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Farmer participatory varietal selection in groundnut - a success story in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farmer participatory varietal selection trials in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India identified ICGV 91114 as the most productive groundnut cultivar. This cultivar was adopted for large-scale production, giving higher pod and haulm yields and comparable shelling outturn compared with the control cultivar TMV 2.

SN Nigam

2005-12-01

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La selección participativa de variedades (SPV) en el cultivo del tomate / Participatory varietal selection in tomato crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La participación de los productores en la selección de variedades de la especie Solanum lycopersicum L., adaptadas a las características agroecológicas de sus fincas, requiere que estos cuenten con herramientas metodológicas que les permitan realizar dichas tareas con eficiencia y calidad. Para dar [...] respuesta a esa necesidad, se tomaron en cuenta los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en las áreas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), San José de las Lajas, provincia La Habana, y el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones en Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT), provincia de Camagüey; también se trabajó en las fincas de los productores de la CCS “Juan Benito Ruiz” en Batabanó. En el primer caso, se realizaron ensayos comparativos de rendimiento, tal y como está establecido por los métodos tradicionales de mejoramiento genético de las plantas, mientras que en el segundo, se celebraron ferias de agrobiodiversidad, una de las herramientas de los nuevos métodos de mejora que se conoce como fitomejoramiento participativo. Los resultados de los ensayos se compararon con los de las ferias, donde la variedad Mara y las líneas 1, 35 y 44 mostraron buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y estuvieron entre las más seleccionadas en la feria de agrobiodiversidad de La Habana; sin embargo, la línea 43 no presentó buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y fue la que obtuvo mayor número de votos en la feria. Las variedades Lignon, Campbell-28 y Tropical C-28-V alcanzaron los mayores valores en el ensayo comparativo de Camagüey; no obstante, solo Lignon fue la más seleccionada en la feria, superada por la línea 38 e igualada por la 43 en el total de votos. Estos resultados demuestran que la selección definitiva de variedades de tomate deben hacerla los productores en sus propias fincas. Abstract in english Producers´ participation in the varietal selection of Solanum lycopersicon L. species, adapted to their farm agro-ecological characteristics, requires they should have available methodological tools to perform these tasks efficiently and qualitatively. To face this demand, results from research stud [...] ies performed in the areas of INCA, San José de las Lajas, Havana province, and INIVIT, Camagüey province, must be taken into account, besides other works that were also carried out in «Juan Benito Ruiz» CCS, Batabanó. In the first case, comparative yield trials were conducted, as it was established by traditional plant breeding, whereas in the second one, some agro-biodiversity fairs were celebrated, as one of the tools from the new improvement methods known as participatory plant breeding. Trial results were compared with those from the fairs, in which Mara cv. and lines 1, 35 and 44 showed good performances in the comparative test and were among the most selected ones in the agro-biodiversity fair from Havana; however, line 43 did not show good performance in the comparative test, but it obtained the highest vote number in the fair. Lignon, Campbell-28, C-28 and Tropical-V varieties achieved the greatest values in the comparative test of Camaguey; nevertheless, just Lignon was the most selected one in the fair, surpassed by line 38 and equal to line 43 in the amount of votes. These results prove that final tomato varietal selection must be done by producers in their own farms.

C, Moya; Marta, Álvarez; C, de la Fe; Marilyn, Florido; M, Ponce; Dagmara, Plana; F, Dueñas; J, Rodríguez; J, Arzuaga; J, Hernández; A, Caballero.

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La selección participativa de variedades (SPV) en el cultivo del tomate / Participatory varietal selection in tomato crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La participación de los productores en la selección de variedades de la especie Solanum lycopersicum L., adaptadas a las características agroecológicas de sus fincas, requiere que estos cuenten con herramientas metodológicas que les permitan realizar dichas tareas con eficiencia y calidad. Para dar [...] respuesta a esa necesidad, se tomaron en cuenta los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en las áreas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), San José de las Lajas, provincia La Habana, y el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones en Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT), provincia de Camagüey; también se trabajó en las fincas de los productores de la CCS “Juan Benito Ruiz” en Batabanó. En el primer caso, se realizaron ensayos comparativos de rendimiento, tal y como está establecido por los métodos tradicionales de mejoramiento genético de las plantas, mientras que en el segundo, se celebraron ferias de agrobiodiversidad, una de las herramientas de los nuevos métodos de mejora que se conoce como fitomejoramiento participativo. Los resultados de los ensayos se compararon con los de las ferias, donde la variedad Mara y las líneas 1, 35 y 44 mostraron buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y estuvieron entre las más seleccionadas en la feria de agrobiodiversidad de La Habana; sin embargo, la línea 43 no presentó buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y fue la que obtuvo mayor número de votos en la feria. Las variedades Lignon, Campbell-28 y Tropical C-28-V alcanzaron los mayores valores en el ensayo comparativo de Camagüey; no obstante, solo Lignon fue la más seleccionada en la feria, superada por la línea 38 e igualada por la 43 en el total de votos. Estos resultados demuestran que la selección definitiva de variedades de tomate deben hacerla los productores en sus propias fincas. Abstract in english Producers´ participation in the varietal selection of Solanum lycopersicon L. species, adapted to their farm agro-ecological characteristics, requires they should have available methodological tools to perform these tasks efficiently and qualitatively. To face this demand, results from research stud [...] ies performed in the areas of INCA, San José de las Lajas, Havana province, and INIVIT, Camagüey province, must be taken into account, besides other works that were also carried out in «Juan Benito Ruiz» CCS, Batabanó. In the first case, comparative yield trials were conducted, as it was established by traditional plant breeding, whereas in the second one, some agro-biodiversity fairs were celebrated, as one of the tools from the new improvement methods known as participatory plant breeding. Trial results were compared with those from the fairs, in which Mara cv. and lines 1, 35 and 44 showed good performances in the comparative test and were among the most selected ones in the agro-biodiversity fair from Havana; however, line 43 did not show good performance in the comparative test, but it obtained the highest vote number in the fair. Lignon, Campbell-28, C-28 and Tropical-V varieties achieved the greatest values in the comparative test of Camaguey; nevertheless, just Lignon was the most selected one in the fair, surpassed by line 38 and equal to line 43 in the amount of votes. These results prove that final tomato varietal selection must be done by producers in their own farms.

C, Moya; Marta, Álvarez; C, de la Fe; Marilyn, Florido; M, Ponce; Dagmara, Plana; F, Dueñas; J, Rodríguez; J, Arzuaga; J, Hernández; A, Caballero.

2010-03-01

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Genetic diversity of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in iron and zinc content as impacted by farmers' varietal selection in Northern India.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the last few years a debate has been continuing over the issue of malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries. The present article investigates the importance of participatory varietal selection in the development of a suitable cultivar of mungbean along with the nutritional content and the agronomic traits of the cultivars selected by farmers in participatory varietal selection. A combination of the conventional survey strategy, participatory varietal selection, molecular markers, and chemical analysis were used to carry out the study, and results revealed that the farmers have the capacity to utilize available genetic resources to manage disease, and they can identify the disease at early stages of plant development. The genetic diversity was studied using 23 inter-simple sequence repeat marker, which shows that the extent of genetic diversity ranges from 65% to 87%, while chemical analysis of selected mungbean cultivars shows a moderate amount of iron (3.9 mg/100 g) and zinc (2.5 mg/100 g). PMID:23445393

Singh, Renu; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Kumar, Ram; Visser, Richard G F; Yadav, Ram C

2013-01-01

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Farmer's Knowledge of Horticultural Traits and Participatory Selection of African Eggplant Varieties (Solanum aethiopicum in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory selection was conducted in 2008 through 2009 to identify farmers' preference for species and horticultural traits that may constitute future breeding objectives. Vegetable farmers were selected from Moshi and Arusha regions, test population comprised twenty-six accessions from four Solanum species (eggplant and relatives. Purposive sampling was used to select the farming communities with high African eggplant production activities; a multistage random sampling procedure was adopted to select farmers from three regions for participatory meeting. The focus group discussion sessions identified fruit shape, taste, earliness, medicinal properties, marketability and resistance to diseases as farmers' preferred traits in S. aethiopicum; taste and marketability for S. melongena, taste and medicinal properties among S. macrocarpon and S. anguivi. Fruits characterized by cream colour at commercial harvest are most preferred compared to green, to a lesser extent is purple. Interestingly high fruits per plant, fruits per cluster and fruit cluster per plant best described S. anguivi. Fruit yield was superior in Db3 (S. aethiopicum Gilo group, top five accessions for organoleptic properties are Db3, Ab2, MM 1619, S00052 and MM 1086. Characters indicated above may constitute breeding objectives and population identified may serve as pollen parents for development of new varieties in african eggplant. Intraspecific hybridization within S. aethiopicum Gilo cultigroup, hybridization among Gilo and Shum cultigroups and interspecific hybridization between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi may evolve new population aimed at improving fruit yield.

Adeniji, OT.

2012-01-01

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7 CFR 51.567 - Similar varietal characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.567 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any package have the same general appearance and character of...

2010-01-01

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7 CFR 51.1550 - Similar varietal characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1550 Section 51.1550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1550 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar...

2010-01-01

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A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies. PMID:23669576

Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

2013-08-01

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Participatory telerobotics  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

2013-05-01

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Replacement adoption: a case of varietal substitution among farmers adopting Sawah rice production technology in Nigeria and Ghana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper examined the incidence of replacement adoption through varietal substitution among farmers adopting Sawah-ecotechnology rice production technology in Nigeria and Ghana. A simple random sampling was used to select 80 farmers in Nigeria and 70 farmers in Ghana. Data were collected in June 2 [...] 010 with a structured questionnaire in villages where Sawah rice production technology had been introduced. In Nigeria, 30 % of the farmers practice varietal substitution with the use of WITA 3, while in Ghana 40% practice varietal substitution using jasmine and sycamore. The results from the Probit model showed that significant variables include yield (t = 4.12) participation in on farm demonstration (t = 2.77) contact with Sawah agent (t = -1.93), varietal adaptability (t = -2.29), market price (t = 2.50), lodging proneness (t = 2.45), age (t = -3.35) and farming experience (t = 2.49) in Nigeria and Ghana. It therefore implies that the issues of varietal substitution must be viewed within the prevailing socio-economic and farming system milieu of farmers in order to enhance continuous adoption and sustained profit from Sawah technology

I. O., Oladele; T., Wakatsuki.

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27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type) labeling. 4.23 Section 4...Identity for Wine § 4.23 Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type...

2010-04-01

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Genetic analysis of rice varietal diversity for rice blast control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Indica hybrid rice of Shanyou63 (A) and Shanyou22 (B), two glutinous landraces of Huanghenuo (C) and Zinuo (D) and three improved Japonica rice of Hexi41 (E), Chujing12 (F) and 8126 (G) were selected and their genetic resistance relationship was estimated using resistance gene analogue (RGA). The results showed that there were similar genetic relationships between hybrid varieties at the genetic similarity (GS) of 0.86,and among improved Japonica varieties at the GS of 0.84, while highly genetic diversifications between traditional varieties, Indica and Japonica varieties, traditional and modern variety ( GS:0.45). The results also showed that clustering analysis based on RGA data were generally corresponded to known pedigrees and blast field resistances of the varieties. Based on varietal differences in RGA data and agronomic traits, plot experiments of five mixed-planting combinations of A/C, A/D, B/C, B/D and A/B and two combinations of E/C and E/F/G were conducted in Jianshui and Shiping counties ( Indica rice growing region) and Luxi County (warm Japonica region) in Yunnan Province in past two years, respectively. The results demonstrated that rice blast management was more effective in five mixed-planting combinations of varieties with different genetic backgrounds (GS: 0.45-0.77) than in two combinations with similar genetic relationships (GS: 0.84-0.90), compared with their monocultures. It is evident for the highly susceptible landraces in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases both in incidence and severity. The blast control efficiencies of landraces in different mixture combinations reached to 54.47%-92.18%. The control efficiencies of improved varieties varied from 15.12% to 25.54% in mixture combinations with closed genetic relationship. In addition,the total yield of 5 varietal combinations with distant genetic relationship increased 539.0-904.0 kg/ha in the mixed-planting plots, at increase rates of 5.6%-10.2%. Mixed rice varieties with similar genetic background did not achieve significant yield increase. Otherwise, the yield of E/F/G decreased 2.7%-4.0% compared with pure stand. The results can provide scientific basis of varietal combinations in diversification experiments for blast control. PMID:15473323

Zhu, You-Yong; Sun, Yan; Wang, Yun-Yue; Li, Yan; He, Yue-Qiu; He, Xia-Hong; Mundt, Christopher C; Mew, Tom W; Hei, Leung

2004-07-01

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Participatory IT-support  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents characteristics of participatory Itsupport and suggests a method for identifying qualified candidates for the support position in the organization.

Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

2006-01-01

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Varietal Resistance of Cotton Against Earias spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were carried out on varietal resistance of cotton against Earias spp. during cropping season 1999. The seeds of 12 cotton varieties viz., Green Red Okra, Qalandri, Red Okra-VI, Red Okra (Insect Resistant, AENS-1/82 VIII, Red Okra, TH-228/87, AENS-10/87, TH-3/83, Reshmi, AEC-78 13/89 and TH-41/83 were sown on April 22, 1999 in a completely randomized design with strip cropping, each strip measuring 20 x 35 feet with nine rows of each variety. Observations on infestation of Earias spp. were started 67 days after sowing and continued till complete disappearance of pest from the crop. Observations were taken at random at weekly interval from 20 plants. The results revealed that there was no significant difference of infestation amongst cotton varieties under present investigation. The minimum and the maximum infestation of 1.79 and 2.38% was recorded on Red Okra-VI and Green Red Okra varieties of cotton, respectively. The results also indicated that there was no significant effect of minimum and maximum temperature on percent infestation of Earias spp., whereas relative humidity had a significant (P<0.05 effect on infestation.

G.H. Abro

2003-01-01

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Varietal improvement of dahlia by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tubers of fourteen leading varieties of dahlia were irradiated with gamma rays with doses from 1-8 krad. The results indicated that with the increase in doses from 2 krad there was decrease in growth of tubers. While a sharp decrease was observed at 4 krad, 6 and 8 krad doses were found to be lethal. Although LD-50 was found between 3-4 krad, the optimum dose for the induction of mutation was found from 2-3 krad. Mutation frequency varied with dose as well as variety and the maximum number of mutants were found at 2 krad dose. Besides growth reduction, various types of physiological anomalies were noticed in growth and leaf characters. A total of 19 types of propagable mutants were isolated mostly for flower colours, with a maximum number in the variety 'Kenya'. Out of these 19 mutants, 11 mutants have been named for release and it is expected that these will find a place in varietal improvement programme of dahlia. (auth.)

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Respuesta a la selección masal participativa en calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) / Response to participatory mass selection in sweet squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento en Achichipico, Morelos, México con el fin de evaluar el avance genético in situ de cuatro ciclos de selección masal participativa con respecto de la variedad original en una población de calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), en la asociación maíz-calabaza, utilizan [...] do un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se estableció un surco de calabaza cada cuatro de maíz, en surcos de 20 m de largo espaciados a 0.9 m. Se estimó el avance genético por ciclo de selección y se hizo un análisis de varianza para catorce caracteres de planta, fruto y semilla. Se obtuvo ganancia genética por ciclo de selección en color de pulpa (14.1 %), sabor de pulpa (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por hectárea (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por planta (9.8 %), peso de fruto (6.5 %) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (5.1 %). El análisis de varianza detectó diferencias altamente significativas entre ciclos de selección para ancho de fruto, color y sabor de pulpa, El resto de caracteres no presentaron diferencias. Sin embargo, existió una clara tendencia numérica al incremento permanente en su magnitud. Abstract in english An experiment was conducted in Achichipico, Morelos, Mexico, to assess in situ the genetic gain of four cycles of participatory mass selection, with regard to the original variety, in a sweet squash population (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) intercropped with maize. The experimental design was a randomiz [...] ed block design with four replications. After every four rows of maize, one row of squash without maize was sown in rows 0.9 m apart and 20 m long. Genetic gain was calculated for each selection cycle and an analysis of variance was performed on data of fourteen plant, fruit and seed traits. Genetic gain per selection cycle in flesh color and flavor was 14.1 % and 11.8 %, respectively; in fruit yield per hectare (11.8 %), fruit yield per plant (9.8 %), fruit weight (6.5 %) and seed yield per hectare (5.1 %). The analysis of variance detected highly significant differences among selection cycles only for fruit width, flesh color and flavor, while the other traits were not statistically different. A clear upward numerical trend was observed.

Clemente, Villanueva-Verduzco; Miguel Ángel, Sánchez-Hernández; Irma, Sánchez-Cabrera; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Gema, Parra-Benavides; Evert, Villanueva-Sánchez.

2013-08-01

17

Respuesta a la selección masal participativa en calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) / Response to participatory mass selection in sweet squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento en Achichipico, Morelos, México con el fin de evaluar el avance genético in situ de cuatro ciclos de selección masal participativa con respecto de la variedad original en una población de calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), en la asociación maíz-calabaza, utilizan [...] do un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se estableció un surco de calabaza cada cuatro de maíz, en surcos de 20 m de largo espaciados a 0.9 m. Se estimó el avance genético por ciclo de selección y se hizo un análisis de varianza para catorce caracteres de planta, fruto y semilla. Se obtuvo ganancia genética por ciclo de selección en color de pulpa (14.1 %), sabor de pulpa (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por hectárea (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por planta (9.8 %), peso de fruto (6.5 %) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (5.1 %). El análisis de varianza detectó diferencias altamente significativas entre ciclos de selección para ancho de fruto, color y sabor de pulpa, El resto de caracteres no presentaron diferencias. Sin embargo, existió una clara tendencia numérica al incremento permanente en su magnitud. Abstract in english An experiment was conducted in Achichipico, Morelos, Mexico, to assess in situ the genetic gain of four cycles of participatory mass selection, with regard to the original variety, in a sweet squash population (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) intercropped with maize. The experimental design was a randomiz [...] ed block design with four replications. After every four rows of maize, one row of squash without maize was sown in rows 0.9 m apart and 20 m long. Genetic gain was calculated for each selection cycle and an analysis of variance was performed on data of fourteen plant, fruit and seed traits. Genetic gain per selection cycle in flesh color and flavor was 14.1 % and 11.8 %, respectively; in fruit yield per hectare (11.8 %), fruit yield per plant (9.8 %), fruit weight (6.5 %) and seed yield per hectare (5.1 %). The analysis of variance detected highly significant differences among selection cycles only for fruit width, flesh color and flavor, while the other traits were not statistically different. A clear upward numerical trend was observed.

Clemente, Villanueva-Verduzco; Miguel Ángel, Sánchez-Hernández; Irma, Sánchez-Cabrera; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Gema, Parra-Benavides; Evert, Villanueva-Sánchez.

18

Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed attitude amongst experts on the other will continue to play a role even after closure.

Chovanova Hana

2010-07-01

19

Participatory Design : An introduction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter concludes with some guidance and recommendations for further reading. An introduction to Participatory Design is followed by explanations of how practitioners and researchers in the field understand participation and practice and how design is approached as a process driven by social interaction and engagement. The structure of the book is described, individual chapters introduced and further relevant publications listed. Essentially this chapter introduces, motivates, and grounds the book and the chapters that follow. It provides basic definitions of the core concepts of Participatory Design and explains both their origins and ongoing relations to the motivations and commitments of researchers and practitioners who use participatory approaches in their work. The chapter provides the foundation to account for the structure of the book: one section focusing on some of the different perspectives in the field and their particular contributions and challenges and another section that presents case studies of three outstanding applications of Participatory Design. If we are to design the futures we wish to live then we need those, whose futures they will be, to actively participate in their design. This is why it is so important that Participatory Design keeps developing the design processes, tools, techniques, and methods needed to enable full and active participation in all kinds of design activities.

Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

2012-01-01

20

Participatory Communication : A Practical Guide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. At a time when institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, increasingly seek participatory approaches in their development initative, this guide provides perspectives, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society.

Tufte, Thomas

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The participatory patient  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship between a patient¿s work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe patient work and non-work and thinking of what kind of working or non-working patients it implies.

Andersen, Tariq Osman

2013-01-01

22

Seleção varietal de Phaseolus vulgaris quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino com base em variáveis de crescimento / Selection of Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties for tolerance to salt stress based on growth variables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar e selecionar variedades de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino e identificar, usando variedades de feijoeiro com diferentes graus de tolerância, variáveis que auxiliem na discriminagão de variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerânc [...] ia a esse tipo de estresse, independentemente do mecanismo apresentado pela planta. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetagão. Inicialmente foram avaliadas 48 variedades de P. vulgaris (alocadas nas subparcelas) em dois níveis de salinidade (distribuídos nas parcelas): solução nutritiva normal (SNN) a 0,81 dS m-1 e a teste (SNT) a 5,6 dS m-1, obtida pela adigão de NaCl no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetigões. A partir da massa seca da parte aérea calculou-se a relagão percentual de crescimento alcançada na SNT relativo à SNN das variedades, que variou de 138,7 a 54,1 %, discriminando-as de acordo com o critério de Scott-Knott em duas populagões: uma com 14 variedades mais "tolerantes" e outra com 34 variedades, onde ficaram agrupadas variedades "moderadamente tolerantes" e "sensíveis". Para identificar variáveis de crescimento que permitam selecionar feijoeiros quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino duas variedades tolerantes (Vermelho e CNF 5574), uma medianamente tolerante (FT 83-86) e uma sensível (LM 30074), classificadas no experimento anterior, foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com cinco níveis de salinidade (0,81; 2,7; 4,6; 6,5; e 8,4 dS m-1). Analisando-se a massa seca da raiz, do caule, do pecíolo, das folhas e da parte aérea, a área foliar e a área foliar específica, concluiu-se que a área foliar específica foi o índice que efetivamente mais contribuiu para a discriminação das variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerância à salinidade. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate and select varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for tolerance to salt stress and to identify, using bean varieties with different degrees of tolerance, variables to aid in the screening of salt-tolerant varieties, regardless of the mechanism used by the plant. The e [...] xperiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Initially, 48 P. vulgaris varieties were evaluated (allocated in subplots) at two salinity levels (distributed in the plots): normal nutrient solution (NNS) at 0.81 dS m-1 and test solution (TNS) at 5.6 dS m-1, which was obtained by adding NaCl in a randomized block design with four replications. The dry weight of aerial part was used to calculate the percentage of growth of the varieties achieved in TNS in relation to NNS, which ranged from 138.7 to 54.1%, discriminating them according to the Scott-Knott criterium in two populations: one with 14 more "tolerant" varieties and another with 34 varieties, which grouped "moderately tolerant" and "sensitive" varieties. To identify growth variables that allow selection of tolerant plants to salt stress, two tolerant (Vermelho and CNF 5574), a moderately tolerant (FT 83-86) and a sensitive (LM 30074) varieties, which were classified in a previous experiment, were grown in nutrient solutions with five levels of salinity (0.81, 2.7, 4.6, 6.5, and 8.4 dS m-1). Results of dry mass of root, stem, petiole, leaves and aerial part, leaf area and specific leaf area showed that the specific leaf area was the index that most effectively contributed to the discrimination of bean varieties for tolerance to salinity.

Cícero Antônio de Souza, Araújo; Hugo Alberto, Ruiz; José, Cambraia; Júlio César Lima, Neves; Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos, Freire; Fernando José, Freire.

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Seleção varietal de Phaseolus vulgaris quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino com base em variáveis de crescimento / Selection of Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties for tolerance to salt stress based on growth variables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar e selecionar variedades de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino e identificar, usando variedades de feijoeiro com diferentes graus de tolerância, variáveis que auxiliem na discriminagão de variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerânc [...] ia a esse tipo de estresse, independentemente do mecanismo apresentado pela planta. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetagão. Inicialmente foram avaliadas 48 variedades de P. vulgaris (alocadas nas subparcelas) em dois níveis de salinidade (distribuídos nas parcelas): solução nutritiva normal (SNN) a 0,81 dS m-1 e a teste (SNT) a 5,6 dS m-1, obtida pela adigão de NaCl no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetigões. A partir da massa seca da parte aérea calculou-se a relagão percentual de crescimento alcançada na SNT relativo à SNN das variedades, que variou de 138,7 a 54,1 %, discriminando-as de acordo com o critério de Scott-Knott em duas populagões: uma com 14 variedades mais "tolerantes" e outra com 34 variedades, onde ficaram agrupadas variedades "moderadamente tolerantes" e "sensíveis". Para identificar variáveis de crescimento que permitam selecionar feijoeiros quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino duas variedades tolerantes (Vermelho e CNF 5574), uma medianamente tolerante (FT 83-86) e uma sensível (LM 30074), classificadas no experimento anterior, foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com cinco níveis de salinidade (0,81; 2,7; 4,6; 6,5; e 8,4 dS m-1). Analisando-se a massa seca da raiz, do caule, do pecíolo, das folhas e da parte aérea, a área foliar e a área foliar específica, concluiu-se que a área foliar específica foi o índice que efetivamente mais contribuiu para a discriminação das variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerância à salinidade. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate and select varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for tolerance to salt stress and to identify, using bean varieties with different degrees of tolerance, variables to aid in the screening of salt-tolerant varieties, regardless of the mechanism used by the plant. The e [...] xperiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Initially, 48 P. vulgaris varieties were evaluated (allocated in subplots) at two salinity levels (distributed in the plots): normal nutrient solution (NNS) at 0.81 dS m-1 and test solution (TNS) at 5.6 dS m-1, which was obtained by adding NaCl in a randomized block design with four replications. The dry weight of aerial part was used to calculate the percentage of growth of the varieties achieved in TNS in relation to NNS, which ranged from 138.7 to 54.1%, discriminating them according to the Scott-Knott criterium in two populations: one with 14 more "tolerant" varieties and another with 34 varieties, which grouped "moderately tolerant" and "sensitive" varieties. To identify growth variables that allow selection of tolerant plants to salt stress, two tolerant (Vermelho and CNF 5574), a moderately tolerant (FT 83-86) and a sensitive (LM 30074) varieties, which were classified in a previous experiment, were grown in nutrient solutions with five levels of salinity (0.81, 2.7, 4.6, 6.5, and 8.4 dS m-1). Results of dry mass of root, stem, petiole, leaves and aerial part, leaf area and specific leaf area showed that the specific leaf area was the index that most effectively contributed to the discrimination of bean varieties for tolerance to salinity.

Cícero Antônio de Souza, Araújo; Hugo Alberto, Ruiz; José, Cambraia; Júlio César Lima, Neves; Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos, Freire; Fernando José, Freire.

2010-02-01

24

Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. PMID:25053028

Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

2015-01-01

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Quantitative inheritance for fruit traits in inter varietal crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gene effects for important fruit traits of four inter-varietal crosses of okra were estimated by partitioning the means and variances of means of sixbasic generations from each cross into their genetic components to assess the gene action governing the inheritance of fruit yield and earlinessrelated traits in spring and rainy season. The additive, dominance and digenic non-allelic gene interactions were observed to govern most of thefruit traits. The non-additive gene effects were more pronounced than additive ones for most of the traits in both the environments. The evidenceof duplicate type of epistasis has been obtained for all the characters in different crosses in both the seasons. Thus for developing high yieldingokra cultivars, recurrent selection in biparental progenies would help in exploiting the duplicate type of non-allelic interactions and allowrecombination and concentration of genes having cumulative effects in population.

Deepak Arora, Salesh Kumar Jindal and T. R. Ghai

2010-12-01

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Iterative participatory design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design.

Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

2010-01-01

27

Induced mutations for varietal improvement in soybean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since soybean necrotic virus (SMV-N), which was identified as a strain of soybean mosaic virus (SMV), has severe effects on such leading varieties as Kwangkyo and Kangrim, mutation studies were aimed at obtaining mutants resistant to SMV-N, without causing drastic changes in other agronomic characters, from these varieties. Prior to mutation induction, inheritance of resistance was determined and it was found that resistance was conditioned by a single recessive gene. With this information, soybean seeds were irradiated with 15 and 25 kR of gamma rays. The mutants were screened for SMV-N resistance, both under natural infection pressure and artificial inoculation. Through the selections, five lines were selected as desirable mutants and, according to the objective of this study, these mutants were stocked in a gene pool. Meanwhile, another mutation was induced to obtain a small seeded mutant with higher yield potential from the exotic variety CB-27. Through the usual selections, one mutant was registered as a new leading variety for soybean sprouts and named Bangsa-kong. Apart from that, attempts were made to determine the mutation frequency and mutation sector in soybean. Plant height and the number of seeds in M1 plants were closely related to the mutation frequency of visible characters. The mutation sector of the irradiated seeds was not apparent in M2 plants regardless of radiation dose. It was found that all seeds harvested from SMV infecte that all seeds harvested from SMV infected plants did not produce mottled seeds and all of the mottled seeds did not contain the virus. The soybean necrotic virus was not transmitted through the seeds of the variety Kwangkyo. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

28

Participatory Practices in Adult Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…

Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.

29

Participatory visualization with Wordle.  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them. PMID:19834182

Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan

2009-01-01

30

Fuzzy clustering analysis for the varietal radiosensitivity of triticum aestivum L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fussy clustering classification to the varietal radiosensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out. According to their response to the radiation of gamma rays, 49 wheat varieties were classified into five groups: higher resistant, resistant, intermediate response, sensitive, and higher sensitive. The research presents a new approach for the classification of the varietal radiosensitivity of a certain plant species, and the result was valuable for choosing the adequate irradiated materials and determining the optimal dosage so as to enhance the mutagenic efficiency in wheat radiation breeding. The reliability and advantage of the Fussy clustering classification for the plant varietal radiosensitivity were briefly discussed

31

Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

2014-01-01

32

Technology support for participatory budgeting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?

Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus

2010-01-01

33

Evaluation of biogenic amines content in chilean reserve varietal wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogenic amines play important roles in many physiological functions, but when they are ingested in high concentrations may produce severe adverse effects. The aim of this research was to evaluate the biogenic amine content in Chilean reserve varietal wines. A high performance liquid chromatography method was optimized and validated to quantify histamine, tyramine, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine and phenylethylamine in Chilean wines. Derivatization and chromatographic conditions were optimized using a central composite design. Sixty reserve wines of the most important Chilean grape varieties were analyzed, i.e. Cabernet Sauvignon (n=11), Merlot (n=11), Carménère (n=11), Syrah (n=10) and Sauvignon Blanc (n=10), as well as organic wines (n=7). Biogenic amines content ranged from 2.19 to 65.09 mg L(-1), no significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carménère but all showed statistically higher (Pwines showed no difference (P>0.05) with Cabernet Sauvignon, higher concentrations (Pgrape varieties. PMID:22640936

Henríquez-Aedo, Karem; Vega, Mario; Prieto-Rodríguez, Sonia; Aranda, Mario

2012-08-01

34

Varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to saline conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims This study aimed to assess varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity and to investigate physiological mechanisms conferring these differences. Methods Production of biomass in fourteen varieties grown under saline conditions was analysed in a pot experiment. For two contrasting varieties, the Danish variety Titicaca and the Bolivian variety Utusaya gas exchange, chlorophyll content index (CCI), fluorescence and ion relations were studied. Results Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties; least affected were two varieties from the Bolivian altiplano and a variety from Peru. Titicaca and Utusaya both had substantially increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap. But, Utusaya was much more efficient in restricting xylem Na+ loading. Xylem Na+ and K+ loading were found to be uncoupled. Utusaya maintained a relatively high stomatal conductance resulting in an only 25% NaCl-induced reduction in net CO2 assimilation compared to a 67% reduction in salt treated Titicaca plants. Maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII was not affected by salinity. Conclusion In addition to maintaining high gas exchange, tolerant varieties better control xylem Na+ loading. To what extent this control is related to radial root Na+ uptake or to the activity of Na+/H+-exchangers at the xylem parenchyma boundary remains to be studied.

Adolf, V I; Shabala, S

2012-01-01

35

Varietal Performance of Gram and Comparative Effectiveness of Three Insecticides Against Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hb..  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research project was initiated to evaluate varietal resistance of gram against pod borer and to determine the comparative efficacy of three insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (Hb. Gram varieties Viz. NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91 and KARAK-1 were selected while three insecticides namely Thiodan 35 EC, Cymbush 10EC and Actelic 50 EC were applied. KARAK-1 variety of gram was found significantly least susceptible to the attack of gram pod borer, followed by NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91. All the tested insecticides significantly reduced the infestation of gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hb as compared to control plots. Thiodan (Endosulfan was found most effective than Actellic (Pirimiphos methyl and Cymbush (Permethrin.

Said Mir Khan

1999-01-01

36

Characterization of novel varietal floral hop aromas by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were optimized and implemented to investigate the volatile composition of novel floral hop essences prepared from four German aroma hop varieties. In total, 91 different constituents were assigned, which were further grouped into monoterpene hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, aldehydes, furans, and oxygenated and nonoxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most volatiles belong to the ester group, whereas the monoterpene hydrocarbon ?-myrcene appears to be the predominant compound in all hop oil preparations investigated. Furthermore, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, varietal floral hop essences are clearly discriminated on the basis of their characteristic volatile composition. Via GC-olfactometry on the floral essence variety Spalter Select, ?-myrcene and 2-undecanone were identified as the most potent odorants. Several hop oil constituents were reported for the first time as impact odorants of hop aroma. PMID:23186043

Van Opstaele, Filip; De Causmaecker, Brecht; Aerts, Guido; De Cooman, Luc

2012-12-19

37

Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

Reid, Alban E.

38

Participatory Budgeting in High School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes and analyzes a participatory approach to budgetary decision-making used by an exemplary high school. In spite of the budgetary forces dividing instructional departments, support units, and administration, an equitable division of resources provided to the school was consistently achieved each year. Includes 29 references. (MLH)

Harman, William T.

1989-01-01

39

Mobile Applications for Participatory Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

Drill, Sabrina L.

2013-01-01

40

Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector

Simonsen, Jesper

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Does resource complementarity or prevention of lodging contribute to the increased productivity of rice varietal mixtures in Yunnan, China?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We conducted an experiment in Gejiu, Yunnan Province of China during the wet season of 2002 to examine the importance of resource complementarity and prevention of lodging in the fast-spreading practice of growing rice varietal mixtures in China to suppress rice blast disease and its associated damage. The hybrid rice variety Shanyou 63 and the glutinous or sticky rice variety Huangkenuo were used to study intra- and inter-varietal competition in the rice intercropping system. The experiment ...

Revilla-molina, I. M.; Bastiaans, L.; Keulen, H.; Kropff, M. J.; Hui, F.; Castilla, N. P.; Mew, T. W.; Zhu, Y. Y.; Leung, H.

2009-01-01

42

Varietal and environmental influence on the yield and the end-use quality of sugar beet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental factor (location influenced sugar beet root yield, which was higher by 20.6% on Belgrade location than on Pan?evo location. However, when compared the genotype effect, smaller environmental influence was found for root yield, which was not expected. The investigated factors (variety and location equally contributed to the variation in root sugar content. Significantly higher varietal influence was observed for granulated sugar yield, which was also unexpected. .

Radivojevi? Stevan ?.

2006-01-01

43

Classification of white varietal wines using chemical analysis and sensorial evaluations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ways of application of multivariate data analysis and ANOVA to classification of white varietal wines are here demonstrated. Wine classification was performed using the following classification criteria: winevariety, year of production, wine producer, and wine quality, as found by sensorial testing (bouquet, colour, and taste). Subjective wine evaluation, made by wine experts, is combined with commonly used chemical and physico-chemical properties, measured in analytical laboratory. Impor...

S?nuderl, Katja; Mocak, Jan; Brodnjak-vonc?ina, Darinka; Sedla?c?kova, Bibiana

2012-01-01

44

Using participatory approaches with older people in a residential home in Guyana: challenges and tensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory approaches are a popular and entrenched strategy in community development, yet a number of unresolved issues and tensions persist regarding the definition, rationales, outcomes and ethics of participation. Despite its popularity there are relatively few examples of participatory projects with older people or in institutional settings so their potential with this group is poorly understood. This case study presents some of the practical and ethical challenges that arose over the course of a participatory project that aimed to analyse and improve quality of life in a residential home for older people in Guyana. Through a qualitative process evaluation it examines the degree of participation achieved, the determinants of the participatory process, the benefits the approach brought and the ethical dilemmas encountered. Although the degree of participation achieved was limited, beneficial outcomes were observed, notably the selection of appropriate and desirable interventions and the effect on the residents themselves, who valued their part in the project. The participatory process was unpredictable and complex, however, and key determinants of it included the organizational dynamics of the home and the skills, actions and attitudes of the researcher. Adopting a participatory approach brought valuable benefits in a residential home, but others adopting the approach should ensure they critically consider at the outset the ethical and practical dilemmas the setting and approach may produce and have realistic expectations of participation. PMID:23143161

Hewitt, Gillian; Draper, Alizon K; Ismail, Suraiya

2013-03-01

45

Participatory Inovation Conference 2011 Proceedings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Industry and public agencies increasingly adopt user-driven innovation and open innovation, as they realise that innovation cannot come solely from within an organisation. Innovation happens in the ‘breaking of the waves’ between people outside and people inside – because they have different stakes and perspectives. In academia, new breakthrough contributions to understanding innovation – and supporting it – will also emerge in the borderlands between disciplines that traditionally do not collaborate: between languages and design, and between management and anthropology for instance. The new discipline of Participatory Innovation gathers theories and methods across such academic fields that describe how people outside an organisation can contribute to its innovation. The many papers in this volume have in common that they identify ways for industry and the public sector to expand innovation through the participation of users, employees, suppliers, customers etc. – both on a strategiclevel, in concrete methods, and in the day-to-day interactions. PINC 2011 is a forum where participants from different disciplines and organisations can meet and challenge each other to develop the field of participatory innovation.

Buur, Jacob

2011-01-01

46

Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L. in Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica, within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers. Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

Santoni Sylvain

2010-02-01

47

Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

48

Participatory management in today's health care setting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced

49

Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts.

Heinrich, Falk

2014-01-01

50

Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre-established handbooks for the selection of stakeholders often conduct instrumental participation, limited to information dissemination. On the other hand, in some cantons participatory processes characterized by normative rationales take place. Here the goals of participatory processes are not limited to outcomes (e.g. acceptance of the project), but value the process of participation in itself. In these cantons actors are selected via social connections and the claimed 'common sense' of cantonal project officers. Here, the opportunity of public debate opens up, the inclusion of actors often start earlier in the decision-making processes and objectives are defined publicly and collectively. Cantonal authorities involved in river management do not all consider participatory processes as important. The acknowledgment of participatory processes is less related to an authority's recognition of the importance of participation and more to specific local experience.

Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

51

Trocas gasosas em videira sob regime de estresse hídrico. II. fotorrespiração e comportamento varietal / Gas exchanges in grapevines under water stress regime. II. photorespiration and varietal behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Analisou-se a fotorrespiração em folhas de videira (Vitis vinifera L.) submetidas a um regime de estresse hídrico, com o objetivo de caracterizar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares. Foram utilizadas plantas de dois anos, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto Fercal, plantadas em vasos plásticos e c [...] ultivadas em ambiente controlado. A fotorrespiração foi calculada a partir de medidas das trocas gasosas foliares. Os valores absolutos da fotorrespiração variaram pouco entre cultivares e nível de irrigação; já a eficiência da carboxilação e o ponto de compensação ao CO2 foram bastante afetados pelo estresse hídrico, o que revela diferentes níveis de sensibilidade varietal. Foi verificada a ocorrência de inibição não-estomática da fotossíntese, afetando diferencialmente as cultivares analisadas. Destacou-se, ainda, a maior adaptação da Chardonnay às condições de estresse hídrico, em oposição à grande sensibilidade da Sémillon e da Ugni blanc. Abstract in english The photorespiration in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves subjected to a water stress regime was analysed with the purpose of characterizing the behavior of different cultivars. Two-year old plants were used, grafted on Fercal, planted in plastic pots and cultivated in controlled environment. Th [...] e photorespiration was calculated from leaf gas exchange measurements taken by means of a portable infrared CO2 analyser (LCA3-ADC), working in an open circuit. The absolute photorespiration values varied little among cultivars and level of irrigation, whereas the carboxylation efficiency and the CO2 compensation point were highly affected by the water stress, thereby evidencing different varietal sensitivity levels. The occurrence of a nonstomatal inhibition of the photosynthesis was verified affecting in a specific way the cultivars analysed. The Chardonnay adapted itself better to the water stress conditions as opposed to the high sensitivity on the part of Sémillon and Ugni blanc.

Murillo de Albuquerque, Regina; Alain, Carbonneau.

1999-01-01

52

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual meth...

Naydene de Lange; Mart-Mari Geldenhuys

2012-01-01

53

Varietal differences in gamma-ray induced chromosome aberrations in soybean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the seeds of 27 soybean varieties were exposed to gamma-rays, distinct varietal differences in the frequency of chromosome aberrations were found at the first root tip mitosis. The varieties tested could be divided into resistant and sensitive groups. F2 seeds from crosses between resistant and sensitive varieties were irradiated and from the frequency distribution of chromosome aberrations it was concluded that the intervarietal differences were controlled mainly by a single recessive gene rs1 which had been detected by Takaki and Yamashita to control the degree of seedling growth inhibition in both seed and growing plant irradiations. (author)

54

Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

2014-01-01

55

NUEVA ESCALA DE EVALUACIÓN DE LA RESISTENCIA VARIETAL FRENTE AL RAQUITISMO DE LOS RETOÑOS DE LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR EN CUBA / NEW SCALE FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE VARIETAL RESISTANCE AGAINST RATOON STUNTING DISEASE IN SUGARCANE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La búsqueda de métodos eficaces para la evaluación de la resistencia varietal frente al raquitismo de los retoños de la caña de azúcar (RSD) constituye uno de los tópicos de mayor interés en la actualidad. Mediante el empleo de la técnica de tinción de haces funcionales (STM), se determinó la relaci [...] ón existente entre el porcentaje de haces funcionales y la reacción varietal. Se propone una escala de evaluación del comportamiento de variedades basada en la funcionalidad de los haces del xilema que permite establecer diferencias entre las categorías (resistentes, intermedias y susceptibles). Se determinó la veracidad de la escala mediante un análisis de discriminante con 96.4% de buena clasificación. Esta escala constituye una herramienta de gran valor en la etapa de certificación de semilla dentro del programa de mejoramiento de la caña de azúcar. Abstract in english The search of effective methods for the evaluation of the varietal resistance to Ratoon Stunting Disease (RSD) in sugarcane is of major interest nowadays. Thus, there is a need of validated procedures of diagnostic and evaluation of the variety behavior. The relationship existent between the percent [...] age of functional bundles and the varietal reaction was determined by the staining transpiration methods (STM). A statically proved evaluation scale of the variety behavior with 96.4 percent of good classification was determined. It is a practical approach for this matter that can be helpful for the National Genetic Improvement Program.

Aleika, Iglesia; Esther Lilia, Peralta; Elba, Alvarez; J, Milián; Madyu, Matos.

56

Effect of vine foliar treatments on the varietal aroma of Monastrell wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment. PMID:24912724

Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

2014-11-15

57

Influence of grape-harvesting steps on varietal thiol aromas in Sauvignon blanc wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intense tropical fruit aroma of Sauvignon blanc wines has been associated with the varietal thiols 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH), derived from odorless precursors in the grape, and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), arising from 3MH during fermentation. Grapes and juice were sourced from five locations in Marlborough, New Zealand, taking hand-picked grapes and samples at four stages during the mechanical harvesting process and pressing, which were then fermented in replicated 750 mL bottles. With each set of juices, the highest concentrations of Cys-3MH and Glut-3MH were found in the juices pressed to 1 bar, but these juices produced wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. With three of the juices, there was an increase in varietal thiol content for wines made from juices that had been machine harvested compared to the hand-picked samples, which matched earlier findings of lower 3MH and 3MHA levels in wines made from hand-picked grapes. Juices that were more oxidized, and which showed a higher absorbance at 420 nm, were found to produce wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. PMID:21854044

Allen, Thomas; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Girault, Melanie; Butler, Paul; Logan, Gerard; Jouanneau, Sara; Nicolau, Laura; Kilmartin, Paul A

2011-10-12

58

Influence of juice pressing conditions on polyphenols, antioxidants, and varietal aroma of Sauvignon blanc microferments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of juice press fractions upon the content of varietal thiols in Sauvignon blanc has been examined for wines fermented at the laboratory scale (750 mL). Wines made from pressed juices (taken at 0.25 and 1.0 bar) contained less than half the concentration of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), important contributors to the tropical and passion fruit character of Sauvignon blanc wines, compared to wines made from free run juices. The pressed juices and wines exhibited lower acidity values, more rapid decline in glutathione content, and more advanced polyphenol oxidation. Supplementation of the juices with glutathione (at 67 mg/L) prior to fermentation led to lower varietal thiol concentrations in the finished wines, typically by several percent, whereas treatment with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) made no impact on wine parameters. Pasteurization of pressed juices increased 3MHA content in the finished wines, but also led to a decline in 3MH concentrations. PMID:20486689

Patel, Parimal; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Lee, Soon A; Gardner, Richard C; Weaver, Randy; Nicolau, Laura; Kilmartin, Paul A

2010-06-23

59

Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin / Discriminação de vinhos tintos brasileiros de acordo com a região vitícola, varietal e vinícola  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O trabalho avaliou a composição físico-química de 171 vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados na safra de 2006, representados por 21 varietais. Os vinhos foram elaborados por 58 vinícolas localizadas em sete regiões vitícolas do País com latitudes variando de 9º a 31º Sul. A análise físico-química foi [...] feita em 2006 e a discriminação entre as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos varietais e as vinícolas foi realizada através da análise de componentes principais (ACP). Os principais resultados mostram que ao se considerar as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos elaborados em São Joaquim caracterizaram-se por valores mais elevados de A420, A520, A620, intensidade de cor, compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas e extrato seco, enquanto que os de Toledo apresentaram valores mais baixos dessas variáveis; os do Vale do São Francisco tiveram valores mais elevados de potássio, pH, densidade e acidez volátil; os da Serra do Nordeste A, maior acidez titulável; e os do Planalto Superior B, matiz mais elevado. No que se relaciona aos vinhos varietais, a ACP discriminou os vinhos feitos com as variedades Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera e Alfrocheiro. Com relação às vinícolas, vinte e duas delas foram discriminadas por apresentarem parâmetros mais elevados de determinadas variáveis, i.e., três delas por terem maior intensidade de cor; três, por seu matiz; oito, pelo teor de álcool; seis, por potássio, extrato seco, densidade e pH; e duas, pela acidez titulável. Abstract in english This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine anal [...] ysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA). The main results show that wines from São Joaquim had higher values of A420, A520, A620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from Toledo had lower values of these variables; those from Vale do São Francisco had higher values of potassium, pH, density, and volatile acidity; from Serra do Nordeste A, they had higher titratable acidity; and from Planalto Superior B, higher hue. Regarding the varietal wines, PCA mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera, and Alfrocheiro. In relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and pH; and two by titratablel acidity.

Alberto, Miele; Luiz Antenor, Rizzon; Mauro Celso, Zanus.

60

Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin Discriminação de vinhos tintos brasileiros de acordo com a região vitícola, varietal e vinícola  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine analysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA. The main results show that wines from São Joaquim had higher values of A420, A520, A620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from Toledo had lower values of these variables; those from Vale do São Francisco had higher values of potassium, pH, density, and volatile acidity; from Serra do Nordeste A, they had higher titratable acidity; and from Planalto Superior B, higher hue. Regarding the varietal wines, PCA mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera, and Alfrocheiro. In relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and pH; and two by titratablel acidity.O trabalho avaliou a composição físico-química de 171 vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados na safra de 2006, representados por 21 varietais. Os vinhos foram elaborados por 58 vinícolas localizadas em sete regiões vitícolas do País com latitudes variando de 9º a 31º Sul. A análise físico-química foi feita em 2006 e a discriminação entre as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos varietais e as vinícolas foi realizada através da análise de componentes principais (ACP. Os principais resultados mostram que ao se considerar as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos elaborados em São Joaquim caracterizaram-se por valores mais elevados de A420, A520, A620, intensidade de cor, compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas e extrato seco, enquanto que os de Toledo apresentaram valores mais baixos dessas variáveis; os do Vale do São Francisco tiveram valores mais elevados de potássio, pH, densidade e acidez volátil; os da Serra do Nordeste A, maior acidez titulável; e os do Planalto Superior B, matiz mais elevado. No que se relaciona aos vinhos varietais, a ACP discriminou os vinhos feitos com as variedades Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera e Alfrocheiro. Com relação às vinícolas, vinte e duas delas foram discriminadas por apresentarem parâmetros mais elevados de determinadas variáveis, i.e., três delas por terem maior intensidade de cor; três, por seu matiz; oito, pelo teor de álcool; seis, por potássio, extrato seco, densidade e pH; e duas, pela acidez titulável.

Alberto Miele

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne

62

Collective form generation through visual participatory representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers.

Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant

63

Participatory Management of Co-Curricular Activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that, for both practical and philosophical reasons, high school activities ought to be managed by participatory principles. It further argues that the responsibility for bringing this about belongs to principals and activities directors through appropriate modeling and in-service education. In addition, obstacles to the…

McLenighan, Harry

64

Using Participatory Design to Improve Web Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author, a doctoral candidate from the School of Information at the University of Texas-Austin, describes the experience gathered from her attempt to redesign her existing Web sites in order to supply online resources for Slavic and Byzantine studies. The use of participatory design, which involves the users in creating the…

Nikolova-Houston, Tatiana

2005-01-01

65

Using Participatory Photo Novels to Teach Marketing  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…

Das, Kallol

2012-01-01

66

Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.

Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke

2011-01-01

67

A participatory approach to sanitation: experience of Bangladeshi NGOs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assesses the role of participatory development programmes in improving sanitation in rural Bangladesh. Data for this study came from a health surveillance system of BRAC covering 70 villages in 10 regions of the country. In-depth interviews were conducted with one adult member of a total of 1556 randomly selected households that provided basic socioeconomic information on the households and their involvement with NGO-led development programmes in the community. The findings reveal that households involved with credit programmes were more likely to use safe latrines than others who were equally poor but not involved in such programmes. The study indicates that an unmet need to build or buy safe and hygienic latrines existed among those who did not own one. Such latent need could be raised further if health education at the grassroots level along with supervised credit supports were provided to them. Unlike conventional belief, the concept of community-managed jointly owned latrines did not seem a very attractive alternative. The study argues that social and behavioural aspects of the participatory development programmes can significantly improve environmental sanitation in a traditional community. PMID:11012409

Hadi, A

2000-09-01

68

Scenario workshops: A useful method for participatory water resources planning?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on a scenario workshop (SW) for water resources management at the island of Naxos, Greece. The workshop was part of a European research project studying the advantages and limitations of different participatory methods in the context of the Water Framework Directive. It involved policy makers, scientists, business representatives, and citizens from different parts of the island. On the first day, participants worked to envision a sustainable development future for the island and its water resources. Discussion was inspired by four alternative water development scenarios prepared by the organizers. Participants' vision statements emphasized a diversified development path and balanced water solutions. On the second day, participants worked to plan the actions needed to realize their common vision. The SW turned out to be a good method to initiate a multipartner dialogue, to include new stakeholders in the water policy debate, and to a certain extent, to promote learning between participants. On the other hand, it did not appear well suited to resolve conflicts and aid decisions in the face of scientific complexity and uncertainty. SW seems to be a good method for the "upstream," preparatory, capacity-building tasks of a planning process but not for the production of substantive decision outputs such as consensual agreements or action plans. The Naxos experiment also raised the centrality of framing, participant selection, and facilitation in participatory processes.

Hatzilacou, Dionyssia; Kallis, Giorgos; Mexa, Alexandra; Coccosis, Harris; Svoronou, Eleni

2007-06-01

69

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene de Lange

2012-01-01

70

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary s [...] chools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene, de Lange; Mart-Mari, Geldenhuys.

71

Mutation induction as a tool for varietal development in ornamental plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the current advancement in biotechnology has tremendously change the modern breeding approach, the induced mutation techniques is still very much in use as complementary tools. MINT experiences in using the techniques for varietal development in ornamental plants has helped to increase genetic variabilities in several ornamental plant species, produced twelve new mutant cultivars as well as developed efficient tissue culture system for six ornamental plant species as tool for in vitro mutagenesis procedures and micropropagation. The technology and expertise that have been established are ready for transfer to the horticulture industry. Sharing of capability and capacity between research institutions and private sector is one possible way by improving and maintaining long-term sustenance of the floriculture industry. (author)

72

Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation. PMID:25039987

Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

2014-08-01

73

A Trust-based Recruitment Framework for Multi-hop Social Participatory Sensing  

CERN Document Server

The idea of social participatory sensing provides a substrate to benefit from friendship relations in recruiting a critical mass of participants willing to attend in a sensing campaign. However, the selection of suitable participants who are trustable and provide high quality contributions is challenging. In this paper, we propose a recruitment framework for social participatory sensing. Our framework leverages multi-hop friendship relations to identify and select suitable and trustworthy participants among friends or friends of friends, and finds the most trustable paths to them. The framework also includes a suggestion component which provides a cluster of suggested friends along with the path to them, which can be further used for recruitment or friendship establishment. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed recruitment framework in terms of selecting a large number of well-suited participants and providing contributions with high overall trust, in comparison with one-hop recruitment ...

Amintoosi, Haleh

2013-01-01

74

Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope with this kind of complexity in regards to technology development and design projects. Based on experiences and lessons learned from the project "The Digital North Denmark (DDN), the chapter reflects on participatory research in a complex organizational setting of researchers, stakeholders and users emphasising practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. 

Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

2007-01-01

75

Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

2014-01-01

76

FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of anthocyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated fla...

Vergara, C.; Von Baer, D.; Mardones, C.; Gutie?rrez, L.; Hermosi?n-gutie?rrez, I.; Castillo-mun?oz, N.

2011-01-01

77

Enabling objects for participatory design of socio-technical systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to identify and explore the role of objects in participatory ergonomics design processes. The question in focus is: What characterizes objects in PE processes? First the concept of boundary objects is introduced as a starting point for investigating the role of objects. Second, findings of a search to identify objects in PE processes are reported. Third, objects fulfilling the requirements for boundary objects are placed in one of five categories. Fourth, empirical findings from two PE case studies in which objects played an important role are presented. Finally, based on a grounded theory approach, a characterization of objects in PE design processes is developed and a framework for how the use of objects in PE processes could be conceptualized is proposed. In conclusion, the concept of objects in PE processes is contextual, and the ergonomist or other design actor needs to actively consider their selection and the stage at which they are to be used.

Broberg, Ole

2011-01-01

78

Participatory television:convergence, crowdsourcing, and neoliberalism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article I assess theories of internet-enabled public participation as they have been devised to explain the audience participatory projects of Current TV, a global cable and satellite television and internet video network once partially programmed by non-fiction videos submitted by viewers. I explore how each author’s theory of participation--convergence (Jenkins 2006), crowdsourcing (Howe 2008), and neoliberal participation (Hands 2011)--variously fails and succeeds to historically...

Fish, Adam

2013-01-01

79

Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety mixtures relative to their component varieties. For this purpose, six variety mixtures of spring barley and 14 component varieties were grown in each of 17 trial environments. Atotal of 28 observed and a priori plant characteristics, including grain yield, disease severity and weed competitiveness, were derived for each component variety in each trial. The relationship between intervarietal diversity of each characteristic and the mixing effect on grain yield was analysed. Additionally, various types of yield stability were estimated and compared among mixtures and component varieties. One mixture out-yielded all of its component varieties in almost half of the trial environments. Inter-varietal diversity in grain yield potential correlated significantly with mixing effect, as did straw length diversity when weighted with weed pressure. The grain yields of most mixtures were more stable across environments than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.

Kiær, Lars PØdenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.

2012-01-01

80

De novo transcriptome characterization of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina unveils varietal diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants such as grapevine (Vitis spp. display significant inter-cultivar genetic and phenotypic variation. The genetic components underlying phenotypic diversity in grapevine must be understood in order to disentangle genetic and environmental factors. Results We have shown that cDNA sequencing by RNA-seq is a robust approach for the characterization of varietal diversity between a local grapevine cultivar (Corvina and the PN40024 reference genome. We detected 15,161 known genes including 9463 with novel splice isoforms, and identified 2321 potentially novel protein-coding genes in non-annotated or unassembled regions of the reference genome. We also discovered 180 apparent private genes in the Corvina genome which were missing from the reference genome. Conclusions The de novo assembly approach allowed a substantial amount of the Corvina transcriptome to be reconstructed, improving known gene annotations by robustly defining gene structures, annotating splice isoforms and detecting genes without annotations. The private genes we discovered are likely to be nonessential but could influence certain cultivar-specific characteristics. Therefore, the application of de novo transcriptome assembly should not be restricted to species lacking a reference genome because it can also improve existing reference genome annotations and identify novel, cultivar-specific genes.

Venturini Luca

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Care and Concern: An Ethical Journey in Participatory Action Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the four basic principles of an ethical framework as outlined by the Code of Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans in light of the requirements of a participatory action research approach. Discusses the ethics of participatory action research in regard to care and concern. Argues that the ethics of morality and justice are…

Stuart, Carol A.

1998-01-01

82

The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

2013-01-01

83

An evaluation framework for participatory modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in the UK.

Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

2012-04-01

84

Interpretation of Fourier transform Raman spectra of the unsaponifiable matter in a selection of edible oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unsaponifiable matter of edible oils is a source of information for their characterization and authentication. FT-Raman spectroscopy has been applied with success to the determination of the spectra of the unsaponifiable matter of varietal olive oils as well as other refined and crude edible oils. The spectra of the major unsaponifiable series of compounds (squalene, sterolic, and terpenic alcoholic fractions), together with beta-carotene and lutein, have been used to explain the most prominent bands found in the spectra of the unsaponifiable matter of 15 edible oil samples. The order of the scattering intensities of the varietal olive oils agrees with the results obtained by chromatography. An unsupervised multivariate statistical analysis of selected bands points out differences between olive oils and the other seed oils and also among varietal virgin olive oils. PMID:11714288

Baeten, V; Dardenne, P; Aparicio, R

2001-11-01

85

YouTube as a participatory culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an explosion of youth subscriptions to original content-media-sharing Web sites such as YouTube. These Web sites combine media production and distribution with social networking features, making them an ideal place to create, connect, collaborate, and circulate. By encouraging youth to become media creators and social networkers, new media platforms such as YouTube offer a participatory culture in which youth can develop, interact, and learn. As youth development researchers, we must be cognizant of this context and critically examine what this platform offers that might be unique to (or redundant of) typical adolescent experiences in other developmental contexts. PMID:21240954

Chau, Clement

2010-01-01

86

Participatory Design at a Radio Station  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We address design of computer support for work and its coordination at the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. We propose design solutions based upon participatory design techniques and ethnographically inspired analysis within a full scale design project. The project exemplifies an ambitious, yet realistic, design practice, that provides a sound basis for organisational decision making and for technical and organizational development and implementation. We focus on cooperative aspects within and among the editorial units, and between editorial units and the editorial board. We discuss technical and organisational aspects of the design, seen in light of recent CSCW concepts, including coordination and computational coordination mechanisms, technologies of accountability, and workflow from within and without.

Kensing, Finn; Simonsen, Jesper

1998-01-01

87

Community-based participatory irrigation management at local government level in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ghana has attempted to decentralise the management of irrigation schemes to communities at local government level. This study examines the existing local participatory management structures and the principles of the Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM strategy designed to promote sustainable management of irrigation schemes in Ghana. Two community-based irrigation projects, Bontanga and Golinga in the Northern Region of Ghana were selected for the research. The study demonstrated that farmers’ participation was minimal and limited to the discussion of irrigation service charges at the expense of other issues related to the sustainability of the projects/schemes. The study also established that there was less participation of women, and more than half of all the crop farmers on the two irrigation projects were reluctant to assume additional responsibilities without remuneration. The study therefore concluded that the sustainability of the PIM strategy depends on the adoption of an integrated management approach involving all stakeholders including local government, with appropriate incentives.

I Braimah

2014-07-01

88

The Quality of Conversations in Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In co-design there seems to be a widespread understanding that innovation is a planned, goal-oriented activity that can be propelled forward through well-facilitated events in which company employees collaborate with external parties (users in particular) and the conversations aim at consensus about new product and service ideas. Conflict belonged to the 'old days' when participatory design played a part in the struggle between workers and management. Based on the theory of complex responsive processes of relating, we suggest a new way of understanding innovation as the emergence of new meaning in - often conflictual - conversations. We argue that the meeting of participants with different stakes is crucial precisely because crossing intentions can create new insight and movement of thought and action. We use improvised theatre to investigate what happens in industrial (and other) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and the barriers that prevent them. By analysing improvised scenes and the way the audience reacts, we characterize the quality of conversations that seems to allow new meaning to emerge and thus stimulates innovation. We suggest that we need to develop new formats of collaboration for large, complex contingents of stakeholders, where conflicting intentions are encouraged.

Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry

2010-01-01

89

A face oculta de um processo participativo para escolha de chefias de enfermagem / The hidden face of a participatory process for the selection of head nurses / La cara oculta de un proceso participativo para elección de jefes en enfermería  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo discute a articulação das equipes de enfermagem no desenvolvimento de um processo consultivo de escolha de chefias num hospital universitário. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo exploratória e descritiva. A coleta de dados deu-se por meio de entrevistas com profissionais de enfermage [...] m. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo do tipo temática. Através das manifestações dos profissionais, visualizaram-se duas vertentes que representam movimentos de integração e movimentos de separação na trajetória de cada equipe. Em algumas unidades o processo ocorre de forma integrada, norteado pela participação e relações democráticas. Já em outras, o funcionamento grupal é caracterizado pela divisão interna e por um conflito subjacente. Um olhar sobre a totalidade dos setores aponta que as equipes de enfermagem estão em diferentes estágios de evolução nos modos de participação e envolvimento na dinâmica da vida política institucional. Abstract in spanish El estudio hace una discusión sobre de la articulación de los equipos de enfermería en el desarrollo de un proceso consultivo de elección de los jefes en un hospital universitario. Estudio cualitativo, de tipo exploratorio y descriptivo. La recolección de datos se dio por medio de entrevistas con pr [...] ofesionales de enfermería. Los datos se analizaron utilizándose la técnica de análisis de contenido del tipo temática. A través de las manifestaciones de los profesionales, se visualizan dos vertientes que representan movimientos de integración y movimientos de separación en la trayectoria de cada equipo. En algunas unidades el proceso se realiza en forma integrada, guiado por la participación y las relaciones democráticas. En otras, el funcionamiento grupal se caracteriza por la división interna y por un conflicto subyacente. Una mirada sobre la totalidad de los sectores señala que los equipos de enfermería están en diferentes niveles de evolución en los modos de participación y envolvimiento en la dinámica de la vida política institucional. Abstract in english The study presents a discussion about the articulation of nursing staffs in the development of a consulting process for the selection of head nurses in a university hospital. This is an exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of interviews with nursing work [...] ers. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Through the workers' expressions, two lines were observed that represent integration movements and separation movements in the trajectory of each staff. In some departments, the process takes place in an integrated way, guided by participation and democratic relationships. However, in others, the functioning of a group is characterized by internal division and underlying conflict. An overview on the totality of departments indicates that nursing staffs are at different evolution stages regarding the ways they participate and get involved in the dynamics of political-institutional life.

Gisela Maria Schebella Souto de, Moura; Ana Maria Müller de, Magalhães; Clarice Maria, Dall' Agnol; Louíse Viecili, Hoffmeister.

90

SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS OVER VANADIUM PHOSPHORUS OXIDE CATALYST USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidation of various alcohols is studied in liquid phase under nitrogen atmosphere over vanadium phosphorus oxide catalyst in an environmentally friendly protocol using hydrogen peroxide. The catalyst and the method are found to be suitable for the selective oxidation of a variet...

91

Revisiting the issue of elite capture in participatory initiatives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on case studies of two communities implementing participatory forestry in Tanzania and India, we revisit the issue of elite capture of participatory initiatives. Our cases illustrate how initial elite capture of the participatory initiatives is circumvented over time through various forms of resistance orchestrated by initially disadvantaged groups. Based on the cases we argue that studies of elite capture should be based on in-depth and longitudinal empirical investigations that carefully characterize forms and outcomes of elite capture and consider both the changing dynamics of social settings and the perceptions held by the people under study.

Lund, Jens Friis; Saito-Jensen, Moeko

2013-01-01

92

Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.

Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

2013-01-01

93

Scandinavian Participatory Design : Dialogic curation with Teenagers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

2012-01-01

94

ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

Brîndu?a-Antonela SBÎRCEA

2011-01-01

95

FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of anthocyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated flavonols in wine in which they are present in free and conjugated forms. These compounds are responsible for important wine antioxidant properties. In the present work, using only the concentrations of free and conjugated quercetin and myricetin, differentiation between Carménère and Merlot varieties was better achieved. Flavonol profiles of wine produced in Chile were studied with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. An overview of the concentration range of flavonols present in 248 Chilean red wines is presented, finding that the mean concentration of the sum of total myricetin and total quercetin were higher in Carménère (81.5 mgL-1 and Merlot (78.9 mgL¹ than in Cabernet Sauvignon (53.9 mgL¹ wines. These mean levels were higher than the majority of the concentrations reported in the literature. The chemometric analysis shows that the ratio of total quercetin/total myricetin combined with the concentration of free myricetin allowed the varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines.

C VERGARA

2011-12-01

96

FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of antho [...] cyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated flavonols in wine in which they are present in free and conjugated forms. These compounds are responsible for important wine antioxidant properties. In the present work, using only the concentrations of free and conjugated quercetin and myricetin, differentiation between Carménère and Merlot varieties was better achieved. Flavonol profiles of wine produced in Chile were studied with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. An overview of the concentration range of flavonols present in 248 Chilean red wines is presented, finding that the mean concentration of the sum of total myricetin and total quercetin were higher in Carménère (81.5 mgL-1) and Merlot (78.9 mgL¹) than in Cabernet Sauvignon (53.9 mgL¹) wines. These mean levels were higher than the majority of the concentrations reported in the literature. The chemometric analysis shows that the ratio of total quercetin/total myricetin combined with the concentration of free myricetin allowed the varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines.

C, VERGARA; D, VON BAER; C, MARDONES; L, GUTIÉRREZ; I, HERMOSÍN-GUTIÉRREZ; N, CASTILLO-MUÑOZ.

97

FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of antho [...] cyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated flavonols in wine in which they are present in free and conjugated forms. These compounds are responsible for important wine antioxidant properties. In the present work, using only the concentrations of free and conjugated quercetin and myricetin, differentiation between Carménère and Merlot varieties was better achieved. Flavonol profiles of wine produced in Chile were studied with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. An overview of the concentration range of flavonols present in 248 Chilean red wines is presented, finding that the mean concentration of the sum of total myricetin and total quercetin were higher in Carménère (81.5 mgL-1) and Merlot (78.9 mgL¹) than in Cabernet Sauvignon (53.9 mgL¹) wines. These mean levels were higher than the majority of the concentrations reported in the literature. The chemometric analysis shows that the ratio of total quercetin/total myricetin combined with the concentration of free myricetin allowed the varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines.

C, VERGARA; D, VON BAER; C, MARDONES; L, GUTIÉRREZ; I, HERMOSÍN-GUTIÉRREZ; N, CASTILLO-MUÑOZ.

2011-12-01

98

Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

1996-01-01

99

Foresight Analysis at the Regional Level - A Participatory Methodological Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural development. The specific region is in front of a great challenge referring to the potential location of a large infrastructure (airport, which can drive a considerable socio-economic restructuring, affecting mostly the agricultural sector due to the land loss and the pressures exerted from competitive land uses around the airport area.

Anastasia Stratigea

2013-05-01

100

The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

 
 
 
 
101

The Main Advantages of Community Based Participatory Health Programs: An Experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: This study was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Thirteen community based programs related to health that were active for last five years were selected and assessed. Data analysis was based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach considering the predetermined structure according to study questions. Results: In this study, strengths points of community participatory health programs based on the locality of the implementation of the programs; governmental organization and nongovernmental organizations (NGO’s were evaluated. The main strengths of these programs were the presence of the spirit of empathy and high motivation in working for community, absorbing the community assistance, community empowerment, presence of female volunteers, using local volunteers, creation of social prestige and evidence based decision making for community problem solving. Conclusion: Capacity building of the community, NGOs and policymakers plays key role in participation mechanisms, partnership, team working and mobilizing of necessary resources in the promotion of participatory community based health programs.

Monir Baradarn Eftekhari

2013-01-01

102

Rural Development Practice in Nigeria: How Participatory and What Challenges?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory rural development has evolved in the past 60 years as a development process and discourse that should encapsulate a wide range of views, voices and stakeholder contributions. How has this approach been followed in Nigeria?s rural development practice? This paper reviews the practices and challenges of participatory rural development in Nigeria from a historical perspective emphasizing on the colonial system and post-colonial military and civilian governance. The paper observes...

Akpan, Nseabasi S.

2012-01-01

103

Augmenting the Participatory Design Concept in Systems Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory Design (PD) is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems ...

Qin, Zheng; Indeje Wanyama

2010-01-01

104

K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings....

Sang-Yeon Sung

2013-01-01

105

Participatory approaches and the measurement of human well-being  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers the use of participatory methods in international development research, and asks what contribution these can make to the definition and measurement of well-being. It draws on general lessons arising from the project level, two larger-scale policy research processes sponsored by the World Bank, and the experience of quality of life studies. It also considers emerging experiments with using participatory methods to generate quantitative data. The paper closes by assessing t...

White, Sarah; Pettit, Jethro

2004-01-01

106

MORE SMART, SECURED AND PRIVACY CONCERNED PARTICIPATION IN PARTICIPATORY SENSING?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory Sensing (PS is an arising archetype that focuses on the collection of data produced from a large number of connected, always-on, always-carried mobile devices. Sensing paradigm leverages humans as part of the sensing infrastructure. PS enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants to share local knowledge acquired by their mobile sensor equipped devices. Hence personal information of user is conveyed by reports. Thus, a number of privacy concerns may hamper the large-scale deployment of PS applications. In PS, the targets is to provide a high level of privacy and security to data producers like users who are providing sensed information and consumers like applications that are accessing the gathered information. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in PS and introduce an acceptable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we accommodate a set of privacy requirements aiming at protecting privacy for both data producers and consumers. We present here a realistic architectural instantiation that attains privacy guarantees with provable security at very low additional computational cost and almost no extra communication overhead.

Ms. Sayara Bano Sheikh

2014-07-01

107

Participatory Forest Management in Ethiopia: Learning from Pilot Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta

2014-04-01

108

Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

2014-07-01

109

Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved socially and politically. The PAREU model empowers the community to take action from the research they, themselves, conducted, and enables them to carry out future research. Finally, many of these communities (and the general public) lack the understanding of the nature of science, which leads to ignorance on the part of citizens in areas of science such as climate change. By participating in science/social science research, community members gain a better understanding of the nature of science, making them more informed citizens. The PAREU model is theoretically grounded in decades of research in social science and documented impacts of student research experiences. In addition to providing practical benefits for communities with needs solvable by scientific research, the model builds on and expands student skills gained from traditional REU programs Deep and sustained engagement among scientists, social scientists, and community leaders is expected to create better informed citizens and improve their ability to solve problems.

Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

2013-12-01

110

Effect of a Participatory Intervention to Reduce the Number of Unnecessary Cesarean Sections Performed in Shahrekord of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research the role of participatory people in decreasing cesarean frequency has been investigated. For this purpose 171 pregnant women randomly selected from all pregnant women in Shahrekord. A participator team including housewives, teachers, sales, health communicators` physicians, midwifes and nurses were responsible for educating the selected women about the indication of cesarean section and benefits of vaginal birth. The contexts of the educated women were evaluated by a questionnaire from before and after education. In this research about 70% of the women were satisfied with the education program. Also frequency of cesarean which were 63% before intervention and after education decreased to 51% as a result of the education. The result of this study indicated that in health subjects such a cesarean which is related to society and human culture, participatory interventions can yield satisfactory results.

Forouzan Ganji

2006-01-01

111

Francisco B. Cruz: de la ‘agricultura pródiga’ a la revolución varietal azucarera en Cuba, 1878-1930  

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Full Text Available A través de la figura del agrónomo y científico cubano Francisco B. Cruz, este artículo explora el cambio en el sistema de cultivo cañero a finales del siglo XIX debido, entre otros factores, al fracaso del modelo basado en la agricultura prodiga. Asimismo, se destaca la participación de la Estación Experimental en la puesta en marcha del programa global de la revolución varietal. En este sentido, se subraya el papel de Francisco B. Cruz y las conexiones con otros actores institucionales y privados con diversos intereses en la reorganización de la industria azucarera cubana. La investigación se basa en documentos de la etapa y, fundamentalmente, en la documentación de la Estación Central Agronómica, hoy en día Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical ‘Alejandro de Humboldt’.

Leida Fernández Prieto

2013-03-01

112

Sensibilidade dos microssatélites para determinar a pureza varietal em sementes de milho Microsatellite markers to determine maize inbred seed purity  

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Full Text Available Em um sistema de produção de sementes, o limite de contaminação varietal em lotes de linhagens de milho é zero, de modo que a presença de apenas uma semente de genótipo estranho acarreta a reprovação do lote. Várias técnicas vêm sendo estudadas para determinar a pureza varietal, incluindo marcadores moleculares baseados em polimorfismo de DNA. Nessa pesquisa foi avaliada a sensibilidade da técnica de microssatélites para detectar a presença de sementes de outros genótipos em lotes de linhagens de milho. Utilizaram-se quatro linhagens (L1, L2, L3 e L4, onde as sementes da L2 eram contaminantes da L1 e, as da L4, contaminantes da L3. Para simulação de diferentes níveis de contaminação, 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 sementes do genótipo estranho foram misturadas a "bulks" de 100 sementes da linhagem comercial. Em seguida, efetuou-se a extração de DNA das amostras de sementes das quatro amostras preparadas. Por outro lado, para simular níveis inferiores de contaminação, foram misturados DNA do genótipo contaminante em níveis de 0,01; 0,013; 0,02; 0,04; 0,1; 0,2; 1; 2; 5; 10 e 100%. A amplificação dos microssatélites foi realizada utilizando o iniciador BNLG125 para a L1+L2 e o BNLG240 para L3+L4. Observou-se que os marcadores microssatélites foram eficientes para determinar a pureza varietal de lotes de sementes de linhagens de milho, utilizados neste estudo, com sensibilidade para detecção de concentrações de DNA iguais ou superiores a 0,01%, apresentando nitidez e repetibilidade, especialmente com a utilização de gel de poliacrilamida. Ao mesmo tempo, a presença de DNA estranho nas amostras constituídas por "bulks" foi detectada eficientemente por essa técnica, indicando a possibilidade de sua utilização em testes de rotina para avaliar a presença de outras cultivares, em lotes de sementes de milho.Genotype contamination in seed production of maize inbred seed lots is not tolerated, i.e. the presence of only one seed from another genotype in a lot is sufficient to discard this lot. Many procedures have been studied to detect genotype purity in different crops, including molecular markers based on DNA polymorphism. This research aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the microsatellite technique to detect the contaminating seeds in maize inbred lines. Four inbred lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4 were used. Samples of 100 seeds each of L1 were prepared considering L2 as a contaminant while seeds of L4 were contaminants in L3 seed lots. To simulate different contamination levels, 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 seeds of the foreign genotype were mixed with the inbred line and then DNA was extracted from each treatment. Successive DNA samples dilutions of 0.01; 0.013; 0.02; 0.04; 0.1; 0.2; 1; 2; 5; 10 and 100% were also realized with to simulate low contamination levels. For both analysis microsatellites amplifications were performed with the primers BNLG125 for L1+L2 and BNLG240 for L3+L4. The results showed that the microsatellite technique is efficient to determine the varietal purity of inbred maize used in this research. The sensitive technique is able to detect a 0.01% DNA contaminant level. Standardization and intensity were better when a polyacrylamide matrix was used. The presence of foreign DNA in the contaminated lots was efficiently detected with the microsatellite technique, indicating the usefulness of this procedure to detect the presence of foreign seeds within maize inbred lots.

Nilza Patrícia Ramos

2006-04-01

113

Augmenting the Participatory Design Concept in Systems Development  

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Full Text Available Participatory Design (PD is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems development. By recognizing the complementarities of the tools of these two approaches (SSM and QFD, we can enhance Participatory Design in systems development. Findings from literature review show that a comprehensive application of this concept is yet to be done in information systems development. The approach builds on the seven phases of Soft Systems Methodology by applying the Quality Function Deployment techniques to elicit information from complex and amorphous real-world situations to augment the Participatory Design process.Keywords: Participatory Design; Soft Systems Methodology; Quality Function Deployment; House of Quality

Zheng QIN

2010-06-01

114

Let Them do the Work : A Participatory Place Branding Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: This conceptual essay seeks to develop a participatory approach to place branding. In doing so, it offers guidance on how to implement a participatory place branding strategy within place management practice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on theoretical insights drawn from the combination of distinct literatures on place branding, general marketing, and collaborative governance. Findings: The paper highlights the importance of residents in the place branding process and argues that their special functions as ambassadors for the place constitute the most valuable assets in place branding. Thus, a participatory place branding approach involving residents is needed. To implement this approach, three stages are necessary: (stage 1) defining a shared vision for the place including core place elements; (stage 2) implementing a structure for participation; (stage 3) supporting residents in their own place branding projects. Originality/value: The inclusion of residents is often requested in contemporary place branding literature. Unfortunately, none of these articles offer a real strategy for participatory place branding so far. Thus, this conceptual essay provides a participatory place branding approach to help place managers implement such structure.

Zenker, Sebastian; Erfgen, Carsten

2014-01-01

115

POST-EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION: TOWARDS A MUCH MORE PARTICIPATORY PLANNING  

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Full Text Available After the devastating Great Wenchuan Earthquake occured in May 2008, China responded rapidly to mitigate the losses caused. Post-earthquake reconstruction planning plays a crucial role to the future development of earthquake struck areas. The post-earthquake reconstruction planning work has demonstrated to be an immediate action and tends to be a much more open and participatory. Since the influence of long term planned economy in the past and its centralised administration system, planning in China is comparatively information-close to ordinary people. However, the post-earthquake reconstruction planning turns to be a much wider participatory and more open than before, though it is still immature and there still many obstacles need to be overcome. This paper firstly introduces the Great Wenchuan Earthquake and the quick response of reconstruction planning in China. It depicts the intensive work of the reconstruction planning. Then it reviews the concept of participatory planning and the history of participatory planning in China. Thirdly, it identifies three new trends that a more participatory planning has showed in the reconstruction planning. Lastly, this paper points out some problems still exist in the reconstruction planning.

Sheng YING

2009-04-01

116

Empowerment and regulation : Dilemmas in participatory fisheries science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.

Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

2012-01-01

117

The construction of fictional space in participatory design practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores the creation of fictional space in participatory design and relates the notion of fictional space to the more general conception of design space as a space created through the situated practices of participants. The notion of fictional space provides insights for understanding the process through which participants in participatory design create a design space in which established conventions of everyday practice are altered or suspended. With inspiration from literary theory, it is argued that the production of fictional space may be understood in terms of participants practicing games of make-believe mediated by props. The motivation for discussing fictional space is traced through ongoing work on designing new exhibition spaces for museums. Through a case study from a participatory design session, it is explored how games of make-believe progress and the role of props in this process.

Dindler, Christian

2010-01-01

118

Images and the Ethics of Inclusion and Exclusion: Learning through Participatory Photography in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research methods directly engage with the topics that they set out to address. It is therefore no surprise that participatory research practice on the topic of educational inclusion and exclusion raises ethical issues for the participatory researcher that are themselves about inclusion and exclusion. This paper describes and analyses…

Kaplan, Ian; Miles, Susie; Howes, Andy

2011-01-01

119

Assessing Vital Signs: Applying Two Participatory Evaluation Frameworks to the Evaluation of a College of Nursing  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…

Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.

2011-01-01

120

Integrating Participatory Action Research and GIS Education: Negotiating Methodologies, Politics and Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…

Elwood, Sarah

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Distance management – a challenge in participatory interventions in virtual organizations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Virtual organizations challenge the first line managers as they have to be able to manage from afar as distance managers. Investigating distance management in participatory multi-level interventions this paper presents a case study of four SMEs which have applied the multi-level participatory PoWRS program (Prevention of Work-Related Stress) over a six month period. Interviews were conducted with employees, in-house process facilitators, project managers and first line managers. The results show that distance managers are even more challenged in interventions especially regarding coordination of activities and ensuring commitment.

Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv

2014-01-01

122

Disentangling participation power and decision-making in participatory design  

CERN Document Server

Providing a critical view on user participation in design, disentangling decision making and power in design, this book uses fieldwork material from two large participatory design projects: one experimental in the field of urban planning, the other a product development project within health care. Addressing power issues in participatory design is critical to providing a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of participation. Design is decision-making: during a design process a huge number of decisions?taken before the designers end up with a design result - an artefact or system

Bratteteig, Tone

2014-01-01

123

Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.

Forrest, Stephanie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; He, Wenbo [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Groat, Michael [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Edwards, Benjamin [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Horey, James L [ORNL

2013-01-01

124

Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be primarily responsible for managing and controlling them. The core aspect of the study is the use of cross-sectional survey research design in generating the required primary data. The place of study is the bonny NLNG construction project while the duration of study is between March, 2012 and February, 2013. A sample of 396 (35 supervisors, 98 foremen and 263 workmen respondents determined at 5% level of significance for sample error, using Yamane’s formula, was selected from a population of 40,568 employees using stratified random sampling method for the purpose of questionnaire administration. The results indicated that reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is to a large extent dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the Bonny NLNG construction project as buttressed by the 82% and 81% large extent response rate respectively. It therefore recommends among others: regular site safety audits to identify/eliminate sub-causes of accident, regular staff training to improve their hazard identification skills, formation of health and safety committee to identify/eliminate potential hazards at the task level and making hazard identification/reporting everyone’s responsibility.

Mba Okechukwu Agwu

2013-08-01

125

Gender and Innovation in Agriculture: A Case Study of Farmers’ Varietal Preference of Drought Tolerant Maize in Southern Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA). The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their...

Ayinde, O. E.; Abduolaye, T.; Olaoye, G.; Akangbe, J. A.

2013-01-01

126

Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L.) from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino,...

Rousseaux, M. C.; Searles, P. S.; Castro, D. N.; Rondanini, D. P.

2011-01-01

127

Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection

128

/ PARTICIPATORY SOIL IMPROVEMENT: A CUBAN CASE STUDY IN FERTILITY MANAGEMENT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La degradación mundial de la calidad del suelo y el agotamiento de las reservas de fertilizantes hechos a base de petróleo amenazan la seguridad alimentaria global. A pesar de que la investigación científica ha desarrollado soluciones técnicas para el mejoramiento del suelo con bajos insumos, los ag [...] ricultores que producen a pequeña escala no adoptan dichas prácticas frecuentemente. Con la meta de aumentar la implementación de prácticas que mejoran el suelo, un estudio de caso en la comunidad de San Andrés, Cuba, probó una metodología participativa para explorar el conocimiento local, identificar las tecnológicas que podían satisfacer las necesidades de la comunidad, e impulsar la innovación campesina con las tecnologías seleccionadas. A través de una investigación cualitativa, el estudio exploró el corpus, la praxis, y el kosmos que la comunidad tiene para conceptualizar, manejar y tomar decisiones sobre sus suelos. El análisis de etnopedología indicó que aunque los productores reconocen que la calidad de sus suelos está empeorando y que comparten una meta general sobre el mejoramiento de sus tierras a largo plazo, las estrategias existentes del manejo de la fertilidad son inadecuadas para satisfacer la demanda de los cultivos. Los resultados sugieren que la introducción de nuevas tecnologías a la comunidad podría acelerar la formación de una praxis más adecuada. Para satisfacer las necesidades de manejo de nutrientes, se seleccionaron abonos verdes y compost como las tecnologías más adecuadas para los sistemas de producción existentes. Es por ello que la “feria de fertilidad del suelo” reunió a investigadores y miembros de la comunidad, para experimentar con diferentes tipos de abonos verdes y compost, así como evaluar su comportamiento en contextos locales. El trabajo considera que la feria es una puerta de entrada al manejo sostenible del suelo por medio de la innovación campesina. Para guiar el futuro diseño del mejoramiento participativo del suelo, el trabajo expone las lecciones aprendidas de una experiencia que integró la etnopedología y las ferias del suelo. Abstract in english The degrading quality of soils worldwide and an uncertain supply of petroleum-based fertilizers are a threat to global food security. Although research has developed low-input technical solutions to improve soil resource, such technologies are rarely adopted by small farmers in the global south. Wit [...] h the goal of increasing farmer adoption of soil building practices, a case study in the community of San Andrés, Cuba, tested a participatory methodology to explore local knowledge, identify research technologies to meet community needs, and catalyze farmer innovation on the selected technologies. Through qualitative research, the study explored the corpus, praxis, and kosmos that the community held to conceptualize, manage, and make decisions about their soils. Analysis of ethnopedology indicated that although individuals recognized the degrading quality of their soils, and shared a wider goal of long-term land improvement, existing nutrient management strategies were inadequate to satisfy crop needs. Results suggested that introducing new technologies to the community could accelerate the formation of a more appropriate praxis. To satisfy nutrient management needs, green manures, and compost were identified as the technologies best suited to existing production systems. Then, a “soil fertility fair” joined researchers and community members, to experiment with green manures and compost, and evaluate the types most feasible to local conditions. The paper considers the fair as a gateway to sustainable soil management through farmer innovation. To help guide the future design of participatory soil improvement, the paper expounds lessons learned from the research experience with ethnopedology and soil fairs

Lisa, Kissing; A, Pimentel; María, Valido.

129

/ PARTICIPATORY SOIL IMPROVEMENT: A CUBAN CASE STUDY IN FERTILITY MANAGEMENT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La degradación mundial de la calidad del suelo y el agotamiento de las reservas de fertilizantes hechos a base de petróleo amenazan la seguridad alimentaria global. A pesar de que la investigación científica ha desarrollado soluciones técnicas para el mejoramiento del suelo con bajos insumos, los ag [...] ricultores que producen a pequeña escala no adoptan dichas prácticas frecuentemente. Con la meta de aumentar la implementación de prácticas que mejoran el suelo, un estudio de caso en la comunidad de San Andrés, Cuba, probó una metodología participativa para explorar el conocimiento local, identificar las tecnológicas que podían satisfacer las necesidades de la comunidad, e impulsar la innovación campesina con las tecnologías seleccionadas. A través de una investigación cualitativa, el estudio exploró el corpus, la praxis, y el kosmos que la comunidad tiene para conceptualizar, manejar y tomar decisiones sobre sus suelos. El análisis de etnopedología indicó que aunque los productores reconocen que la calidad de sus suelos está empeorando y que comparten una meta general sobre el mejoramiento de sus tierras a largo plazo, las estrategias existentes del manejo de la fertilidad son inadecuadas para satisfacer la demanda de los cultivos. Los resultados sugieren que la introducción de nuevas tecnologías a la comunidad podría acelerar la formación de una praxis más adecuada. Para satisfacer las necesidades de manejo de nutrientes, se seleccionaron abonos verdes y compost como las tecnologías más adecuadas para los sistemas de producción existentes. Es por ello que la “feria de fertilidad del suelo” reunió a investigadores y miembros de la comunidad, para experimentar con diferentes tipos de abonos verdes y compost, así como evaluar su comportamiento en contextos locales. El trabajo considera que la feria es una puerta de entrada al manejo sostenible del suelo por medio de la innovación campesina. Para guiar el futuro diseño del mejoramiento participativo del suelo, el trabajo expone las lecciones aprendidas de una experiencia que integró la etnopedología y las ferias del suelo. Abstract in english The degrading quality of soils worldwide and an uncertain supply of petroleum-based fertilizers are a threat to global food security. Although research has developed low-input technical solutions to improve soil resource, such technologies are rarely adopted by small farmers in the global south. Wit [...] h the goal of increasing farmer adoption of soil building practices, a case study in the community of San Andrés, Cuba, tested a participatory methodology to explore local knowledge, identify research technologies to meet community needs, and catalyze farmer innovation on the selected technologies. Through qualitative research, the study explored the corpus, praxis, and kosmos that the community held to conceptualize, manage, and make decisions about their soils. Analysis of ethnopedology indicated that although individuals recognized the degrading quality of their soils, and shared a wider goal of long-term land improvement, existing nutrient management strategies were inadequate to satisfy crop needs. Results suggested that introducing new technologies to the community could accelerate the formation of a more appropriate praxis. To satisfy nutrient management needs, green manures, and compost were identified as the technologies best suited to existing production systems. Then, a “soil fertility fair” joined researchers and community members, to experiment with green manures and compost, and evaluate the types most feasible to local conditions. The paper considers the fair as a gateway to sustainable soil management through farmer innovation. To help guide the future design of participatory soil improvement, the paper expounds lessons learned from the research experience with ethnopedology and soil fairs

Lisa, Kissing; A, Pimentel; María, Valido.

2009-06-01

130

Perfil sensorial de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros através de análise descritiva quantitativa / Sensory profile of brazilian varietal white wines by quantitative descriptive analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling) foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ). Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, mate [...] riais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado. Abstract in english Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay) were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, t [...] heir respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and differences among the wine samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeters non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The collected data were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed a great difference within the sensory profile of Riesling and Gewürztraminer wines, whereas Chardonnay wines showed a lesser variation. PCA separated samples into two groups: a first group formed by wines higher in sweetness and fruitty flavor and aroma; and a second group of wines higher in sourness, adstringency, bitterness, alcoholic and fermented flavors.

Jorge Herman, BEHRENS; Maria Aparecida Azevedo P. da, SILVA.

2000-04-01

131

Participatory Evaluation: Implications for Improving Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the participatory approach used by a group of academic support staff in evaluating an academic professional development resource designed to support e-learning and teaching. The resource, titled Designing Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches (DELTA), showcases examples of electronic learning and teaching approaches…

Benson, Robyn; Samarawickrema, Gayani; O'Connell, Margaret

2009-01-01

132

Local Democracy, Rural Community, and Participatory School Governance  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the indigenization of democracy in India by conceptualizing participatory deliberative decision-making practice as a tool to strengthen the functioning of local schools and to enhance democratic responsiveness within communities. Drawing on case-studies of bottom-up approaches to school governance, this study examines an…

Arvind, Gaysu R.

2009-01-01

133

Participatory Photography: Can It Help Adult Learners Develop Agency?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…

Yang, Kyung-Hwa

2014-01-01

134

Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

Smith, Liz

2008-01-01

135

Deciding What to Research: An Overview of a Participatory Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

While recent years have seen an increase in the number of participatory and inclusive research studies being undertaken where people with learning disabilities are active members of the research team, little has been published about how teams decide what to research. This paper aims to fill this gap by discussing how in one area of Wales a…

Northway, Ruth; Hurley, Karen; O'Connor, Chris; Thomas, Helen; Howarth, Joyce; Langley, Emma; Bale, Sue

2014-01-01

136

Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

MacDonald, Cathy

2012-01-01

137

China Earthquake Relief: Participatory Action Work with Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…

Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux

2011-01-01

138

Investigating the Design Process : Participatory Design in Agile Software Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings – The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.

Kautz, Karlheinz

2011-01-01

139

Community-Based Participatory Research: How Do Academicians Rate Success in Iran?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the com­munity. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs. We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sec­tional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1 were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory re­search. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such pro­jects, namely community and stakeholders.

H Malekafzali

2009-03-01

140

Determination of antioxidant capacities, ?-dicarbonyls, and phenolic phytochemicals in Florida varietal honeys using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Honeys contain phenolic compounds and ?-dicarbonyls with antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities, respectively. The type and concentration of these compounds vary depending on the floral source and geographical location where the honey is produced. Seventeen varietal honeys, including 12 monofloral and 5 multifloral honeys, were sampled from different regions of Florida. The monofloral honeys included those from citrus, tupelo, palmetto, and gallberry. These honeys were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and free radical scavenging capacity and compared with three New Zealand Manuka honeys. Phenolic phytochemicals and ?-dicarbonyls were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Several honey varieties from gallberry, Manuka, and multifloral displayed a total phenolic content >1000 ?g GAE/g. A citrus honey had the lowest total phenolic content of 286 ?g GAE/g. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the honeys ranged from 1.48 to 18.2 ?mol TE/g. All honeys contained 3-deoxyglucosone at a higher concentration than methylglyoxal or glyoxal. Manuka honeys had higher concentrations of methylglyoxal than other varieties. Plant hormones 2-cis,4-trans-abscisic acid and 2-trans,4-trans-abscisic acid were the most abundant phytochemicals in all honeys. Coumaric acid, rutin, chrysin, pinocembrin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol were also found in samples but at lower concentrations. PMID:25102012

Marshall, Sara M; Schneider, Keith R; Cisneros, Katherine V; Gu, Liwei

2014-08-27

 
 
 
 
141

Evaluation of foliar phenols of 25 Mexican varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as antioxidants and varietal markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant properties and the foliar phenol composition of 25 Mexican varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) were evaluated. Phaseolus coccineus was analysed with comparative aims. The high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection analysis revealed 27 phenolics in the leaves of P. vulgaris (13 quercetin-3-O-glycosides, 8 kaempferol-3-O-glycosides, 2 myricetin glycosides and 4 phenolic acids) and 5 in P. coccineus (2 kaempferol-3-O-glycoside, 2 apigenin-7-O-glycoside and 1 luteolin-7-O-glycoside). All extracts showed high levels of phenols and flavonoids (0.964-5.601 mg g(- 1) dry tissue, and 0.287-1.418 mg g(- 1) dry tissue, respectively) and relevant antioxidant properties, suggesting that the leaves of the varieties of P. vulgaris are a significant source of natural antioxidants. The foliar phenol profiles were species-specific and, besides, the qualitative variation allowed discriminating among varieties of P. vulgaris. These profiles can represent an important varietal authenticity proof. PMID:24969366

Reyes-Martínez, Alfonso; Almaraz-Abarca, Norma; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhri; González-Elizondo, María Del Socorro; Herrera-Arrieta, Yolanda; Pajarito-Ravelero, Arnulfo; Alanís-Bañuelos, Ruth Elizabeth; Torres-Morán, Martha Isabel

2014-12-01

142

Decentralization and Participatory Rural Development: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the developing nations are still struggling for efficient use of their resources. In order to overcome physical and administrative constraints of the development, it is necessary to transfer the power from the central government to local authorities. Distribution of power from improves the management of resources and community participation which is considered key to sustainable development. Advocates of decentralization argue that decentralized government is source to improve community participation in rural development. Decentralized government is considered more responsive towards local needs and development of poor peoples. There are many obstacles to expand the citizen participation in rural areas. There are many approaches for participatory development but all have to face the same challenges. Current paper highlights the literature about Decentralization and participatory rural development. Concept and modalities of Decentralization, dimensions of participation, types of rural participation and obstacles to participation are also the part of this paper.

Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

2011-12-01

143

Values-led Participatory Design - Mediating the Emergence of Values  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can potentially

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah

2012-01-01

144

Paper Prototyping as a Rapid Participatory Design Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes participatory activities with university lecturers to design an online community. The objective of this study is to engage the users of an online community to collaboratively design their online community. We speculated that by involving them in the design team, we can identify their specific requirements, and they will accept and use the system. However, lecturers have heavy workload and tight schedule. For that reason, we thought that paper prototyping is the most suitable tool to be used because it is fast and easy to create. Therefore, paper prototyping technique has been adapted in a two-day participatory design session. We found that paper prototyping is indeed the most suitable technique to elicit requirements from the end users under a time constraint. Moreover, participants came out with unexpected requirements and novel interface.

Aznoora Osman

2009-07-01

145

A mixed method study of propensity for participatory evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

One way to increase the use of evaluation results is practical participatory evaluation (PPE), which enables non-evaluator participants to join the evaluation process in a participatory mode. We examined the propensity for PPE of health professionals by focusing on four components: learning, working in groups, using judgment and using systematic methods. We interviewed the professionals at a Haitian health institution to determine their positioning on a scale of propensity (low, medium and high) for the four components. The professionals defined each component in relation to the energy puts into them, being more or less proactive. Facilitating elements for all three levels of propensity integration included past positive experiences, external pressure and a desire for better individual and organizational performance. Impeding factors included a lack of available resources perceived responsibilities and commitments toward private patients. The reported advantages included improved organizational performance and idea sharing, and the disadvantages included availability of, difficulty implementing solutions and altered human relationships. PMID:21555045

Smits, Pernelle A; Champagne, François; Brodeur, Jean-Marc

2011-08-01

146

Environmental Sustainability and Participatory Approaches: the Case of Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A big challenge of the new millennium consists of activating a large mobilization of society toward concrete, efficient and efficacy actions which promote awareness of the problems and their solutions for a sustainable environment. In order to address the different environmental issues existing today in Italy, besides correct and transparent communication, it is also needed the involvement of local communities. The greater problem is how to inform the public. Starting from an analysis of different kinds of participatory approaches, the paper proposes a classification of methods and techniques in four different typologies: participation by feedback, participation by consultation, participation by negotiating and participation by online interaction. Moreover, in depth interviews have been carried out to interdisciplinary experts to evaluate which participatory approaches are the best to use in Italy in terms of participation and cost-effectiveness, to identify constraints that limit the implementation of the different approaches and to provide solutions to overcome them.

Patrizia Grifoni

2014-04-01

147

The design game in Participatory Design and design education : Chances, risks and side effects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used in a way that will be labeled as »interested«, rather than in a way labeled as »taking for granted«. It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction.

Törpel, Bettina

2006-01-01

148

Participatory rural appraisal of spate irrigation systems in eastern Eritrea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Sheeb area in eastern Eritrea a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out in two villages, one upstream and one downstream of the ephemeral rivers Laba and Mai-ule. The objectives of the study were to obtain a better understanding of farmer-managed spate irrigation systems and to enable the local people to perform their own farming system analysis. This paper describes the various PRA activities, such as mapping, diagramming and ranking of problems, that were undertaken with ...

Tesfai, M.; Graaff, J.

2000-01-01

149

Sustainable E-Participation through participatory experiences in education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010) enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and edu...

Ursula Maier-Rabler; Stefan Huber

2010-01-01

150

How sustainable is participatory watershed development in India?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Watershed conservation is widely recognized as a major strategy for rural development throughout the developing world. In India, the apparent success of participatory approaches to watershed development resulted in a decentralization of project planning, implementation, and management to local communities at the village scale. We explore the effectiveness of this so-called community-based approach in achieving sustainable soil and water conservation in four semi-arid regions in India, and ana...

Bouma, J. A.; Soest, D. P.; Bulte, E. H.

2007-01-01

151

Why do we still need participatory technology assessment?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper contributes to the current discussion on the role of participatory methods in the context of technology assessment (TA) and science and technology (S&T) governance. It is argued that TA has to be understood as a form of democratic policy consulting in the sense of the Habermasian model of a “pragmatist” relation of science and politics. This notion implies that public participation is an indispensable element of TA in the context of policy advice. Against this background, partic...

Hennen, Leonhard

2012-01-01

152

Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection.

Sheng, Grant; Yam, Kevin; Hassas, Aranak [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies

2001-07-01

153

Varietal improvement of Brassica species through introduction, hybridization and mutation breeding techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germplasm of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea was collected from various parts of Bangladesh and evaluated for yield, oil content etc. prior to the breeding programme. Seeds of the B. campestris variety YS-52, possessing good agronomic characteristics, were treated with mutagens (gamma rays and sodium azide) to widen the genetic variation. Mutants were selected for higher yield and resistance against Alternaria brassicae. The two mutant lines BINA 1 and BINA 2 were selected exceeding the parent variety considerably in yield and disease resistance. They are candidates for recommended varieties. Brassica juncea variety RCM 625 was treated with gamma rays and EMS. Four higher yielding and earlier maturing mutants are being evaluated further. 6 tabs

154

Stakeholder involvement in stages of a participatory process illustrated in interior design cases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a previous study (Vink et al., 2008) an overview was made of the involvement of different stakeholders in a participatory design process. In this paper this overview was used to describe four participatory design cases focused on improvising productivity, health, and comfort by interior design. It appeared that this overview is useful to describe the involvement in participatory interior design projects. However, it can only serve as an initial benchmark as much is dependent on the specific case at hand.

Seim, Rikke Technical University of Denmark,

2008-01-01

155

The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins human consumption and large-scale cultivation.

Burbano C.

1999-01-01

156

Mortality in Chicks Associated with Economic Impact and Prospect of Layer Chick Rearer Package Programme of the Participatory Livestock Development Project in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Participatory Livestock Development Project (PLDP) has been implemented in Bangladesh for the alleviation of poverty through livestock production, employment, income generation and intake of nutrition in rural people. The management and disease problems with cost-benefit analysis of the layer chick rearer package programme of the PLDP have been evaluated in randomly selected 10 layer chick rearing units (n=3100 chicks) from day-old chicks up to 60 days to marketing of Muktagacha areas in ...

Islam, M. T.; Samad, M. A.

2004-01-01

157

Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations, flow measurement sites and shallow groundwater wells. The network is now used to monitor hydro-meteorological parameters in collaboration with key stakeholders in the catchment. Preliminary results indicate that the network is working well. The benefits of this approach compared to conventional narrow scientific/technical approaches have been shown by gaining rapid insight into the hydrology of the catchment, identifying best sites for the instruments; and voluntary participation of stakeholders in installation, monitoring and safeguarding the installations. This approach has proved simple yet effective and yielded good results. Based on this experience gained in applying the approach in establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network, we conclude that the integrated participatory approach helps to assimilate local and expert knowledge in catchments monitoring which consequently results in: (i) identifying best sites for the hydrologic monitoring; (ii) instilling the sense of ownership; (iii) providing security of the installed network; and (iv) minimizing costs for installation and monitoring.

Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

158

Microsatellite polymorphism in wheat from Brazilian cultivars; inter- and intra-varietal studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eleven samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum from different Brazilian cultivars and six American varieties were compared for polymorphism, using primers for nine different STR loci. STR analysis of DNA from single grains of the Brazilian varieties showed that for most loci there was very little intra-cultivar polymorphism. The polymorphic variation observed for Brazilian cultivars was similar to that seen in the American varieties. For the Brazilian cultivars PCR analysis could be performed on only one half of a grain. The American samples required more seeds for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of five amplified microsatellites selected at random from the Brazilian samples were also determined and compared to those of the Chinese Spring variety. Although generally the dinucleotide sequence repeat was preserved for most loci, there were significant differences in sequences interspersed within the repeat domain. This result suggested that it may be possible to unequivocally identify the geographical origin of the cultivar by inspection of the DNA sequences of the repeat region.

Vitor Lopes de Abreu Lima

2003-01-01

159

Microsatellite polymorphism in wheat from Brazilian cultivars; inter- and intra-varietal studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Eleven samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum) from different Brazilian cultivars and six American varieties were compared for polymorphism, using primers for nine different STR loci. STR analysis of DNA from single grains of the Brazilian varieties showed that for most loci there was very little intra [...] -cultivar polymorphism. The polymorphic variation observed for Brazilian cultivars was similar to that seen in the American varieties. For the Brazilian cultivars PCR analysis could be performed on only one half of a grain. The American samples required more seeds for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of five amplified microsatellites selected at random from the Brazilian samples were also determined and compared to those of the Chinese Spring variety. Although generally the dinucleotide sequence repeat was preserved for most loci, there were significant differences in sequences interspersed within the repeat domain. This result suggested that it may be possible to unequivocally identify the geographical origin of the cultivar by inspection of the DNA sequences of the repeat region.

Vitor Lopes de Abreu, Lima; Homiko Abreu, Seki; Franklin David, Rumjanek.

160

Studying the features of radionuclides entering depending on varietal tomato composition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was evaluated the initial material of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in accordance with the degree of accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 as well as there were revealed the sources for selection breeding with the minimal accumulation of radionuclides. In course of the study there were presented the parameters of adaptive ability, ecological stability and radionuclide content in varieties (Dokhodnyj; Talalikhin; Fakel; F1 Sozvezdie) and parthenocarpic lines of tomato. Research results showed the substantial variability in accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 by various varieties and lines. Hybrid F1 Sozvesdie, Talalikhin variety and parthenocarpic lines 1 and 7 proved the ability to accumulate minimal amount of radionuclides. It was not proposed to cultivate at the contaminated areas the tomato variety Fakel. As a result of study there was created a hybrid F1 Sozvesdie. Its cultivation on the contaminated areas made it possible to obtain ecologically safe products

 
 
 
 
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Analyses of flooding tolerance of soybean varieties at emergence and varietal differences in their proteomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins. PMID:25053003

Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko

2014-10-01

162

Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

2010-01-01

163

The Impact of Participatory-Democratic Work Experience on Adolescent Development: A Methodological Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives of a study of the impact of participatory-democratic work experience on adolescent development are (1) to explore the possibilities for facilitating adolescent development by promoting participatory-democratic work structure in Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) programs and to augment past research on YCC by monitoring the structure of…

Basseches, Michael; Hamilton, Stephen F.

164

Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowing how students engage with music outside school music programs can help music educators and their programs evolve. This article offers a look at music teaching and learning in terms of how people are increasingly interacting with music in participatory ways that involve digital technologies and media. This participatory culture offers a…

Tobias, Evan S.

2013-01-01

165

Participatory assessment of the Toliara Bay reef fishery, southwest Madagascar  

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Full Text Available In order to ensure the sustainable management of reef fisheries, it is necessary to obtain data about the effects of these fisheries on both fish resources and the ecosystems that sustain them. Ecosystem-based surveys provide this information, but are difficult to implement because of technical, financial and human resources requirements. In this regard participatory assessment methods have the potential to increase the amount of data collected at low cost, while taking advantage of local traditional ecological knowledge. In order to investigate the reef fishery of Toliara Bay, southwest Madagascar, we used participatory fish survey and interview data collected on site. These methods included: (i monitoring of catch landings during six months by wholesale fish merchants, (ii household surveys of fishing catch and effort and fish consumption conducted by school children, and (iii semi-structured interviews of reef users. One thousand five hundred and eighty six fishing trips were sampled between September 2006 and February 2007, 326 households were surveyed by trained school children in January 2007, and 70 reef users were interviewed in July/August 2006. Data collected by participants have been compiled and compared to reference values when available, allowing an assessment of the sustainability of the reef fishery. The results of this study confirm the unsustainable nature of resource exploitation and underline the need for rapid management responses in order to reverse this trend. It also highlights the great potential of participatory assessment methods for gathering large amounts of relevant information on the status and evolution of the ecosystem upon which the fishery depends, while promoting education and awareness about the protection and sustainable use of natural resources.

Jamal Mahafina

2011-12-01

166

Participatory GIS for Soil Conservation in Phewa Watershed of Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.

Bhandari, K. P.

2012-07-01

167

Participatory pattern workshops: a methodology for open learning design inquiry  

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Full Text Available In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their colleagues have facilitated many workshops in which participants shared experiences, captured these as design narratives, extracting design patterns, and applied them to novel teaching challenges represented as design scenarios. This paper presents the core elements of the methodology that emerged from these workshops: the Participatory Patterns Workshops (PPW methodology.

Niall Winters

2012-08-01

168

Design of Institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak Management  

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Full Text Available This research aims to formulate policy and institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak management. This research was conducted in District Solok and District Tanah Datar, West Sumatera Province. This study object is focused in Lake Singkarak area. The results of research are: (1 interest and influence of stakeholders are varied based on institution, need, region, utility orientation, (2 policy alternatives for lake Singkarak management are firstly co-management and secondly lake management by multi stakeholder and (3 all stakeholders in the institution for lake management have to participate beginning from institutional building, policy decision making process, policy implementation, control and evaluation.

Genius Umar

2011-11-01

169

Applying Participatory Methods to Address Motivational Aspects in Informal Workplace  

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Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.

Teresa Holocher

2011-02-01

170

The Dangerous Museum : Participatory practices and controversy in museums today  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Whereas museums shunned controversy in the past, this article argues that as museums embrace the new trend of audience participation some have also opted to introduce "hot topics" into museum exhibitions. Museum professionals who have adopted this particular form of museum practice predict that it has the potential to reform museums as we know them and to turn museums into active agents for democratic change in society. In a bid to understand and scrutinize the implications of this development in museums, the article consults critiques raised by art critics writing about a related development in contemporary art, i.e. relational and participatory art forms.

2014-01-01

171

Participation and power : In participatory research and action research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers to participation conceptualised as various degrees of codetermination in organisations and in research processes?’ The anthology is part of a follow-up on an initiative taken in 2010 by Professor Werner Fricke, editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Action Research for many years. His vision was to create an academy of AR and PR.

2014-01-01

172

Evaluating participatory modeling: developing a framework for cross-case analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory modeling is increasingly recognized as an effective way to assist collective decision-making processes in the domain of natural resource management. This article introduces a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory modeling approach. This evaluation framework--known as the "Protocol of Canberra"--was developed through a collaboration between French and Australian researchers engaged in participatory modeling and evaluation research. The framework seeks to assess the extent to which different participatory modeling initiatives not only modify perceptions among and interactions between participants, but also contribute to collective decision-making. The article discusses the development of the framework and its application to three case-studies, two from Australia and one from the Pacific Island of the Republic of Kiribati. The article concludes with some comments for future use of the framework in a range of participatory modeling contexts. PMID:19847478

Jones, Natalie A; Perez, Pascal; Measham, Thomas G; Kelly, Gail J; d'Aquino, Patrick; Daniell, Katherine A; Dray, Anne; Ferrand, Nils

2009-12-01

173

Participatory Design in the Developing World : Issues and opportunities from case studies of adapting Nordic participatory approaches to a South African context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the field of participatory design originating in Scandinavia, where approaches are developed for actively engaging local stakeholders in change processes, a major part of the research has been confined to Western contexts. The need to study participatory design in broader settings outside Western organisations has been stressed in the research community over the last decade, but later research indicates that still relatively few studies are done in developing countries. Researchers recognise that participatory design approaches cannot simply be transferred to developing country settings as there are numerous challenges for enabling participation, e.g. power distance, cultural barriers, low educational levels and geographical distances. However, participatory design offers substantial opportunities for developing countries, regarding empowerment in local communities and democratisation of change processes. Arguably, the appropriation of participatory design approaches and methods to developing world settings is an important priority in research cooperation between Nordic and Southern African universities. This work presents issues and opportunities for introducing participatory design in a South African context, based on two case studies. In the first case, concepts for new information technology were developed for a small-scale wine farm in the Western Cape, engaging multiple stakeholders on the farm. In the second case, hyper-local storytelling distributed through Bluetooth technology was explored in a socially challenged suburb in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town. Issues on appropriation of strategies and methods for participation are discussed, and directions for further research in the field are identified.

Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester

174

Participatory ergonomics: development of an employee assessment questionnaire.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite being essential to the success of participatory ergonomics (PEs) programs, there are currently no known quantitative measures that capture the employees' perspective of PE program effectiveness. The present study addresses this need through the development of the Employee Perceptions of Participatory Ergonomics Questionnaire (EPPEQ). The questionnaire is designed to assess five key components that are based on a review of the available literature: Employee Involvement, Knowledge Base, Managerial Support, Employee Support, and Strain related to ergonomic changes. In Phase 1, a sample of employees and ergonomists working at a manufacturing plant was used to develop and test an initial set of items. In Phase 2, data was collected from a nation-wide sample of employees representing a wide range of jobs and organizations to cross-validate the results from Phase 1. Phase 2 results indicate that the five EPPEQ subscales demonstrate sound convergent validity and are also correlated with traditional indicators of PE program success. Implications and uses of the EPPEQ are discussed. PMID:21094334

Matthews, Russell A; Gallus, Jessica A; Henning, Robert A

2011-01-01

175

The value and limitations of Participatory Action Research methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThis article describes the Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology used to trial and evaluate a suite of planning tools to improve the engagement process for statutory water planning in Australia, and assesses its value and limitations in the Australian context. We argue that the strength of this method is its consistency with a social learning and adaptive management approach. We owe the success of this research approach to five key factors: a high degree of access to the project setting; clear demarcation of roles and responsibilities between researchers and participants; considerable effort spent building and maintaining informal networks and relationships; sensitivity to the relationship between 'insiders' (the participants or owners of the issue i.e. government and community) and 'outsiders' (the research project team); and continual review of project planning and willingness to adapt timeframes and processes to suit the situation. The value and challenges of Participatory Action Research are discussed with key lessons emerging for improving its practice, as well as the transferability of this knowledge to engagement practice for water planning.

Mackenzie, John; Tan, Poh-Ling; Hoverman, Suzanne; Baldwin, Claudia

2012-12-01

176

Participatory design in the development of the wheelchair convoy system  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In long-term care environments, residents who have severe mobility deficits are typically transported by having another person push the individual in a manual wheelchair. This practice is inefficient and encourages staff to hurry to complete the process, thereby setting the stage for unsafe practices. Furthermore, the time involved in assembling multiple individuals with disabilities often deters their participation in group activities. Methods The Wheelchair Convoy System (WCS is being developed to allow a single caregiver to move multiple individuals without removing them from their wheelchairs. The WCS will consist of a processor, and a flexible cord linking each wheelchair to the wheelchair in front of it. A Participatory Design approach – in which several iterations of design, fabrication and evaluation are used to elicit feedback from users – was used. Results An iterative cycle of development and evaluation was followed through five prototypes of the device. The third and fourth prototypes were evaluated in unmanned field trials at J. Iverson Riddle Development Center. The prototypes were used to form a convoy of three wheelchairs that successfully completed a series of navigation tasks. Conclusion A Participatory Design approach to the project allowed the design of the WCS to quickly evolve towards a viable solution. The design that emerged by the end of the fifth development cycle bore little resemblance to the initial design, but successfully met the project's design criteria. Additional development and testing is planned to further refine the system.

Olson Joseph

2008-01-01

177

K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria  

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Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

Sang-Yeon Sung

2013-12-01

178

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

179

Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Emnet for denne afhandling er design af engagerende interaktive miljøer, og afhandlingen er positioneret i krydsfeltet mellem participatory design, designteori og interaktionsdesign. Afhandlingens emne er blevet adresseret gennem et forskningsprogram vedrørende design af engagerende interaktive udstillingsrum på museer og oplevelsescentre. Afhandlingen består af syv forskningsartikler, sammenfattet i en generel oversigt, som sammenbinder argumenterne fra de inkluderede artikler og beskriver relateret arbejde og forskningsmetode. Bidraget afspejler et fokus på at forstå engagement i udstillingsrum og at forme designprocesser indenfor rammerne af ideen om engagerende interaktive miljøer. Den første del af bidraget relaterer sig til at konceptualisere aspekter af engagement i relation til interaktive miljøer. Begrebet participatory engagement præsenteres som et generelt perspektiv, der belyser hvordan individer og grupper investerer deres tid, evner og viden i interaktive miljøer. Indenfor dette overordnede perspektiv præsenteres means of engagement som de konkrete midler, der medierer engagement. Dette begreb rækker ud over individuelle teknologier og brugerflader og favner den mængde af elementer, der arrangeres gennem design, og som i sammenhæng medierer engagement. Gennem en diskussion af begrebet motivation argumenteres der for, at museer kan skabe engagement ved at mediere mellem de besøgendes hverdagspraksis og den faglige viden præsenteret på museet. Bidragets anden og største del beskæftiger sig med tilrettelæggelse af designundersøgelser. Denne del sammenfattes gennem begrebet fiktionsrum (fictional space), som er et perspektiv på skabelsen af designrum, hvori etablerede normer og konventioner ændres eller tilsidesættes indenfor participatory designundersøgelser. Motivationen for at skabe fiktionsrum i participatory design er at invitere deltagere i design til at gentænke eksisterende praksisser og forstille sig, hvordan deres praksis kunne være, hvis eksisterende konventioner blev ændret. Denne motivation gøres mere håndgribelig ved at relatere den til de designudfordringer, som museer står overfor. Der argumenteres for, at fiktionsrum skabes gennem games of make-believe, som er medieret af props, der bemyndiger forestillingsevnen og virker som både forankrende og transcenderende elementer. Begrebet om fiktionsrum udvikles med baggrund i designteori og udfoldes indenfor rammerne af participatory design. Fiktionsrum og de begreber, der præsenteres i relation til dette, er ikke metoder eller teknikker til at udføre designundersøgeler. Disse fordrer dog refleksion og handling i relation til især tre aspekter vedrørende designundersøgelser, der specifikt søger at ændre eller tilsidesætte etablerede konventioner. For det første belyser begrebet om fiktionsrum, hvordan designundersøgelser tilrettelægges, og specielt hvordan forskellige props bruges til både at forankre design aktiviteter i nuværende praksisser og til at transcendere disse praksisser. For det andet fordrer begrebet om fiktionsrum som et produkt games of make-believe refleksion over, hvordan specifikke designundersøgelser forløber, og hvordan deltagere ændrer og tilsidesætter elementer af etablerede praksisser. Dette giver mulighed for en mere nuanceret forståelse af, hvordan deltagere forstiller sig, at deres praksis kan ændres, iiiog hvilke aspekter der indeholder mest potentiale af modstand. For det tredje giver begrebet om fiktionsrum værktøjer, hvormed designere kan reflektere over, hvordan de ideer, scenarier eller modeller, der udvikles gennem specifikke designundersøgelser, er udtryk for deltagernes gentænkning af eksisterende praksisser.

Dindler, Christian

2010-01-01

180

Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor descriptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determinadas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante.

Alberto Miele

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo / Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção A [...] grícola do Estado de São Paulo) e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira), figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral), existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente. Abstract in english During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo) , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit gro [...] wers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine), fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

Wilson, Barbosa; Celso Valdevino, Pommer; Mariângela Drugovick, Ribeiro; Renato Ferraz de Arruda, Veiga; Antonio Alberto, Costa.

2003-08-01

182

Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo / Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção A [...] grícola do Estado de São Paulo) e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira), figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral), existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente. Abstract in english During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo) , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit gro [...] wers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine), fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

Wilson, Barbosa; Celso Valdevino, Pommer; Mariângela Drugovick, Ribeiro; Renato Ferraz de Arruda, Veiga; Antonio Alberto, Costa.

183

Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira, figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral, existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente.During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit growers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine, fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

Wilson Barbosa

2003-08-01

184

Starting with ourselves in deepening our understanding of generativity in participatory educational research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Participatory educational research is generally characterised by a commitment to making a difference in the lives of those who participate in the research and more broadly, to promoting social transformation. This suggests a potentially fruitful synergy between participatory educational research and [...] the multidisciplinary body of academic work on generativity as a human capacity that has at its core a desire to contribute to the well-being of others. As a research team of teacher educators from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, we seek to add an alternative dimension to current debates on participatory educational research by focusing on understanding the 'how' and 'what' of generativity in a participatory research process. The research question we address is: How does/can engagement in participatory educational research facilitate generativity? While participatory research literature often concentrates on collaboration between researchers and 'researched' communities, we are taking a reflexive stance by exploring our own participation in our dual roles as university community members and as researchers studying our colleagues' experiences in relation to integration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related issues in university curricula. We describe how our use of the visual method of storyboarding facilitated insight into generativity in participatory educational research. Building on an earlier concept of generativity, we identify and discuss significant generativefeatures ofparticipation, playfulness, passion, and perspicacity in our research process.

Linda, van Laren; Ronicka, Mudaly; Kathleen, Pithouse-Morgan; Shakila, Singh.

185

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Sonia M. N. Felipone

2013-09-01

186

Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st century is occurring in the face of uncertainties where the "facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high and decisions urgent and where no single one of these dimensions can be managed in isolation from the rest." This article concludes, however, that uncertainty is not an accident of the scientific method, but its very substance. Anticipatory governance with participatory foresight offers a mechanism to respond to such inherent sociotechnical uncertainties in the emerging field of vaccinomics by making the coproduction of scientific knowledge by technology and the social systems explicit. Ultimately, this serves to integrate scientific and social knowledge thereby steering innovations to coproduce results and outputs that are socially robust and context sensitive. PMID:21848419

Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

2011-09-01

187

Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements : The Strengths and Challenges of Participatory Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.

Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde

2014-01-01

188

Participatory Methods in Health Research with elderly People  

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Full Text Available The Institut für Gerontologische Forschung e.V. investigated the "Primary Prevention Effects of the Märkisches Viertel Network" in Berlin in a research project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The study integrates various participatory methods to investigate the health promotion effects of the volunteer Märkisches Viertel Network, an organisation that brings together different local actors working to assist and encourage older people to live independent lives. In this project participation was realised in two different levels: Firstly, in the cooperation between the team of investigators and the network, secondly, in the handling with the target group of (socially disadvantaged elderly people. The experiences in both processes will be explained and critically discussed after a brief overview about the project.

Kerstin Kammerer

2011-08-01

189

Tribal participatory research: mechanisms of a collaborative model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although much social science research has been conducted within American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities, relatively little research has been conducted by or for those communities. We describe an approach that facilitates the active involvement of AIAN communities in the research process, from conceptualizing the issues to be investigated to developing a research design, and from collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data to disseminating the results. The Tribal Participatory Research (TPR) approach is consistent with recent developments in psychology that emphasize the inclusion of community members and the social construction of knowledge. We describe the foundations of the approach and present specific mechanisms that can be employed in collaborations between researchers and AIAN communities. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the use of TPR regarding project timelines and budgets, interpretation of the data, and ultimately the relationships between tribes and researchers. PMID:14703257

Fisher, Philip A; Ball, Thomas J

2003-12-01

190

Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps  

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Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

2007-07-01

191

HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH  

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Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.

PROF.B.SUNDARARAMAN

2013-04-01

192

Design Anthropology in Participatory Design : From Ethnography to Anthropological Critique?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions between research and design. This half-day workshop invites participant to discuss and explore opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical.

Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

193

Voice, Citizenship, and Civic Action : Challenges to Participatory Communication  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years the world has experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which claims for voice and citizenship through massive civic action have conquered center stage in the public debate. This resurgence has sparked a series of questions about how these new calls for social change and their principles and communicative practices are influencing and informing the way participatory communication is conceptualized and practiced by governments, civil society, or other social actors. What underlying notions of participation, civic action, and social change inform the agents of change, be they the new generation of social movements on the one hand, or the established and institutionalized field of communication for social change on the other? These are the questions that drive this chapter.

Tufte, Thomas

2014-01-01

194

Participatory rural energy planning in India - a policy context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problems of fuel insufficiency, over exploitation of biomass resources and poor reliability and quality of energy services available to the rural masses of India continues despite numerous initiatives by the government. These initiatives have largely been in the form of national level rural and renewable energy programmes aimed at improving people's quality of life and reducing the existing pressure on the natural resource base. The programmes have met with limited success on account of several reasons. One of these is the absence of a mechanism for ensuring the genuine participation of the local inhabitants. With this weakness in mind, the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) and the University of Waterloo (UW) undertook a joint research project (1994-1997), aimed at developing participatory planning and intervention design methodologies and tools to facilitate public participation and feature a meaningful role for women in rural energy planning. This paper presents the policy implications and recommendations of the work. (Author)

Neudoerffer, R. Cynthia [Guelph Univ., School of Rural Planning and Development, Guelph, ON (Canada); Malhotra, Preeti [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India); Ramana, P. Venkata [Winrock International, New Delhi (India)

2001-04-01

195

Participatory approaches to understanding practices of flood management across borders  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was integral to making the research of relevance to professionals.

Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.

2012-04-01

196

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach  

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Full Text Available Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that drove the networking process. The paper discusses cycles of the participatory process undertaken for the EE networking in Mafeteng schools, including identification of problems, problem solving, and reflective workshop and study tour. Finally the paper outlines issues that emerged in participatory EE networking, which include school governance, teachers’ existing knowledge, and communication, decision-making and power relations.

Constance BITSO

2006-01-01

197

Participatory systems mapping for sustainable consumption: Discussion of a method promoting systemic insights  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together, these insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through structured discussion and thus bridge boundaries between different communities.

Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre

2014-01-01

198

Beyond the “I“: Framing a model of participatory ethical decision-making for international engineering communication  

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Full Text Available The article reports on findings of an ethics education unit in a cross-institutional partnership—an American university and an Indian university—that uses noncooperative gaming theory to extend ethics education to take on a global, group/systems perspective. Authors assert that a role of engineering communication at the global level is to position stakeholders to see ethical decision-making as participatory. The authors also comment on four deliberative challenges that students face as they assume participatory roles in ethical decision-making: (1 anticipating and imagining cultural interaction; (2 coordinating the group decision processes primarily through quantitative means of persuasion; (3 cultivating trust; and (4 coping with the challenges of articulating fairness. To address the communication challenges related to fostering participatory ethical decision-making, the authors conclude by opening a conversation about potential avenues for pursuing participatory ethical decision-making in international engineering contexts.

Mark A. Hannah

2013-08-01

199

Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production in the Netherlands. Participatory methods are used to facilitate the exchange of ideas, experiences and knowledge of all relevant stakeholders and to create a basis for implementation of the final...

Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, I. J. M.

2004-01-01

200

The development of participatory health research among incarcerated women in a Canadian prison  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the development of a unique prison participatory research project, in which incarcerated women formed a research team, the research activities and the lessons learned. The participatory action research project was conducted in the main short sentence minimum/medium security women's prison located in a Western Canadian province. An ethnographic multi-method approach was used for data collection and analysis. Quantitative data was collected by surveys and analysed using des...

Martin, R. Elwood; Murphy, K.; Hanson, D.; Hemingway, C.; Ramsden, V.; Buxton, J.; Granger-brown, A.; Condello, L-l; Buchanan, M.; Espinoza-magana, N.; Edworthy, G.; Hislop, T. G.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Improving the coverage of the PMTCT programme through a participatory quality improvement intervention in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Despite several years of implementation, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes in many resource poor settings are failing to reach the majority of HIV positive women. We report on a data driven participatory quality improvement intervention implemented in a high HIV prevalence district in South Africa. Methods A participatory quality improvement intervention was implemented consisting of an initial assessment undertake...

Chopra Mickey; Doherty Tanya; Nsibande Duduzile; Mngoma Dudu

2009-01-01

202

Respondent-Driven Sampling in Participatory Research Contexts: Participant-Driven Recruitment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in participatory and community-based research. Participant-driven recruitment (PDR) retains all of the analytic capabilities of RDS while enhancing the role of respondents in framing research questions, instrument development, data interpretation, and other aspects of the research process. Merging the capabilities of RDS with participatory research methods, PDR creates new opportunities for engaging community members in resea...

Tiffany, Jennifer S.

2006-01-01

203

Economic aspects in landscape decision-making: a participatory planning tool based on a representative approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we develop a method for spatial decision support that combines economic efficiency â¿¿ measured by the concept op willingness to pay â¿¿ with a participatory planning tool, that allows for an active collaboration among the actors involved, in such a way that decision makers can draw on the outcomes in their spatial planning and design process. The method is called RITAM, a Dutch acronym for spatially explicit, participatory and interdisciplinary trade-off meth...

Heide, C. M.; Blaeij, A. T.; Heijman, W. J. M.

2008-01-01

204

Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions  

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Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.

Pascal Perez

2010-12-01

205

Bolivia’s New Constitution: Towards Participatory Democracy and Political Pluralism?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Bolivia, rights to increased political participation and the recognition of indigenous political systems are interrelated. The new constitution of 2009 defines Bolivia as a representative, participatory and communitarian democracy. It incorporates enhanced mechanisms and institutions for participatory democracy. Moreover, new social rights have been anchored in the constitution and a plurinational state is supposed to be constructed. The article raises the question of whether the new co...

Almut Schilling-Vacaflor

2011-01-01

206

Participatory Rural Appraisal of Basic Needs Deprivation among Rural Dwellers of Borno State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Inadequacy of environmental and infrastructural resources to satisfy basic needs results in deprivation among rural people which in most cases, rapid rural appraisal and other traditional survey methods rarely adequately capture. This paper employs therefore employs participatory rural appraisal (PRA techniques to analyse these phenomena in Borno state. The objectives are to determine the seasonality of basic needs deprivation, analyse the triggers of need deprivation, and, assess the coping strategies for deprivation. PRA techniques employed are Seasonal Calendar and Force Field Analysis and 300 systematically selected participants from 9 local government areas were the study frame. The findings are that basic need deprivation is an outcome of environmental scarcities, resource capture, and failure of socioeconomic infrastructure. Episodic drought, flood, and conflict over resources triggers loss of farm harvest and livestock hence food, income and other needs there from. The coping strategies include wild food foraging, migratory fishing and praying to God which lead to the conclusion that basic needs satisfaction among the studied rural dwellers in Borno state is below societal expectations. Recommendations for improvement were proffered.

R. O. Yusuf

2014-03-01

207

Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (Psheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. PMID:23149306

Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

2013-05-01

208

Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009–2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research. PMID:23680507

Simonds, Vanessa W.; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

2013-01-01

209

COMBINING PARTICIPATIONS. Expanding the Locus of Participatory E?Planning by Combining Participatory Approaches in the Design of Digital Technology and in Urban Planning.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis is a trans-disciplinary work on participatory e-planning. So far, participatory e-planning, as approached in the urban planning and e-planning fields, has only focused on conventional types of participation in urban planning, which are enhanced by the use of single pieces of software. This approach is not in tune with the realities of the emerging digital age and its emerging cultures of participation. These are cultures of information-centred and digitally mediated peer production...

Saad-sulonen, Joanna

2014-01-01

210

Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other groundwater basins in Jordan. This participatory management approach would also be useful in other parts of the world that are experiencing similar groundwater over-exploitation problems. La surexploitation des eaux souterraines prend de l'importance en Jordanie. Les demandes en concurrence ont augmenté face à des déficits permanents d'eau, situation qui a été exacerbée par la sécheresse de la dernière décennie. Cet article rend compte de l'aboutissement d'un projet dans lequel des options de gestion portant sur la surexploitation ont été développées pour l'un des principaux systèmes aquifères de Jordanie, le bassin d'Amman Zarqa. Des options pour aborder cette situation ont été développées grâce à une approche participative qui implique des fonctionnaires du gouvernement et des groupes d'intérêts variés des secteurs public et privé. Des efforts particuliers ont été faits pour impliquer les irrigants utilisant des puits, qui sont probablement ceux qui ont le plus fort impact sur les changements attendus permettant de remettre le système en équilibre. À partir des informations obtenues de campagnes rapides d'évaluation, telles que des réunions de communautés et des entrevues avec des experts techniques du gouvernement, un large jeu d'options a été identifié pour l'évaluation. Basées sur une analyse hydrogéologique, sociale et économique, cinq options complémentaires de gestion ont été recommandées pour la réalisation. Ce sont la création d'un Service Consultatif d'Irrigation, achetant les puits agricoles, fixant des limites fermes aux prélèvements des puits et aux zones irriguées, échangeant les eaux usées traitées avec des eaux souterraines, et la mise en place de mesures pour accroître l'efficacité des usages collectifs et industriels. Des combinaisons et des niveaux variés de ces options ont été regroupés en scénarios, présentant les stratégies possibles de mise en œuvre. Les scénarios ont été mis au point pour assister les décideurs, les propriétaires de puits et les autres acteurs pour atteindr

Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

211

Use of participatory scenario modelling as platforms in stakeholder dialogues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A participatory methodology, based on dialogues between stakeholders and experts has been developed and tested in the drainage area to Kaggebo Bay in the Baltic Sea. This study is focused on the EU Water Framework Directive, with emphasis on reduction of eutrophication. The drainage area is included [...] in the WFD administrative area of the Motala Strom River basin. A similar approach is now applied in a recently initiated project in the Thukela River basin, with focus on impacts of climate change on water resources. The methodology is based on the idea that a catchment model serves as a platform for the establishment of a common view of present conditions and the causes behind these conditions. In the following steps, this is followed by model-assisted agreement on environmental goals (i.e. what do we want the future to look like?) and local agreement on a remedy or mitigation plans in order to reduce environmental impact (e.g. eutrophication); alternatively to adapt to conditions that cannot be determined by local actions (e.g. climate change). By involving stakeholder groups in this model-supported stepwise process, it is ensured that all stakeholder groups involved have a high degree of confidence in the presented model results, and thereby enable various actors involved to share a common view, regarding both present conditions, goals and the way to reach these goals. Although this is a process that is time- (and cost-) consuming, it is hypothesised that the use of this methodology is two-pronged: it increases the willingness to carry out remedies or necessary adaptations to a changing environment, and it increases the level of understanding between the various groups and therefore ameliorates the potential for future conflicts. Compared to traditional use of model results in environmental decision-making, the experts' role is transformed from a one-way communication of final results to assistance in the various steps of the participatory process.

Lotta, Andersson; Johanna Alkan, Olsson; Berit, Arheimer; Anna, Jonsson.

212

¡Los Filtros Luchan! A Case Study of Lawyering and Participatory Democracy: Participatory Lobbying as a Strategy for Working with Marginalized Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This thesis examines the participatory lobbying of Puerto Rican Statute #232 of August of 2004, which was a joint endeavor by members of low-income communities, headed by members of the Los Filtros community, and the community development section of the University of Puerto Rico's School of Law Legal Aid Clinic. The case study seeks to bring to the forefront the voices of the members of the Los Filtros community who participated in the lobbying of the bill regarding their perceptions about the process and its relationship to law, politics and democracy. It highlights the unexplored potential of participatory lobbying as a strategy to open spaces of participatory democracy.Participatory lobbying can be a valuable strategy for lawyers working with marginalized communities. This type of lobbying can claim an important place as a strategy within what have been called "law and organizing" approaches to lawyering, which focus on promoting empowerment of marginalized groups. It differs from more traditional public interest lobbying since, in this alternative type of lobbying, members of marginalized communities are the driving force in the process and lawyers serve a supporting role. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1997412

Myrta Morales-Cruz

2012-02-01

213

Place and Situated Deliberation in Participatory Planning – A Research Proposal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemplary cases that explore this focus on place and situated deliberation to further motivate research in that direction. The first case concerns the different qualities of in-situ reflection and action on proposed changes to the cityscape in contrast to ex-situ reflection and action on those changes. The second case focuses on providing immersive information about citizens’ own living environment on the spot for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.

Korn, Matthias

2011-01-01

214

Sustainable E-Participation through participatory experiences in education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010 enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and educational characteristics as a prerequisite for e-participation and argues that social media literacy is indispensable for e-participation to be sustainable. Young people’s affinity spaces (Jenkins, et.al., 2006 can only lay down the foundations for social media literacy, but their further development depends on education. Political Education would be well advised to adapt innovative pedagogical approaches to the acquirement of new media literacy. This paper introduces an exemplary educational tool – predominately but not exclusively for political/civic education – namely the website PoliPedia.at. Teachers can use it to deliberately create a balanced space for collaboration between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives. PoliPedia – as a participative online tool – has the potential to facilitate participation experience in political/civic education and supports social media education. Thereby the embedding of technology in pedagogical and societal conceptualizations is crucial.

Ursula Maier-Rabler

2010-09-01

215

Participatory workspace design : A new approach for ergonomists?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineersalike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants.

Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

2010-01-01

216

On participatory design of home-based healthcare  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory design (PD) activities in private homes challenge how we relate to the PD process, compared to PD in professional settings. Grounded in a project related to chronic dizziness among older people, we identified four challenges when performing PD with ill, weak users in their private homes. The challenges are (1) designing for, and negotiating knowledge about, the home, (2) ill, weak users and their participation in PD, (3) divergent interests of participants and (4) usable and sustainable post-project solutions. These challenges have to be carefully addressed, and we use them to reflect upon differences between a home-based PD process with non-workers, such as ours, and work-place projects, such as Utopia. Through this reflection, the paper contributes to a more general discussion on PD in non-work settings with weak users. Indeed, differences do exist between traditional PD projects in work settings, such as Utopia, and home-based PD with weak users especially in relation to knowledge about settings and how to reconcile differences in interests. The home as a place for (technology-assisted) treatment and PD must be carefully analyzed. Diverse interests and roles as well as possibilities for post-project solutions should be negotiated among all stakeholders.

Grönvall, Erik; Kyng, Morten

2013-01-01

217

Passion for participatory research on the menstrual cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-day symposium entitled "The Menstrual Cycle and Adolescent Health" was held in Potomac, Maryland in mid October 2007. Groups sponsoring the meeting included the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health, the NIH Office of Rare Diseases, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health, the DHHS Office of Women's Health, and Rachel's Well, Inc. Attendees included patients, patient advocates, and experts from a variety of fields and disciplines. The effort identified areas in which there are only sparse data from which to create evidence-based recommendations for management of menstrual problems in young adolescents. In a final session of the meeting, participants worked together to develop a manifesto regarding research on the menstrual cycle in adolescents, which is the subject of this report. The group reached two major conclusions. First, there is need for a new research model that integrates grass roots community passion for participatory research with research planning and regulatory oversight. Second, there is a need for a coordinated research effort on the menstrual cycle and its disorders in adolescents. This could initially take the form of a Study of Puberty across the Nation (SPAN), similar to the Study of Women across the Nation (SWAN) that addresses the normal menopausal process. PMID:18574237

Gordon, Catherine M; Hijane, Karima; Heyman, Carly; Bell, Maureen Lindenhofen; Busby, Mary Beth; Nelson, Lawrence M

2008-01-01

218

El Niño platforms: participatory disaster response in Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is expected to lead to greater extremes (droughts and floods) in river regimes around the world. While the number of major calamities is predicted to rise, the efforts of the public sector, experts and local stakeholders are badly coordinated. Consequently, aid does not reach target groups, resulting in unnecessary losses. Hence, there is a need for more participatory and integrative approaches. To ensure a more concerted response to climate-induced disasters, stakeholders could coordinate and negotiate within Multi-Stakeholder Platforms. Such roundtables are increasingly being established for vision-building and integrated water resource management, but could be employed in disaster management as well. After discussing the advantages and disadvantages of participation, this article trace the rise of and the problems facing two 'El Niño' platforms: one in Ica, a city on the Peruvian coast that flooded unexpectedly in January 1998, and one in Ayacucho, which saw a climate change-induced drought around the same time. The issue of internal and external legitimacy receives particular emphasis. PMID:16512864

Warner, Jeroen; Oré, Maria Teresa

2006-03-01

219

A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

Bridgelall, Raj

2014-03-01

220

Making Governance More Participatory at the Local Level in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yearning for good governance in Africa and Nigeria, in particular, has remained a pressing and topical issue. Indeed, governance and development issues are on the front burner in democratizing societies like Nigeria. The crisis of development has been described as a ‘crisis of governance’ by the World Bank (2003. This crisis of governance has adversely affected the quality and quantity of public utilities provided at the local level. Development strategies of government at the federal, state and local levels have not actively enlisted the participation of Community-Based Organizations (CBOs in local governance despite their obvious activities and contributions to development in their communities. The bureaucratic institutions of State Administration have become so centralized with the CBOs largely relegated and made irrelevant. It is believed that if the self-governing capacity of CBOs is harnessed, supported and reinforced by governance structures, socio-economic development will be positively affected and possibly lead to its sustainability. It is against this backdrop that this paper examined the essence of CBOs participation in governance for facilitating and fast-tracking socio-economic development and ensuring accountability and responsiveness among government functionaries. The paper also presented the necessary conditions that must be met for CBOs involvement in governance as well as the expected gains of participatory governance. The paper concluded that participation of CBOs in governance could lead to effective representation and empowerment which would, in turn, enhance democratic dividends at the grassrootsl, especially in the local communities.

Femi Popoola

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Scientific bases for a participatory forest landscape management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Madagascar – a biodiversity hotspot of international importance – the villagers depend on the forest first for its soil as a reserve of arable land as well as a shelter and a pasture for the herds, and second for the production of timber, charcoal and other forest products. Most of the currently proposed conservation management systems for forests do not take into consideration villagers’ needs, in Madagascar too; indeed degradation and deforestation have continuously occurred in places where the forest is under great pressure. In targeting the improvement of the livelihood of local populations and the maintenance of “multifunctionality”, especially the ecological value of the forest, the present project aims at developing scientific criteria for a sustainable management of forest landscapes in western Madagascar at a regional scale. A detailed inventory of resources and a specific understanding of stakeholder requirements and strategies will allow drawing an accurate picture of the human-forest interface. A participatory approach paves the way for realistic management criteria that are really adequate to the ecological and social situations. The management criteria will provide a tool for further discussions on landscape management in central Menabe.

Jean-Pierre Sorg

2006-12-01

222

Mutation breeding on selected Philippine fruit crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of mutation-breeding techniques on various Philippine fruit-crop species has been initiated with the primary aim of inducing, selecting and evaluating beneficial mutations and utilizing them for development of improved varieties. Irradiation experiments were conducted using various materials, such as shoot tissues, seeds and plantlets cultured in vitro, seeds, scionwoods and seedlings of different fruit-crop species. A range of gamma-ray doses (0-50 krad) were used to determine the immediate effect of radiation on the various plant tissues and materials used. The responses of the plant tissues and materials were: retardation in shoot and root growth, inhibition on germination, leaf deformities and streaking (chlorophyll). Different responses on irradiation were observed at the varietal level, at different material levels and at various stages. The results and data obtained clearly point out that further experiments need to be conducted to specifically identify the appropriate methods and strategies for the induction of beneficial mutants. (author)

223

A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and individual levels. Teacher qualitative interviews monitor the intervention implementation process. Discussion Participatory approaches that actively involve parents have the potential to promote PA in ways that might be better tailored to local needs and more sustainable. Our mixed methods approach to assess the intervention efficacy and implementation employing both quantitative and qualitative measures within a cluster-randomized controlled trial may serve as a framework for evaluating public health interventions in preschool settings. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov No: NCT00987532

Hoffmann Kristina

2010-01-01

224

Grasping social dynamics of participatory innovation : A case of playing a game  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The key element in participatory innovation is to understand innovation as a social problem solving process between different stakeholders. The social dynamics amongst stakeholders are fundamental to the participatory process and outcome, and it’s therefore beneficial for facilitators and stakeholders themselves to understand their relations and what it means to participate. We argue that we can grasp these social dynamics of participatory innovation through play. From a management perspective we study how playing games helps us to understand these dynamics, while from an interaction design perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co-opetition where individual and group goals are conflicting. Drawing on observations and video data of the game being played by the participants of the conference, we study how different group compositions deal with novelty. From here we explain how the process of play can help to grasp the social dynamics of participatory innovation, and outline design strategies to do this.

Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens

2011-01-01

225

A new approach to varietal identification in plants by microsatellite high resolution melting analysis: application to the verification of grapevine and olive cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are popular molecular markers in many plant species due to their stable and highly polymorphic nature. A number of analysis methods have been described but analyses of these markers are typically performed on cumbersome polyacrylamide gels or more conveniently by capillary electrophoresis on automated sequencers. However post-PCR handling steps are still required. High resolution melting can now combine detailed sequence analysis with the closed-tube benefits of real-time PCR and is described here as a novel way to verify the identity of plant varieties such as grapevine and olive. Results DNA melting profiles for various plant variety and rootstock samples were compared to profiles for certified reference samples. Two closely related grapevine rootstocks differing by as little as a single di-nucleotide repeat could be rapidly differentiated while there was high reproducibility of melting profiles for identical cultivars. Conclusion This novel microsatellite analysis method allows high sample throughput with greatly reduced time to results for varietal certification and is amenable to other microsatellite analyses.

Wright Christopher D

2008-05-01

226

Varietal differences in the flavonol content of mulberry (Morus spp.) leaves and genetic analysis of quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) for component breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

The varietal differences in the flavonol glycosides rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol 3-(6-rhamnosylglucoside), quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside), astragalin, quercetin 3-(6-acetylglucoside), and kaempferol 3-(6-malonylglucoside) contained in mulberry leaves were elucidated. This information was used for breeding mulberry cultivars with a high concentration of functional components. The flavonol content, composition, and proportion in leaves varied widely. 'Kobuchizawa 1' had the highest level of total flavonols (1819 mg/100 g of dry weight), 5 times higher than that of 'Mikurasima 15' (393 mg/100 g of dry weight). Quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) was the most abundant flavonol, although it was not found in all cultivars. Quercetin 3-(6-acetylglucoside) was only found in 'Keguwa'. From the quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) content in crossbred offspring, malonyltransferase, an enzyme involved in quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) synthesis, was acquired according to Mendelian inheritance. An offspring with a higher quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) level than both parents was obtained from the crossing. This suggested that crossbreeding was effective for acquiring cultivars with a higher content of quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside). PMID:23980804

Sugiyama, Mari; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

2013-09-25

227

Study of intra-varietal genetic variability in grapevine cultivars by PCR-derived molecular markers and correlations with the geographic origins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic grapevine intravarietal variability will be analyzed by PCR-derived marker systems. In particular, the object of the investigation will be the clonal variations of Malvasia nera di Brindisi/Lecce, Negroamaro and Primitivo, also known as Zinfandel, which are three grapevine varieties cultivated in Apulia region (Italy). In order to assess varietal identity of the samples, 132 DNA tests were performed by amplifying 16 SSR loci. The study of the intravarietal variability was performed using AFLPs, SAMPLs, ISSRs, and M-AFLPs. The application of the above-mentioned techniques allowed both to discriminate all genotypes of the three cultivars and to distinguish the accessions of each cultivar sampled from different geographic cultivation areas. Furthermore, the study of biotypes cultivated in different geographical environments of Salento (i.e., Apulia region) allowed important correlations between molecular marker variability and phenotypic traits. These results are suggesting both to focus our attention on the effects of the environment on the genotype and to consider, as a practical consequence, the importance of preserving autochthon grapevine biotypes found in different areas to truly preserve the richness of the germplasm. Thus, more accurate DNA studies give new information that can be extremely useful to the vine nurseries for the correct choice (i.e., supported by more accurate intravarietal variability analysis) of the grape multiplication materials. PMID:21479693

Meneghetti, Stefano; Costacurta, Angelo; Morreale, Giacomo; Calò, Antonio

2012-01-01

228

Use of electrospray mass spectrometry for mass determination of grape (Vitis vinifera) juice pathogenesis-related proteins: a potential tool for varietal differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and protein trap mass spectrometry (trap-MS) were developed to determine the complement of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in grape juice. Trap-MS was superior to LC-MS in terms of simplicity, rapidity, and sensitivity. Proteins with a wide range of masses (13--33 kDa) were found in the juices of 19 different varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera) and were identified as mostly PR-5 type (thaumatin-like) and PR-3 type (chitinases) proteins. Although the PR proteins in juices of grapes are highly conserved, small consistent differences in molecular masses were noted when otherwise identical proteins were compared from different varieties. These differences persisted through different harvest years and in fruits grown in different Australian locations. With the definition of four different masses for PR-5 proteins (range = 21,239--21,272 Da) and nine different masses of PR-3 proteins (range = 25,330--25,631 Da) and using statistical analysis, the methods developed could be used for varietal differentiation of grapes grown in several South Australian locations on the basis of the PR protein composition of the juice. It remains to be seen whether this technology can be extended to grapes grown worldwide and to wine and other fruit-derived products to assist with label integrity to the benefit of consumers. PMID:11308333

Hayasaka, Y; Adams, K S; Pocock, K F; Baldock, G A; Waters, E J; Høj, P B

2001-04-01

229

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modeling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation  

Science.gov (United States)

Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be recognised and considered in decision-making about SLM, whether it has been formally codified or not. The approach presented in this paper provided this opportunity and received positive feedback from stakeholders.

Stringer, L. C.; Fleskens, L.; Reed, M. S.; de Vente, J.; Zengin, M.

2014-11-01

230

Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modeling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be recognised and considered in decision-making about SLM, whether it has been formally codified or not. The approach presented in this paper provided this opportunity and received positive feedback from stakeholders. PMID:23868445

Stringer, L C; Fleskens, L; Reed, M S; de Vente, J; Zengin, M

2014-11-01

231

Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together atmospheric scientists, epidemiologists, medical doctors, and economists to use improved precipitation forecasts to better manage Meningitis in Ghana.

Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

2009-12-01

232

Participatory Gis: Experimentations for a 3d Social Virtual Globe  

Science.gov (United States)

The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.

Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

2013-08-01

233

How Participation Creates Citizens: Participatory Governance as Performative Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participation is a prominent feature of many decision-making and planning processes. Among its proclaimed benefits is its potential to strengthen public support and involvement. However, participation is also known for having unintended consequences which lead to failures in meeting its objectives. This article takes a critical perspective on participation by discussing how participation may influence the ways in which citizens can become involved. Participation unavoidably involves (1 restrictions about who should be involved and about the space for negotiation, (2 assumptions about what the issue at stake is, and (3 expectations about what the outcome of participation should be and how the participants are expected to behave. This is illustrated by a case study about the Dutch nature area, the Drentsche Aa. The case study demonstrates how the participatory process that took place and the restrictions, assumptions, and expectations that were involved resulted in six forms of citizen involvement, both intended and unintended, which ranged between creativity, passivity, and entrenchment. Based on these findings, the article argues that participation does not merely serve as a neutral place in which citizens are represented, but instead creates different categories of citizens. Recognizing this means reconceiving participation as performative practice. Such a perspective goes beyond overly optimistic views of participation as a technique whose application can be perfected, as well as pessimistic views of participation as repression or domination. Instead, it appreciates both intended and unintended forms of citizen involvement as meaningful and legitimate, and recognizes citizenship as being constituted in interaction in the context of participation.

Noelle Aarts

2010-12-01

234

Participatory knowledge-management design: A semiotic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation between experts from different (sub-)fields need to be situated and tailored to provide effective support even if the common aspects of the data need to be described by ontologies that are generic in respect to the sub-disciplines involved. To understand and approach this design problem, we apply a semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user's communication with herself, himself or other users of the software. Tailoring or “end-user development” – i.e. adapting the knowledge-management system to a specific (sub-)discipline, task or context – then refines both the message and adapts the structure of the interaction to the situated requirements. The essential idea of this paper is to define a new perspective for designing and developing interactive systems to support collaborative knowledge management. The key concept is to involve domain experts in participatory knowledge design for mapping and translating their professional models into the proper vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can be defined. Finally, the results of applying our approach to a real-world case in an archaeological context are presented.

Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

2012-01-01

235

The Main Advantages of Community Based Participatory Health Programs: An Experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: This study was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Thirteen co...

Arash Mirabzadeh; Noot Heydari; Hossein Malek Afzali; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Masoumeh Dejman; Katayoun Falahat; Monir Baradarn Eftekhari

2013-01-01

236

Using process evaluation to determine effectiveness of participatory ergonomics training interventions in construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The construction industry continues to experience high rates of musculoskeletal injuries despite the widespread promotion of ergonomic solutions. Participatory ergonomics (PE) has been suggested as one approach to engage workers and employers for reducing physical exposures from work tasks but a systematic review of participatory ergonomics programs showed inconclusive results.. A process evaluation is used to monitor and document the implementation of a program and can aid in understanding the relationship between the program elements and the program outcomes. The purpose of this project is to describe a proposed process evaluation for use in a participatory ergonomic training program in construction workers and to evaluate its utility in a demonstration project among floor layers. PMID:22317304

Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Buchholz, Brian; Welch, Laurie; Evanoff, Bradley A

2012-01-01

237

The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

Cheryl Forchuk

2014-06-01

238

A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory research community. We also assume that the diversity of participatory forms of research is rarely considered by potential participants when they make their decisions about whether or not to participate in a proposed process. We specifically address how to avoid stakeholders’ reluctance to be involved in participatory research projects based on disillusion with past experiences. We argue that the disappointment experienced by stakeholders and other participants (i.e., researchers and policy makers can be avoided by being upfront and precise about how “participation” will be implemented, and what kind of involvement is expected from participants. Such a collective effort from the research community can also clarify the variety of possible implementations for potential participants. Building on earlier efforts to characterize and categorize the diversity of participatory research approaches, we develop a conceptual analytic procedural framework to make participants’ roles explicit in the implementation of different participatory research processes. This framework consists of three facets: (1 the flows of information among participants and the control over these flows for each step in a process, i.e., who will be expected to produce information, who will use this information, and who will receive the results; (2 the timing of the involvement of participants in the different steps of the research process, and the framing power that is associated with each process step; and (3 the organization of communication among participants for each information flow, i.e., in what configuration (bilaterally or as a group, mediated or face to face the interactions among researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers will take place. This framework can accommodate a wide variety of research methods, and highlights exactly how participants are involved in research processes. We are prescriptive in dealing with the need to be procedurally explicit when engaging in participatory research. We anticipate that using this framework will lead to more thoughtful acceptances or refusals to participate in proposed research processes. Our framework is based on various experiences with participatory research. It is intended to be used from the very beginning of a participatory research process as a conceptual guide for researchers. We suggest a protocol to transform it into more practical guidelines for communicating about upcoming participatory research processes. The leader of such processes should propose at each key stage an explicit, yet adaptive, plan for the following stages. This plan should also specify in what ways participants will be involved, and how the plan itself can be questioned and revised.

Katherine A. Daniell

2010-06-01

239

Review. Supporting problem structuring with computer-based tools in participatory forest planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of study: This review presents the state-of-art of using computerized techniques for problem structuring (PS) in participatory forest planning. Frequency and modes of using different computerized tool types and their contribution for planning processes as well as critical observations are described, followed by recommendations on how to better integrate PS with the use of forest decision support systems. Area of study: The reviewed research cases are from Asia, Europe, North-America, Africa and Australia. Material and methods: Via Scopus search and screening of abstracts, 32 research articles from years 2002-2011 were selected for review. Explicit and implicit evidence of using computerized tools for PS was recorded and assessed with content-driven qualitative analysis. Main results: GIS and forest-specific simulation tools were the most prevalent software types whereas cognitive modelling software and spreadsheet and calculation tools were less frequently used, followed by multi-criteria and interactive tools. The typical use type was to provide outputs of simulation–optimization or spatial analysis to negotiation situations or to compile summaries or illustrations afterwards; using software during group negotiation to foster interaction was observed only in a few cases. Research highlights: Expertise in both decision support systems and group learning is needed to better integrate PS and computerized decision analysis. From the knowledge management perspective, it is recommended to consider how the results of PS —e.g. conceptual models— could be stored into a problem perception database, and how PS and decision making could be streamlined by retrievals from such systems. (Author)

Hujala, T.; Khadka, C.; Wolfslehner, B.; Vacik, H.

2013-09-01

240

Improving Participatory Processes through Collective Simulation: Use of a Community of Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stakeholder and public participation in natural resources management (NRM is now widely accepted as necessary to achieve sustainable development outcomes. Yet, effective implementation of participatory processes necessitates well-calibrated methods and tools, as well as carefully honed facilitation skills that are difficult to gain without practice. Practitioners and academics leading these processes are thus encouraged to better reflect on, prepare, and justify their interventions, before starting to work in the field with stakeholders. Our paper shows how a Simulation Community of Practice (SCoP was set up to support improved participatory practice. The specificity of this community is that its members not only discuss planned participatory interventions, but also simulate these processes by adopting roles of future participants, and by working through the different steps of the workshop that will be later implemented in the field. The evaluation of our approach shows that individual and social learning of participants in the SCoP is developed, leading mainly to improved facilitator skills and to calibration of the participatory methods and tools being tested. A space is also provided for deepening reflection on the purposes of the participatory process and the values that guide these interventions. Our experience could provide a model for others around the world to set up their own SCoP to support participatory NRM practice. Further improvements to our SCoP and new ones could be made by enhancing the feedback mechanisms between the field sites and the community, in order to encourage more cumulative learning and to reinforce the members' interest, maintaining their involvement in the community over time.

Mathieu Dionnet

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

Pieter Bots

2012-03-01

242

Genetic Merit Based Genotype Selection for Physical Fruit Traits in Mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selection indices based on their genetic merit of fruit characters were constructed for fruit yield/tree in 48 genotypes in mango (Mangifera indica L.. Genotypes, SBM 01-35, SBM 01-26, SBM 01-9, SBM 01- 10 and SBM 01-26 in on year while, SBM 01-12, SBM 01-36, SBM 01-26, SBM 01-28 and SBM 01- 9 in off year recorded highest fruit yield /tree. Genotypes SBM 01-10, SBM 01-36, SBM 01-09, SBM 01-30 and SBM 01-6 exhibited comparatively high estimates of selection indices during on year while, SBM 01-36 followed by SBM 01-12, Totapari, SBM 01-17 and SBM 01-29 showed the maximum estimates of selection index for fruit yield/ tree during off year. Alphonso followed by SBM 01-5, SBM 01-13, Langra and SBM 01-14 during on year and Dashehari, Safeda, SBM 01-3 and SBM 01-39 in off year exhibited the minimum estimates of varietal indices. Genotypes differed considerably in their ranking pattern based on selection indices. Genotypes SBM 01-9, SBM 01-10, SBM 01-30, SBM 01-6 and SBM 01-36 showed maximum varietal indices and phenotypic performance in both the years thus, appeared promising for use as parent in mango improvement programme.

Arun Kumar Barholia

2014-06-01

243

Participatory grading in a blended course on 'Multimodal Interface and Systems'  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As part of a project aiming to demonstrate feasibility and meaningfulness of on-line and blended P3BL (Problem, Process & Project Based design educational processes (Interaction Design, Design or the Experience, etc., in this paper we present and discuss a participatory-grading procedure that has been designed to assess the intermediate tests of a course on 'Multimodal Interface and Systems'. The results, characterized by lights and shadows, provide useful guidance for the future to achieve a participatory monitoring of the full educational experience.

Carlo Giovannella

2012-10-01

244

Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency

245

Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Can the field of futures research help advance participatory management of river basins? This question is supposed to be answered by the present study of which this paper will mainly address the theoretical and conceptual point of view. The 2000 EU Framework directive on water emphasises at least two aspects that will mark the future management of river basins: the need for long-term planning, and a demand for participation. Neither the former nor the latter are new concepts as such, but its combination is in some sense revolutionary. Can long-term plans be made (and implemented) in a participative way, what tools could be useful in this respect, and does this lead to a satisfactory situation in terms of both reaching physical targets and enhancing social-institutional manageability? A possibly rich way to enter the discussion is to challenge futures research as a concept and a practice for enabling multiple stakeholders to design appropriate policies. Futures research is the overall field in which several methods and techniques (like scenario analysis) are mobilised to systematically think through and/or design the future. As such they have proven to be rich exercises to trigger ideas, stimulate debate and design desirable futures (and how to get there). More importantly these exercises have the capability to reconstitute actor relations, and by nature go beyond the institutional boundaries. Arguably the relation between futures research and the planning process is rather distant. Understandably commitments on the direct implementation of the results are hardly ever made, but its impact on changes in the capabilities of the network of actors involved may be large. As a hypothesis we consider that the distant link between an image of the future and the implementation in policy creates sufficient distance for actors to participate (in terms of responsibilities, legal constraints, etc.) and generate potentials, and enough degrees of freedom needed for a successful implementation. However, critical conceptual and design requirements have to be met in order to realise futures research potentials. Since the beginning of the 1990s futures studies are becoming (again) more and more widespread in many different domains (technology, education, urban development, agriculture, environment, etc.). Recently, experiences have been launched and are currently being launched in the water sector (of which the World Water Vision is a well -known - but not necessarily the most representative - example). Although futures studies on a river basin level are still scarce, they will offer already sufficient material for empirical analysis. The research, effectuated within a larger framework study on the implications of futures studies for environmental research, offers at this stage initially a conceptual understanding.

van der Helm, R.

246

Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency.

Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Research and Training; Pollard, Simon; Twigger-Ross, Clare [National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, London (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

247

Correction: Using participatory design to develop (public health decision support systems through GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs. Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data. Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different standard mapping file formats (e.g. ESRI, MapInfo, CSV. Discussion Based on the evaluation of Phase 1, the PD process has served both as a facilitator and a barrier. In terms of successes, the PD process identified two key components that are important to users: increased data/map sharing functionality and interoperability. Some of the challenges affected developers and users; both individually and as a collective. From a development perspective, this project experienced difficulties in obtaining personnel skilled in web application development and GIS. For users, some data sharing barriers are beyond what a technological tool can address (e.g. third party data. Lastly, the PD process occurs in real time; both a strength and a limitation. Programmatic changes at the provincial level and staff turnover at the organizational level made it difficult to maintain buy-in as participants changed over time. The impacts of these successes and challenges will be evaluated more concretely at the end of Phase 2. Conclusion PD approaches, by their very nature, encourage buy-in to the development process, better addresses user-needs, and creates a sense of user-investment and ownership.

Sawada Michael

2007-11-01

248

Assessing the Impact of Varietal Resistance and Planting Dates on the Incidence of African Yam Bean Flower Thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti, Hochst. Ex. A. Rich in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Hochst. Ex. A. Rich is one of the underutilized leguminous crops in the tropics despite its nutritional potentials. One of the major reasons for the gross neglect of this crop in many parts of Africa is its low grain yield when compared to other grain legumes under monocrop. The infestation of the plant by flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti has been recorded as the major causes of low yield of the crop. M. sjostedti can cause yield losses of up to 100%. Following its current status as a minor crop, only very few researches have been undertaken in its production especially as it relates to insect control. Hence, in this study we assessed the effect of varietal resistance and three planting dates on the incidence of the thrips and crop yields in Nigeria during 2009/2010 farming seasons. The results indicated that all the varieties planted in May of each season were less infested by M. sjostedti and differed significantly from those planted in June and July of each season. Amongst the varieties assessed, TSs9 was the most resistance and differed significantly from the rest of the varieties. The results of the grain yields showed that all the varieties performed better with higher grain yields when planted in May than those planted later. The flowering and podding formation stages of AYB planted in July coincided with the peak population densities of M. sjostedti resulting in a considerable reduction in grain yields. The highest grain yields were recorded under a combination of early planting with resistant varieties. It could therefore be concluded that planting African yam bean earlier in the season has significant effect on M. sjostedti incidence and grain yield.

Emmanuel O. Ogah

2011-01-01

249

Varietal effects of eight paired lines of transgenic Bt maize and near-isogenic non-Bt maize on soil microbial and nematode community structure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A glasshouse experiment was undertaken to provide baseline data on the variation between conventional maize (Zea mays L.) varieties and genetically modified maize plants expressing the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Bt, Cry1Ab). The objective was to determine whether the variation in soil parameters under a range of conventional maize cultivars exceeded the differences between Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. Variations in plant growth parameters (shoot and root biomass, percentage carbon, percentage nitrogen), Bt protein concentration in shoots, roots and soil, soil nematode abundance and soil microbial community structure were determined. Eight paired varieties (i.e. varieties genetically modified to express Bt protein and their near-isogenic control varieties) were investigated, together with a Bt variety for which no near-isogenic control was available (NX3622, a combined transformant expressing both Bt and herbicide tolerance) and a conventional barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety which was included as a positive control. The only plant parameter which showed a difference between Bt varieties and near-isogenic counterparts was the shoot carbon to nitrogen ratio; this was observed for only two of the eight varieties, and so was not attributable to the Bt trait. There were no detectable differences in the concentration of Bt protein in plant or soil with any of the Bt-expressing varieties. There were significant differences in the abundance of soil nematodes, but this was not related to the Bt trait. Differences in previously published soil nematode studies under Bt maize were smaller than these varietal effects. Soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, was strongly affected by plant growth stage but not by the Bt trait. The experimental addition of purified Cry1Ab protein to soil confirmed that, at ecologically relevant concentrations, there were no measurable effects on microbial community structure.

Griffiths, Bryan S; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

2007-01-01

250

"Street Theatre for Edutainment": A Participatory Research with Youth in Delhi  

Science.gov (United States)

Youth constitute an important section of our society. They are the biggest reservoir of human resources and are the future of our country. Their development has direct affect on the development of the nation. Street Theatre is not a moment's act. It is a participatory approach which deals with fictional narratives and thus used for communicating…

Capila, Anjali; Bhalla, Pragati

2010-01-01

251

Using Participatory Action Research to Increase Learning Transfer of Recovery-Based Principles  

Science.gov (United States)

This study questions whether or not participatory action research is an effective and practical method for increasing learning transfer of recovery-based principles. The participants (N = 250) were ethnically and educationally diverse clinicians, in an urban state mental health institute. The Self-Assessment of Recovery-Based Behaviors survey ( n…

Barish, Diane J.

2009-01-01

252

Culture Change in Long-Term Care: Participatory Action Research and the Role of the Resident  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents' competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents. Design and Methods: Seven unit-specific PAR…

Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale

2011-01-01

253

Geography and Participatory Democracy in Brazil: Porto Alegre and Belo Horizonte Compared  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the participatory budgeting  process that an increasing number of municipalities, primarily but not exclusively in Brazil, are  using as a tool of governance. Background is  provided on municipal governance in Brazil as  well as on the Partido dos Trabalhadores, the political party primarily responsible for introducing participatory budgeting. This is followed by a  comparison of the participatory budgets of two  Brazilian cities: Porto Alegre and Belo Horizonte.  From this comparison we draw conclusions as to  how geography can condition the outcomes of  participatory budgeting processes. Resumen: Geografía y democracia participativa en Brasil:  Comparación entre Porto Alegre y Belo Horizonte Este artículo estudia el proceso de presupuestos  participativos que un número creciente de municipalidades, especialmente en Brasil, aunque no  exclusivamente, está utilizando como instrumento  de gobernabilidad. En el artículo se entrega información de fondo sobre los gobiernos municipales en Brasil y sobre el Partido de los Trabajadores, el partido político que es responsable de la  introducción del presupuesto participativo, para  posteriormente comparar los presupuestos participativos de dos ciudades brasileñas: Porto Alegre y  Belo Horizonte. Sobre la base de esta comparación sacamos conclusiones sobre cómo puede la  geografía condicionar el resultado de procesos de  presupuesto participativo.  

Terence Wood

2007-10-01

254

Ensuring Community and Staff Support in Budget Adjustments: Participatory Management in Action.  

Science.gov (United States)

A school district in Rosemont, Minnesota, cut 2.4 million dollars from its general fund budget in 1982-83, a cut of almost 10 percent. Instead of splitting the community, the district emerged from the process stronger than before. This was accomplished through a 4-month participatory management process involving staff, citizens, parents, and…

Randall, Ruth E.; DeLong, James

255

Promoting Environmental Justice through Community-Based Participatory Research: The Role of Community and Partnership Capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…

Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

2008-01-01

256

Building Bridging Social Capital in a Divided Society: The Role of Participatory Citizenship Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory citizenship education has been highlighted as a strategy to promote social cohesion in divided societies whereby collaborations with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and inter-school links have been proposed as tools to improve social networks between schools and communities. This article explores the role and meaning of…

McMurray, Alan; Niens, Ulrike

2012-01-01

257

Virtual Solar System Project: Learning through a Technology-Rich, Inquiry-Based, Participatory Learning Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an introductory undergraduate astronomy course in which the large-lecture format was moved to one in which students were immersed in a technologically-rich, inquiry-based, participatory learning environment. Finds that virtual reality can be used effectively in regular undergraduate university courses as a tool through which students can…

Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.; Squire, Kurt; Barnett, Michael; Schmidt, Rae; Karrigan, Kristen; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Johnson, Christine

2000-01-01

258

JAKFISH Policy Brief: coping with uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity in fisheries management through participatory knowledge development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The legitimacy of the scientific underpinning of European fisheries management is often challenged because of perceived exclusion of fishers knowledge and the lack of transparency in generating scientific advice. One of the attempts to address this lack of legitimacy has been through participatory knowledge development. In this paper, we will present the results of the JAKFISH project (Judgement and Knowledge in Fisheries Management involving Stakeholders) that focussed on the interplay between different actors in constructing the underpinning of policy decisions for sustainable fisheries. We tested participatory modelling as a tool to enhance mutual understanding and to increase legitimacy and found that it can be instrumental in developing a broader knowledge base for fisheries management and in building up trust between scientists and stakeholders. However, the participatory approach may not always work. Through social network analyses we found that the number of connections and the frequency of interactions between individuals in different groups (science, fisheries, eNGOs, policy) provides an important clue on the potential effectiveness of participatory approaches. We used three concepts to evaluate the role of scientific knowledge in policy making: salience, legitimacy and credibility. In situations with high stakes and high uncertainties, the evaluation of scientific analyses for policy decisions needs to involve a broader peer community consisting of scientists, policy-makers, NGOs and fisheries in order to increase legitimacy of results. When stakes are low and uncertainties are modest, the credibility of scientific results are sufficiently addressed through traditional scientific peer review

Ulrich, Clara

2012-01-01

259

Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

2013-01-01

260

Who Benefits from Community-Based Participatory Research? A Case Study of the Positive Youth Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as a popular new paradigm in health research. This shift is exciting, yet there is still much to discover about how various stakeholders are affected. This article uses a critical social science perspective to explore who benefits from these changes through an analysis of a CBPR case study…

Flicker, Sarah

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Participatory Exploration of Digitalizing Cultural Content : Getting Married. Are We Ready?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes a joint investigation of a Herero wedding ceremony as a sample of cultural content to be digitalized. We have through participatory exploration scrutinized embodied media bias and representation with Herero elders in Namibia. One finding is that this method has enabled the elders to be active agents in the digital portrayal and construction of their culture.

Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2014-01-01

262

Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

2011-01-01

263

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

264

Participatory Design of Learning Media: Designing Educational Computer Games with and for Teenagers  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on how prospective users may be involved in the design of entertaining educational computer games. The paper illustrates an approach, which combines traditional Participatory Design methods in an applicable way for this type of design. Results illuminate the users' important contribution during game development, especially when…

Danielsson, Karin; Wiberg, Charlotte

2006-01-01

265

Citizen Participation for the Improvement of Local Management: Realities, Myths and Challenges about the Participatory Budgets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conceptions of participatory phenomenon are wide and generate various positions. Several authors agree that municipal government, as the face of the State closer to its citizens, is the privileged place to develop participatory public policies, which contributes to make more transparent, efficient, inclusive and democratic the government management. This proximity would allow local actors to participate in communal development processes and would enable them to diagnose problems, participating in decision-making and public policies designing and its evaluation. Moreover, it is noticed that the State transfer its duties to the society through manipulation of participatory policies, which are used as artificial means to build consensus. This article explores the fundamentals, implementation methodologies and results in four cases of participatory budgeting (in La Plata, San Fernando, San Miguel and San Martín. The main lines of analysis focused on the characterization of the projects generated by this policy, the changes in local management and the type of social participation. This research used semi structured and in depth interviews, observations, documentary research with secondary sources of information generated by municipalities (website, laws, institutional documentation, brochures, statistics and academic works produced by other researchers.

María Laura Pagani

2012-11-01

266

Chicana Feminist Strategies in a Participatory Action Research Project with Transnational Latina Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) project carried out with three transnational Latina youth in northern California and how the university researcher incorporated Chicana feminist strategies in the study. PAR and Chicana feminism place at the heart of research the knowledge that ordinary people produce, referring to this…

Sanchez, Patricia

2009-01-01

267

Developing digital technologies for university mathematics by applying participatory design methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included in this paper along with future research directions.

Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

2013-01-01

268

An Adult Education Study of Participatory Community Mapping for Indigenous Knowledge Production  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation explores the notion of participatory community mapping (PCM) for Indigenous knowledge production. Three major questions were posed in the study. First, how can PCM foster Indigenous knowledge production and documentation? Second, how can PCM be used to include local voice and input in mapping projects, and third, how can adult…

Campbell, Craig A., Jr.

2010-01-01

269

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

270

Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

2009-01-01

271

Self-Regulation of a Chiropractic Association through Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…

Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.

2012-01-01

272

Using Participatory Action Research and Photo Methods to Explore Higher Education Administration as an Emotional Endeavor  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we build on Wood's (2010, 2012) recent call to consider higher education as a work place that conjures emotion among constituents, particularly positional leaders, like department chairs. Using a participatory action research and photo-enhanced methodological approach, we illustrate the emotional labor that was poured into the…

Gonzales, Leslie D.; Rincones, Rodolfo

2013-01-01

273

In from the Cold? Reflections on Participatory Research from 1970-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research (PR) is a term that was first articulated in Tanzania in the early 1970s to describe a variety of community-based approaches to the creation of knowledge. Taken together these approaches combine social investigation, education and action in an interrelated process. The International Council for Adult Education provided a…

Hall, Budd L.

2005-01-01

274

Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

2004-01-01

275

Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

2012-01-01

276

Changing Coverage of Domestic Violence Murders: A Longitudinal Experiment in Participatory Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

Stressing relation-building and participatory communication approaches, the Rhode Island Coalition against Domestic Violence worked with journalists to develop a best practices handbook on news coverage of domestic violence murders. This study compares print coverage of domestic violence murders prehandbook (1996-1999) and posthandbook…

Ryan, Charlotte; Anastario, Mike; DaCunha, Alfredo

2006-01-01

277

PSALM for Empowering Educational Stakeholders: Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The paper aims to examine the effect of implementing participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) on the levels of empowerment among the educational stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach, combining the experimental design with empirical surveys, interviews and documentary analysis,…

San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.

2007-01-01

278

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Assess Health Needs among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers  

Science.gov (United States)

Principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) were applied among migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) in a seven-county region of east Texas. The study purpose was to establish community-based partnerships for CBPR and conduct a preliminary qualitative assessment of perceived health needs and capacities. Key informant interviews…

Doyle, Eva; Rager, Robin; Bates, Denise; Cooper, Cheryl

2006-01-01

279

Mutual Support: A Model of Participatory Support by and for People with Learning Difficulties  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutual Support, a model of peer support by and for people with learning difficulties, was constructed through a participatory research process. The research focussed on individual narratives from people with learning difficulties. These narratives were then brought together to form a collective model of support. This paper outlines the detailed…

Keyes, Sarah E.; Brandon, Toby

2012-01-01

280

Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

2012-01-01

282

Participatory Action Research and the Quest for Teacher Educator Community Solidarity  

Science.gov (United States)

Desiring to overcome sharp feelings of disconnection, a year-long participatory action research seminar involving both clinical and tenure-track teacher education faculty was formed. Working in teams with tenure-track faculty support, clinical faculty set research questions but they were reluctant to assume project leadership. In part, because of…

Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Draper, Roni Jo; Hall, Kendra; Smith, Leigh K.; Young, Janet; Sabey, Brenda; Brooks, Shaun

2005-01-01

283

Asociación entre las características varietales y el daño ocasionado por el taladrador de la caña de azúcar, en el estado Portuguesa, Venezuela / Association between varietal traits and damage caused by the sugarcane stemborer in portuguesa state, venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El taladrador de la caña de azúcar, Sacharum spp., (Diatraea spp.) es el insecto plaga de mayor importancia en el cultivo en Venezuela, después de la candelilla. El programa de mejoramiento de la caña de azúcar del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, INIA incluye la determinación de la [...] incidencia de esta plaga sobre los cultivares durante las etapa final del proceso de selección mediante la determinación del porcentaje de entrenudos perforados (Índice de infestación, I.I.) y porcentaje de entrenudos con galerías (Índice de intensidad de infestación, I.I.I.). Sin embargo, es necesario evaluar la efectividad y confianza de estos dos parámetros como indicadores de la resistencia al taladrador. Con la finalidad de identificar otras características varietales relacionadas con la resistencia a Diatraea spp., y evaluar la eficacia de los índices actual-mente usados, se efectuó un análisis de correlación para los datos de 12 años de pruebas finales en el estado Portu­guesa, Venezuela. Los datos analizados revelan ausencia de correlación entre el contenido de fibra del tallo, peso de tallo y número de tallos y los índices I.I. e I.I.I. indicando la falta de asociación entre estas variables y la resistencia a Diatraea. Sin embargo, se detectó una correlación negativa entre I.I.I y diámetro (-0,105 P>0,0016). Se encontró un grado de asociación significativa entre el daño y la reducción del pol y la pureza del jugo. Las correlaciones altas y posi­tivas entre I.I. y I.I.I. (0,892 P>0, 0001) indican una alta asociación entre ambas lo que apunta a la fiabilidad de los mismos. Se amerita caracterizar el banco de germoplasma del INIA para evitar el uso de padres susceptibles. Abstract in english The sugarcane borer (Diatraea spp.) is the second major pest in Venezuela right after the sugarcane froghopper (Aeneolamia varia). The Venezuelan sugar cane program includes screening experimental clones at the final stages during the regional trials when percentage of exited internodes and percenta [...] ge of bored internodes are recorded at harvest during three crops. However, concerns have been raised over effectiveness and confidence of these two traits in assessing the resistance to the borer. In order to identify varietal traits related to reaction of attacks by sugar cane borer and evaluate efficiency of currently used infestation index a correlation analysis for the data recorded in 12 years of sugar cane regional trials in Portuguesa State, Venezuela was conducted. The data analyzed revealed very low correlation between juice fiber content, stalk weight and stalk number and percentage of bored internodes (I.I.I.) and percentage of exited internodes (I.I.) indicating the useless of this traits in constructing a selection index for identifying resistant clones in a population. Also, no relationship between fiber content with resistance to Diatraea spp. can be confirmed from these results. However, a low but significant negative correlation was found between stalk diameter and I.I.I. (-0.105 P>0.0016). Diatraea damage showed a negative and significant degree of correlation with reduction of sugar content and juice and quality. High and positive correlations between I.I.I. and I.I. (0,892 P>0, 0001) may indicate the reliability of their use. Screening the gene bank in order to avoid the use of susceptible parents is a must.

Miguel C, Ramón M; Fernando, Mauriello M; Yvan, Graterol; Humberto, Giraldo- Vanegas; Cristóbal, Mendoza; Margely M, Pérez P; Rosa M, Izarraga T.

284

Asociación entre las características varietales y el daño ocasionado por el taladrador de la caña de azúcar, en el estado Portuguesa, Venezuela / Association between varietal traits and damage caused by the sugarcane stemborer in portuguesa state, venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El taladrador de la caña de azúcar, Sacharum spp., (Diatraea spp.) es el insecto plaga de mayor importancia en el cultivo en Venezuela, después de la candelilla. El programa de mejoramiento de la caña de azúcar del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, INIA incluye la determinación de la [...] incidencia de esta plaga sobre los cultivares durante las etapa final del proceso de selección mediante la determinación del porcentaje de entrenudos perforados (Índice de infestación, I.I.) y porcentaje de entrenudos con galerías (Índice de intensidad de infestación, I.I.I.). Sin embargo, es necesario evaluar la efectividad y confianza de estos dos parámetros como indicadores de la resistencia al taladrador. Con la finalidad de identificar otras características varietales relacionadas con la resistencia a Diatraea spp., y evaluar la eficacia de los índices actual-mente usados, se efectuó un análisis de correlación para los datos de 12 años de pruebas finales en el estado Portu­guesa, Venezuela. Los datos analizados revelan ausencia de correlación entre el contenido de fibra del tallo, peso de tallo y número de tallos y los índices I.I. e I.I.I. indicando la falta de asociación entre estas variables y la resistencia a Diatraea. Sin embargo, se detectó una correlación negativa entre I.I.I y diámetro (-0,105 P>0,0016). Se encontró un grado de asociación significativa entre el daño y la reducción del pol y la pureza del jugo. Las correlaciones altas y posi­tivas entre I.I. y I.I.I. (0,892 P>0, 0001) indican una alta asociación entre ambas lo que apunta a la fiabilidad de los mismos. Se amerita caracterizar el banco de germoplasma del INIA para evitar el uso de padres susceptibles. Abstract in english The sugarcane borer (Diatraea spp.) is the second major pest in Venezuela right after the sugarcane froghopper (Aeneolamia varia). The Venezuelan sugar cane program includes screening experimental clones at the final stages during the regional trials when percentage of exited internodes and percenta [...] ge of bored internodes are recorded at harvest during three crops. However, concerns have been raised over effectiveness and confidence of these two traits in assessing the resistance to the borer. In order to identify varietal traits related to reaction of attacks by sugar cane borer and evaluate efficiency of currently used infestation index a correlation analysis for the data recorded in 12 years of sugar cane regional trials in Portuguesa State, Venezuela was conducted. The data analyzed revealed very low correlation between juice fiber content, stalk weight and stalk number and percentage of bored internodes (I.I.I.) and percentage of exited internodes (I.I.) indicating the useless of this traits in constructing a selection index for identifying resistant clones in a population. Also, no relationship between fiber content with resistance to Diatraea spp. can be confirmed from these results. However, a low but significant negative correlation was found between stalk diameter and I.I.I. (-0.105 P>0.0016). Diatraea damage showed a negative and significant degree of correlation with reduction of sugar content and juice and quality. High and positive correlations between I.I.I. and I.I. (0,892 P>0, 0001) may indicate the reliability of their use. Screening the gene bank in order to avoid the use of susceptible parents is a must.

Miguel C, Ramón M; Fernando, Mauriello M; Yvan, Graterol; Humberto, Giraldo- Vanegas; Cristóbal, Mendoza; Margely M, Pérez P; Rosa M, Izarraga T.

2008-06-01

285

Some considerations on the attractiveness of participatory processes for researchers from natural science  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a newly developed model can actually be tested in a stakeholder process. Therefore the gap between stakeholders and modelers persists or is even growing. A main reason for this probably lies in the way that the work of scientists (modelers) is evaluated. What counts is the number of journal articles produced, while applicability or societal impact is still not a measure of scientific success. A good journal article on a model requires an exemplary validation but only very rarely would a reviewer ask if a model was accepted by stakeholders. So why should a scientist go through a tedious stakeholder process? The stakeholder process might be a requirement of the research grant, but whether this is taken seriously, can be questioned, as long as stakeholder dialogues do not lead to quantifiable scientific success. In particular for researchers in early career stages who undergo typical, publication-based evaluation processes, participatory research is hardly beneficial. The discussion in this contribution is based on three pillars: (i) a comprehensive evaluation of the literature published on participatory modeling and scenario development, (ii) a case study involving the development of an integrated model for water and land use management including an intensive stakeholder process and (iii) unstructured, personal communication - with mainly young scientists - about the attractiveness of multidisciplinary, applied research.

Barthel, Roland

2013-04-01

286

Época de aplicación y toxicidad varietal del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar, en Veracruz, México / Application time and varietal toxicity of the herbicide amicarbazone in sugarcane in Veracruz, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el ciclo primavera-verano 2005, se establecieron tres experimentos en Úrsulo Galván, Ver., México, con el objetivo de determinar la mejor época de aplicación del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar en condiciones de riego e identificar la susceptibilidad de las tres principales varie [...] dades cultivadas en el estado a este herbicida. En un experimento, se evaluó el control de malezas con amicarbazone a 0,7, 1,05 y 1,4 kg ha?1 aplicado en cuatro épocas: preemergencia antes del riego de germinación, preemergencia después del riego de germinación, postemergencia temprana y postemergencia tardía. En los otros experimentos, se evaluó la toxicidad de amicarbazone a 0, 0,7, 1,4 y 2,1 kg ha-1, aplicado en preemergencia y postemergencia en las variedades de caña de azúcar Mex 69-290, CP 72?2086 y Mex 79-431. El quelite rastrero (Amaranthus lividus) fue mejor controlado con aplicaciones postemergentes de amicarbazone, a partir de 0,7 kg ha-1. Por su parte, el control del zacate Guinea (Megathyrsus maximus) fue bajo en todas las épocas de aplicación. En aplicaciones preemergentes, el amicarbazone hasta 2,1 kg ha-1 fue altamente selectivo a todas las variedades evaluadas, mientras que, cuando fue aplicado en postemergencia, ocasionó ligera toxicidad a las tres variedades de caña de azúcar, la cual fue mayor conforme se incrementó la dosis. Sin embargo, los daños desaparecieron entre los 30 y 45 días después de la aplicación y no ocasionaron reducción permanente en la altura de las plantas. Abstract in english During the 2005 Spring-Summer growing cycle, three experiments were established in Ursulo Galvan, Ver., Mexico, to determine the best time of application of the herbicide amicarbazone in irrigated sugarcane, and the susceptibility of the three main varieties grown in this state to this herbicide. In [...] one experiment, weed control of amicarbazone at 0.7, 1.05 and 1.4 kg ha-1 applied at four stages (pre-emergence before germination irrigation, pre-emergence after germination irrigation, early post-emergence and late post-emergence) was evaluated. In the other experiments, the toxicity of amicarbazone at 0, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.1 kg ha-1 was evaluated when applied at pre-emergence and post-emergence on sugarcane varieties Mex 69-290, CP 72-2086 and 79 Mex-431. Amaranthus lividus was better controlled with post-emergence applications of amicarbazone, starting at 0.7 kg ha?1. Control of Guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) was low with amicarbazone at all stages. In pre-emergence applications, amicarbazone up to 2.1 kg ha-1 was highly selective to all varieties evaluated, whereas when applied in post-emergence, it caused slight toxicity to the three sugarcane varieties, increasing as the dose increased. However, the damages disappeared between 30 and 45 days after application, without causing a permanent reduction in plant height.

V.A., Esqueda-Esquivel; E., Rosales-Robles.

287

Época de aplicación y toxicidad varietal del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar, en Veracruz, México / Application time and varietal toxicity of the herbicide amicarbazone in sugarcane in Veracruz, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el ciclo primavera-verano 2005, se establecieron tres experimentos en Úrsulo Galván, Ver., México, con el objetivo de determinar la mejor época de aplicación del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar en condiciones de riego e identificar la susceptibilidad de las tres principales varie [...] dades cultivadas en el estado a este herbicida. En un experimento, se evaluó el control de malezas con amicarbazone a 0,7, 1,05 y 1,4 kg ha?1 aplicado en cuatro épocas: preemergencia antes del riego de germinación, preemergencia después del riego de germinación, postemergencia temprana y postemergencia tardía. En los otros experimentos, se evaluó la toxicidad de amicarbazone a 0, 0,7, 1,4 y 2,1 kg ha-1, aplicado en preemergencia y postemergencia en las variedades de caña de azúcar Mex 69-290, CP 72?2086 y Mex 79-431. El quelite rastrero (Amaranthus lividus) fue mejor controlado con aplicaciones postemergentes de amicarbazone, a partir de 0,7 kg ha-1. Por su parte, el control del zacate Guinea (Megathyrsus maximus) fue bajo en todas las épocas de aplicación. En aplicaciones preemergentes, el amicarbazone hasta 2,1 kg ha-1 fue altamente selectivo a todas las variedades evaluadas, mientras que, cuando fue aplicado en postemergencia, ocasionó ligera toxicidad a las tres variedades de caña de azúcar, la cual fue mayor conforme se incrementó la dosis. Sin embargo, los daños desaparecieron entre los 30 y 45 días después de la aplicación y no ocasionaron reducción permanente en la altura de las plantas. Abstract in english During the 2005 Spring-Summer growing cycle, three experiments were established in Ursulo Galvan, Ver., Mexico, to determine the best time of application of the herbicide amicarbazone in irrigated sugarcane, and the susceptibility of the three main varieties grown in this state to this herbicide. In [...] one experiment, weed control of amicarbazone at 0.7, 1.05 and 1.4 kg ha-1 applied at four stages (pre-emergence before germination irrigation, pre-emergence after germination irrigation, early post-emergence and late post-emergence) was evaluated. In the other experiments, the toxicity of amicarbazone at 0, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.1 kg ha-1 was evaluated when applied at pre-emergence and post-emergence on sugarcane varieties Mex 69-290, CP 72-2086 and 79 Mex-431. Amaranthus lividus was better controlled with post-emergence applications of amicarbazone, starting at 0.7 kg ha?1. Control of Guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) was low with amicarbazone at all stages. In pre-emergence applications, amicarbazone up to 2.1 kg ha-1 was highly selective to all varieties evaluated, whereas when applied in post-emergence, it caused slight toxicity to the three sugarcane varieties, increasing as the dose increased. However, the damages disappeared between 30 and 45 days after application, without causing a permanent reduction in plant height.

V.A., Esqueda-Esquivel; E., Rosales-Robles.

2013-09-01

288

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

2011-04-01

289

Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2014-01-01

290

Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction/Management (DRR and DRM). Participatory surveys (and participatory monitoring) elicit local people's knowledge about the specifics of the hazard concerning frequency, timing, warning signals, rates of flow, spatial extent, etc. And significantly, only this local knowledge from informants can reveal essential information about different vulnerabilities of people and places, and about any coping or adjustment mechanisms that local people have. The participatory methods employed in Mleta included historical discussions with key informants, village social transects, participatory mapping with children, semi-structured interviews with inhabitants, and VCA (Vulnerability & Capacity Analysis). The geolomorphological map produced on the base of the local geology has been realized with ArcGIS. This allowed the assessment of the areas at risk and the relative maps. We adapted and tested the software programme CyberTracker as a survey tool, a digital device method of field data collection. Google Earth, OpenStreetMap, Virtual Earth and Ilwis have been used for data processing.

Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

2014-05-01

291

Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others and discovering shared interests, but not necessarily changing their own view, behaviour or institutional practice. We conclude the paper with a discussion of two learning aspects of the participatory modelling process for which conflicting results were obtained: the question of depth of model scrutiny and the question of trust in the model, in the modeller and between the participants. References Krueger, T, Inman, A, Chilvers, J. 2012. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling. Paper Number EGU2012-5958. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, April 22nd-27th: Vienna, Austria.

Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

2014-05-01

292

Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense) / Teor de vitamina C em acessos de pimenta (Capsicum chinense) do grupo varietal Habanero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense) ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética). O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acesso [...] s de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses resultados evidenciam a diversidade dessa coleção de C. chinense para os teores de vitamina C. Abstract in english Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers) accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found). The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers [...] of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.

Ana Flávia P, Teodoro; Rosa de BN, Alves; Leandro B, Ribeiro; Karina, Reis; Francisco José B, Reifschneider; Maria Esther de N, Fonseca; Joseane P da, Silva; Tânia da S, Agostini-Costa.

293

Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense) / Teor de vitamina C em acessos de pimenta (Capsicum chinense) do grupo varietal Habanero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense) ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética). O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acesso [...] s de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses resultados evidenciam a diversidade dessa coleção de C. chinense para os teores de vitamina C. Abstract in english Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers) accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found). The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers [...] of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.

Ana Flávia P, Teodoro; Rosa de BN, Alves; Leandro B, Ribeiro; Karina, Reis; Francisco José B, Reifschneider; Maria Esther de N, Fonseca; Joseane P da, Silva; Tânia da S, Agostini-Costa.

2013-03-01

294

Process evaluation of a participatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Both low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE) is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is scarce. This study evaluates the process of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme, including the perceived implementation of the prioritised ergonom...

Driessen Maurice T; Proper Karin I; Anema Johannes R; Bongers Paulien M

2010-01-01

295

Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating communities of practice, and in what way do they promote the negotiation of a shared understanding? •Which commonalities can be derived from the participatory design of a "third space" community among communities of practice through participation in the Danish seed industry? The work will be based on preliminary field research including qualitative semi-structured interviews staging the local concept to knowledge and innovation quantified by large-scale questionnaires. A random target group will work with imaging, tagging and categorising their personal experience and thoughts of knowledge and innovation through advanced online photo diaries. The outcomes will be presented in a 3-step workshop series with representatives from the involved communities of practice. A "future workshop" will focus on commonalities and contradictions between the involved domains and how they redefine shared knowledge from their previous experience. A second workshop will focus on hands-on user experience based on a prototype predesigned from the preliminary research findings. The final workshop will build up a common knowledge discourseamong its participants, and work towards an overall requirement specification for a preferred future knowledge innovation method in the Danish seed industry. The three workshops will be recorded by video and subsequently hermeneutically analysed to determine relevant boundary objects and commonalities between the participating communities of practice.

Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte

296

Farmer-participatory integrated watershed management: Adarsha watershed, Kothapally India - an innovative and upscalable approach: case 7  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds..which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change in ecoregional research. The integrated farmer-participatory watershed management process involves: agro-ecological zoning, farming systems research, systems analysis to select best-bet options, upscaling research results, identification of products with competitive advantage for iocal and regional markets, and the design and implementation of a science-based action plan. The plan includes technical assistance, supervised credit, strengthening communal cohesion through women's and farmers' groups, increasing marketing opportunities by concentrating the supply in quantity and quality, quality control of the products, product development to add value, and market studies for the products developed. The impact on the production systems is briefly described.

SP Wani

2006-08-01

297

Diferenças Varietais nas Características Fotossintéticas de Pennisetum purpureum Schum / Varietal Differences in the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Pennisetum purpureum, Schum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos, a massa foliar específica (MFE) e as curvas de eficiência fotossintética em resposta a luz solar em oito genótipos de capim-elefante (cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 e CNPGL [...] 91-10-2) selecionados de acordo com o nível de produtividade estabelecido na época das águas. As concentrações de clorofila a (CHA), clorofila b (CHB) e carotenóides (CRT) mostraram relação altamente positiva, bem como as relações de clorofilas a/b (RAB) e de clorofila total/carotenóides (RCC). Os teores de CHA e CHB foram mais altos no genótipo taiwan A-146. Os valores de MFE observados indicaram menor acúmulo de matéria seca por unidade de área foliar para os genótipos CNPGL 91-27-5 e CNPGL 91-27-1. O estudo das curvas de eficiência fotossintética dos genótipos possibilitou a determinação da taxa respiratória no escuro (Rd), da irradiância de compensação (Ic), do rendimento quântico (f) e da assimilação fotossintética do carbono (Amax) na saturação luminosa. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e mineiro apresentaram, respectivamente, cerca de 18 e 11% mais capacidade carboxilativa que os demais genótipos avaliados. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e CNPGL 91-27-5 apresentaram valores de rendimento quântico (f) próximos aos valores médios citados para plantas C4. A Rd oscilou entre 1,64 e 3,48 mmol m-2 s-1 e o Ic, entre 26,39 e 54,97 µmol m-2 s-1 nos oito genótipos. Constatou-se que, sob condições de irradiância e temperatura não-limitantes, o genótipo taiwan A-146 apresentou maior potencial fotossintético. Abstract in english Photosynthetic pigment content, specific leaf mass (SLM) and carboxilative efficiency curves were obtained in response to sunlight in eight genotypes of elephantgrass selected according to productivities during the rainy season: cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A- [...] 146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 and CNPGL 91-10-2. Photosynthetic pigments were highly correlated, as well as chlorophyll a/b ratio (ABR) and chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio (CCR). Chlorophyll a and b contents were highest in taiwan A-146 genotype. SLM values indicated smaller dry matter accumulation by unit area for CNPGL 91-27-5 and CNPGL 91-27-1. Establishment of carboxilative efficiency curves of the genotypes allowed the determination of dark respiration rate (Rd), light compensation point (Ic), quantum yield (f) and maximum carbon photosynthetic assimilation (Amax) in light saturation. The taiwan A-146 and mineiro genotypes presented, respectively, about 18% and 11% more carboxilative capacity that the other genotypes. Genotypes taiwan A-146 and CNPGL 91-27-5 showed values of quantum yield (f) close to the average values reported for plants C4. Dark respiration rates varied between 1.64 and 3.38 µmol m-2 s-1 and Ic varied from 26.39 to 54.97 µmol m-2 s-1 in the eight genotypes. This study revealed that, under non limiting irradiance and temperature conditions, genotype taiwan A-146 presented highest photosynthetic rates.

Manoel Messias Pereira da, Silva; Hernan Maldonado, Vasquez; Ricardo Enrique, Bressan-Smith; José Fernando Coelho da, Silva; Eleonora D' Avila, Erbesdobler.

298

Diferenças Varietais nas Características Fotossintéticas de Pennisetum purpureum Schum Varietal Differences in the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Pennisetum purpureum, Schum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos, a massa foliar específica (MFE e as curvas de eficiência fotossintética em resposta a luz solar em oito genótipos de capim-elefante (cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 e CNPGL 91-10-2 selecionados de acordo com o nível de produtividade estabelecido na época das águas. As concentrações de clorofila a (CHA, clorofila b (CHB e carotenóides (CRT mostraram relação altamente positiva, bem como as relações de clorofilas a/b (RAB e de clorofila total/carotenóides (RCC. Os teores de CHA e CHB foram mais altos no genótipo taiwan A-146. Os valores de MFE observados indicaram menor acúmulo de matéria seca por unidade de área foliar para os genótipos CNPGL 91-27-5 e CNPGL 91-27-1. O estudo das curvas de eficiência fotossintética dos genótipos possibilitou a determinação da taxa respiratória no escuro (Rd, da irradiância de compensação (Ic, do rendimento quântico (f e da assimilação fotossintética do carbono (Amax na saturação luminosa. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e mineiro apresentaram, respectivamente, cerca de 18 e 11% mais capacidade carboxilativa que os demais genótipos avaliados. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e CNPGL 91-27-5 apresentaram valores de rendimento quântico (f próximos aos valores médios citados para plantas C4. A Rd oscilou entre 1,64 e 3,48 mmol m-2 s-1 e o Ic, entre 26,39 e 54,97 µmol m-2 s-1 nos oito genótipos. Constatou-se que, sob condições de irradiância e temperatura não-limitantes, o genótipo taiwan A-146 apresentou maior potencial fotossintético.Photosynthetic pigment content, specific leaf mass (SLM and carboxilative efficiency curves were obtained in response to sunlight in eight genotypes of elephantgrass selected according to productivities during the rainy season: cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 and CNPGL 91-10-2. Photosynthetic pigments were highly correlated, as well as chlorophyll a/b ratio (ABR and chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio (CCR. Chlorophyll a and b contents were highest in taiwan A-146 genotype. SLM values indicated smaller dry matter accumulation by unit area for CNPGL 91-27-5 and CNPGL 91-27-1. Establishment of carboxilative efficiency curves of the genotypes allowed the determination of dark respiration rate (Rd, light compensation point (Ic, quantum yield (f and maximum carbon photosynthetic assimilation (Amax in light saturation. The taiwan A-146 and mineiro genotypes presented, respectively, about 18% and 11% more carboxilative capacity that the other genotypes. Genotypes taiwan A-146 and CNPGL 91-27-5 showed values of quantum yield (f close to the average values reported for plants C4. Dark respiration rates varied between 1.64 and 3.38 µmol m-2 s-1 and Ic varied from 26.39 to 54.97 µmol m-2 s-1 in the eight genotypes. This study revealed that, under non limiting irradiance and temperature conditions, genotype taiwan A-146 presented highest photosynthetic rates.

Manoel Messias Pereira da Silva

2001-12-01

299

Education, outreach, and inclusive engagement: Towards integrated indicators of successful program outcomes in participatory science.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use and utility of science in society is often influenced by the structure, legitimacy, and efficacy of the scientific research process. Public participation in scientific research (PPSR) is a growing field of practice aimed at enhancing both public knowledge and understanding of science (education outreach) and the efficacy and responsiveness of scientific research, practice, and policy (participatory engagement). However, PPSR objectives focused on "education outreach" and "participatory engagement" have each emerged from diverse theoretical traditions that maintain distinct indicators of success used for program development and evaluation. Although areas of intersection and overlap among these two traditions exist in theory and practice, a set of comprehensive standards has yet to coalesce that supports the key principles of both traditions in an assimilated fashion. To fill this void, a comprehensive indicators framework is proposed with the goal of promoting a more integrative and synergistic PPSR program development and assessment process. PMID:23887249

Haywood, Benjamin K; Besley, John C

2014-01-01

300

Towards tailor-made participation : How to involve different types of citizens in participatory planning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Public participation has become an important element of governance in many Western European countries. However, among scholars and practitioners there is a recognition that participatory governance processes tend to produce systematic exclusions. Knowledge about 'who' participates and 'how' they participate can enhance our understanding of participatory processes. This paper presents some characterisations of citizens based on a review of the literature on participation. In addition, examples of how to tailor participation for different type of citizens are provided based on studies of urban regeneration programmes and local environmental initiatives in Denmark. The paper concludes that in order to broaden the inclusion of affected citizens, public authorities need to be tailor participation processes by applying distinct approaches to different types of citizens

Agger, Annika

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-a-vis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

Yee Ming Chen

2009-09-01

302

Participatory ergonomic intervention for prevention of low back pain: assembly line redesign case.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain. PMID:22317739

Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

2012-01-01

303

A Participation Paradox: Seeking the Missing Link between Free/Open Source Software and Participatory Design  

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Full Text Available The success of Free Open Source Software (FOSS has resulted in thousands of robust and ubiquitous products such as Linux, Firefox and Apache. However, the usability of many other FOSS products is often poor, and the most successful projects are the ones where the user and the developer are one and the same. The lack of broader participation is worrying, because it threatens the entire production model of FOSS. In this paper we investigate the reasons for this situation, drawing extensively from research on participatory design and commons based peer production (CBPP, and on a case study of three FOSS projects. Potential lessons are also drawn from the CBPP model in general, and the FOSS approach in particular, to mitigate the challenges facing distributed participatory design (DPD.

Zegaye Seifu Wubishet

2013-11-01

304

Learning through Situated Innovation : Why the specific is crucial for Participatory Design Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show implications of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD from the specificities, in line with recent debate contributions.

Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara

2014-01-01

305

Integrating adaptive governance and participatory multicriteria methods: a framework for climate adaptation governance  

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Full Text Available Climate adaptation is a dynamic social and institutional process where the governance dimension is receiving growing attention. Adaptive governance is an approach that promises to reduce uncertainty by improving the knowledge base for decision making. As uncertainty is an inherent feature of climate adaptation, adaptive governance seems to be a promising approach for improving climate adaptation governance. However, the adaptive governance literature has so far paid little attention to decision-making tools and methods, and the literature on the governance of adaptation is in its infancy in this regard. We argue that climate adaptation governance would benefit from systematic and yet flexible decision-making tools and methods such as participatory multicriteria methods for the evaluation of adaptation options, and that these methods can be linked to key adaptive governance principles. Moving from these premises, we propose a framework that integrates key adaptive governance features into participatory multicriteria methods for the governance of climate adaptation.

Stefania Munaretto

2014-06-01

306

Effectiveness of participatory planning for community management of fisheries in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides statistical evidence that support for community-based management of resources was more effective when initiated through a process known as participatory action plan development (PAPD). Thirty-six sites were studied where community management of fisheries was facilitated by NGOs. All involved community participation and establishing local fisheries management institutions. However, communities were able to take up more conservation-related interventions and faced fewer conflicts in the 18 sites where a PAPD was the basis for collective action and institution development. This indicates the value and effectiveness of adopting good practice in participatory planning, such as PAPD, which helps diverse stakeholders find common problems and solutions for natural resource management. PMID:17291678

Sultana, Parvin; Abeyasekera, Savitri

2008-01-01

307

Let Me Put It Another Way: Methodological Considerations on the Use of Participatory Photography Based on an Experiment with Teenagers in Secondary Schools  

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Full Text Available This article reflects on the use of participant photography as a methodological component of a qualitative research study into student intercultural relations in four secondary schools in Spain. Forty boys and girls took part and we selected over 400 photographs they had taken. The article draws attention to the importance of student ‘voices’ to show the interaction processes and the value of participatory photography as an approach that encourages their participation beyond the traditional interviews and field observations. The results acknowledge the value of photography to reflect the relationships among adolescents. However, while the experiment was positively rated by the participants, the study recognises the risks taken and the achievements, constraints, dilemmas and difficulties encountered by the investigators carrying out the research.

Jose M. Coronel

2013-06-01

308

Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report  

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Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched i...

Arabinda Brahma; Biswas, Mrinal K.; Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Sohini Banerjee

2013-01-01

309

MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN COMMUNITY TOURISM PARTICIPATORY PLANNING IN SAMUI ISLAND, THAILAND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for th...

Kannapa Pongponrat; Naphawan Jane Chantradoan

2012-01-01

310

A participatory evaluation of a First Nations substance abuse treatment centre  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on alcohol and substance use for First Nations populations frequently describes the problem (nature and severity, risk factors), but does not often address intervention and what works well for clients who engage in treatment. This thesis provides a comprehensive participatory evaluation of the six-week residential ‘Namgis Treatment Centre (NTC) program in Alert Bay, British Columbia. Client intake files (n = 218) were reviewed for clients who participated in 17 different six-week s...

Woerd, Kimberly Ann

2008-01-01

311

Taking Up Positions: Embodied Theories and Time-Based Participatory Practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taking Up Positions attempts to resolve, or propose possible solutions to, a range of questions common to time-based and participatory art practices concerning exhibition making, power, authorship and definitions, as well as their implications within a contemporary politics of protestation and image creation. This work is based on two distinct workshops which were facilitated leading up to this exhibition. These workshops were experiments in the embodiment of theory. Axis of Agency involv...

Mindel, Gabriel Saloman

2013-01-01

312

Participatory analysis for adaptation to climate change in Mediterranean agricultural systems: possible choices in process design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an increasing call for local measures to adapt to climate change, based on foresight analyses in collaboration with actors. However, such analyses involve many challenges, particularly because the actors concerned may not consider climate change to be an urgent concern. This paper examines the methodological choices made by three research teams in the design and implementation of participatory foresight analyses to explore agricultural and water management options for adaptation t...

Faysse, N.; Rinaudo, J. -d; Bento, S.; Richard-ferroudji, A.; Errahj, M.; Varanda, M.; Imache, A.; Dionnet, M.; Rollin, D.; Garin, P.; Kuper, M.; Maton, L.; Montginoul, M.

2014-01-01

313

Lessons Learned From Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country  

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The purpose of this article is to share lessons learned from implementing community-based participatory research (CBPR) in Indian Country that may be generalizable to other medically underserved communities. CBPR is currently included in multiple grant announcements by the National Institute of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but information about this methodology vs traditional research methodology is often misleading. This article addresses some common mistakes made b...

Burhansstipanov, Linda; Christopher, Suzanne; Schumacher, Sr Ann

2005-01-01

314

Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecologica...

Pascal Perez; Ian White

2010-01-01

315

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, a...

Pieter Bots; Sabine Moellenkamp; Daniell, Katherine A.; Yorck von Korff; Bijlsma, Rianne M.

2012-01-01

316

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews ...

Rene Loewenson; Walter Flores; Abhay Shukla; Maija Kagis; Amuda Baba; Ashraf Ryklief; Clara Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay Kakde

2011-01-01

317

Extended Capabilities for a Privacy-Enhanced Participatory Sensing Infrastructure (PEPSI)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory sensing is emerging as an innovative computing paradigm that targets the ubiquity of always-connected mobile phones and their sensing capabilities. In this context, a multitude of pioneering applications increasingly carry out pervasive collection and dissemination of information and environmental data, such as, traffic conditions, pollution, temperature, etc. Participants collect and report measurements from their mobile devices and entrust them to the cloud t...

Cristofaro, Emiliano; Soriente, Claudio

2013-01-01

318

Improving Data Quality with an Accumulated Reputation Model in Participatory Sensing Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ubiquity of mobile devices brings forth a sensing paradigm, participatory sensing, to collect and interpret sensory information from the environment. Participants join in multifarious sensing tasks and share their data. The sensing result can be obtained in light of shared data. It is not uncommon that some corrupted data is provided by participants, which makes sensing result unreliable accordingly. To address this nontrivial issue, we proposed the accumulated reputation model (ARM) to i...

Ruiyun Yu; Rui Liu; Xingwei Wang; Jiannong Cao

2014-01-01

319

Exploring the challenges of implementing Participatory Action Research in the context of HIV and poverty  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR) has been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this ...

Rosenthal, W. A.; Khalil, D. D.

2010-01-01

320

Sexual education for adolescents: a participatory research approach in the school  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present th...

Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira; Eliane Tatsch Neves; Joanita Cechin Donaduzzi; Andressa da Silveira

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN COMMUNITY TOURISM PARTICIPATORY PLANNING IN SAMUI ISLAND, THAILAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for the success of the planning for local tourism activities.

Kannapa Pongponrat

2012-06-01

322

Participatory archive : towards decentralised curation, radical user orientation, and broader contextualisation of records management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The user perspective and user studies have received noticeably little practical attention in archives and archival science. The purpose of this article is to address the issues of communication and user participation in archival contexts. Two action research projects based digital archives are discussed. The insights gained during the research and development work are used to formulate a new approach to a participatory archive. In spite of the historical nature of the archives discussed, the ...

Huvila, Isto

2008-01-01

323

Digital Media Meets Informal Learning: Opportunities for Generating New Participatory Roles  

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Full Text Available This paper explores the rich learning that happens between defined learning spaces, such as that between formal curriculum and informal projects. Here we apply the notion of “hybrid space,” to understand how such in-between learning spaces can facilitate a shift in participatory roles for college students engaged in a community media project. This study also highlights the ways in which media as a production medium can further transform the learning experience.

Kathryn Hayes

2012-06-01

324

Spreading Leader Knowledge: Investigating a Participatory Mode of Knowledge Dissemination among Management Undergraduates  

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In this paper we discuss the need for a practitioner–academic partnership in disseminating leader knowledge among undergraduate management students, and find that in order to cultivate actionable skill development, business and academic communities should collaborate to offer a participatory approach to leadership education. The core objective is to discover sources of actionable knowledge and to decipher its optimum dissemination among management students, encompassing technical, conceptua...

Kelliher, Felicity; Harrington, Denis; Galavan, Robert

2010-01-01

325

Stepping into futures: exploring the potential of interactive media for participatory scenarios on social ecological systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a strategy for the development of interactive media scenarios to help communicate uncertainties and complexities in coupled human and natural systems. Insights arising from Complex Adaptive Systems theory advocate the need for more adaptive perspectives on natural resources management. For the collaborative exploration of future complexities and uncertainties, participatory scenario development has proven to be a powerful approach. A range of communication strategies...

Vervoort, J. M.; Kok, K.; Lammeren, R. J. A.; Veldkamp, A.

2010-01-01

326

GIS for participatory land use planning in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A participatory land use planning approach (PLUP) was carried out in two villages of the Mekong Delta coastal area. The PLUP was done twice (2002 and 2003). A geographic information system (GIS) was used for analyzing the land use change, the realization of the farmers’ preference, the preference change and the preference conflicts between groups of aquaculture and agriculture farmers. Results show that land use in the study area is very dynamic, farmers are flexible and there are differenc...

Trung, N. H.; Le Quang Tri; Mensvoort, M. E. F.; Bregt, A. K.

2004-01-01

327

Agroecological innovation in Challa : Intercultural dialogue and participatory research in knowledge and information exchange  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of agroecological food systems in the Andes provides a fruitful study environment for understanding innovation processes in participatory research. In this particular context two knowledge based communities - the modern scientific and the traditional indigenous form an intercultural dialogue that frames the conditions for innovation to be developed and sustained. This thesis presents an exploratory case study of the Communal Agricultural Risk Management project in Challa, Boli...

Tarazona Machicao, Mateo

2013-01-01

328

Lessons from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project: Older People's and Researchers' Reflections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ethical and practical importance of actively involving older people in the research process is increasingly articulated in the gerontology literature. This article contributes to the literature by outlining a community-based participatory research project that centered on the design and administration of a questionnaire exploring older people’s use and perceptions of community services. The authors discuss both older adults’ and the researchers’ views of the partic...

Timonen, Virpi; Doyle, Martha

2009-01-01

329

Applying genre theory to citizen participation in public policy making: Theoretical perspectives on participatory genres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aims at building up a theoretical framework for the study of citizen participation in public policy making based on genre theory. Drawing on various perspectives on genre theory (rhetorical analysis, literary analysis, sociolinguistics, media studies, organisational communication, user interface design, and computer-mediated communication), this paper suggests a series of analytical perspectives on participatory genres, a notion freely borrowed from Erickson (1997) and applied t...

Dufrasne, Marie; Patriarche, Geoffroy

2011-01-01

330

What are possible barriers and facilitators to implementation of a Participatory Ergonomics programme?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are common among workers. Participatory Ergonomics (PE) is used as an implementation strategy to prevent these symptoms. By following the steps of PE, working groups composed and prioritised ergonomic measures, and developed an implementation plan. Working group members were responsible to implement the ergonomic measures in their departments. Little is known about factors that hamper (barriers) or enhance (facilitato...

Driessen Maurice T; Groenewoud Karin; Proper Karin I; Anema Johannes R; Bongers Paulien M; van der Beek Allard J

2010-01-01

331

Beyond Dry Feet? Experiences from a Participatory Water-Management Planning Case in The Netherlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participation of stakeholders in planning processes is increasingly seen as an essential element in adaptive and integrated water management and sometimes a policy requirement from higher-level governance bodies. Despite an extensive literature on the advantages and disadvantages of public participation and criteria for effective participation, not much is known about how water managers should proceed in a given context. Water-management agencies have to face the challenge of effectively involving stakeholders in developing their water-management plans and must design and implement a balanced process approach among the available time, finances, organization, and facilitation without compromising their authority. This article presents a participatory planning process designed and implemented at Water Board "Hoogheemraadschap De Stichtse Rijnlanden" (HDSR in the center of The Netherlands. For a period of 2 yrs, these three groups were involved in various ways, participating in different types of meetings and workshops, using a range of participatory tools and techniques. The process and results of the three groups were monitored and evaluated using a tailored evaluation strategy. This paper analyzes the way the design and implementation of the process is perceived by both the conveners and participants and suggests practical lessons for water managers. Based on our case, it is argued that a careful process design, a thorough and continuous stakeholder analysis, building reflective workshops within and after the process, and ensuring experienced and qualified process leaders can greatly enhance the adaptive capacity and successful outcome of the participatory planning process.

Greet Francois

2010-03-01

332

Evaluation of Bayesian Networks in Participatory Water Resources Management, Upper Guadiana Basin, Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual appeal. This research focuses on developing and testing a set of evaluation criteria for public participation. The advantages and limitations of these criteria are discussed in the light of a specific participatory modeling initiative. Modeling work was conducted in the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain, where uncontrolled groundwater extraction is responsible for wetland degradation and conflicts between farmers, water authorities, and environmentalists. Finding adequate solutions to the problem is urgent because the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive requires all aquatic ecosystems to be in a “good ecological state” within a relatively short time frame. Stakeholder evaluation highlights the potential of Bayesian networks to support public participation processes.

John Bromley

2010-09-01

333

Introduction of Participatory Conservation in Croatia, Residents' Perceptions: A Case Study from the Istrian Peninsula  

Science.gov (United States)

Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

Sladonja, Barbara; Brš?i?, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

2012-06-01

334

Methods for Developing Multiscale Participatory Scenarios: Insights from Southern Africa and Europe  

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Full Text Available Scenario planning is increasingly recognized as a useful tool for exploring change in social-ecological systems on decadal to centennial time horizons. In environmental decision making, scenario development tends to include participatory methods for engaging stakeholders and is conducted at multiple scales. This paper presents insights from participatory scenario development in two separate multiscale environmental assessments. We find that, to engage stakeholders at multiple scales, it is important that the issues explored at each scale be relevant and credible to stakeholders at that scale. An important trade-off exists between maintaining relevance to stakeholders at different scales and maintaining consistency across scales to allow for comparison of scenarios. Where downscaling methods are used to ensure consistency, there can be important consequences for (1 the diversity of scenario outcomes, (2 temporal mismatches in the storylines at different scales, and (3 power relationships among stakeholders at different scales. We suggest that development of participatory scenarios at multiple scales has a strong potential to contribute to environmental decision making, but it requires a substantial investment of time and resources to realize its full potential.

Monika Zurek

2007-06-01

335

Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation : The Hermeneutic Interplay of Complexity, Relations ans Institutions in Knowledge Transformation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A conceptual framework for a coherent understanding of knowledge as a socially constructed resource in flux over boundaries when innovating with others is constructed. Starting with an overview of different perspectives on innovation, showing a development towards a more iterative social process perspective on innovation. Then, a similar development in the field of knowledge and knowing is presented, where the perspective changes from a divisional systemthinking towards a more relational view of complementing combinations of knowledge and knowing, recognizing the challenge of boundaries. Further, relating, cognitive social capital and the justification of knowledge are described as different but interdependent dimensions of transforming knowledge across boundaries in participatory innovation. A multi-level concept of social dynamics of participatory innovation is proposed, and a model that illustrates the generic process of how new knowledge moves between individuals, and groups within organizations when itis transformed across boundaries is offered. Next, limitations are presented, and future research is discussed, pointing towards play and games as conceptually and practically promising approaches towards grasping the social dynamics of participatory innovation.

Sproedt, Henrik

336

Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory action researchers in a teacher education programme  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper I analyse the potential that participatory action research holds for educating pre-service teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. I also describe the rationale for and process of engaging pre-service teachers in their teacher education programme. Involvin [...] g these candidate teachers in participatory action research (PAR) projects may provide opportunities for aspiring teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledge, examine their beliefs about teaching, and gain confidence in addressing social justice issues. More than merely exposing them to applying the technique of action research, the PAR project encouraged them to become more socially conscious, critical, imaginative and argumentative as teacher-researchers. In the project I used a participatory approach in action research to prepare the pre-service teachers to become emancipatory action researchers. Supporting and fostering inquiring practices is a strategy to help pre-service teachers move beyond just receiving hand-outs in a teacher education programme and beginning to focus on their work with learners and challenges in the real school environment.

Omar, Esau.

337

The Role of Participatory Modeling in Landscape Approaches to Reconcile Conservation and Development  

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Full Text Available Conservation organizations are increasingly turning to landscape approaches to achieve a balance between conservation and development goals. We use six case studies in Africa and Asia to explore the role of participatory modeling with stakeholders as one of the steps towards implementing a landscape approach. The modeling was enthusiastically embraced by some stakeholders and led to impact in some cases. Different stakeholders valued the modeling exercise differently. Noteworthy was the difference between those stakeholders connected to the policy process and scientists; the presence of the former in the modeling activities is key to achieving policy impacts, and the latter were most critical of participatory modeling. Valued aspects of the modeling included stimulating cross-sector strategic thinking, and helping participants to confront the real drivers of change and to recognize trade-offs. The modeling was generally considered to be successful in building shared understanding of issues. This understanding was gained mainly in the discussions held in the process of building the model rather than in the model outputs. The model itself reflects but a few of the main elements of the usually rich discussions that preceded its finalization. Problems emerged when models became too complex. Key lessons for participatory modeling are the need for good facilitation in order to maintain a balance between "models as stories" and technical modeling, and the importance of inviting the appropriate stakeholders to achieve impact.

Habtemariam Kassa

2010-06-01

338

USING PARTICIPATORY METHODS AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) TO PREPARE FOR AN HIV COMMUNITY-BASED TRIAL IN VULINDLELA, SOUTH AFRICA (Project Accept–HPTN 043)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent attempts to integrate geographic information systems (GIS) and participatory techniques, have given rise to terminologies such as participatory GIS and community-integrated GIS. Although GIS was initially developed for physical geographic application, it can be used for the management and analysis of health and health care data. Geographic information systems, combined with participatory methodology, have facilitated the analysis of access to health facilities and disease risk in diffe...

Chirowodza, Admire; Rooyen, Heidi; Joseph, Philip; Sikotoyi, Sindisiwe; Richter, Linda; Coates, Thomas

2009-01-01

339

Rice Varietal Screening for Ratoonability  

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Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted at Philippine Rice Institute (PhilRice, located at Maligaya Munoz Nueva Ecija, Phillippines. Rice ratooning ability under 10, 20 and 30 cm stubble cutting heights was evaluated on the basis of basal and nodal tillers regeneration, missing hills, ratoon vigor and rating and grain yield. Out of 30 varieties /lines tested only PSBRc8, PSBRc6 and BPIRi10 showed ratooning potentiality in terms of ratoon vigour and rating, basal and nodal tillers regeneration and final grain yield at lower stubble cutting height of 10 cm. It is recommended that for higher ratoon grain yield cutting of stubbles at the 10 cm should be performed.

F.C. Oad

2002-01-01

340

Divergência genética entre acessos de cenoura pertencentes a grupos varietais distintos utilizando caracteres morfológicos Genetic divergence among carrot accessions belonging to different varietal groups using morphologic characters  

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Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos de cenoura tem aumentado consideravelmente na última década no Brasil. Estudos de determinação de divergência genética entre genótipos têm sido ferramentas de grande importância em programas de melhoramento, auxiliando na identificação de genitores com potencial heterótico. No entanto, pouco ainda se sabe sobre a capacidade combinatória de acessos de cenoura adaptados às regiões tropicais. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: (1 estimar parâmetros genéticos, (2 estimar a importância relativa de quatro caracteres morfológicos na discriminação de grupos varietais de cenoura e (3 obter indicação, a partir deste conjunto de dados morfológicos, de combinações promissoras para cruzamentos, visando utilização prática da heterose. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, nas primaveras de 2000 e 2001, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições. Foram avaliadas quinze plantas competitivas em cada parcela para os caracteres comprimento de folha, tamanho da raiz, diâmetro de raiz e massa fresca de raiz. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de variância, de dissimilaridade e da importância relativa dos caracteres. Todos os caracteres apresentaram valores de herdabilidade e da relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental de medianos a altos. Os caracteres comprimento e diâmetro de raiz foram os que mais contribuíram para a diferenciação dos genótipos. O grupo mais divergente foi 'Imperator'. Desta forma, cruzamentos deste grupo com os demais acessos tendem a proporcionar maior efeito da heterose. Os acessos pertencentes ao grupo 'Brasília', podem ser cruzados com a maioria dos acessos (exceto para aqueles derivados dos grupos varietais 'Chantenay' e 'Danvers', com probabilidade de geração de populações superiores em relação à heterose.The utilization of carrot hybrids has increased in the last decade in Brazil. The estimative of genetic divergence among genotypes is a tool to identify superior parents for heterotic hybrid production in breeding programs. However, little is known about the combining ability of tropical-adapted carrot germplasm. The objectives of the present work were: (1 to estimate genetic parameters, (2 to estimate the relative importance of set of four morphological traits in the discrimination of carrot accessions belonging to distinct varietal groups and, (3 to use this morphological dataset combined with clustering techniques to group distinct carrot accessions in order to identify the most promising hybrid combinations. Two experiments were carried out in the field, in the springs of 2000 and 2001, in random block design with two replications. Fifteen competitive plants per accession were evaluated at 90 days after planting for the following traits: leaf length (cm, root length (cm, root diameter (mm, and fresh root weight (g. Analysis of variance as well as dissimilarity analysis and relative importance of each morphological characteristic for accession discrimination were calculated for the traits under study. All four traits displayed either medium or high heritability values as well as ratio of genetic and environmental variation coefficients. The traits root length and root diameter presented the highest contribution to discriminate accessions. The 'Imperator' group was the most divergent one. Therefore, crosses involving this variety group with the remaining accessions would result in progenies with the highest heterotic effects. Tropical-adapted accessions belonging to the 'Brasília' group could be crossed with the majority of the accessions (except for the ones corresponding to the 'Chantenay' and 'Danvers' groups with a high probability of generating superior populations and/or heterotic gains.

Jairo Vidal Vieira

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Using Agents for a Participatory Collaborative Media Sharing Experience  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the architecture of an agent-based music service that generates dynamic playlists based on suggestions from multiple users. The system employs a number of agents capable of autonomy, mobility, scalability, collaboration and platform independence. In the system, agents are classified into two groups: requesters and music service team. Requesters work on behalf of their users, and bring music suggestions from the users to a DJ agent (DJ which is part of the service team. The DJ has a reasoning component responsible for music selection and negotiation. Music selection is the result of negotiation among agents in sealed-bid auctions. The bidding strategy is specified by users. The amount of a bid implies the value of a song for a specific user; the DJ will evaluate this amount to determine the winner of the auction, whose song will be placed on the playlist. All agents interact with each other using an interaction/negotiation protocol, through agent messaging. A proof of concept implementation of this architecture shows that agents in the A-DJ system automatically perform tasks and collaborate with each other under the proposed protocol. The implementation appears to be scalable up to approximately 800 customers on a generalpurpose computer system.

Luigi Benedicenti

2008-02-01

342

Understanding community perceptions of health and social needs in a rural Balinese village: results of a rapid participatory appraisal.  

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This article reviews the process and key recommendations derived from conducting a rapid participatory asset-focused health and social needs assessment in the small traditional rural village of Tulikup, Bali. The assessment aimed to develop recommendations for a community radio station based in Tulikup to promote social change and development. The health and social needs assessment utilized an asset-focused rapid participatory assessment cycle methodological framework, incorporating Annett and Rifkin's (1995) guidelines for rapid participatory appraisals (World Health Organization, Geneva), community-based action research (Sage Publications, California; Stringer, 1996) and asset-based community development. The study explored Tulikup's pre-existing assets and highlights the value of using rapid participatory appraisal techniques as a first step in involving communities in assessing needs and planning meaningful community development strategies. Data was collected over a 3-week in-country period and included interviews with key informants, informal individual and group discussions, field observations and reviews of existing secondary data sources. Triangulation using cultural interpreters, and participatory consultation processes with community members helped ensure data reliability and validity. Recent terrorist attacks in Indonesia and, most notably, Bali, have had widespread economic and social effects throughout Bali. In particular, secondary consequences of unemployment and a reduction in income have had negative impacts on population health and child labour at the village level. The findings and recommendations of the health and social needs rapid assessment have been utilized by the radio station to promote social change and development. PMID:17158820

Pepall, Elisa; Earnest, Jaya; James, Ross

2007-03-01

343

Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527

Seyednezami Nasrin

2007-08-01

344

ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING  

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Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

Adela NEME?

2010-01-01

345

The North Carolina Youth Empowerment Study (NCYES): A Participatory Research Study Examining the Impact of Youth Empowerment for Tobacco Use Prevention  

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This article describes the North Carolina Youth Empowerment Study (NCYES), a 3-year participatory evaluation of youth programs addressing tobacco use prevention. The study goals of NCYES were to (1) convene an advisory board comprised of lay youths and adults in a participatory research process, (2) document the characteristics of youth programs…

Ribisl, Kurt M.; Steckler, Allan; Linnan, Laura; Patterson, Carol C.; Pevzner, Eric S.; Markatos, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Adam O.; McGloin, Tim; Peterson, Arlana Bobo

2004-01-01

346

The usefulness of Decision Support Systems in participatory forest planning: a comparison between Finland and Italy  

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Aim of study: Participation of stake holders is considered an essential element in producing, at different spatial and temporal scales, forest plans accepted by local community and fulfilling the requirements of Sustainable Forest Management. Increasingly, computer-based decision support systems (DSS) and tools are being introduced to assist stake holders and decision-makers in coping with the complexities inherent in participatory forest planning. The study aimed to investigate how useful the users and researchers see DSS tools and which opportunities they perceive DSS might carry for enhancing participatory forest planning in their field of activity. Area of study: 15 Italian and Finnish researchers and practitioners were interviewed. Material and methods: Face-to-face structured interviews were used to collect opinions and experiences. Quantitative and qualitative information were analyzed to investigate differences between Italian and Finnish respondents as well as between researchers and practitioners Main results: Results showed that in Italy there has been more focus on forest-level and medium-term problems and the intelligence phase, while in Finland there has been more attention to region-level and long-term problems and equally intelligence, design, and choice phases of decision-making. Deviations probably reflect different planning contexts and culture, variability in experiences and expertise in DSS and in availability of suitable DSS. Research highlights: The study suggests to pay attention to evaluating the success criteria of participatory planning when preparing for the use of DSS and related tools in practical forest planning processes. Experience sharing is a key to reaching more successful use of DSS. (Author)

Meo, I. de; Ferretti, F.; Hujala, T.; Kangas, A.

2013-09-01

347

Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment  

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Full Text Available Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993–2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e., through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC. After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also presented. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

F. Caille

2007-05-01

348

Empowering Smallholder Women Farmers through Participatory Seed Potato Management: Lessons from Welmera District, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholder farmers using a case study from Ethiopia. Through the participatory intervention, women farmers have enhanced their skills and knowledge of improved agricultural technologies as well as their collective capacity (social capital in accessing input and output markets. As a result, the number of FRG members increased from 25 women farmers organized in one FRG in 2006 to 253 women farmers organized in 11 village-level Farmers Research Extension Groups (FREGs in 2013. The participatory intervention in the study area has improved women’s productivity of seed potatoes and marketing; enabled them to earn cash an average of Ethiopian Birr (ETB 11 000 per year only from the sale of seed potatoes; and this has created more options to improve the livelihoods of women farmers and their households by diversifying into higher-value farm and off-farm work. Consequently, women decision making in the household as well as in the community has been enhanced. Women farmers are now heard at national level for their innovative experiences and have become one of the national seed potato and knowledge sources. There is a need to replicate this model approach to enhance the productivity of smallholder women farmers and subsequently empower them to facilitate exit pathways out of poverty and ensure sustainable development.

Ali Mohammed Oumer

2014-09-01

349

Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process  

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Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design. Community-based participatory research. Methods. Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and observations were assessed using “member checking,” whereby students, teachers and community partners could agree or disagree with the researcher's interpretation. The students and teachers were further asked informally to share their own reflections and observations on this process. Results and conclusions. Using youth to research other youth within a participatory research framework had many benefits for the quality of the research, the youth researchers and the community. The research was perceived by the researchers and participants to be more valid and credible. The approach was more appropriate for the students, and the youth researchers gained valuable research experience and a sense of ownership of both the research process and results. Viewing smoking through their children's eyes was seen by the community to be a powerful and effective means of creating awareness of the community environment. Limitations of the approach were residual response bias of participants, the short period of time to conduct the research and failure to fully explore student motivations to smoke or not to smoke. Ethical considerations included conducting research with minors, difficulties in obtaining written parental consent, decisions on cameras (disposable versus digital and representation of all participants in the final research product.

Cynthia G. Jardine

2012-05-01

350

Methodological challenges for the large N study of local participatory experiences. Combining methods and databases  

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Full Text Available In this article we analyse the effects of different data collection strategies in the study of local participatory experiences in a region of Spain (Andalusia. We examine the divergences and similarities between the data collected using different methods, as well as the implications for the reliability of the data. We have collected participatory experiences through two parallel processes: a survey of municipalities and web content mining. The survey of municipalities used two complementary strategies: an online questionnaire and a CATI follow-up for those municipalities that had not answered our first online contact attempt. Both processes (survey and data mining were applied to the same sample of municipalities, but provided significantly different images of the characteristics of Andalusia’s participatory landscape. The goal of this work is to discuss the different types of biases introduced by each data collection procedure and their implications for substantive analyses.

En este artículo analizamos los efectos de diferentes estrategias para la recolección de datos en el estudio de las experiencias participativas andaluzas. Examinamos para ello las diferencias y similitudes entre los datos recogidos mediante diferentes métodos, así como las implicaciones para la fiabilidad de los datos. Para ello, hemos utilizado dos procedimientos paralelos. En primer lugar, una encuesta a municipios y la minería de datos en Internet. La encuesta se realizó utilizando dos modos de administración diferentes, un cuestionario online y un cuestionario telefónico de seguimiento a los municipios que no respondieron al primer intento de contacto vía correo electrónico. Tanto la encuesta como la minería de datos fueron aplicados a la misma muestra de municipios, aunque arrojaron diferencias significativas en cuanto a las características del panorama participativo en Andalucía. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir los diferentes tipos de sesgos introducidos por cada procedimiento de recogida de datos y sus implicaciones para posteriores análisis sustantivos.

Galais, Carolina

2012-12-01

351

Participatory Design at the Museum - inquiring into children's everyday engagement in cultural heritage  

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We address the challenge of creating intersections between children’s everyday engagement and museum exhibitions. Specifically, we propose an approach to participatory design inquiry where children’s everyday engagement is taken as the point of departure. We base our discussion on a design workshop – Gaming the Museum – where a primary school class was invited to participate in creating future exhibition spaces for a museum based on their everyday use of computer games and online communities. We reflect on the results of the workshop and discuss more broadly the qualities of design inquiries that use the everyday engagement of children as point of departure for designing interactive museum exhibitions.

Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

352

Introduction to theme section on geographies of intellectual disability: 'outside the participatory mainstream'?  

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This paper introduces the following theme section on Geographies of Intellectual Disability. It outlines the historiography of geographical work on intellectual disability, noting in particular the contributions of Wolpert (Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 5 (1980) 391) and Hall and Kearns (Health and Place 7 (2001) 237), before tracing claims made about both the 'institutional' and 'deinstitutional' eras in the changing geographies confronting and experienced by intellectually disabled people. This account, highlighting the tendency for such people to remain 'outside the participatory mainstream' in almost all circumstances, offers along the way an introduction to the four contributions that follow. PMID:15629675

Philo, Chris; Metzel, Deborah S

2005-06-01

353

Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children  

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This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space) and methodological considerations (e.g. the role of context and structure for different age groups, workshop formats, expenditure of time).

Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg

354

Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants considered that with flexibility of data collection to account for the preferences of Aboriginal members, then the method was appropriate in cross-cultural contexts for the difficult discussions that are needed to improve partnerships. Conclusion Critical reflection showed that the preconditions for difficult discussions are, first, that partners have the capacity to engage in such discussions, second, that partners assess whether the effort required for these discussions is balanced by the benefits they gain from the partnership, and, third, that “boundary spanning” staff can facilitate commitment to partnership goals.

Fuller Jeffrey

2012-06-01

355

Health 2050: The Realization of Personalized Medicine through Crowdsourcing, the Quantified Self, and the Participatory Biocitizen  

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Full Text Available The concepts of health and health care are moving towards the notion of personalized preventive health maintenance and away from an exclusive focus on the cure of disease. This is against the backdrop of contemporary public health challenges that include increasing costs, worsening outcomes, ‘diabesity’ epidemics, and anticipated physician shortages. Personalized preventive medicine could be critical to solving public health challenges at their causal root. This paper sets forth a vision and plan for the realization of preventive medicine by 2050 and examines efforts already underway such as participatory health initiatives, the era of big health data, and qualitative shifts in mindset.

Melanie Swan

2012-09-01

356

Participatory design of computer-supported organizational learning in health care: methods and experiences.  

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This paper outlines a Computer-Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) system for primary care and presents from its participatory design process time consumption, costs, and experiences. The system integrates a hypermedia environment, a computerized patient record, and an electronicmessage system. It is developed to coordinate organizational learning in primary care from micro to macro levels by connecting strategic planning to monitoring of patient routines. Summing up design experiences, critical issues for making CSCW systems support cost-effectiveness of health care are discussed. PMID:8563401

Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C; Hallberg, N; Eriksson, H; Lindblom, P; Hedblom, P; Svensson, B; Marmolin, H

1995-01-01

357

Evaluation of the effectiveness of deworming and participatory hygiene education strategy in controlling anemia among children aged 6-15 years in Gadagau community, Giwa LGA, Kaduna, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background : Anemia is one of the most common and most serious health disorders worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO estimated that about 40% of the total world?s population (more than 2 billion individuals suffer from anemia. In developing countries, the prevalence rate of anemia is about 20% in school-aged children. More than 10 million African children are thought to be anemic (Hb <11 g/dl. Also, in Africa, it is estimated that more than half of all children over 5 years and pregnant women are anemic. Community-based estimates of anemia prevalence in settings where malaria is endemic range between 49% and 76%. In Nigeria, the prevalence rate for anemia among children was 29.4%. It was highest in the South-East (49.7% and lowest in the North-East (11.1%. Objective : The study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of deworming and participatory hygiene education strategy in controlling anemia among children aged 6-15 years in the Gadagau community, north-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional descriptive study of 306 children aged 6-15 years selected from two rural communities (Gadagau, which was the study group and Karau-Karau, which was the control group in the Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria using a multistage sampling technique. The studies involved parasitological examination and anemia evaluation before and at 3 months after the children were dewormed. Results : Only 301 children (150 children in study group and 151 children in control group were studied. The results showed that those who were dewormed and had participatory hygiene education lectures (study group had significantly higher mean hemoglobin, from an initial 10.4 g/dl to a post-intervention of 12.4 g/dl (paired t-test = 13.96; P = 0.00. Also, there was a rise in the mean hemoglobin of the control group, but not as much as in the study group, from an initial mean hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl to a post-intervention of 11.2 g/dl (paired t-test = 2.89; P = 0.004. Comparing the study and the control groups, those who were dewormed and also had participatory hygiene education lectures (study group had a significantly higher reduction in the level of children who had ova of intestinal helminthes present in their stool than those in the control group (? 2 = 31.61; df = 1, P = 0.00. Conclusion : This study therefore concludes that including participatory hygiene education to deworming programmes will greatly improve the hemoglobin level of children in areas where there is a high prevalence of hookworm infections, especially as a short-term preventive measure for anemia in children.

Sufiyan M

2011-03-01

358

Engaging the Dan River Region to reduce obesity: application of the Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation process.  

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Despite ongoing recommendations to engage health-disparate populations in the initiation and execution of community-based research, few studies report on the process of community engagement. The action-oriented Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) process is designed to guide community health planning and evaluation. This article describes how the CPPE process was utilized within a community-based participatory research initiative aimed at addressing obesity in the health-disparate Dan River Region. Encouraging community engagement in formulating research agendas and promoting ownership of health solutions will be key to improving obesity risk factors among Dan River Region residents and similar vulnerable communities. PMID:22143487

Zoellner, Jamie; Motley, Monica; Wilkinson, Margie E; Jackman, Barbara; Barlow, Morgan L; Hill, Jennie L

2012-01-01

359

Reshaping conservation : the social dynamics of participatory monitoring in Tanzania's community-managed forests  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Drawing on a study of community-managed forest reserves in southern Tanzania, this article discusses how community members engage and shape inclusive protected area management practices to produce outcomes that were not intended by external implementers. The article shows how a participatory natural resource monitoring scheme operating in the area becomes part of the villagers' collective and individual efforts to assert their claims to territory and resources vis-a-vis the state, other communities, and other community members. By altering the monitoring procedures in subtle ways, community members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate theterrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management.

Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn

2013-01-01

360

Using Participatory Scenarios to Stimulate Social Learning for Collaborative Sustainable Development  

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Full Text Available Interdependent human and biophysical systems are highly complex and behave in unpredictable and uncontrollable ways. Social and ecological challenges that emerge from this complexity often defy straightforward solutions, and efforts to address these problems will require not only scientific and technological capabilities but also learning and adaptation. Scenarios are a useful tool for grappling with the uncertainty and complexity of social-ecological challenges because they enable participants to build adaptive capacity through the contemplation of multiple future possibilities. Furthermore, scenarios provide a platform for social learning, which is critical to acting in the face of uncertain, complex, and conflict-laden problems. We studied the Minnesota 2050 project, a collaborative project through which citizens collectively imagined future scenarios and contemplated the implications of these possibilities for the adaptability of their social and environmental communities. Survey and interview data indicate that these participatory scenario workshops built and strengthened relationships, enhanced participants' understanding of other perspectives, and triggered systemic thinking, all of which is relevant to collective efforts to respond to social-ecological challenges through sustainable development activities. Our analysis shows that participatory scenarios can stimulate social learning by enabling participants to engage and to discuss options for coping with uncertainty through collaborative actions. Such learning can be of value to participants and to the organizations and decisions in which they are engaged, and scenario processes can be effective tools for supporting collaborative sustainable development efforts.

Laura K. Schmitt Olabisi

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

Blengini, Gian Andrea, E-mail: blengini@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); CNR-IGAG - Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo-Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fantoni, Moris, E-mail: moris.fantoni@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Busto, Mirko, E-mail: mirko.busto@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Genon, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.genon@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Zanetti, Maria Chiara, E-mail: mariachiara.zanetti@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

2012-09-15

362

Orçamento Participativo e as novas dinâmicas políticas locais Participatory budgeting and new local political dynamics  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo argumenta que os desdobramentos das relações de conflito entre o Orçamento Participativo (OP e o Executivo, o Legislativo e os partidos no âmbito do governo municipal, explicam em parte as variações do alcance dessa experiência participativa. Para isso, compara três experiências de OP desenvolvidas no interior do estado de São Paulo - Matão, Rio Claro e São Carlos - que se assemelham em vários aspectos, mas se distinguem por variações em suas trajetórias (contínua, descontínua e interrompida nas últimas três gestões municipais. Em suma, conclui que os padrões das relações de conflito e cooperação entre os atores políticos locais estudados contribuem para os diferentes graus de abrangência do OP, bem como para o aparecimento de novos desenhos de políticas locais.The current study argues that the development of conflictiv relationships between Participatory Budgeting (PB, the Executive, the Legislative, and parties in the area of municipal government, in part explain the variations in reach of these participatory experiments. It compares three experiments in PB carried out in the interior of the state of São Paulo - Matão, Rio Claro, and São Carlos - that are similar in various ways, but which are distinguished by the variation in the trajectory of their PB programs (continuous, discontinuous, and broken in the last three municipal administrations. In sum, it concludes that the patterns in conflictual relationships and cooperation between the studied local political actors contribute to the varying scope of PB, as to the emergence of new local political designs.

Luciana Andressa Martins de Souza

2011-01-01

363

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-10-01

364

Improving Maternal and Child Healthcare Programme Using Community-Participatory Interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP. The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health.

Chigozie Jesse Uneke

2014-10-01

365

A realidade construída pela produção documental participativa / Reality constructed through participatory documental production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma característica marcante das mídias eletrônicas na atualidade torna-se evidente pela celebração do potencial de participação da audiência, quando produtores profissionais, inclusive de suportes considerados tradicionais, desenham diferentes estratégias de engajamento do produtor amador. O conceit [...] o de participação nas narrativas audiovisuais pode ser pensado como um procedimento diferenciado de produção. Uma suposta coautoria seria um dos aspectos mais importantes na caracterização desse modo de criação e produção audiovisual. Como essa coautoria, caso exista, se configura nos discursos documentais participativos? Estas possíveis transformações na paisagem midiática nos fazem refletir sobre as facetas participativa e autoral das organizações contemporâneas da produção audiovisual. Abstract in english A striking characteristic of today's electronic media is their potential for audience participation when producers, including those from traditional mass media, devise different audience engagement strategies. In this context, the concept of participation in audiovisual narratives can be seen as a d [...] ifferentiated production procedure. A presumed co-authorship would be one of the most important aspects of this mode of audiovisual creation and production. However, if such co-authorship actually exists, how does it appear in participatory documental discourses? These possible changes in the media scene lead us to reflect upon the authorial and participatory aspects of today's audiovisual organizations.

Leonardo Moraes, Menezes.

2013-12-01

366

Participatory System Dynamics Modeling for Sustainable Environmental Management: Observations from Four Cases  

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Full Text Available Sustainable environmental management requires a decision support approach that accounts for dynamic connections between social and ecological systems, integrates stakeholder deliberation with scientific analysis, incorporates diverse stakeholder knowledge, and fosters relationships among stakeholders that can accommodate changing information and changing social and environmental conditions. Participatory system dynamics modeling provides such a framework. It supports stakeholder learning about the system and the perspectives of other stakeholders, and can help build social capital among stakeholders. Four cases of participatory system dynamics modeling, which range from no to full participant involvement in model development, support the idea that greater social capital development results from greater participation in model development, but also suggest that even the simplest use of simulation models in a group fosters stakeholder learning about the system through surprise and discovery. To maximize the learning value of simulation models, it is important to allow enough time for debriefing the “aha!” moments that lead to curiosity about system behavior. To maximize social capital development, it is important to build enough time into the problem structuring and model conceptualization phases for stakeholders to articulate their mental models and examine those of other participants.

Krystyna Stave

2010-09-01

367

A Framework for Organizing the Tools and Techniques of Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The field of Participatory Design (PD) has grown rapidly over the last 20 to 30 years. For more than two decades non-designers have been increasingly involved in various design activities through a large number of participatory design projects all over the world. The project aims in PD have developed from being mainly about ICT development to today include, for instance, space design, product development, industrial design, architecture, service- and transformation design. As every project is unique, it is necessary to decide which design approach(es), methods, tools and techniques to use in a specific project. Thus many practices for how to involve people in designing have been used and developed during the years. There is some confusion as to which tools and techniques to use, when, and for what purpose. Therefore we are proposing a framework to help organize the proliferation of tools, techniques and methods in hopes that the PD community will benefit by discussing relevant applications and identifying potential areas for further exploration.

Sanders, Elizabeth B.-N.; Brandt, Eva

2010-01-01

368

Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

2012-08-01

369

Weighing the evidence: risks and benefits of participatory documentary in corporatized clinics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the effects of one U.S.-based public psychiatry clinic's shift to a centralized, corporate style of management, in response to pressures to cut expenditures by focusing on "evidence based" treatments. Participant observation research conducted between 2008 and 2012 for a larger study involving 127 interviews with policy makers, clinic managers, clinical practitioners and patients revealed that the shift heralded the decline of arts based therapies in the clinic, and of the social networks that had developed around them. It also inspired a participatory video self-documentary project among art group members, to portray the importance of arts-based therapies and garner public support for such therapies. Group members found a way to take action in the face of unilateral decision making, but experienced subsequent restrictions on clinic activities and discharge of core members from the clinic. The paper ends with a discussion of biopolitics, central legibility through corporate standardization, and the potential and risks of participatory documentaries to resist these trends. PMID:23932854

Hansen, Helena

2013-12-01

370

Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural transect, problem-tree analysis and focus-group discussion. The paper concludes by categorizing the barriers identified at different levels: micro (roughly the individual level at which the lack of knowledge and motivation are significant barriers), meso (roughly the school level at which the lack of teachers and computers are significant barriers) and macro (roughly the national level at which the lack of government planning and the lack of training of teachers are significant barriers). Finally, the paper also concludes that applied participatory learning and action-oriented techniques showed potential to provide researchers and local practitioners with situated insights that could not just have been lifted out of existing research literature.

Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

2013-01-01

371

Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambiv [...] alence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

Linda C, Theron.

372

A realidade construída pela produção documental participativa / Reality constructed through participatory documental production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma característica marcante das mídias eletrônicas na atualidade torna-se evidente pela celebração do potencial de participação da audiência, quando produtores profissionais, inclusive de suportes considerados tradicionais, desenham diferentes estratégias de engajamento do produtor amador. O conceit [...] o de participação nas narrativas audiovisuais pode ser pensado como um procedimento diferenciado de produção. Uma suposta coautoria seria um dos aspectos mais importantes na caracterização desse modo de criação e produção audiovisual. Como essa coautoria, caso exista, se configura nos discursos documentais participativos? Estas possíveis transformações na paisagem midiática nos fazem refletir sobre as facetas participativa e autoral das organizações contemporâneas da produção audiovisual. Abstract in english A striking characteristic of today's electronic media is their potential for audience participation when producers, including those from traditional mass media, devise different audience engagement strategies. In this context, the concept of participation in audiovisual narratives can be seen as a d [...] ifferentiated production procedure. A presumed co-authorship would be one of the most important aspects of this mode of audiovisual creation and production. However, if such co-authorship actually exists, how does it appear in participatory documental discourses? These possible changes in the media scene lead us to reflect upon the authorial and participatory aspects of today's audiovisual organizations.

Leonardo Moraes, Menezes.

373

Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  

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Full Text Available Participatory action research (PAR is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, within the context of women as rural farm dwellers in the North-West Province, South Africa. It emphasises the need for continued participation and highlights the practical principles and benefits derived from PAR. The PAR process cycles are discussed and parallels are drawn with the practical setting. In conclusion, the article emphasises that the application of the PAR process can make a multi-dimensional contribution towards the development of a community by creating an understanding of social vulnerability, by building capacity and by ensuring participation, and also addresses income-generating activities.

Liezel van Niekerk

2009-04-01

374

Development of Nutrient Management Strategies for ASAL using Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P2O5 ha-1 and 60N + 60P2O5 ha-1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions

375

Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008 in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ? 0.05 in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ? 0.05. It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.

Abdoulaye, T.

2012-01-01

376

Weighing the evidence: Risks and benefits of participatory documentary in corporatized clinics  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the effects of one U.S.-based public psychiatry clinic’s shift to a centralized, corporate style of management, in response to pressures to cut expenditures by focusing on “evidence based” treatments. Participant observation research conducted between 2008 and 2012 for a larger study involving 127 interviews with policy makers, clinic managers, clinical practitioners and patients revealed that the shift heralded the decline of arts based therapies in the clinic, and of the social networks that had developed around them. It also inspired a participatory video self-documentary project among art group members, to portray the importance of arts-based therapies and garner public support for such therapies. Group members found a way to take action in the face of unilateral decision making, but experienced subsequent restrictions on clinic activities and discharge of core members from the clinic. The paper ends with a discussion of biopolitics, central legibility through corporate standardization, and the potential and risks of participatory documentaries to resist these trends. PMID:23932854

Hansen, Helena

2014-01-01

377

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health.

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla