out to develop participatory scenarios for Europe's freshwaters, are used to test our hypot...

Kok, K.; Vliet, M.

2011-01-01

194

Linking participatory and GIS-based land use planning methods; A case study from Burkina Faso  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainable land use planning is crucial for realizing the aim of food security and for combating land degradation in the Sahel. A participatory land use planning workshop was organised in a village in the eastern region of Burkina Faso to investigate land use problems, their causes, effects and possible solutions. Participatory research tools and GIS were combined to get insight into possible conflicts or synergies between different land use options as mapped by different ethnic groups. Pict...

Hessel, R.; Berg, J.; Kabore, O.; Kekem, A. J.; Verzandvoort, S. J. E.

2009-01-01

195

Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be prima...

2013-01-01

196

Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR) as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR appro...

Tara Ford; Stacy Rasmus; James Allen

2012-01-01

197

Schools of Democracy: How ordinary citizens (sometimes) become competent in participatory budgeting institutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Schools of Democracy offers a vivid analysis of the long-term impact of engagement in participatory budgeting institutions in Europe. While democratic innovations flourish around the world, there have been great hopes for their potential to revitalize representative government and solve the increasing apathy of the public. Based on a rich ethnographic study in France, Italy and Spain, this book shows how participatory institutions can encourage personal involvement, by creating the procedura...

2011-01-01

198

Developing a logic model for youth mental health: participatory research with a refugee community in Beirut  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian re...

Afifi, Rema A.; Makhoul, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T.

2011-01-01

199

Grounding with the People: Participatory Policy Making in the Context of Constitution Review in Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ghana has been experimenting with the participatory policy making approach that allows citizenry engagement in the formulation and implementation of public policies in recent times. In many ways the approach enhances the opportunity structures for consolidating the country’s democratic credentials by allowing citizens to share in the ownership of governance decisions. In this paper, we draw illustrations from the participatory strategies used by an adhoc body known as the Constitut...

Kpessa, Michael W.; Atuguba, Raymond A.

2013-01-01

200

For a public sociology on participatory democracy. Reflexive feedback on research conducted in an association  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a reflexive approach on the relations between research and action in works on participatory democracy; a topic in which bridges are numerous between academic, political and activist fields. It aims at analyzing the impact of the close links between sociologists and actors on the methods and results of research and, reciprocally, the role of sociology in developing participatory practices. Relying on Michael Burawoy’s reflection on “public sociology”, our own research...

Nez, He?loi?se

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Participatory Research Challenges in Drug Abuse Studies Among Transnational Mexican Migrants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research is essential in public health studies, but using this methodology to examine sensitive public health problems among vulnerable populations is a challenge. We share some of our trials and tribulations in attempting to use participatory research in our substance abuse studies among transnational Mexican migrants in southeastern Pennsylvania. Major challenges did not permit partnerships across the community in all phases of research, including the dissemination of findings...

Garcia, Victor; Gonzalez, Laura

2011-01-01

202

Integration of local participatory and regional planning for resources management using remote sensing and GIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used in the planning process, efficient geographic information gathering and relevant spatial analytical tools necessary to support the negotiation among the stakeholders are lacking. Besides, methods a...

2002-01-01

203

Negotiating the role of sources: Educators' conceptions of credibility in participatory media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory media are commonly used in today's society for a variety of purposes. The credibility associated with these media is sometimes contested, and their acceptance into school practices has been debated. Focus group interviews with teachers and librarians in upper secondary schools in Sweden are used to investigate conceptions and experiences of activities involving the critical evaluation of participatory media, with a particular focus on Wikipedia. Three themes are addressed. T...

Francke, Helena; Sundin, Olof

2012-01-01

204

Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.

Pascal Perez

2010-12-01

205

Gaming as the method to integrate modeling participatory approaches in interactive water management:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the science - policy interface there are several reasons to combine models with the participatory process to facilitate the complex policy making process but the communication of the two sides is often too hard to generate any meaningful results. In this paper we argue that to close the communication gap the rationale of the Meta – rule of complex policy making needs to be comprehended and coped with. Gaming as a participatory method can be used to organize the combined process. Through ...

Zhou, Q.; Mayer, I. S.

2010-01-01

206

Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production in the Netherlands. Participatory methods are used to facilitate the exchange of ideas, experiences and knowledge of all relevant stakeholders and to create a basis for implementation of the final...

Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, I. J. M.

2004-01-01

207

Participatory development activities at local level: case studies in villages of Central Thailand.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizations.The participatory development planning approach was first introduced in Thailand through her Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1977-1981) as a strategy to apply the...

1992-01-01

208

Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

Karina Speil

2010-12-01

209

Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.

Ahari Saeid

2012-03-01

210

Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC). The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy) or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.

2012-01-01

211

Active Learning for Active Citizenship: participatory approaches to evaluating a programme to promote citizen participation in England  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Just as the notion of participatory approaches has been subjected to questioning and criticism, so has the more specific notion of participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation. There are parallel possibilities of tokenism and even of manipulation, here, just as there are parallels around the need for more critical reflection and dialogue. Even if not actually manipulative, participatory evaluation can involve little more than the occasional use of particular techniques from a partici...

Rooke, Alison; Mayo, Marjorie C.

2008-01-01

212

Constraint analysis to improve integrated dairy production systems in developing countries: the importance of participatory rural appraisal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity. PMID:18265864

Devendra, C

2007-12-01

213

Film production, social media marketing and participatory culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish youth film â??Lev Stærktâ?? (Live strong) is recently shot in Aarhus, and as part of the release and marketing plan, the producers incorporate social media showing behind the scenes video clip as a way to include and engage the filmâ??s target groups a year before the planned release. Using Facebook and the mobile, photo-based app Instagram as the main platforms, the producers of the movie are following the users and followers online closely to understand but also stage and direct their expectations in the relation to the movie. As such, the marketing of the movie is representing a new tendency within film and TV industry, in which behind the scene clips and comments are used in advantage to promote the product, as well as using social media as the main marketing channel (Caldwell, 2008; Gray, 2010; Johnson, 2012). Social media marketing is in itself representing a new field within branding and marketing, and there is a boom of new handbook literature describing â??Everything You Need to Know to Get Social Media Working in Your Businessâ? (Wollan & Nick Zhou, 2010). Social media makes it easy to engage the consumers as strategic communicators, it is cheap and fast compared to print and electronic media, and it demonstrates that the film company are fashion-conscious when it comes to new media and marketing tools. The history of â??participatory cultureâ?? might be seen in the light of digital online media, in which the boarders â?? following Habermas concepts - between lifeworld, public sphere and market, respectively, are getting blurred. Social media marketing illustrates this mixed culture in an excellent way. This new media culture is challenging the very understanding of media democracy in itself, and has caused a committed academic debate, of both critical and more optimistic viewpoints (e.g. Couldry, Livingstone & Markham, 2007; Gauntlet, 2011). â??Participatory cultureâ?? might also been seen in the light of culture policy, in which the concept of â??cultural democracyâ?? and cultural citizenship â?? an important issue within Scandinavian social democratic culture policy history â?? describes a model focus on how to include and empower the citizensâ?? diverse cultures (Skot-Hansen, 2002). By using the online marketing strategy of Danish youth film as an example, I will discuss the different cultural values that are at stake at the same time and critically discuss how social media marketing is challenging the very concept of â??participatory cultural citizenshipâ?? in itself. References: Caldwell, John Thornton (2008): Production culture - Critical Practice in Film and Television, Duke University Press: London, Durham. Couldry, N., Livingstone, S. & Markham, T. (2007): Media consumption and public engagement: beyond the presumption of attention, New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan. Gray, Jonathan (2010): Show sold separately, New York: New York University Press Gauntlett, David (2011): Making is connecting: the social meaning of creativity from DIY and knitting to YouTube and Web 2.0, Cambridge, UK, Malden, MA: Polity Press. Johnson, Catherine (2012): Branding television, London: Routledge. Skot-Hansen, Dorte (2002) â??Danish cultural policy--from Monoculture towards Cultural Diversityâ??, in: International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 197 - 210 Wollan, Robert Smith, Nick Zhou, Catherine (2010): Social Media Management Handbook: Everything You Need to Know to Get Social Media Working in Your Business, Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA

Waade, Anne Marit

214

Suites de m\\'etriques extraites du flot de Ricci sur les vari\\'et\\'es asph\\'eriques de dimension 3  

CERN Multimedia

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: We give a sufficient condition for a closed, orientable, aspherical 3-manifold to contain an incompressible torus or to be Seifert fibered. This condition involves sequences of riemannian manifolds with various properties, in particular there is local control on the curvature and the thick part is asymptotically hyperbolic. The existence of such sequences is guaranteed by Perelman's construction of Ricci flow with surgery. Our result provides an alternative argument for the last step in Perelman's proof of the geometrization conjecture in the aspherical case. RESUM\\'E: Nous donnons une condition suffisante pour qu'une vari\\'et\\'e de dimension 3 ferm\\'ee, orientable et asph\\'erique contienne un tore incompressible ou soit fibr\\'ee de Seifert. Cette condition porte sur l'existence d'une suite de m\\'etriques riemanniennes ayant diverses propri\\'et\\'es, en particulier la courbure est localement contr\\^ol\\'ee et la partie \\'epaisse est asymptotiquement hyperbolique. L'existence d'une telle suite ...

Bessières, Laurent; Boileau, Michel; Maillot, Sylvain; Porti, Joan

2007-01-01

215

Varietal differences in the flavonol content of mulberry (Morus spp.) leaves and genetic analysis of quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) for component breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

The varietal differences in the flavonol glycosides rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol 3-(6-rhamnosylglucoside), quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside), astragalin, quercetin 3-(6-acetylglucoside), and kaempferol 3-(6-malonylglucoside) contained in mulberry leaves were elucidated. This information was used for breeding mulberry cultivars with a high concentration of functional components. The flavonol content, composition, and proportion in leaves varied widely. 'Kobuchizawa 1' had the highest level of total flavonols (1819 mg/100 g of dry weight), 5 times higher than that of 'Mikurasima 15' (393 mg/100 g of dry weight). Quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) was the most abundant flavonol, although it was not found in all cultivars. Quercetin 3-(6-acetylglucoside) was only found in 'Keguwa'. From the quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) content in crossbred offspring, malonyltransferase, an enzyme involved in quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) synthesis, was acquired according to Mendelian inheritance. An offspring with a higher quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) level than both parents was obtained from the crossing. This suggested that crossbreeding was effective for acquiring cultivars with a higher content of quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside). PMID:23980804

Sugiyama, Mari; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

2013-09-25

216

Does Participatory Planning Foster the Transformation Toward More Adaptive Social-Ecological Systems?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for social-ecological systems to become more adaptive is widely acknowledged. Social effects generated by participatory planning have been claimed to contribute to this transformation, but little empirical evidence is available that backs up or opposes this notion. We aimed to offer some insights regarding questions as to which social effects are formed in participatory planning processes and at what costs, and to then discuss their contribution to the transformation toward more adaptive social-ecological systems based on empirical evidence. Consequently, we investigated the social effects of participatory planning processes, including the social learning processes leading to them. We conducted semistructured interviews with members of advisory groups involved in river engineering projects in Switzerland. Our results indicate that participatory planning processes can somewhat contribute to maintaining and spreading knowledge and social capital among individuals in a planning group, and this may help them collectively deal with new and complex challenges. However, it is costly in terms of time and patience to build up ecological knowledge, communicative capacities, and trust, with the latter also eroding over time. Overall, we conclude that the contribution of participatory planning via positive social outcomes to the transformation toward adaptive capacity social-ecological systems is smaller than optimists might hope. However, other forms of planning very likely result in no social effects or even the destruction of social capital. Participatory planning, in contrast, can offer the conditions for relational and cognitive learning contributing to the maintenance of social and political capital. Based on our results, we suggest shifting resources from technical to communicative aspects of planning processes and implementations. We recommend that project leaders provide stakeholders with firsthand information about projects, explain rationales and data behind decisions, and clearly communicate that stakeholders do not have decision making competence to support participants in finding their roles in similar participatory planning settings.

Susanne Menzel

2013-03-01

217

A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

Bridgelall, Raj

2014-03-01

218

Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

2009-10-01

219

Power and perceptions in participatory monitoring and evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the assumptions that commonly underpin the design of participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) within development programmes through the examination of a case study of a large rural development programme in Uganda. This case study reveals a mismatch between programme assumptions and participant perceptions, which stymied the implementation of PM&E. In this case, PM&E was based on the assumptions that programme and participant goals were compatible, participants were willing to volunteer and engage themselves for the greater good of their communities, and information sharing and communication was fairly free and open. However, farmers within the programme felt that the bureaucratic and accountability requirements of the programme were not their concern, and were acutely aware of power differences between farmers and programme officials, and between farmers of varying status. The key lesson to be drawn from this case is the need for a heightened awareness of power dynamics and political factors in the design of PM&E. PMID:19419765

Parkinson, Sarah

2009-08-01

220

Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

Martin Johansson

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Grasping social dynamics of participatory innovation : A case of playing a game  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The key element in participatory innovation is to understand innovation as a social problem solving process between different stakeholders. The social dynamics amongst stakeholders are fundamental to the participatory process and outcome, and itâ??s therefore beneficial for facilitators and stakeholders themselves to understand their relations and what it means to participate. We argue that we can grasp these social dynamics of participatory innovation through play. From a management perspective we study how playing games helps us to understand these dynamics, while from an interaction design perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co-opetition where individual and group goals are conflicting. Drawing on observations and video data of the game being played by the participants of the conference, we study how different group compositions deal with novelty. From here we explain how the process of play can help to grasp the social dynamics of participatory innovation, and outline design strategies to do this.

Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens

2011-01-01

222

PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE IN THE PUBLIC HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS OF THE SCANDINAVIAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diminished trust of citizens in the public sector, the increased complexity of policy issues and the reforms in accordance with the new public management principles generate the need of focusing more extensively on participatory governance. Participatory governance can be defined as the genuine engagement of citizens and other organizations in the formulation of policies and strategies, in the decision-making process from the public sector and in the implementation of the decisions. The present paper's objectives are to define the concept of participatory governance, to argue in favor of implementing it in the public sector and to find to what extent public healthcare institutions from Scandinavian and Baltic countries publish information on participatory governance and how they perceive community engagement. The research findings are that the information on participatory governance disclosed on the websites of relevant institutions from within the Scandinavian and Baltic public healthcare systems is scarce. The countries with the greatest concern for community engagement are Denmark and Sweden. It is argued that there should be a shift in focus within the public sector in general and within the healthcare system in particular, so that citizens are genuinely involved in the relevant processes and their satisfaction is indeed at an adequate level.

Stefanescu Aurelia

2011-12-01

223

Explore Locally, Excel Digitally: A Participatory Learning After-School Program for Enriching Citizenship On- and Offline  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the design and implementation of a participatory culture pedagogy in the context of a pilot after-school program at LAUSD's Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools. Ethnographic fieldnotes, instructor and student reflections, photographs, video recordings, and student work illustrate the program's culture of participatory…

Felt, Laurel J.; Vartabedian, Vanessa; Literat, Ioana; Mehta, Ritesh

2012-01-01

224

Participatory Theater, Is It Really? A Critical Examination of Practices in Timor-Leste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dance, music, and oral narratives are an important and vibrant part of cultural practice and heritage in Timor-Leste. But while Timorese people have used such creative methods and processes during rituals, celebrations, and their fight for independence, today arts and artistic expression become an increasingly popular strategy in development cooperation. Especially diff erent forms of so-called participatory theater with origins in development cooperation, arts, and social movements, present themselves as innovative, participatory, and well applicable in terms of capacity building and stimulating positive social transformation. Based on the author’s experience and observations, this article critically examines the alliance between various stakeholders in Timor-Leste engaging with the fact that the current scene of participatory theater can hardly be seen as an independent grassroots or even social movement, rather than an initiated top-down process by donors with specific agendas.

Julia Scharinger

2013-01-01

225

On the connection between sociological, artistic, and participatory practice in research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Linking sociological, artistic, and participatory elements in research has far-reaching consequences for research practice on the whole. The artistic approach represents a difference to everyday and sociological manners of thinking and acting. This difference not only determines other questions and points of view, but also opens up special communication and reflection spaces in research fields. This, in turn, is of great value for both the participatory and the sociological approach. In this article I depict the relevance of the artistic approach for participatory practice in sociological research. My remarks are limited to the first phase of research. On the basis of a project example, I portray my own special research practice by reflecting on aspects of research design and aspects of communication among those involved.

Doris Koch

2011-08-01

226

A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management  

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Full Text Available To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition, strengths and limitations of BNs are synthesized. We found that BNs were successfully applied for knowledge integration and identification of sustainable management strategies within participatory processes. Due to many favorable characteristics, BNs have the potential to become a core method of transdisciplinary knowledge integration in environmental management.

Meike Duespohl

2012-11-01

227

Public health for the people: participatory infectious disease surveillance in the digital age.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 21(st) century has seen the rise of Internet-based participatory surveillance systems for infectious diseases. These systems capture voluntarily submitted symptom data from the general public and can aggregate and communicate that data in near real-time. We reviewed participatory surveillance systems currently running in 13 different countries. These systems have a growing evidence base showing a high degree of accuracy and increased sensitivity and timeliness relative to traditional healthcare-based systems. They have also proven useful for assessing risk factors, vaccine effectiveness, and patterns of healthcare utilization while being less expensive, more flexible, and more scalable than traditional systems. Nonetheless, they present important challenges including biases associated with the population that chooses to participate, difficulty in adjusting for confounders, and limited specificity because of reliance only on syndromic definitions of disease limits. Overall, participatory disease surveillance data provides unique disease information that is not available through traditional surveillance sources. PMID:24991229

Wójcik, Oktawia P; Brownstein, John S; Chunara, Rumi; Johansson, Michael A

2014-01-01

228

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes re [...] sults of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

Loewenson, Rene; Flores, Walter; Shukla, Abhay; Kagis, Maija; Baba, Amuda; Ryklief, Ashraf; Mbwili-Muleya, Clara; Kakde, Dhananjay.

229

Participatory Gis: Experimentations for a 3d Social Virtual Globe  

Science.gov (United States)

The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.

Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

2013-08-01

230

Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. PMID:23860379

Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

2013-10-15

231

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation  

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Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

Pieter Bots

2012-03-01

232

A case study in the participatory design of a collaborative science-based learning environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.

Chin, George, Jr.

233

Improving Ethical and Participatory Practice for Marginalized Populations in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: Lessons from Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. Methods In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP) guided this work. Results Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. Discussion Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical and participatory practice in other parts of the world where biomedical HIV prevention trials occur, and where clinical trials in marginalized populations continue.

Allman, Dan; Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Kaplan, Karyn

2014-01-01

234

Review. Supporting problem structuring with computer-based tools in participatory forest planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of study: This review presents the state-of-art of using computerized techniques for problem structuring (PS) in participatory forest planning. Frequency and modes of using different computerized tool types and their contribution for planning processes as well as critical observations are described, followed by recommendations on how to better integrate PS with the use of forest decision support systems. Area of study: The reviewed research cases are from Asia, Europe, North-America, Africa and Australia. Material and methods: Via Scopus search and screening of abstracts, 32 research articles from years 2002-2011 were selected for review. Explicit and implicit evidence of using computerized tools for PS was recorded and assessed with content-driven qualitative analysis. Main results: GIS and forest-specific simulation tools were the most prevalent software types whereas cognitive modelling software and spreadsheet and calculation tools were less frequently used, followed by multi-criteria and interactive tools. The typical use type was to provide outputs of simulation–optimization or spatial analysis to negotiation situations or to compile summaries or illustrations afterwards; using software during group negotiation to foster interaction was observed only in a few cases. Research highlights: Expertise in both decision support systems and group learning is needed to better integrate PS and computerized decision analysis. From the knowledge management perspective, it is recommended to consider how the results of PS —e.g. conceptual models— could be stored into a problem perception database, and how PS and decision making could be streamlined by retrievals from such systems. (Author)

Hujala, T.; Khadka, C.; Wolfslehner, B.; Vacik, H.

2013-09-01

235

Participatory sensing as an enabler for self-organisation in future cellular networks  

Science.gov (United States)

In this short review paper we summarise the emerging challenges in the field of participatory sensing for the self-organisation of the next generation of wireless cellular networks. We identify the potential of participatory sensing in enabling the self-organisation, deployment optimisation and radio resource management of wireless cellular networks. We also highlight how this approach can meet the future goals for the next generation of cellular system in terms of infrastructure sharing, management of multiple radio access techniques, flexible usage of spectrum and efficient management of very small data cells.

Imran, Muhammad Ali; Imran, Ali; Onireti, Oluwakayode

2013-12-01

236

Genetic Merit Based Genotype Selection for Physical Fruit Traits in Mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selection indices based on their genetic merit of fruit characters were constructed for fruit yield/tree in 48 genotypes in mango (Mangifera indica L.. Genotypes, SBM 01-35, SBM 01-26, SBM 01-9, SBM 01- 10 and SBM 01-26 in on year while, SBM 01-12, SBM 01-36, SBM 01-26, SBM 01-28 and SBM 01- 9 in off year recorded highest fruit yield /tree. Genotypes SBM 01-10, SBM 01-36, SBM 01-09, SBM 01-30 and SBM 01-6 exhibited comparatively high estimates of selection indices during on year while, SBM 01-36 followed by SBM 01-12, Totapari, SBM 01-17 and SBM 01-29 showed the maximum estimates of selection index for fruit yield/ tree during off year. Alphonso followed by SBM 01-5, SBM 01-13, Langra and SBM 01-14 during on year and Dashehari, Safeda, SBM 01-3 and SBM 01-39 in off year exhibited the minimum estimates of varietal indices. Genotypes differed considerably in their ranking pattern based on selection indices. Genotypes SBM 01-9, SBM 01-10, SBM 01-30, SBM 01-6 and SBM 01-36 showed maximum varietal indices and phenotypic performance in both the years thus, appeared promising for use as parent in mango improvement programme.

Arun Kumar Barholia

2014-06-01

237

Correction: Using participatory design to develop (public health decision support systems through GIS  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs. Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data. Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different standard mapping file formats (e.g. ESRI, MapInfo, CSV. Discussion Based on the evaluation of Phase 1, the PD process has served both as a facilitator and a barrier. In terms of successes, the PD process identified two key components that are important to users: increased data/map sharing functionality and interoperability. Some of the challenges affected developers and users; both individually and as a collective. From a development perspective, this project experienced difficulties in obtaining personnel skilled in web application development and GIS. For users, some data sharing barriers are beyond what a technological tool can address (e.g. third party data. Lastly, the PD process occurs in real time; both a strength and a limitation. Programmatic changes at the provincial level and staff turnover at the organizational level made it difficult to maintain buy-in as participants changed over time. The impacts of these successes and challenges will be evaluated more concretely at the end of Phase 2. Conclusion PD approaches, by their very nature, encourage buy-in to the development process, better addresses user-needs, and creates a sense of user-investment and ownership.

Sawada Michael

2007-11-01

238

Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency

2001-06-10

239

Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency.

Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Research and Training; Pollard, Simon; Twigger-Ross, Clare [National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, London (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

240

"Every City Has Soldiers": The Role of Intergenerational Relationships in Participatory Literacy Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the role of intergenerational relationships in the lives of experienced poets and writers ("soldiers") and emerging poets and writers in what the author terms Participatory Literacy Communities (PLCs). Drawing from Wenger's (1998) concept of communities of practice, the author uses data from two examples of PLCs--Black…

Fisher, Maisha

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

"Who Is Helsinki" Sex Workers Advise Improving Communication for Good Participatory Practice in Clinical Trials  

Science.gov (United States)

After premature closures in 2004 of biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials involving sex workers in Africa and Asia, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC) undertook consultations to establish better participatory guidelines for such trials in order to address…

Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan

2011-01-01

242

Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and balanced soil nutrient management are major foundations for sustainable food production, contribute to a sound management of natural resources and assist in controlling environmental degradation such ...

Jager, A.

2007-01-01

243

Advances in participatory occupational health aimed at good practices in small enterprises and the informal sector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory programmes for occupational risk reduction are gaining importance particularly in small workplaces in both industrially developing and developed countries. To discuss the types of effective support, participatory steps commonly seen in our "work improvement-Asia" network are reviewed. The review covered training programmes for small enterprises, farmers, home workers and trade union members. Participatory steps commonly focusing on low-cost good practices locally achieved have led to concrete improvements in multiple technical areas including materials handling, workstation ergonomics, physical environment and work organization. These steps take advantage of positive features of small workplaces in two distinct ways. First, local key persons are ready to accept local good practices conveyed through personal, informal approaches. Second, workers and farmers are capable of understanding technical problems affecting routine work and taking flexible actions leading to solving them. This process is facilitated by the use of locally adjusted training tools such as local good examples, action checklists and group work methods. It is suggested that participatory occupational health programmes can work in small workplaces when they utilize low-cost good practices in a flexible manner. Networking of these positive experiences is essential. PMID:16610530

Kogi, Kazutaka

2006-01-01

244

Promoting Environmental Justice through Community-Based Participatory Research: The Role of Community and Partnership Capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…

Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

2008-01-01

245

Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

2009-01-01

246

Creative Art Therapy in a Community's Participatory Research and Social Transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced…

Kapitan, Lynn; Litell, Mary; Torres, Anabel

2011-01-01

247

Contextualising learning through the participatory construction of an environmental education programme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Strengthening links between school and community is critical for improving people's participation in environmental issues. However, Mexican education programmes are generally unrelated to rural students' life experience and are planned without considering either teachers' or students' opinions. This paper describes the participatory construction of a preparatory school environmental education programme in Ixtlan de Juarez, a Mexican indigenous community internationally recognized for sustaina...

Ruiz-mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Ceja-adame, Maria La Paz; Reyes-garci?a, Victoria

2009-01-01

248

JAKFISH Policy Brief: coping with uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity in fisheries management through participatory knowledge development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The legitimacy of the scientific underpinning of European fisheries management is often challenged because of perceived exclusion of fishers knowledge and the lack of transparency in generating scientific advice. One of the attempts to address this lack of legitimacy has been through participatory knowledge development. In this paper, we will present the results of the JAKFISH project (Judgement and Knowledge in Fisheries Management involving Stakeholders) that focussed on the interplay between different actors in constructing the underpinning of policy decisions for sustainable fisheries. We tested participatory modelling as a tool to enhance mutual understanding and to increase legitimacy and found that it can be instrumental in developing a broader knowledge base for fisheries management and in building up trust between scientists and stakeholders. However, the participatory approach may not always work. Through social network analyses we found that the number of connections and the frequency of interactions between individuals in different groups (science, fisheries, eNGOs, policy) provides an important clue on the potential effectiveness of participatory approaches. We used three concepts to evaluate the role of scientific knowledge in policy making: salience, legitimacy and credibility. In situations with high stakes and high uncertainties, the evaluation of scientific analyses for policy decisions needs to involve a broader peer community consisting of scientists, policy-makers, NGOs and fisheries in order to increase legitimacy of results. When stakes are low and uncertainties are modest, the credibility of scientific results are sufficiently addressed through traditional scientific peer review

Pastoors, M.A.; Ulrich, Clara

2012-01-01

249

Mindanao Peasant Women: A Participatory Research Investigation of Their Realities and Potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the application of participatory research to a study of rural Filipino women to identify living conditions and to raise consciousness. Conditions include (1) unemployment and underemployment, (2) limitations of homemaking and child rearing tasks, (3) nonrecognition of reproductive rights, and (4) discrimination in political life and…

Pagaduan, Maureen

1988-01-01

250

"Great Conversation" for School Improvement in Disadvantageous Rural Contexts: A Participatory Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The core empirical basis of this paper is based upon my recent participatory action research case study, sponsored by my university, conducted in a rural school in one of the most disadvantageous districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The paper argues that the current climate in most of the schools across the country reflects "apathy" and "ignorance".…

Bana, Zubeda

2010-01-01

251

Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

2013-01-01

252

Productive Tensions--Engaging Geography Students in Participatory Action Research with Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This study discusses the benefits and challenges of an undergraduate module on participatory geographies, involving students in co-producing research with community partners. The module challenges the knowledge production model predominant in Geography curricula. We argue that it develops students' skills and understanding through engaging…

Pain, Rachel; Finn, Matt; Bouveng, Rebecca; Ngobe, Gloria

2013-01-01

253

Developing digital technologies for university mathematics by applying participatory design methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included in this paper along with future research directions.

Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

2013-01-01

254

Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

2008-01-01

255

Transforming Schooling through Technology: Twenty-First-Century Approaches to Participatory Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The fifty years since the 100th anniversary of John Dewey's birth have marked the emergence of new technologies that afford a wealth of previously unknown approaches to learning, making it not only possible but practicable for Dewey's educational vision of participatory learning to be realized on a mass scale. This article discusses these…

Cunningham, Craig A.

2009-01-01

256

Commentary: Working across Distant Spaces--Connecting Participatory Action Research and Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary reflects on the key themes and goals of this symposium. It contextualizes the relationship between participatory action research (PAR) and teaching in the increasingly popular field of critical action-oriented geography. It considers a number of benefits to student learning from engagement with PAR, drawing on the papers in the…

Pain, Rachel

2009-01-01

257

Using Working Agreements in Participatory Action Research: Working through Moral Problems with Malaysian Students  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we propose that taking time before the work begins to develop agreements about how to work together in participatory action research enables researchers to directly address several ethical issues that can be problematic in this type of research: gaining fully informed consent; in-group confidentiality; cultural misconceptions; and…

Balakrishnan, Vishalache; Cornforth, Sue

2013-01-01

258

Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

2012-01-01

259

Best Practices in the Reporting of Participatory Action Research: Embracing Both the Forest and the Trees  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory action research (PAR) represents an approach that is deeply consonant with counseling psychology's commitments to social equity and action. However, counseling psychologists who would like to study this literature, or who would like to write about a project of their own, may discover that the reporting of PAR is not straightforward:…

Smith, Laura; Rosenzweig, Lisa; Schmidt, Marjorie

2010-01-01

260

"Street Theatre for Edutainment": A Participatory Research with Youth in Delhi  

Science.gov (United States)

Youth constitute an important section of our society. They are the biggest reservoir of human resources and are the future of our country. Their development has direct affect on the development of the nation. Street Theatre is not a moment's act. It is a participatory approach which deals with fictional narratives and thus used for communicating…

Capila, Anjali; Bhalla, Pragati

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Who are the active citizens? : Characterizations of citizens in participatory urban planning processes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article presents the variety of different active citizens and participants involved in a collaborative and participatory planning process within an urban regeneration project in Denmark. In much of the literature on planning and citizen participation citizens are often regarded as a homogenous group. This article argues that there are no `ordinary´ citizens, and claims that citizens are very different and participate in various ways. A criticism raised in relation to participatory processes is that these often tend to favour certain modes of communication based on an implicit ideal of the citizen as being resourceful, mastering political skills and know-how and time. However, many citizens do not `fit´ this stereotype, and thus there is a risk that many citizens are biased by the way the institutional settings for participation are designed. A characterization of active citizens in participatory processes could be useful for practitioners in order to be aware that their choices of techniques and involvement are part of shaping the nature of the participatory process and their overall inclusiveness and representativeness.

Agger, Annika

2008-01-01

262

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

263

Participatory Design for Developing Web Services Supporting Learning in Communities of Practice: the Example of PALETTE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper aims at showing how Participatory Design contributes to the understanding of learning processes related to Communities of Practice (CoPs) and, at the same time, to the design and implementation of Web Services to support organisational and individual learning in CoPs. This research builds on the European PALETTE project.

Charlier, Bernadette; Esnault, Liliane; Henri, France; Vanoirbeek, Christine

2007-01-01

264

Participatory System Dynamics Modeling for Sustainable Environmental Management: Observations from Four Cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainable environmental management requires a decision support approach that accounts for dynamic connections between social and ecological systems, integrates stakeholder deliberation with scientific analysis, incorporates diverse stakeholder knowledge, and fosters relationships among stakeholders that can accommodate changing information and changing social and environmental conditions. Participatory system dynamics modeling provides such a framework. It supports stakeholder learning abou...

Krystyna Stave

2010-01-01

265

Developing and Implementing a Framework of Participatory Simulation for Mobile Learning Using Scaffolding  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a conceptual framework, scaffolding participatory simulation for mobile learning (SPSML), used on mobile devices for helping students learn conceptual knowledge in the classroom. As the pedagogical design, the framework adopts an experiential learning model, which consists of five sequential but cyclic steps: the initial stage,…

Yin, Chengjiu; Song, Yanjie; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Hiroaki; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

2013-01-01

266

Prospects for the Future: The Use of Participatory Action Research to Study Educational Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Of all the varieties of educational disadvantage, issues involving students who are homeless, or who move frequently because of poverty, are perhaps some of the most difficult for public school educators in the US to address. Using a pragmatic mixed methods design, this study evaluates the efficacy of participatory action research (PAR): (1) as a…

James, Emily Alana

2005-01-01

267

Contextualising learning through the participatory construction of an environmental education programme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Strengthening links between school and community is critical for improving people’s participation in environmental issues. However, Mexican education programmes are generally unrelated to rural students’ life experience and are planned without considering either teachers’ or students’ opinions. This paper describes the participatory construction of a preparatory school environmental education programme in Ixtlan de Juarez, a Mexican indigenous community internation...

2009-01-01

268

Exploring Critical Feminist Pedagogy: The Dialogic, Experiential, and Participatory (DEP) Approach in Teaching and Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay uses the interplay of biography and the historical development of society to discuss how one female teacher has experienced learning and teaching throughout her life. It also presents the results of the teacher's exploration of the dialogic, experiential, and participatory (DEP) approach to teaching and learning that she has explored.…

Chow, Esther Ngan-ling

269

Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s, and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.

Nilufar Matin

2010-09-01

270

Role of Participatory Rural Appraisal in Community Development (A Case Study of Barani Area Development Project in Agriculture, Live Stock and Forestry Development in Kohat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out the role of participatory approach in community development. Barani Area Development Project is one of Govt: sponsored project, which was started in 2001. The aim of this project was to encourage community and ensure maximum participation to sustain the project in district kohat. Kalabat, Jangle Khail , Lachi ,Usterzo and Kachi were selected for this study. Proportion allocation method of sampling was used for the selection of respondents, 150 community members were selected out of 9000 population and 50 stockholders of Barani Project were selected out of 70 population for this study. The researcher used questionnaire for educated respondents and interview schedule for illiterate respondents. The study indicates that Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA is one of the most appropriate approaches for the identification of community problems and for understanding the socio-economic and cultural aspects of the community. The beneficiaries were well aware about participatory rural appraisal (PRA and its use because of the proper introduction and implementation in area by Barani Area Development Project (BADP. Due to PRA, the output of agriculture, livestock and forestry has risen, which has ultimately raised the socio-economic conditions of the community. The PRA training in agriculture is with special emphasis on land cultivation, preparations, fertilizer and pesticides usage has risen and helpful in producing more yields. In livestock sector they gave training on breed improvement in area and as a result livestock breed and milk products have improved in the area. In forestry sector they gave training on nursery raising and bee keeping etc to generate various ways for income. Thus through the PRA trainings and usage the community has a chance to earn more livelihoods and to satisfy their needs easily. Thus BADP used PRA approach in the area to empower the community through self-help and self-decision for participation in any developmental activities without any discrimination among the community members. The PRA tools used are helpful to the whole community, and they will easily identify their problems not only to agriculture sector but also in livestock and forestry sector. The community was satisfied from PRA role because they will ensure maximum participation through CBO/VO/WO etc. for the community development. The researcher recommended some suggestions to overcome the obstacles in front of PRA implementation and bringing Development in agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors through Barani Area Development Project.

Anwar Alam

2012-08-01

271

Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation principles in radiation protection. Insight was also gained in what information should be collected or subject studied for emergency management. It was proved to be essential that information is in the proper form for decision-making. Therefore, methods and models to assess realistically the radiological and cost implications of different countermeasures need to be further developed. In the consequent assessments, it is necessary to take production, economic, demographic and geographical information into account. Also, the feasibility and constraints of protective actions, such as logistics, require further investigation. For example, there seems to exist no plans in the EU or Nordic countries to dispose radioactive waste that may result from decontamination. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop for tackling a decision problem that concerns many different key players. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in planning actions in advance. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although its suitability was not rated as highly as for planning. The suitability of the approach in the early phase of an accident was rated the lowest. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises in order to revise emergency plans or identify issues that need to be resolved. The pros and cons of the facilitated workshop method can be compared with the conventional approaches. The general goal in all methods is that key players would be better prepared for an accident situation. All participatory methods, when practiced in advance, also create a network of key players. Facilitated workshops provide the participants with an forum for structured dialogue to discuss openly the values behind the decision. Stakeholder network can evaluate and augment generic countermeasures but all the possible and feasible protective actions cannot be justified and optimised in depth. The ranking of protective actions depends on weigh

2004-01-01

272

Participatory Decision Making, Patient Activation, Medication Adherence, and Intermediate Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes: A STARNet Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE Participatory decision making (PDM) is associated with improved diabetes control. We examine a causal model linking PDM to improved clinical outcomes that included patient activation and medication adherence.

Parchman, Michael L.; Zeber, John E.; Palmer, Raymond F.

2010-01-01

273

Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction/Management (DRR and DRM). Participatory surveys (and participatory monitoring) elicit local people's knowledge about the specifics of the hazard concerning frequency, timing, warning signals, rates of flow, spatial extent, etc. And significantly, only this local knowledge from informants can reveal essential information about different vulnerabilities of people and places, and about any coping or adjustment mechanisms that local people have. The participatory methods employed in Mleta included historical discussions with key informants, village social transects, participatory mapping with children, semi-structured interviews with inhabitants, and VCA (Vulnerability & Capacity Analysis). The geolomorphological map produced on the base of the local geology has been realized with ArcGIS. This allowed the assessment of the areas at risk and the relative maps. We adapted and tested the software programme CyberTracker as a survey tool, a digital device method of field data collection. Google Earth, OpenStreetMap, Virtual Earth and Ilwis have been used for data processing.

Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

2014-05-01

274

Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others and discovering shared interests, but not necessarily changing their own view, behaviour or institutional practice. We conclude the paper with a discussion of two learning aspects of the participatory modelling process for which conflicting results were obtained: the question of depth of model scrutiny and the question of trust in the model, in the modeller and between the participants. References Krueger, T, Inman, A, Chilvers, J. 2012. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling. Paper Number EGU2012-5958. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, April 22nd-27th: Vienna, Austria.

Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

2014-05-01

275

Exploring the Exercise of Participatory Rights as Means of Environmental Protection:The Ontario Environmental Bill of Rights  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Environmental Bill of Rights (EBR) adopted in 1994 by the province of Ontario, Canada empowers members of the public with participatory rights in environmental decision-making. This thesis evaluates the de facto situation of public participation rights held within the EBR and focuses in particular on the notice and comment procedures. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the participatory provisions held within the EBR is based on qualitative findings from interviews with individuals wh...

Core, Lindsay

2006-01-01

276

Learning by doing: a participatory methodology for systematization of experiments with agroforestry systems, with an example of its application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research methods have helped scientists to understand how farmers experiment and to seek partnerships with farmers in developing technologies with enhanced relevance and adoption. This paper reports on the development of a participatory methodology to systematize long-term experimentation with agroforestry systems carried out in a hotspot of biodiversity by non-governmental organizations and local farmers. A methodological guide for systematization and techniques used for Partic...

2012-01-01

277

The Main Advantages of Community Based Participatory Health Programs: An Experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 

Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Methods: This study ...

Monir Baradarn Eftekhari; Katayoun Falahat; Masoumeh Dejman; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Hossein Malek Afzali; Noot Heydari; Arash Mirabzadeh

2013-01-01

278

Democratic Innovation Through Ideas? Participatory budgeting and frames of citizen participation in France, Germany and Great Britain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research investigates the processes of adaptation of participatory budget (PB) institutions to France, Germany, and Great Britain in relation to frames of citizen participation, for instance ‘participatory’ democracy or ‘community empowerment’. I define frames as relatively coherent but flexible idea combinations that contain cognitive and normative assumptions about the issue at stake (in the present case citizen participation). The process of PB, developed in Porto Alegre, Braz...

Ro?cke, Anja

2009-01-01

279

Community-based participatory research: a collaborative study to measure capabilities towards recovery in mental health community organizations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The purpose of this article is to offer a theoretical review on community based research, namely about collaborative processes and qualitative participatory methodologies, and to present an application of this framework to the research design. Method: It is provided a review on community-based research methodology, university-community partnerships, and is described the qualitative participatory methodology used in one collaborative study. Conclusion: following the partnership guid...

José Ornelas; Rita Aguiar; Beatrice Sacchetto; Jorge-monteiro, Maria F.

2012-01-01

280

Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Participatory research approaches in the development of improved management practices in indigenous chickens production systems with smallholder farmers in Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is concerned with development of improved management practices in indigenous chicken production systems in a research process that includes participatory approaches with smallholder farmers and other stakeholders in Kenya. The research process involved a wide range of activities that included on-station experiments, field surveys, stakeholder consultations in workshops, seminars and visits, and on-farm farmer participatory research to evaluate the effect of some improved managemen...

Ndegwa, Joseph Mutitu

2012-01-01

282

Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings. A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD. Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr–1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr–1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD ?107 to ?1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

R. Lasage

2014-01-01

283

Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology (MUPARMIBO), some particular bioenergy options were recommended for each study village in two districts. The participatory approach was extended to the selection of possible projects that villagers may implement using their own resources. Some of these projects include production and marketing of improved stoves, improved fish smoking and drying ovens, and planting of multi-purpose tree species. Where villagers keep cattle under the zero-grazing system and can afford initial costs, biogas plants were recommended. The need for information on available technologies, development of skills and financing mechanisms were seen as critical elements for the adoption of bioenergy options 56 refs, 12 figs, 7 tabs

Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

1998-12-31

284

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

2011-04-01

285

Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: â?¢What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating communities of practice, and in what way do they promote the negotiation of a shared understanding? â?¢Which commonalities can be derived from the participatory design of a "third space" community among communities of practice through participation in the Danish seed industry? The work will be based on preliminary field research including qualitative semi-structured interviews staging the local concept to knowledge and innovation quantified by large-scale questionnaires. A random target group will work with imaging, tagging and categorising their personal experience and thoughts of knowledge and innovation through advanced online photo diaries. The outcomes will be presented in a 3-step workshop series with representatives from the involved communities of practice. A "future workshop" will focus on commonalities and contradictions between the involved domains and how they redefine shared knowledge from their previous experience. A second workshop will focus on hands-on user experience based on a prototype predesigned from the preliminary research findings. The final workshop will build up a common knowledge discourseamong its participants, and work towards an overall requirement specification for a preferred future knowledge innovation method in the Danish seed industry. The three workshops will be recorded by video and subsequently hermeneutically analysed to determine relevant boundary objects and commonalities between the participating communities of practice.

Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte

286

Innovating Science Teaching by Participatory Action Research – Reflections from an Interdisciplinary Project of Curriculum Innovation on Teaching about Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics. The teaching itself explicitly aimed at general educational objectives, i.e., fostering students’ communication and evaluation abilities as essential components for preparing young people for active participation in society. Participatory Action Research has been used as a collaborative strategy of cyclical curriculum innovation and research. Using past experiences and selected results from accompanying research, this project and its methodology will be reflected upon from the viewpoint of the chemistry group taking part in the project. Core issues reflected upon include how the project contributed to the creation of feasible curriculum materials, how it led to innovative structures in practice, and whether it supported experienced teachers’ ongoing professional development. General considerations for the process of curriculum innovation will also be derived.

Timo Feierabend

2011-01-01

287

Using Participatory Epidemiology Tools to Investigate Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP in Maasai Flocks, Northern Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory Epidemiology (PE was applied on the Maasai rangeland of northern Tanzania to understand pastoralist’s perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP. The study was conducted during the period of April 2008 and caprine disease event was directed during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. Participatory methods such as Focus Group Discussion (FGD, proportional piling and matrix scoring were used to characterize pastoralist perceived clinical signs and risk factors for CCPP. The estimated mean incidence and case mortality rate of CCPP was 31.6 and 61.4%, respectively. Matrix scoring showed moderate to good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs and risk factors. It was concluded that PE complimented with local knowledge could generally be used to generate disease information at low cost and therefore assist the design of feasible disease surveillance systems and control programmes at local and national level.

Emmanuel Senyael

2010-10-01

288

Sharing is caring. Sharing and documenting complex participatory projects to enable generative participation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reflects on how sharing documentation of subjective viewpoints on complex participatory projects can contribute to end-user development in or generativity of projects. We will discuss the documentation approaches of some participatory projects that combine the development of software and hardware in a cultural, social or health context with groups of participants with an eye on generating ongoing participation. We will also describe how we, inspired by these projects, developed 1. a “thick documentation” approach, based on a collaborative mapping method called MAP-it 2. that provides a dynamic view, revealing the diverse subjective perspectives on the project; 3. that motivates different types of makers and participants to participate in documenting; 4. that aims for generativity. We evaluated our approach on these 4 goals and propose future challenges.

Jessica Schoffelen

2013-11-01

289

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007 brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.

André Holanda

2011-02-01

290

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-a-vis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

Yee Ming Chen

2009-09-01

291

Towards tailor-made participation : How to involve different types of citizens in participatory planning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Public participation has become an important element of governance in many Western European countries. However, among scholars and practitioners there is a recognition that participatory governance processes tend to produce systematic exclusions. Knowledge about 'who' participates and 'how' they participate can enhance our understanding of participatory processes. This paper presents some characterisations of citizens based on a review of the literature on participation. In addition, examples of how to tailor participation for different type of citizens are provided based on studies of urban regeneration programmes and local environmental initiatives in Denmark. The paper concludes that in order to broaden the inclusion of affected citizens, public authorities need to be tailor participation processes by applying distinct approaches to different types of citizens

Agger, Annika

2012-01-01

292

Education, outreach, and inclusive engagement: Towards integrated indicators of successful program outcomes in participatory science.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use and utility of science in society is often influenced by the structure, legitimacy, and efficacy of the scientific research process. Public participation in scientific research (PPSR) is a growing field of practice aimed at enhancing both public knowledge and understanding of science (education outreach) and the efficacy and responsiveness of scientific research, practice, and policy (participatory engagement). However, PPSR objectives focused on "education outreach" and "participatory engagement" have each emerged from diverse theoretical traditions that maintain distinct indicators of success used for program development and evaluation. Although areas of intersection and overlap among these two traditions exist in theory and practice, a set of comprehensive standards has yet to coalesce that supports the key principles of both traditions in an assimilated fashion. To fill this void, a comprehensive indicators framework is proposed with the goal of promoting a more integrative and synergistic PPSR program development and assessment process. PMID:23887249

Haywood, Benjamin K; Besley, John C

2014-01-01

293

USING PARTICIPATORY METHODS AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) TO PREPARE FOR AN HIV COMMUNITY-BASED TRIAL IN VULINDLELA, SOUTH AFRICA (Project Accept–HPTN 043)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent attempts to integrate geographic information systems (GIS) and participatory techniques, have given rise to terminologies such as participatory GIS and community-integrated GIS. Although GIS was initially developed for physical geographic application, it can be used for the management and analysis of health and health care data. Geographic information systems, combined with participatory methodology, have facilitated the analysis of access to health facilities and disease risk in diffe...

Chirowodza, Admire; Rooyen, Heidi; Joseph, Philip; Sikotoyi, Sindisiwe; Richter, Linda; Coates, Thomas

2009-01-01

294

Let Me Put It Another Way: Methodological Considerations on the Use of Participatory Photography Based on an Experiment with Teenagers in Secondary Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reflects on the use of participant photography as a methodological component of a qualitative research study into student intercultural relations in four secondary schools in Spain. Forty boys and girls took part and we selected over 400 photographs they had taken. The article draws attention to the importance of student ‘voices’ to show the interaction processes and the value of participatory photography as an approach that encourages their participation beyond the traditional interviews and field observations. The results acknowledge the value of photography to reflect the relationships among adolescents. However, while the experiment was positively rated by the participants, the study recognises the risks taken and the achievements, constraints, dilemmas and difficulties encountered by the investigators carrying out the research.

Jose M. Coronel

2013-06-01

295

Participatory design of computer-supported organizational learning in health care: methods and experiences.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper outlines a Computer-Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) system for primary care and presents from its participatory design process time consumption, costs, and experiences. The system integrates a hypermedia environment, a computerized patient record, and an electronicmessage system. It is developed to coordinate organizational learning in primary care from micro to macro levels by connecting strategic planning to monitoring of patient routines. Summing up design experiences, critic...

Timpka, T.; Sjo?berg, C.; Hallberg, N.; Eriksson, H.; Lindblom, P.; Hedblom, P.; Svensson, B.; Marmolin, H.

1995-01-01

296

Participatory forms of the environmental policy and energy sector; Partizipationsformen der Umweltpolitik und des Energiesektors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An effective climate protection requires a full involvement and participation of the people. But there exists a lack of a developed culture of participation. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on participatory forms of the environmental policy and energy sector. Here, the author reports on particular political conditions, on liberalization of the energy market, on the participation of the civil society, the unbundling of supply systems as well as on environmental management in energy cooperation.

Kneussel, Hubert

2011-07-01

297

Can Cultivars from participatory plant breeding improve seed provision to small-scale farmers?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seed provision for small-scale farmers deals with multiple constraints. These include, on the supply side, high seed production costs and poor adaptedness of the cultivars, and on the demand side, anticyclical demand and low and variable sales. Approaches to improve seed provision to this sector of farmers have so far not been very successful. This paper discusses how well-adapted cultivars developed through participatory plant breeding (PPB) initiatives create new opportunities for productio...

Almekinders, C. J. M.; Thiele, G.; Danial, D. L.

2007-01-01

298

THE POTENTIAL OF MOVING PICTURES DOES PARTICIPATORY VIDEO ENABLE LEARNING FOR LOCAL INNOVATION?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning is essential for local innovation and enhancing the ability of the rural clients to discover new solutions to prevailing challenges. Equally, the growing complexities of the challenges in the theatre of agriculture and rural development require multi-actor learning process. Participatory communication through face-to-face interaction remains an important approach to support local people's innovation capacity. Is there any mean other than face-to-face interaction that enables learning...

Chowdhury, Ataharul Huq; Hauser, Michael

2010-01-01

299

Community-based Participatory Research: An Approach to Intervention Research With a Native American Community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also sug...

2004-01-01

300

Accounting for the Ecological Dimension in Participatory Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Indonesia and Madagascar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory develo...

Yves Laumonier; Robin Bourgeois; Jean-Laurent Pfund

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN COMMUNITY TOURISM PARTICIPATORY PLANNING IN SAMUI ISLAND, THAILAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for the success of the planning for local tourism activities.

Kannapa Pongponrat

2012-06-01

302

Participatory analysis for adaptation to climate change in Mediterranean agricultural systems: possible choices in process design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an increasing call for local measures to adapt to climate change, based on foresight analyses in collaboration with actors. However, such analyses involve many challenges, particularly because the actors concerned may not consider climate change to be an urgent concern. This paper examines the methodological choices made by three research teams in the design and implementation of participatory foresight analyses to explore agricultural and water management options for adaptation to c...

Faysse, N.; Rinaudo, J. -d; Bento, S.; Richard-ferroudji, A.; Errahj, M.; Varanda, M.; Imache, A.; Dionnet, M.; Rollin, D.; Garin, P.; Kuper, M.; Maton, L.; Montginoul, M.

2014-01-01

303

Participatory Appraisal and Scanning Surveillance Based Contagious Diseases Risk Profile of District Rahim Yar Khan (Pakistan)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spatio-temporal prevalence and importance of contagious diseases of livestock in district Rahim Yar Khan (Pakistan) were investigated through conflation of data based upon participatory appraisal and scanning surveillance from January 2007 to August 2009. Results revealed that haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) and foot and mouth disease (FMD) were the most important diseases of riverine and canal irrigated areas, while FMD and black quarter (BQ) were the most serious and prevalent diseases of Cho...

2010-01-01

304

Evaluating a community-based participatory research project for elderly mental healthcare in rural America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this evaluation was to explore the collaborative nature of partners in a rural mental health program for the elderly, and to test an adapted method of assessing the collaborative process. Sixteen collaborative partners were interviewed to explore ratings of collaboration across 6 domains identified as critical to participatory research. Results indicate that the context of rural Missouri and uniqueness of the program necessitated an approach to collaboration that began with a t...

2008-01-01

305

Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used....

Ahari Saeid; Habibzadeh Shahram; Yousefi Moharram; Amani Firouz; Abdi Reza

2012-01-01

306

Participatory resource monitoring as a means for promoting social change in Yunnan, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent international forest policies stimulate involvement of communities in forest management as a strategy to improve biodiversity conservation and the quality of local livelihoods. Increasingly, the role of local people in monitoring forest resources is also acknowledged. This paper presents a participatory resources monitoring (PRM) system developed and implemented by representatives of 12 villages, six each within and adjacent to two nature reserves in Yunnan, China. The short-term objec...

Rijsoort, J. G.; Jinfeng, Z.

2005-01-01

307

Participatory research for adaptive water management in a transition country. A case study from Uzbekistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provid...

Darya Hirsch; Geraldine Abrami; Raffaele Giordano; Stefan Liersch; Nilufar Matin; Maja Schlüter

2010-01-01

308

LEADING THE WAY AND SHOWING AFFILIATION: PARTICIPATORY ROLES IN A SEMI-STRUCTURED NARRATIVE INTERVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper outlines the participatory roles of narrators and interviewers in the process of unfolding personal stories. Fifteen secondary school students of Hispanic-Australian background enrolled in intermediate Spanish classes in Melbourne (Australia) were asked to talk about a series of topics allowing them to explore and develop personal stories. For the purpose of providing a comprehensive corpus this manuscript focuses on the 11 personal stories that emerged in Spanish and English aroun...

2011-01-01

309

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) :a participatory approach to implementing CSR in a cluster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report is focused on why and how a participatory approach to implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in a cluster would be beneficial for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the Norwegian Center of Expertise (NCE) Subsea cluster in Bergen, Norway. The political and strategic reasons, as well as internal motivation, for SMEs to incorporate CSR into their business strategies are discussed with support from relevant literature. Furthermore, the report reviews different ap...

Høivik, Heidi Von Weltzien; Shankar, Deepthi

2010-01-01

310

Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails....

Zoellner Jamie; Hill Jennie L; Zynda Karen; Sample Alicia D; Yadrick Kathleen

2012-01-01

311

Unintentional democratisation? The Argentinazo and the politics of participatory budgeting in Buenos Aires, 2001-2004  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an account of the emergence of Participatory Budgeting (PB) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, based on information collected during six months of field research carried out in April-September 2003. The aim is to trace the conditions and context within which this was established. This is of particular interest in view of the fact that PB in Buenos Aires was implemented in the midst of the recent crisis known as the Argentinazo, which arguably constituted an unlikely moment for it...

2005-01-01

312

Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development...

Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; Mcdonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

2007-01-01

313

Lessons learnt from a participatory integrated assessment of greenhouse gas emission reduction options in firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article discusses an approach for identification and evaluation of short-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction options in firms. The approach is based on lessons learnt from a project using Participatory Integrated Assessment (PIA) and builds on the idea that effective public climate policy for firms requires options that have support from stakeholders and are practically feasible. Scenarios are used to provide a link with short-term policy developments and a model assists to comm...

Stalpers, S. I. P.; Amstel, A. R.; Dellink, R. B.; Mulder, I.; Werners, S. E.; Kroeze, C.

2008-01-01

314

The Rochester project: An examination of participatory democracy for teen pregnancy prevention policymaking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An increasingly important political and policy issue is how to find an optimal location for citizens’ voices and input in policymaking processes. Participatory democracy, of which the principles of public participation, idea sharing and deliberation are central, seeks to locate the public within the policymaking process. Certain fields, however, of policy remain dominated by “expert knowledge.” Public health programs and policymaking, in particular, often reflect the contribution of phy...

2007-01-01

315

A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seed system in Benin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed system (OPSS) was conducted along a gradient of rainfall and distance to the oil palm research centre across the oil palm growing belt of Benin. The objective was to identify, jointly with key actors, the constraints in the OPSS and to assess the performance of the OPSS from a farmers’ perspective. The methodology included introductory community meetings, group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, field ...

2012-01-01

316

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health p...

Jutta Gutberlet; Baeder, Angela M.; Pontuschka, Ni?dia N.; Felipone, Sonia M. N.; Dos Santos, Tereza L. F.

2013-01-01

317

The intersection of people, technology and local space. PPGIS and Web in practice for participatory planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study concerns about the contributions of Web 2.0 tools to Public Participation Geographic Information System (PPGIS) and of PPGIS to participatory planning. Web 2.0 tools are increasingly occupying an important role in the universe of geographic information consciousness. Both Web 2.0 and PPGIS are about decentralization, public mapping, and local knowledge, encouraging throughout productive results. The project develops a Web 2.0 PPGIS mashup application through free, easy-...

Bugs, Geisa Tamara

2009-01-01

318

Participatory Approach in Decision Making Processes for Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the comparative analysis of different policy options for water resources management in three south-eastern Mediterranean countries. The applied methodology follows a participatory approach throughout its implementation and is supported by the use of three different software packages dealing with water allocation budget, water quality simulation, and Multi Criteria Analysis, respectively. The paper briefly describes the general objectives of the SMART project and then pre...

Giupponi, Carlo; Mysiak, Jaroslav; Crimi, Jacopo

2006-01-01

319

Community Participatory Research With Deaf Sign Language Users to Identify Health Inequities  

Science.gov (United States)

Deaf people who use American Sign Language (ASL) are medically underserved and often excluded from health research and surveillance. We used a community participatory approach to develop and administer an ASL-accessible health survey. We identified deaf community strengths (e.g., a low prevalence of current smokers) and 3 glaring health inequities: obesity, partner violence, and suicide. This collaborative work represents the first time a deaf community has used its own data to identify health priorities.

Barnett, Steven; Klein, Jonathan D.; Pollard, Robert Q.; Samar, Vincent; Schlehofer, Deirdre; Starr, Matthew; Sutter, Erika; Yang, Hongmei

2011-01-01

320

Combining environmentalism, developmentalism and NGOs. NGO driven participatory forest management and forest certification in southeastern Tanzania.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is a study of a non-governmental organization called Mpingo Conservation and Development Initiative (MCDI). It operates in southeastern Tanzania and promotes participatory forest management and forest certification in four rural villages. The thesis analyses how the organization has become a non-governmental organization and adopted human development targets alongside with sustainable forest management. The implications of the project in the village and district level are also dis...

Kostiainen, Aino Elina

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

How agency models inspire large scale participatory planning and its evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe how three models, for sustainable change, human agency in collective resource management, and socio-environmental systems, have been used to design a protocol and the tools for a large scale (1500 participants, 35 villages) multi-level participatory process held in Africa for Integrated Natural Resource Management, through the European Project Afromaison. The process especially combines a common action model to support proposals by stakeholders, an integration matrix to build cohe...

2013-01-01

322

Using participatory action research to develop an HIV and Aids school plan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article we report on the manner in which participatory action research (PAR) was utilised by teachers in developing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) school plan, in collaboration with university researchers. The need for a structured HIV and Aids school plan emerged during the course of a broader research project (of which this study formed part) during which a school principal and teachers expressed a need to support infected and affe...

2013-01-01

323

Is participatory social learning a performance driver for Chinese smallholder farmers?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to test the effect of smallholder farmers' participatory social learning on their gain of performance in a village of southwest China. By exploring a panel structure survey data collected in the village, we identify the social learning effect using a Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) model. Particularly, we calculate the technical efficiency and environmental efficiency from a SFA model and use them as dependent variables of the model. Moreover, we investigate the social learning o...

2013-01-01

324

Schools of Democracy: How ordinary citizens become competent in participatory budgeting institutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A widespread theme pervades both political theory and the social sciences, in which participation in certain types of democratic institutions could create a more competent, active and public-spirited citizenry. While the school of democracy hypothesis has seen a recent renewal, little empirical research has been carried out in order to evaluate it rigorously. I tried to answer this crucial democratic question by leading an ethnographic study in three cases of municipal participatory budgeting...

2007-01-01

325

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, a...

Yorck von Korff; Daniell, Katherine A.; Sabine Moellenkamp; Pieter Bots; Bijlsma, Rianne M.

2012-01-01

326

Designing Agent Behaviour in Agent-Based Simulation through participatory method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the end of the eighties, agent-based simulation has demonstrated its usefulness for the modelling of complex systems. However, a difficulty raised by these simulations concerns the designing of agent behaviour. Indeed, most of time, it is difficult for experts to translate their knowledge in a formal way that can be directly used by a computer. In order to facilitate the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on a participatory method. In our approach, an expert dire...

2009-01-01

327

Morphological Characterization of the Cuban Creole Goat: Basis for Participatory Management of a Zoogenetic Resource  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research provides an external morphological characterization of the population of Creole goats in the Cuban community, 26 de Julio, as an essential element for designing a strategy of participatory management for this animal. This goat was characterized using zoometry, morphology and phaneroptic aspects. From a morphometric point of view, researchers defined the population of Cuban Creole goats in the study community to be medium in size with medium proportions and harmonic proport...

2012-01-01

328

A participatory evaluation of a First Nations substance abuse treatment centre  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on alcohol and substance use for First Nations populations frequently describes the problem (nature and severity, risk factors), but does not often address intervention and what works well for clients who engage in treatment. This thesis provides a comprehensive participatory evaluation of the six-week residential ‘Namgis Treatment Centre (NTC) program in Alert Bay, British Columbia. Client intake files (n = 218) were reviewed for clients who participated in 17 different six-week s...

Woerd, Kimberly Ann

2008-01-01

329

Participatory grading in a blended course on 'Multimodal Interface and Systems'  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As part of a project aiming to demonstrate feasibility and meaningfulness of on-line and blended P3BL (Problem, Process & Project Based) design educational processes (Interaction Design, Design or the Experience, etc.), in this paper we present and discuss a participatory-grading procedure that has been designed to assess the intermediate tests of a course on 'Multimodal Interface and Systems'. The results, characterized by lights and shadows, provide useful guidance for the future to achieve...

2012-01-01

330

Implementing participatory water management: Recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aidi...

Von Korff, Y.; Daniell, K. A.; Moellenkamp, S.; Bots, P. W. G.; Bijlsma, R. M.

2012-01-01

331

The value of cultural theory for participatory processes in natural resource management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participation is viewed as an important means for promoting the sustainable management of natural resources. However, participation is not always successful. Conflicting values and power inequalities are all factors that can severely undermine participatory processes. Where so far the main focus of research has been on power imbalances and conflicting interests, this article focuses on another source of conflict, i.e. differing views of reality and underlying cultural biases. Research states ...

Hoogstra, M. A.; Permadi, D. B.; Yasmi, Y.

2012-01-01

332

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation :  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aidi...

Von Korff, Y.; Daniell, K. A.; Moellenkamp, S.; Bots, P. W. G.; Bijlsma, R. M.

2012-01-01

333

Strategies for Assessing Community Challenges and Strengths for Cancer Disparities Participatory Research and Outreach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interventions involving community–academic partnerships must be driven by a participatory approach that is informed by a comprehensive understanding of the perspectives of communities or focus populations. Often research agendas of academics are different from perceived priority needs of community members. Successful and sustainable interventions are made possible with initial open dialogue among all collaborators so that roles are clearly defined and concerns are addressed. This article de...

Gwede, Clement K.; Menard, Janelle M.; Martinez-tyson, Dinorah; Lee, Ji-hyun; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Meade, Cathy D.

2010-01-01

334

Development and Evaluation of a Toolkit to Assess Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An earlier investigation by academic and community co-investigators led to the development of the Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Model, which defined major dimensions and key indicators of partnership readiness. As a next step in this process, we used qualitative methods, cognitive pretesting, and expert reviews to develop a working guide, or toolkit, based on the model for academic and community partners to assess and leverage their readiness for CBPR...

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha

2011-01-01

335

Community Advisory Boards in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Synthesis of Best Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs) commonly formalize the academic–community partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the community’s contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards...

Susan D Newman, Phd; Jeannette O Andrews, Phd; Gayenell S Magwood, Phd; Carolyn Jenkins, Drph; Melissa J Cox, Mph; Deborah C Williamson, Dha

2011-01-01

336

Conception, representation & mediation in participatory land planning projects: 3D physical models artefacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of sustainable development and its related principles, in particular public participation, changed dramatically in France the way of developing and implementing public policies for spatial planning. It progressively shifted from sectorial, technical and centralized approaches to more holistic, participatory and deliberative approaches. Individual citizens and social groups in interaction are becoming more numerous and diversified, as well as the habitus and social representations....

Maurel, P.; Bertacchini, Y.

2008-01-01

337

Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country: Improving Health through Water Quality Research and Awareness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water due to visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the Tribe and academic partners, resulting in genuine community based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about ...

Cummins, C.; Doyle, J.; Kindness, L.; Lefthand, M. J.; Bear Don T Walk, U. J.; Bends, A.; Broadaway, S. C.; Camper, A. K.; Fitch, R.; Ford, T. E.; Hamner, S.; Morrison, A. R.; Richards, C. L.; Young, S. L.; Eggers, M. J.

2010-01-01

338

Payoffs of Participatory Action Research: Racial and Ethnic Minorities with Disabilities Reflect on their Research Experiences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The disability community has experienced a long history of segregation and exclusion. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, discriminatory attitudes and behaviors would no longer be tolerated under law. In recent decades, disability researchers have also experienced a shift in how research projects are designed and conducted, with participatory action research (PAR) playing a prominent role. This paper provides an overview of these shifts and presents a qualitative ...

Oden, Kristin; Hernandez, Brigida; Hidalgo, Marco A.

2010-01-01

339

Rice Varietal Screening for Ratoonability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted at Philippine Rice Institute (PhilRice, located at Maligaya Munoz Nueva Ecija, Phillippines. Rice ratooning ability under 10, 20 and 30 cm stubble cutting heights was evaluated on the basis of basal and nodal tillers regeneration, missing hills, ratoon vigor and rating and grain yield. Out of 30 varieties /lines tested only PSBRc8, PSBRc6 and BPIRi10 showed ratooning potentiality in terms of ratoon vigour and rating, basal and nodal tillers regeneration and final grain yield at lower stubble cutting height of 10 cm. It is recommended that for higher ratoon grain yield cutting of stubbles at the 10 cm should be performed.

F.C. Oad

2002-01-01

340

Rice Varietal Screening for Ratoonability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field experiment was conducted at Philippine Rice Institute (PhilRice), located at Maligaya Munoz Nueva Ecija, Phillippines. Rice ratooning ability under 10, 20 and 30 cm stubble cutting heights was evaluated on the basis of basal and nodal tillers regeneration, missing hills, ratoon vigor and rating and grain yield. Out of 30 varieties /lines tested only PSBRc8, PSBRc6 and BPIRi10 showed ratooning potentiality in terms of ratoon vigour and rating, basal and nodal tillers regeneration and...

Oad, F. C.; Pompe Sta. Cruz

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Sur les varietes de Hodge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Let $Y$ be a smooth complex projective variety of dimension $N+1$, $L$ an invertible sufficiently ample sheaf, $X\\in |L|$ a smooth hypersurface and $\\lambda\\in F^kH^N(X,C)$ a vanishing cohomology class, where $F^{*}$ is the Hodge filtration and $k\\in\\{1,...,[N/2]\\}$. Assume that $L$ is sufficiently ample and that the codimension in $|L|$ of the Hodge variety associated to $\\lambda$ (locally defined as the locus where the image of $\\lambda$ by flat transport over $|L|$ remain...

Otwinowska, Ania

2004-01-01

342

Evaluation of Bayesian Networks in Participatory Water Resources Management, Upper Guadiana Basin, Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual appeal. This research focuses on developing and testing a set of evaluation criteria for public participation. The advantages and limitations of these criteria are discussed in the light of a specific participatory modeling initiative. Modeling work was conducted in the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain, where uncontrolled groundwater extraction is responsible for wetland degradation and conflicts between farmers, water authorities, and environmentalists. Finding adequate solutions to the problem is urgent because the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive requires all aquatic ecosystems to be in a “good ecological state” within a relatively short time frame. Stakeholder evaluation highlights the potential of Bayesian networks to support public participation processes.

John Bromley

2010-09-01

343

Expanding the table: the web as a tool for participatory adaptive management in California forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory adaptive management is widely promoted as the new paradigm in public lands management. It is grounded in two underlying principles - that management experiments and diverse sources of information should be used to continually refine management in complex ecological systems, and that the public must be included throughout the adaptive management process. Access to scientific results and exchange of information is at the core of both of these principles. The recent proliferation of Internet communities and web-based participation tools raises the question of how the Internet might help facilitate information exchange in participatory adaptive management. Using a case study approach, the role of web technologies in facilitating the flow of transparent and useful information was examined in a participatory adaptive management project focused on Forest Service vegetation management treatments in California's Sierra Nevada. Three evaluation methods were used: analysis of web usage and content, a survey of active participants, and a review of comments posted to the project website. Results suggest that the web played an important role throughout the adaptive management cycle by supporting communication through disseminating information to the public and increasing the transparency of the scientific process. The web played a small, but important role in public consultation, by providing a forum for targeted questions and feedback from the public. Internet technology did not actively support the two-way flow of information necessary for mutual learning. Web technology complements face-to-face interactions and public meetings, rather than replacing them. PMID:22659644

Kelly, Maggi; Ferranto, Shasta; Lei, Shufei; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Huntsinger, Lynn

2012-10-30

344

Beyond Dry Feet? Experiences from a Participatory Water-Management Planning Case in The Netherlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participation of stakeholders in planning processes is increasingly seen as an essential element in adaptive and integrated water management and sometimes a policy requirement from higher-level governance bodies. Despite an extensive literature on the advantages and disadvantages of public participation and criteria for effective participation, not much is known about how water managers should proceed in a given context. Water-management agencies have to face the challenge of effectively involving stakeholders in developing their water-management plans and must design and implement a balanced process approach among the available time, finances, organization, and facilitation without compromising their authority. This article presents a participatory planning process designed and implemented at Water Board "Hoogheemraadschap De Stichtse Rijnlanden" (HDSR in the center of The Netherlands. For a period of 2 yrs, these three groups were involved in various ways, participating in different types of meetings and workshops, using a range of participatory tools and techniques. The process and results of the three groups were monitored and evaluated using a tailored evaluation strategy. This paper analyzes the way the design and implementation of the process is perceived by both the conveners and participants and suggests practical lessons for water managers. Based on our case, it is argued that a careful process design, a thorough and continuous stakeholder analysis, building reflective workshops within and after the process, and ensuring experienced and qualified process leaders can greatly enhance the adaptive capacity and successful outcome of the participatory planning process.

Greet Francois

2010-03-01

345

Exploring Action Research as an Approach to Interactive (Participatory) Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation plan. Action…

Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida

2012-01-01

346

Integrating Geo-information Models with Participatory Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords: Land use analysis, GIS, remote sensing, yield gaps, regression modeis, crop management improvement, crop selection, conservation, multiple goal optimisation model, stakeholder communication matrix, fuzzy modelling, soft systems methodologyRemotely-sensed data coupled with GIS-derived biophysical data have been key components in land use studies during the past decades. Natural Resource Managers relied on biophysically-oriented 'top down' approaches for the design o...

Nidumolu, U. B.

2004-01-01

347

Participatory rural appraisal to investigate constraints in reporting cattle mortalities in the Odi district of North West Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mortalities in cattle can have severe financial implications for small scale and communal farmers in South Africa. They could also be a measurable indicator for surveillance of animal diseases, such as those listed by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE, or diseases included in the regulations of the South African Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984. In order to prevent further mortalities and for accurate surveillance and monitoring of diseases, it is important that farmers participate in the determination of causes of mortality in their cattle. This paper reports on constraints of the reporting diseases to the state veterinary services, the study area being Odi district, in the North West Province. The method that was followed was based on participatory rural appraisal. The selected cattle owners participated in every phase. They were the ones who first spoke to veterinary services about ways to decrease the diseases and mortalities of their cattle. A questionnaire to verify the facts complemented the survey. A total number of 60 farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages. One farmer withdrew, leaving 59 farmers. Most of the farmers in the study were men (n = 55. The area of study was communal and the farming system traditional and extensive. It was suspected that there was a communication problem and this was proven by the results of the research, as 23 farmers were not even aware that mortalities have to be reported by law. The real problem was that causes of death were not being diagnosed because farmers were not aware that a necropsy could give information on the causes of death. Farmers were keen to receive training in elementary necropsy techniques so as to be able to discuss the cause of death of cattle with the state veterinarian.

J.H. Owen

2012-06-01

348

Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527

Seyednezami Nasrin

2007-08-01

349

Production layout improvement in emergency services: a participatory approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volunteer fire department is a service that responds emergency situations in places where there are no military emergency services. These services need to respond quickly, because time is often responsible for the operation success besides work environment and setup time interfere with the prompt response to these calls and care efficiency. The layout design is one factor that interferes with the quick setup. In this case, the spaces arrangement can result in excessive or unnecessary movements; also the equipment provision may hinder the selection and collection of these or even create movement barriers for the workers. This work created a new layout for the emergency assistance service, considering the human factors related to work through the task analysis and workers participation on the alternatives of improvement. The results showed an alternate layout with corridors and minimization of unusable sites, allowing greater flexibility and new possibilities of requirements. PMID:22316961

Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

2012-01-01

350

The usefulness of Decision Support Systems in participatory forest planning: a comparison between Finland and Italy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of study: Participation of stake holders is considered an essential element in producing, at different spatial and temporal scales, forest plans accepted by local community and fulfilling the requirements of Sustainable Forest Management. Increasingly, computer-based decision support systems (DSS) and tools are being introduced to assist stake holders and decision-makers in coping with the complexities inherent in participatory forest planning. The study aimed to investigate how useful the users and researchers see DSS tools and which opportunities they perceive DSS might carry for enhancing participatory forest planning in their field of activity. Area of study: 15 Italian and Finnish researchers and practitioners were interviewed. Material and methods: Face-to-face structured interviews were used to collect opinions and experiences. Quantitative and qualitative information were analyzed to investigate differences between Italian and Finnish respondents as well as between researchers and practitioners Main results: Results showed that in Italy there has been more focus on forest-level and medium-term problems and the intelligence phase, while in Finland there has been more attention to region-level and long-term problems and equally intelligence, design, and choice phases of decision-making. Deviations probably reflect different planning contexts and culture, variability in experiences and expertise in DSS and in availability of suitable DSS. Research highlights: The study suggests to pay attention to evaluating the success criteria of participatory planning when preparing for the use of DSS and related tools in practical forest planning processes. Experience sharing is a key to reaching more successful use of DSS. (Author)

Meo, I. de; Ferretti, F.; Hujala, T.; Kangas, A.

2013-09-01

351

Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants considered that with flexibility of data collection to account for the preferences of Aboriginal members, then the method was appropriate in cross-cultural contexts for the difficult discussions that are needed to improve partnerships. Conclusion Critical reflection showed that the preconditions for difficult discussions are, first, that partners have the capacity to engage in such discussions, second, that partners assess whether the effort required for these discussions is balanced by the benefits they gain from the partnership, and, third, that “boundary spanning” staff can facilitate commitment to partnership goals.

Fuller Jeffrey

2012-06-01

352

Participatory Design and Evaluation of a Real-World Virtual Environment for Architecture and Urban Planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this report we present a participatory design approach to the development of a VE, with an iterative, user-informed process throughout the entire design and development cycle. A preliminary survey was first undertaken with end-users, i.e., architects, chief engineers and decision makers of a real-world urban planning project, followed by a study of the traditional workflow employed. We then determined the elements required to make the VE useful in the real-world setting, choosing appropria...

Drettakis, George; Roussou, Maria; Asselot, Manuel; Reche, Alex; Olivier, Alexandre; Tsingos, Nicolas; Tecchia, Franco

2006-01-01

353

Participatory Design at the Museum - inquiring into children's everyday engagement in cultural heritage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We address the challenge of creating intersections between childrenâ??s everyday engagement and museum exhibitions. Specifically, we propose an approach to participatory design inquiry where childrenâ??s everyday engagement is taken as the point of departure. We base our discussion on a design workshop â?? Gaming the Museum â?? where a primary school class was invited to participate in creating future exhibition spaces for a museum based on their everyday use of computer games and online communities. We reflect on the results of the workshop and discuss more broadly the qualities of design inquiries that use the everyday engagement of children as point of departure for designing interactive museum exhibitions.

Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

354

Changing organization culture: data driven participatory evaluation and revision of wraparound implementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Family members and professionals in a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Children's Mental Health Systems of Care Initiative in Houston, Texas conducted a participatory evaluation to examine wraparound implementation. Results guided systematic, theory-based program revisions. By focusing through empirically derived frameworks for implementation, the evaluation team identified and generated useful data sources to support and improve wraparound provision. Despite working with a more diverse population in which youth displayed more severe behaviors than in similar grants, after 18 months more families received service and outcomes improved as fidelity scores advanced above the national mean. PMID:24405129

Bertram, Rosalyn M; Schaffer, Pam; Charnin, Leia

2014-01-01

355

Culture Change in Long-term Care: Participatory Action Research and the Role of the Resident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose:?This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents’ competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents.?Design and Methods:?Seven unit-specific PAR groups, each consisting of 4–7 residents, 1–2 family members, and 1–3 staff, met 1 hour per week for 4 months in their nursing home or...

Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale

2011-01-01

356

Beyond the barricades: Social movements as participatory practice in health promotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based health promotion has focussed on empowering disadvantaged groups, but there is growing awareness of the need to address everyday practices used to maintain power and privilege across social divisions. Participatory Action Research projects have proved subject to problems of resistance from dominant social groups. Social movements seeking to reshape power relations, give voice to excluded people and promote a social environment in which their problems are understood have been suggested as an alternative approach. A model of social movements based on theories and observations of social movement dynamics offers a practical framework for initiating such social change. PMID:23988685

Stephens, Christine

2014-01-01

357

Making Investments in Dryland Development Work: Participatory Scenario Planning in the Makanya Catchment, Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The agro-ecosystems of semi-arid and dry sub-humid SSA are inherently dynamic. At this point in time they are also experiencing a series of complex social–ecological changes that make their future even more uncertain. To ensure that development investments made today in the small-scale farming systems that dominate these regions make sense also in a long-term perspective they should benefit the local communities over a range of potential futures. We applied a participatory scenario plan...

2008-01-01

358

The case of Via Barzoni 11. ‘Tailored’ participatory planning of social housing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The social housing complex located in Via Barzoni 11, Milan, was singled out in 2009 for a demolition and rebuilding plan, featuring a volume growth, strongly opposed by the inhabitants. Between April and June 2012 ALER1 Milano, with the involvement of Comune di Milano – Direzione Casa2, commissioned a working group supervised by Anna Delera, Politecnico di Milano, to devise an alternative plan aiming at preserving the social and typological characteristics of the complex, in order to enforce the sustainability and the direct involvement of the inhabitants in a process of participatory planning.

Paolo Carli

2012-10-01

359

Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

2011-07-01

360

Evaluation of the effectiveness of deworming and participatory hygiene education strategy in controlling anemia among children aged 6-15 years in Gadagau community, Giwa LGA, Kaduna, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background : Anemia is one of the most common and most serious health disorders worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO estimated that about 40% of the total world?s population (more than 2 billion individuals suffer from anemia. In developing countries, the prevalence rate of anemia is about 20% in school-aged children. More than 10 million African children are thought to be anemic (Hb <11 g/dl. Also, in Africa, it is estimated that more than half of all children over 5 years and pregnant women are anemic. Community-based estimates of anemia prevalence in settings where malaria is endemic range between 49% and 76%. In Nigeria, the prevalence rate for anemia among children was 29.4%. It was highest in the South-East (49.7% and lowest in the North-East (11.1%. Objective : The study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of deworming and participatory hygiene education strategy in controlling anemia among children aged 6-15 years in the Gadagau community, north-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional descriptive study of 306 children aged 6-15 years selected from two rural communities (Gadagau, which was the study group and Karau-Karau, which was the control group in the Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria using a multistage sampling technique. The studies involved parasitological examination and anemia evaluation before and at 3 months after the children were dewormed. Results : Only 301 children (150 children in study group and 151 children in control group were studied. The results showed that those who were dewormed and had participatory hygiene education lectures (study group had significantly higher mean hemoglobin, from an initial 10.4 g/dl to a post-intervention of 12.4 g/dl (paired t-test = 13.96; P = 0.00. Also, there was a rise in the mean hemoglobin of the control group, but not as much as in the study group, from an initial mean hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl to a post-intervention of 11.2 g/dl (paired t-test = 2.89; P = 0.004. Comparing the study and the control groups, those who were dewormed and also had participatory hygiene education lectures (study group had a significantly higher reduction in the level of children who had ova of intestinal helminthes present in their stool than those in the control group (? 2 = 31.61; df = 1, P = 0.00. Conclusion : This study therefore concludes that including participatory hygiene education to deworming programmes will greatly improve the hemoglobin level of children in areas where there is a high prevalence of hookworm infections, especially as a short-term preventive measure for anemia in children.

Sufiyan M

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Developing a logic model for youth mental health: participatory research with a refugee community in Beirut  

Science.gov (United States)

Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon. First, a needs assessment, including quantitative and qualitative data collection was carried out with children, parents and teachers. The second phase was identification of a priority health issue and analysis of determinants. The final phase in the construction of the logic model involved development of an intervention. The process was iterative and resulted in a more grounded depiction of the pathways of influence informed by evidence. Constructing a logic model with community input ensured that the intervention was more relevant to community needs, feasible for implementation and more likely to be sustainable.

Afifi, Rema A; Makhoul, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T

2011-01-01

362

The COE-INES international symposium on 'participatory decision-making for final disposal site'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokyo Institute of Technology, in charge of the 21st century COE program to establish innovative nuclear energy systems for sustainable development of the world, organized the COE-INES international symposium on participatory decision-making for final disposal site on September 6, 2007. About 110 participants gathered to study how the final disposal site in Japan should be determined from an objective or neutral standpoint. The symposium consisted of three plenary lectures: (1) The French siting process for a high-level and intermediate-level long lived radioactive waste geological repository--a step-wise politically-driven approach taking stock of lessons learnt as on-going, (2) Participatory decision-making for final disposal---The viewpoint of a local elected representative, (3) The French and nuclear wastes, each given by French specialists (ANDRA and CNRS) followed by a panel discussion among the lecturers and Japanese representatives from various fields. The report includes all the lectures with diagrams and the records of questions and answers. (S. Ohno)

2007-09-06

363

Participatory indicator development: what can ecologists and local communities learn from each other?  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the growing popularity of indicators among policy-makers to measure progress toward conservation and sustainability goals, there is an urgent need to develop indicators that can be used accurately by both specialists and nonspecialists, drawing from the knowledge possessed by each group. This paper uses a case study from the Kalahari, Botswana to show how participatory and ecological methods can be combined to develop robust indicators that are accessible to a range of users to monitor and enhance the sustainability of land management. First, potential environmental sustainability indicators were elicited from pastoralists in three study sites. This knowledge was then evaluated by pastoralists, before being tested empirically using ecological and soil-based techniques. Despite the wealth of local knowledge about indicators, this knowledge was thinly spread. The knowledge was more holistic than published indicator lists for monitoring rangelands, encompassing vegetation, soil, livestock, wild animal, and socioeconomic indicators. Pastoralist preferences for vegetation and livestock indicators match recent shifts in ecological theory suggesting that livestock populations reach equilibrium with key forage resources in semiarid environments. Although most indicators suggested by pastoralists were validated through empirical work (e.g., decreased grass cover and soil organic matter content, and increased abundance of Acacia mellifera and thatching grass), they were not always sufficiently accurate or reliable for objective degradation assessment, showing that local knowledge cannot be accepted unquestioningly. We suggest that, by combining participatory and ecological approaches, it is possible to derive more accurate and relevant indicators than either approach could achieve alone. PMID:18686585

Reed, Mark S; Dougill, Andrew J; Baker, Timothy R

2008-07-01

364

Evaluating a community-based participatory research project for elderly mental healthcare in rural America  

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Full Text Available Dean Blevins1,2,3, Bridget Morton4, Rene McGovern5,61South Central Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (SC-MIRECC, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System; 2University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; 3University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus, Little Rock, AR; 4Northeast Missouri Health Network, Kirksville, MO; 5A.T. Still University/Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, Kirksville, MO; 6Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OHAbstract: The purpose of this evaluation was to explore the collaborative nature of partners in a rural mental health program for the elderly, and to test an adapted method of assessing the collaborative process. Sixteen collaborative partners were interviewed to explore ratings of collaboration across 6 domains identified as critical to participatory research. Results indicate that the context of rural Missouri and uniqueness of the program necessitated an approach to collaboration that began with a top-down approach, but greater community responsibility developed over time. Partners recognized the efforts of the program’s directors to seek input. Most were satisfied with their roles and the degree of success achieved by the program, although several wanted to have more input in the future in some domains, but not in others. Interviews revealed numerous barriers to achieving sustainability. Methods to improve the assessment of collaboration are discussed and areas for improvement are offered.Keywords: community-based participatory research, elderly, mental health, older adults, rural

Dean Blevins

2008-10-01

365

A Framework for Organizing the Tools and Techniques of Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The field of Participatory Design (PD) has grown rapidly over the last 20 to 30 years. For more than two decades non-designers have been increasingly involved in various design activities through a large number of participatory design projects all over the world. The project aims in PD have developed from being mainly about ICT development to today include, for instance, space design, product development, industrial design, architecture, service- and transformation design. As every project is unique, it is necessary to decide which design approach(es), methods, tools and techniques to use in a specific project. Thus many practices for how to involve people in designing have been used and developed during the years. There is some confusion as to which tools and techniques to use, when, and for what purpose. Therefore we are proposing a framework to help organize the proliferation of tools, techniques and methods in hopes that the PD community will benefit by discussing relevant applications and identifying potential areas for further exploration.

Sanders, Elizabeth B.-N.; Brandt, Eva

2010-01-01

366

A realidade construída pela produção documental participativa / Reality constructed through participatory documental production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma característica marcante das mídias eletrônicas na atualidade torna-se evidente pela celebração do potencial de participação da audiência, quando produtores profissionais, inclusive de suportes considerados tradicionais, desenham diferentes estratégias de engajamento do produtor amador. O conceit [...] o de participação nas narrativas audiovisuais pode ser pensado como um procedimento diferenciado de produção. Uma suposta coautoria seria um dos aspectos mais importantes na caracterização desse modo de criação e produção audiovisual. Como essa coautoria, caso exista, se configura nos discursos documentais participativos? Estas possíveis transformações na paisagem midiática nos fazem refletir sobre as facetas participativa e autoral das organizações contemporâneas da produção audiovisual. Abstract in english A striking characteristic of today's electronic media is their potential for audience participation when producers, including those from traditional mass media, devise different audience engagement strategies. In this context, the concept of participation in audiovisual narratives can be seen as a d [...] ifferentiated production procedure. A presumed co-authorship would be one of the most important aspects of this mode of audiovisual creation and production. However, if such co-authorship actually exists, how does it appear in participatory documental discourses? These possible changes in the media scene lead us to reflect upon the authorial and participatory aspects of today's audiovisual organizations.

Menezes, Leonardo Moraes.

367

Building future scenarios and uncovering persisting challenges of participatory forest management in Chilimo Forest, Central Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the changes in forest status and people's livelihoods through building future scenarios for Chilimo Forest in Central Ethiopia where participatory forest management (PFM) is being implemented. Participatory methods were employed to collect data, and a dynamic modeling technique was applied to explore trends over time. By integrating the more quantitative model outputs with qualitative insights, information on forests and livelihoods was summarized and returned to users, both to inform them and get feedback. A scenario of open access without PFM provides higher income benefits in the short term but not over the longer term, as compared to a scenario with PFM. Follow up meetings were organized with national decision makers to explore the possibility of new provisions in the national forest proclamation related to joint community-state ownership of forests. Project implementers must constantly work towards improving short term incentives from PFM, as these may be insufficient to garner support for PFM. Other necessary elements for PFM to succeed include: ensuring active participation of the communities in the process; and, clarifying and harmonizing the rules and regulations at different levels. PMID:18439742

Kassa, Habtemariam; Campbell, Bruce; Sandewall, Mats; Kebede, Mammo; Tesfaye, Yemiru; Dessie, Gessesse; Seifu, Abebe; Tadesse, Menfese; Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Kajsa

2009-02-01

368

Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings  

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Full Text Available I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

Linda C Theron

2012-01-01

369

Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  

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Full Text Available Participatory action research (PAR is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, within the context of women as rural farm dwellers in the North-West Province, South Africa. It emphasises the need for continued participation and highlights the practical principles and benefits derived from PAR. The PAR process cycles are discussed and parallels are drawn with the practical setting. In conclusion, the article emphasises that the application of the PAR process can make a multi-dimensional contribution towards the development of a community by creating an understanding of social vulnerability, by building capacity and by ensuring participation, and also addresses income-generating activities.

Liezel van Niekerk

2009-04-01

370

Reshaping conservation : the social dynamics of participatory monitoring in Tanzania's community-managed forests  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Drawing on a study of community-managed forest reserves in southern Tanzania, this article discusses how community members engage and shape inclusive protected area management practices to produce outcomes that were not intended by external implementers. The article shows how a participatory natural resource monitoring scheme operating in the area becomes part of the villagers' collective and individual efforts to assert their claims to territory and resources vis-a-vis the state, other communities, and other community members. By altering the monitoring procedures in subtle ways, community members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate theterrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management.

Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt

2013-01-01

371

Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008 in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ? 0.05 in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ? 0.05. It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.

Abdoulaye, T.

2012-01-01

372

Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural transect, problem-tree analysis and focus-group discussion. The paper concludes by categorizing the barriers identified at different levels: micro (roughly the individual level at which the lack of knowledge and motivation are significant barriers), meso (roughly the school level at which the lack of teachers and computers are significant barriers) and macro (roughly the national level at which the lack of government planning and the lack of training of teachers are significant barriers). Finally, the paper also concludes that applied participatory learning and action-oriented techniques showed potential to provide researchers and local practitioners with situated insights that could not just have been lifted out of existing research literature.

Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

2013-01-01

373

Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

2011-07-01

374

El Fitomejoramiento Participativo y la selección participativa de variedades de arroz  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El fitomejoramiento participativo (FP) es un enfoque relativamente nuevo para el desarrollo de germoplasma, que incluye el mejoramiento de plantas y la selección varietal participativa (SVP). El FP se inició en Cuba en el 2001 con el cultivo del arroz, basado en la SVP, que al principio tuvo un cará [...] cter centralizado pero posteriormente fue de forma descentralizada y participativa. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo mostrar las experiencias en el cultivo del arroz en el mundo, así como las de varias regiones de Cuba, donde las ferias de diversidad constituyeron la mejor forma de dar acceso rápido y eficiente a las variedades, con la participación de los productores de arroz no especializado. Abstract in english Participatory plant breeding (PPB) is a relatively new approach for germplasm development, which includes crop improvement and participatory varietal selection (PVS). In Cuba, PPB started on rice crop in 2001, based upon PVS that was centralized at the beginning; however, it was further participator [...] y and decentralized. This work study was aimed at presenting the experiences gathered on rice crop, not only in some regions of Cuba but also over the world. In our country, diversity fairs constituted the best form for providing a quick and efficient varietal entry through non-specialized rice growers.

Irene, Moreno; H, Ríos; Violeta, Puldón.

375

Back on "Whose" Track? Reframing Ideologies of Inclusion and Misrecognition in a Participatory Theatre Project with Young People in London  

Science.gov (United States)

The article explores the limitations of applied drama interventions promising integration and inclusion against the material realities of urban disenfranchisement and misrecognition. Through reflection on a participatory theatre project facilitated with young women in an urban secondary school in London, social and moral agendas emerge which…

Preston, Sheila

2011-01-01

376

Collaborative Research in Child Welfare: A Rationale for Rigorous Participatory Evaluation Designs to Promote Sustained Systems Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Expansion of the child welfare evidence base is a major challenge. The field must establish how organizational systems and practice techniques yield outcomes for children and families. Needed research must be grounded in practice and must engage practitioners and administrators via participatory evaluation. The extent to which successful practices…

Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Shackelford, Kim; Kelly, Michael; Martin-Galijatovic, Ramie

2011-01-01

377

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation--A Prototype Internal Learning System for Livelihood and Micro-Credit Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

An internal learning system (ILS), created for a development organization operating savings/credit programs with poor women, is used for data collection, monitoring, and evaluation. The ILS is participatory, pictorial, decentralized, and flexible; it documents socioeconomic impact and supports action planning. (SK)

Noponen, Helzi

1997-01-01

378

Warcraft and Civic Education: MMORPGs as Participatory Cultures and How Teachers Can Use Them to Improve Civic Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Online role-playing games such as World Of Warcraft represent new participatory cultures in which today's students engage every day. They are appealing to players largely because of the social aspects of game play. Some features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) can be incorporated into classroom culture to create more…

Curry, Kristal

2010-01-01

379

Utilizing Participatory Action Research to Foster Effective Family/School Collaboration at an Urban PreK-8 Catholic School  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a study focused on promoting culturally responsive collaboration practices at an urban preK-8 Catholic school. Using participatory action research (PAR) as its framework, a team of school stakeholders and university faculty and students from the psychology department partnered to create a participant-driven data collection and…

Shriberg, David; Schumacher, Ruth; McMahon, Kara C.; Flores, Sofia; Moy, Gregory E.; Swidzinski, Joanna; Tompkins, Nicole A.

2012-01-01

380

What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

 
 
 
 
381

Prospective and participatory integrated assessment of agricultural systems from farm to regional scales: Comparison of three modeling approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluating the impacts of the development of alternative agricultural systems, such as organic or low-input cropping systems, in the context of an agricultural region requires the use of specific tools and methodologies. They should allow a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account the field, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multicriteria) and participatory assessment, abbreviated PIAAS (for Participatory Integrated Assessment of Agricultural System). In this paper, we compare the possible contribution to PIAAS of three modeling approaches i.e. Bio-Economic Modeling (BEM), Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and statistical Land-Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) models. After a presentation of each approach, we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and identify their possible complementarities for PIAAS. Statistical LUCC modeling is a suitable approach for multi-scale analysis of past changes and can be used to start discussion about the futures with stakeholders. BEM and ABM approaches have complementary features for scenarios assessment at different scales. While ABM has been widely used for participatory assessment, BEM has been rarely used satisfactorily in a participatory manner. On the basis of these results, we propose to combine these three approaches in a framework targeted to PIAAS. PMID:24013558

Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Barbier, Jean-Marc; Wery, Jacques

2013-11-15

382

Participatory Action Research and the Reconstruction of Teachers' Practical Thinking: Lesson Studies and Core Reflection. An Experience in Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the thoughts and topics we have discussed and worked on for a very long time with Bridget Somekh, we would like to present the theoretical relationship between lesson studies, action research and practical knowledge in teacher education. Inspired by the pedagogical philosophy of lesson studies, participatory action research, and core…

Perez, Angel I.; Soto, Encarnacion; Servan, M. Jose

2010-01-01

383

Large-Scale Participation: A Case Study of a Participatory Approach to Developing a New Public Library  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles and practices; by extension, this case offers examples of how these challenges may be explored and addressed through IT-based participatory initiatives. We present a range of such activities carried out during the past ten years, and present the main lessons from the project, based on interviews with three key stakeholders. These lessons focus on how to make participation work in practice, how to align different paradigms of inquiry and practice in a project of this scale, and how to capture and anchor the insights from participatory events to inform the ongoing design process.

Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

2013-01-01

384

Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001-2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Baseline data and controls were not available. In…

Sterk, B.; Christian, A. K.; Gogan, A. C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

2013-01-01

385

Evaluating a Moving Target: Lessons Learned from Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in Hospital Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation (P-PE) strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project.…

Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

2013-01-01

386

Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis, parasites (both external and internal, chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods.

J.K. Getchell

2012-07-01

387

Video Games and Learning: Teaching and Participatory Culture in the Digital Age. Technology, Education--Connections (the TEC Series)  

Science.gov (United States)

Can we learn socially and academically valuable concepts and skills from video games? How can we best teach the "gamer generation?" This accessible book describes how educators and curriculum designers can harness the participatory nature of digital media and play. The author presents a comprehensive model of games and learning that integrates…

Squire, Kurt

2011-01-01

388

Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

2014-05-01

389

Avaliação da aceitação de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros através de testes sensoriais afetivos e técnica multivariada de mapa de preferência interno / Affective sensory tests and internal analysis of preference in acceptability assessment of Brazilian varietal white wines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A aceitação de nove amostras comerciais de vinhos brancos brasileiros, de três diferentes linhas varietais (Riesling, Chardonnay e Gewürztraminer), foi avaliada por 43 consumidores de vinhos brancos nacionais, utilizando a escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os provadores foram recrutados at [...] ravés de um questionário de avaliação de hábitos de consumo de vinho branco. Duas metodologias distintas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados obtidos: o Mapa de Preferência Interno (MDPREF) e Análise de Variância (ANOVA) com comparação de médias (teste de Tukey). Os resultados da ANOVA e Tukey indicaram que duas amostras foram significativamente (p Abstract in english The acceptability of nine commercial brazilian varietal white table wines (Riesling, Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer) was evaluated using sensory affective tests. The samples were assessed by 43 consumers of brazilian white wines using he nine-point structured hedonic scale. Judges were recruited base [...] d on their responses to a questionnary about consumer’s behavior towards white wines consumption. Subsequently, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with means comparision (Tukey test) and Internal Analysis of Preference Mapping (MDPREF) were performed on data. Analysis of Variance showed that two samples (a Riesling and a Gewürztraminer, both sweet table wines) had significantly (p

Jorge H., BEHRENS; Maria Aparecida A. P. da, SILVA; Ian N., WAKELING.

390

Communicative action: the Habermasian and Freirean dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa  

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Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995. What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian “ideal speech situation” in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989. Consistent with the Freirean “liberal pedagogy”, the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the “participative” quality of participatory com-munication (cf. Freire, 1970. For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos, rightfulness (ethos and truthfulness (pathos are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, in-strumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communi-cative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic, rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communi-cation for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.

H. Otto

2009-07-01

391

Participatory testing and reporting in an environmental-justice community of Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1 How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2 What do pilot tests reveal? 3 How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 ?g/ft2, six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active participation of a few motivated residents as representatives of the target population. Although difficult and demanding in time and effort, the approach can educate residents and inform exposure assessment. It should be considered as a core ingredient of comprehensive household toxics' testing, and has potential to improve participant retention and the overall positive impact of long-term environmental health research efforts.

Calvache Maria-Camila

2010-07-01

392

A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study of Urban Health Disparities Using Rapid Assessment Response and Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention.

Brown, David Richard; Hernandez, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Sian; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G.; Celestin, Michel J.; Gomez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D.; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J. Bryan

2008-01-01

393

The role of Volunteered Geographic Information in participatory planning. Examples from Denmark and Finland  

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Due to developments in pervasive computing and the diffusion of digital media technologies, the amount of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI is rising rapidly. The paper looks at the potential of applying VGI to a participatory planning context and how this type of information might help capture place-based knowledge and experience. The paper furthermore looks at how VGI might qualify actual planning outputs, an aspect often overlooked in communicative planning. This is done by highlighting two case-studies; one which was carried out in a Danish context, employing volunteered GPS-tracking to capture everyday uses of the urban environment. The second case-study was carried out in Finland, employing SoftGIS as a tool to identify and quantify place-values.

Maarit Kahila

2012-04-01

394

User gains and PD aims : Assessment from a participatory design project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a study of user gains from their participation in a participatory design (PD) project at Danish primary schools. We explore user experiences and reported gains from the project in relation to the multiple aims of PD, based on a series of interviews with pupils, teachers, administrators, and consultants, conducted approximately three years after the end of the project. In particular, we reflect on how the PD initiatives were sustained after the project had ended. We propose that not only are ideas and initiatives disseminated directly within the organization, but also through networked relationships among people, stretching across organizations and project groups. Moreover, we demonstrate how users' gains related to their acting within these networks. These results suggest a heightened focus on the indirect and distributed channels through which the long-term impact of PD emerges.

Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian

2010-01-01

395

Exploring the role of robots : Participatory performances to ground and inspire innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In performing collaborative scenarios of potential ideas, relationships from the future are brought into play as both objects for critique and enhancement. We see that a design anthropology that supports, facilitates, and provokes through these types of participatory activities as an essential shift from anthropology â??ofâ? towards an anthropology â??withâ? people as part of design processes, and as part of this transition relies on setting up a space for reflection of goals and interests within the project rather than instigating critique only from the researchers. In this paper, we introduce a welfare technology project and our early attempts at performing relations in the context of robotics and automation, assumed to be an integral part of sterilization work for medical instruments. We focus on several aspects of the project: relations between work within and outside of the project, the translation of performances towards deliverables, and the role of the researcher in such activities.

Kilbourn, Kyle; Bay, Marie Brøndum

2011-01-01

396

Requirements Engineering of a Web Portal Using Organizational Semiotics Artifacts and Participatory Practices  

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Full Text Available The requirements of software are key elements that contribute to the quality and users satisfaction of thefinal system. In this work, Requirements Engineering (RE of web sites is presented using an organizationalsemiotics perspective. They are shown as being part of an organization, with particular practices, rulesand views considering stakeholders several differences and opinions. The main contribution of this paper isto relate an experience, from elicitation to validation, showing how organizational semiotics artifacts wereexploited in a collaborative and participatory way to RE of a web portal. A case study is described in orderto demonstrate the feasibility of using such artifacts to RE when we think about the system as being part ofa social organization.

Flávia Linhalis Arantes

2013-05-01

397

People United to Sustain Health (PUSH): a community-based participatory research study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevention of weight gain to address the obesity epidemic rather than weight loss involves promoting small changes in food choices and physical activity. People United to Sustain Health (PUSH) was designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and food security to prevent weight gain in rural adults. Forty-nine participants were randomized into a treatment group which received access to a "Rolling Store," nutrition education and physical activity, and a control group which received family coping classes. Forty-one (84%) of participants completed the study. At the end of 6 months, weight for all participants was maintained from baseline to completion with no significant differences between the groups. The mean fruit consumption over 6 months for the treatment group increased and was significantly greater than change in the control group (p = 0.01). This community-based participatory research study was considered successful because weight gain was prevented. PMID:24405579

Kennedy, Betty M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Johnson, William D; Johnson, Glenda S; McGee, Bernestine B; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Crawford, Terri; Ryan, Donna H

2014-04-01

398

How Can Primary Health Care System and Community-Based Participatory Research Be Complementary?  

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Full Text Available Health statistics leave little doubt that the current health system in Iran,which is mainly based on primary health care (PHC, is a functioningone, and that health in Iran has improved far beyond where it was 40years ago. However, this system has its limitations too. While PHC isvery effective in reducing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseasesand other acute conditions, it is far less effective in addressingchronic and multi-factorial conditions which are now emerging in Iran.In this article, we review some of the salient features of the currenthealth system in Iran, its strengths and limitations, and then introducecommunity-based participatory research (CBPR as a method thatcould potentially fill some of the gaps in the system. We will discussthe definition and steps needed to implement CBPR, provide someimportant references, and discuss how this approach may not onlyimprove the health system but it could also lead to improvement inother fields in the society too.

Payam Sheikhattari

2010-01-01

399

Privacy Protection in Participatory Sensing Applications Requiring Fine-Grained Locations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The emerging participatory sensing applications have brought a privacy risk where users expose their location information. Most of the existing solutions preserve location privacy by generalizing a precise user location to a coarse-grained location, and hence they cannot be applied in those applications requiring fine-grained location information. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a novel method to preserve location privacy by anonymizing coarse-grained locations and retaining fine-grained locations using Attribute Based Encryption (ABE). In addition, we do not assume the service provider is an trustworthy entity, making our solution more feasible to practical applications. We present and analyze our security model, and evaluate the performance and scalability of our system.

Dong, Kai; Gu, Tao

2010-01-01

400

Impediments to User Gains: Experiences from a Critical Participatory Design Project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Actual studies of user gains from involvement in design processes are few, although a concern for usersâ?? gains is a core characteristic of participatory design (PD). We explore the question of user gains through a retrospective evaluation of a critical PD project. We conducted ten qualitative interviews with participants in a project aimed at developing technology that fosters engaging museum experiences, and rethinking cultural heritage communication. Despite the use of established PD techniques by experienced PD practitioners, a significant number of frustrations relating to the PD process were prominent in the research study. Based on these findings, we provide an analysis of impediments for users gains in PD projects: Differences between aims were unresolved, absence of a shared set-up for collaboration and different conceptions of technology.

Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation : A Participatory Process for Engaging IS and Business Leaders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In todayâ??s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt the organizationâ??s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles.

Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

2011-01-01

402

Engaging the Deaf American Sign Language Community: Lessons From a Community-Based Participatory Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Numerous publications demonstrate the importance of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in community health research, but few target the Deaf community. The Deaf community is understudied and underrepresented in health research despite suspected health disparities and communication barriers. Objectives The goal of this paper is to share the lessons learned from the implementation of CBPR in an understudied community of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users in the greater Rochester, New York, area. Methods We review the process of CBPR in a Deaf ASL community and identify the lessons learned. Results Key CBPR lessons include the importance of engaging and educating the community about research, ensuring that research benefits the community, using peer-based recruitment strategies, and sustaining community partnerships. These lessons informed subsequent research activities. Conclusions This report focuses on the use of CBPR principles in a Deaf ASL population; lessons learned can be applied to research with other challenging-to-reach populations.

McKee, Michael; Thew, Denise; Starr, Matthew; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Reid, John T.; Graybill, Patrick; Velasquez, Julia; Pearson, Thomas

2013-01-01

403

A Participatory Design Approach for the Support of Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Building in Networked Organizations  

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Full Text Available Engagement in collaborative learning and knowledge building activities is still a big challenge for many workplace-learning designers. Especially in highly competitive environments people might be reluctant to give away too much of their tacit knowledge. A feeling of ownership and an involvement of the individual in the planning of the learning activities can be important motivational factors. In an international research project called IntelLEO – Intelligent Learning Extended Organization we intend to follow a participatory design approach involving individual workers from the very beginning of the development process. The planned user participation will range from the first conceptual design phase through the different development stages until the final validation of the system. Our hypothesis is that this involvement will increase the motivation of the individuals for collaborative learning and knowledge building activities.

Barbara Kieslinger

2009-08-01

404

Paniya Voices: A Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment among a marginalized South Indian tribal population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs, are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation. Methods/design We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA. We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums. Preliminary findings Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free. Conclusion The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner.

Harikrishnadas CK

2010-03-01

405

Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in o