WorldWideScience
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Farmer participatory varietal selection in groundnut - a success story in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farmer participatory varietal selection trials in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India identified ICGV 91114 as the most productive groundnut cultivar. This cultivar was adopted for large-scale production, giving higher pod and haulm yields and comparable shelling outturn compared with the control cultivar TMV 2.

SN Nigam

2005-12-01

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La selección participativa de variedades (SPV) en el cultivo del tomate / Participatory varietal selection in tomato crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La participación de los productores en la selección de variedades de la especie Solanum lycopersicum L., adaptadas a las características agroecológicas de sus fincas, requiere que estos cuenten con herramientas metodológicas que les permitan realizar dichas tareas con eficiencia y calidad. Para dar [...] respuesta a esa necesidad, se tomaron en cuenta los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en las áreas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), San José de las Lajas, provincia La Habana, y el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones en Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT), provincia de Camagüey; también se trabajó en las fincas de los productores de la CCS “Juan Benito Ruiz” en Batabanó. En el primer caso, se realizaron ensayos comparativos de rendimiento, tal y como está establecido por los métodos tradicionales de mejoramiento genético de las plantas, mientras que en el segundo, se celebraron ferias de agrobiodiversidad, una de las herramientas de los nuevos métodos de mejora que se conoce como fitomejoramiento participativo. Los resultados de los ensayos se compararon con los de las ferias, donde la variedad Mara y las líneas 1, 35 y 44 mostraron buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y estuvieron entre las más seleccionadas en la feria de agrobiodiversidad de La Habana; sin embargo, la línea 43 no presentó buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y fue la que obtuvo mayor número de votos en la feria. Las variedades Lignon, Campbell-28 y Tropical C-28-V alcanzaron los mayores valores en el ensayo comparativo de Camagüey; no obstante, solo Lignon fue la más seleccionada en la feria, superada por la línea 38 e igualada por la 43 en el total de votos. Estos resultados demuestran que la selección definitiva de variedades de tomate deben hacerla los productores en sus propias fincas. Abstract in english Producers´ participation in the varietal selection of Solanum lycopersicon L. species, adapted to their farm agro-ecological characteristics, requires they should have available methodological tools to perform these tasks efficiently and qualitatively. To face this demand, results from research stud [...] ies performed in the areas of INCA, San José de las Lajas, Havana province, and INIVIT, Camagüey province, must be taken into account, besides other works that were also carried out in «Juan Benito Ruiz» CCS, Batabanó. In the first case, comparative yield trials were conducted, as it was established by traditional plant breeding, whereas in the second one, some agro-biodiversity fairs were celebrated, as one of the tools from the new improvement methods known as participatory plant breeding. Trial results were compared with those from the fairs, in which Mara cv. and lines 1, 35 and 44 showed good performances in the comparative test and were among the most selected ones in the agro-biodiversity fair from Havana; however, line 43 did not show good performance in the comparative test, but it obtained the highest vote number in the fair. Lignon, Campbell-28, C-28 and Tropical-V varieties achieved the greatest values in the comparative test of Camaguey; nevertheless, just Lignon was the most selected one in the fair, surpassed by line 38 and equal to line 43 in the amount of votes. These results prove that final tomato varietal selection must be done by producers in their own farms.

C, Moya; Marta, Álvarez; C, de la Fe; Marilyn, Florido; M, Ponce; Dagmara, Plana; F, Dueñas; J, Rodríguez; J, Arzuaga; J, Hernández; A, Caballero.

2010-03-01

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Participatory varietal selection and village seed banks for self-reliance: lessons learnt  

OpenAIRE

Farmers have been collecting, selecting and saving the seeds of harvested crops for use as seed to meet their planting requirement in the following season. In the past four decades, the management of seed production and supply have undergone a drastic change. Hybrid technology has increased the productivity significantly, but at the same time, the farmers' dependence on external agencies has gone up. With the objective of ensuing the supply of quality seeds of improved/high yielding varieties...

Sreenath Dixit; Sp, Wani; Ch Ravinder Reddy; Somnath Roy; Bvs, Reddy; Tk, Sreedevi; Ak, Chourasia; Pathak, P.; Rama Rao, M.; Ramakrishna, A.

2006-01-01

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Participatory varietal selection and village seed banks for self-reliance: lessons learnt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farmers have been collecting, selecting and saving the seeds of harvested crops for use as seed to meet their planting requirement in the following season. In the past four decades, the management of seed production and supply have undergone a drastic change. Hybrid technology has increased the productivity significantly, but at the same time, the farmers' dependence on external agencies has gone up. With the objective of ensuing the supply of quality seeds of improved/high yielding varieties, ICRISAT-led Watershed Consortium made an attempt to promote the concept of village seed banks. An in-depth study of the seed villages at the Asian Development Bank (ADB and Tata-ICRISAT sites of Vidisha and Guna Districs, Madhya Pradesh, documented successful community initiatives providing valuable insights into the concept. This paper elucidates case studies on the community initiatives for establishing and running seed banks through ADB-funded project in the Madhya Pradesh and documents the process of scaling up the same through APRLP-funded project in Andhra Pradesh.

Sreenath Dixit

2006-08-01

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Farmers' seed management and innovation in varietal selection: implications for barley breeding in Tigray, northern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Farmers' innovation and selection of barley varieties were studied in the Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Two districts each in the central and southern zones and three districts in the eastern zone of Tigray were randomly selected for this study, which sought to understand the current status of local barley varieties and to measure their relative preference by farmers. Household surveys were conducted covering 240 households to elicit farmers' views on the values, constraints, and opportunities of growing local varieties of barley. This was supported by focus-group and informal discussions with elders, key informants, and women's groups. Case studies were made of local farmers whom the community recognized as barley breeders. Twenty-four barley varieties and their major descriptors were recorded. Seed and varietal-selection criteria depended on the environmental and varietal characteristics. Investigation of intrahousehold decision making indicated that, while men tended to decide on the type of variety to grow, seed storage and processing were exclusively the responsibility of women. Farmers undertook preharvest and postharvest selection, giving emphasis mainly to earliness and spike characteristics. The distinct varietal-selection and seed-renewal procedures revealed their potential for use in further plant breeding. The case-study analysis of farmer-developed varieties provided knowledge that, if combined with scientists' knowledge, could lead to identification and development of valuable cultivars with a wide potential for use in semiarid areas of Tigray and other parts of Ethiopia. PMID:18686512

Abay, Fetien; Waters-Bayer, Ann; Bjørnstad, Asmund

2008-06-01

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Farmer's Knowledge of Horticultural Traits and Participatory Selection of African Eggplant Varieties (Solanum aethiopicum in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory selection was conducted in 2008 through 2009 to identify farmers' preference for species and horticultural traits that may constitute future breeding objectives. Vegetable farmers were selected from Moshi and Arusha regions, test population comprised twenty-six accessions from four Solanum species (eggplant and relatives. Purposive sampling was used to select the farming communities with high African eggplant production activities; a multistage random sampling procedure was adopted to select farmers from three regions for participatory meeting. The focus group discussion sessions identified fruit shape, taste, earliness, medicinal properties, marketability and resistance to diseases as farmers' preferred traits in S. aethiopicum; taste and marketability for S. melongena, taste and medicinal properties among S. macrocarpon and S. anguivi. Fruits characterized by cream colour at commercial harvest are most preferred compared to green, to a lesser extent is purple. Interestingly high fruits per plant, fruits per cluster and fruit cluster per plant best described S. anguivi. Fruit yield was superior in Db3 (S. aethiopicum Gilo group, top five accessions for organoleptic properties are Db3, Ab2, MM 1619, S00052 and MM 1086. Characters indicated above may constitute breeding objectives and population identified may serve as pollen parents for development of new varieties in african eggplant. Intraspecific hybridization within S. aethiopicum Gilo cultigroup, hybridization among Gilo and Shum cultigroups and interspecific hybridization between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi may evolve new population aimed at improving fruit yield.

Adeniji, OT.

2012-01-01

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Adult Education State Plan Development: Approaches to Participatory Planning in Selected States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the major approaches to participatory planning used by seven states in responding to the requirement for a three-year Adult Education State Plan of the 1978 Amendments to the Adult Education Act. (Information was collected during two visits per state to California, Delaware, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, and New…

Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

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Knowledge and Transformative Social Action: The Encounter of Selected Traditions of Participatory (Action) Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The argument in this paper is that action and participatory research developed within the context of social and political movements aimed at promoting democratic relationships and institutions represents a methodological strategy for deconstructing and reconstructing the hegemonic perspective of knowledge and knowledge production. After a brief…

Streck, Danilo Romeu

2014-01-01

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Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory Research (PR entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness, or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers. Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships. Methods We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods. Results The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies, comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist review methods. Discussion The systematic and stage-based procedure addressed challenges to PR assessment and generated our robust understanding of complex and heterogeneous PR practices. To date, realist reviews have focussed on evaluations of relatively uniform interventions. In contrast our PR search yielded a wide diversity of partnerships and research topics. We therefore developed tools to achieve conceptual clarity on the PR field, as a beneficial precursor to our theoretically-driven synthesis using realist methods. Findings from the ongoing review will be provided in forthcoming publications.

Greenhalgh Trish

2011-03-01

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Participatory Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

A synopsis of a Planning Assistance Kit designed by the Council of Educational Facility Planners (CEFP) and Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL) to assist local communities in participatory planning. (MLF)

DeJong, William S.

1980-01-01

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Participatory Privacy: Enabling Privacy in Participatory Sensing  

CERN Document Server

Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...

De Cristofaro, Emiliano

2012-01-01

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Participatory telerobotics  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

2013-05-01

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Sustainable innovation backcasting and participatory decision making:  

OpenAIRE

Participatory intervention methods can be seen as tools to solve the problems that are the results of locked-in institutional practices. To repair such institutional problems, participatory tools have to address three sets of questions.First, who to select as a participant, and what is the function of the selected participants? Second, how can learning of participants of a project expand to wider society? Third, what is the status of the future in a method? The method of backcasting is attend...

Pesch, U.; Quist, J. N.

2010-01-01

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Inter- and intra-varietal genetic variability in Malvasia cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The DNA molecular analyses together with ampelography, ampelometry, and biochemistry are essential for grapevine identification and investigation of genetic differences among the Vitis vinifera L. cultivars and clones. Ten Malvasia cultivars (i.e., Istrian Malvasia; M. delle Lipari; M. bianca di Candia; M. di Candia Aromatica; M. del Lazio; M. bianca lunga, also known as Malvasia del Chianti; M. nera di Brindisi/Lecce; M. di Casorzo; M. di Schierano, and M. nera di Bolzano) were analyzed using molecular approaches to study the genetic inter-varietal variability. Thirty Istrian Malvasia genotypes (i.e., 8 Italian clones, such as ISV 1, ISV F6, VCR 4, VCR 113, VCR 114, VCR 115, ERSA 120, ERSA 121, and 22 autochthonous grapevine accessions grown in Istrian Peninsula, Croatia) were investigated to evaluate the morphological and genetic intra-varietal variability. DNA analysis allowed discrimination of all Malvasia genotypes at molecular level using AFLP, SAMPL, and M-AFLP markers. Italian clones and autochthonous Croatian accessions of Istrian Malvasia were grouped according to their different geographic origins. These results showed the great genetic variability of Malvasia genotypes suggesting the need for the preservation of autochthonous grapevine biotypes found on different areas to approve the correct choice and selection of the grape multiplication materials. PMID:21688040

Meneghetti, Stefano; Poljuha, Danijela; Frare, Enrica; Costacurta, Angelo; Morreale, Giacomo; Bavaresco, Luigi; Calò, Antonio

2012-03-01

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Participatory process management  

OpenAIRE

Although the process of public and stakeholder participation continues to be intensively investigated and discussed in academic circles, the implementation of participatory methods in practice remains problematic. This can be attributed to the lack of knowledge transfer on the one hand, and the general underestimation of participatory approaches in planning processes on the other. A possible solution - participatory processmanagement - is introduced in this article. Participatory process m...

Krywkow, J.; Hare, M.

2008-01-01

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Participatory IT-support  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents characteristics of participatory Itsupport and suggests a method for identifying qualified candidates for the support position in the organization.

Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

2006-01-01

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Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium), an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human...

Chovanova Hana; Van Campenhout Karen; Springael Johan; Loots Ilse; Koppen Gudrun; Colles Ann; Croes Kim; Morrens Bert; Keune Hans; Schoeters Greet; Nelen Vera; Baeyens Willy; van Larebeke Nik

2010-01-01

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Respuesta a la selección masal participativa en calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) / Response to participatory mass selection in sweet squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento en Achichipico, Morelos, México con el fin de evaluar el avance genético in situ de cuatro ciclos de selección masal participativa con respecto de la variedad original en una población de calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), en la asociación maíz-calabaza, utilizan [...] do un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se estableció un surco de calabaza cada cuatro de maíz, en surcos de 20 m de largo espaciados a 0.9 m. Se estimó el avance genético por ciclo de selección y se hizo un análisis de varianza para catorce caracteres de planta, fruto y semilla. Se obtuvo ganancia genética por ciclo de selección en color de pulpa (14.1 %), sabor de pulpa (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por hectárea (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por planta (9.8 %), peso de fruto (6.5 %) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (5.1 %). El análisis de varianza detectó diferencias altamente significativas entre ciclos de selección para ancho de fruto, color y sabor de pulpa, El resto de caracteres no presentaron diferencias. Sin embargo, existió una clara tendencia numérica al incremento permanente en su magnitud. Abstract in english An experiment was conducted in Achichipico, Morelos, Mexico, to assess in situ the genetic gain of four cycles of participatory mass selection, with regard to the original variety, in a sweet squash population (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) intercropped with maize. The experimental design was a randomiz [...] ed block design with four replications. After every four rows of maize, one row of squash without maize was sown in rows 0.9 m apart and 20 m long. Genetic gain was calculated for each selection cycle and an analysis of variance was performed on data of fourteen plant, fruit and seed traits. Genetic gain per selection cycle in flesh color and flavor was 14.1 % and 11.8 %, respectively; in fruit yield per hectare (11.8 %), fruit yield per plant (9.8 %), fruit weight (6.5 %) and seed yield per hectare (5.1 %). The analysis of variance detected highly significant differences among selection cycles only for fruit width, flesh color and flavor, while the other traits were not statistically different. A clear upward numerical trend was observed.

Clemente, Villanueva-Verduzco; Miguel Ángel, Sánchez-Hernández; Irma, Sánchez-Cabrera; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Gema, Parra-Benavides; Evert, Villanueva-Sánchez.

2013-08-01

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Demand estimation and marketing plan for Varietize Technologies  

OpenAIRE

This study is a demand estimation and marketing plan for Varietize Technologies - a Vancouver based R&D company that is introducing its first product. Varietize recognized the market opportunity for its latest designed product, the "iTV" - a product that interfaces between the Internet and the TV to allow access for online TV content. The study begins with a demand analysis section that uses Prof. Meredith's model that categorizes different demand factors and determinants to look into dif...

Fawwaz, Mazen

2007-01-01

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Specifications of Participatory Activities  

OpenAIRE

This deliverable presents a common operational framework for activities in Go-Lab that aim to engage different stakeholders (teachers, teacher trainers, policy makers, lab owners etc.) with the goals and products of Go-Lab. The main mechanisms we use are participatory activities in the form of different kinds of workshops. This relates to task 6.2 of the Go-Lab project (Participatory Engagement Activities).

Dondi, Claudio

2013-01-01

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Farmers’ Perceptions of Finger Millet Production Constraints, Varietal Preferences and Their Implications to Finger Millet Breeding in Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finger millet is an important food security and cash crop in Uganda but its production is constrained by a number of factors. However, information on farmers’ perceptions of constraints and varietal preferences is limited. A study was conducted to; identify varieties and varietal preferences in finger millet, and assess farmers’ constraints to finger millet production and coping mechanisms. The study involved a participatory rural appraisal, and a survey. Farmers identified the major constraint as high labour requirements especially for weeding since over 95% of the farmers used broadcasting as a method of planting. Other constraints that occurred across all the districts were blast disease and low yielding cultivars. Farmers also reported to have developed some coping mechanisms to counter the constraints. In terms of preference for new cultivars, farmers preferred high grain yield, brown seed colour, compact head shape, tolerance to blast disease, high tillering ability, moderate plant height (1 ± 0.2 m, early maturity, tolerance to shattering and ease of threshing without compromising other preferred attributes. The study further revealed that a considerable proportion of the farmers had limited or no knowledge on finger millet blast disease, its causes and mechanisms of coping. Farmers also reported that blast disease symptoms in all locations were on the increase over the years and pointed out the most susceptible and tolerant cultivars. These findings therefore, present an urgent need for information sharing with farmers and other agricultural development partners, and continuous development of blast resistant cultivars with farmer preferred attributes.

Lawrence Owere

2014-11-01

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Participatory Design : An introduction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter concludes with some guidance and recommendations for further reading. An introduction to Participatory Design is followed by explanations of how practitioners and researchers in the field understand participation and practice and how design is approached as a process driven by social interaction and engagement. The structure of the book is described, individual chapters introduced and further relevant publications listed. Essentially this chapter introduces, motivates, and grounds the book and the chapters that follow. It provides basic definitions of the core concepts of Participatory Design and explains both their origins and ongoing relations to the motivations and commitments of researchers and practitioners who use participatory approaches in their work. The chapter provides the foundation to account for the structure of the book: one section focusing on some of the different perspectives in the field and their particular contributions and challenges and another section that presents case studies of three outstanding applications of Participatory Design. If we are to design the futures we wish to live then we need those, whose futures they will be, to actively participate in their design. This is why it is so important that Participatory Design keeps developing the design processes, tools, techniques, and methods needed to enable full and active participation in all kinds of design activities.

Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

2012-01-01

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Participatory Communication : A Practical Guide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. At a time when institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, increasingly seek participatory approaches in their development initative, this guide provides perspectives, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society.

Tufte, Thomas

2009-01-01

24

The participatory patient  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship between a patient¿s work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe patient work and non-work and thinking of what kind of working or non-working patients it implies.

Andersen, Tariq Osman

2010-01-01

25

Impact of planting date and varietal maturity on tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in cotton.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment was conducted in Stoneville, MS, during 2010 and 2011 to investigate the impact of varietal maturity, planting date, and insecticide application on tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), populations and damage in cotton. Four planting dates were selected to encompass the cotton-planting period in Mississippi. An early and late maturing variety were planted at each planting date, and each variety and planting date combination was either sprayed or unsprayed for tarnished plant bugs. Plots were sampled weekly from first square until physiological maturity. Plots were harvested at the end of the season. Early planting dates had lower densities of tarnished plant bug and required fewer insecticide applications than the later planting dates. Mid-April to early May planting dates sustained less yield loss from tarnished plant bug than mid-May to late-May planting dates. Tarnished plant bug had less impact on yield of the early maturing variety than on the late maturing variety. The sprayed plots yielded more than unsprayed plots. These data demonstrate that later plantings of cotton in the Mississippi Delta are likely to experience yield losses from tarnished plant bug and need to be sprayed more compared with early cotton plantings. As a result, growers should manage their crop for earliness through planting date and varietal selection. PMID:24498737

Adams, Brian; Catchot, A; Gore, J; Cook, D; Musser, F; Dodds, D

2013-12-01

26

Iterative participatory design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design.

Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

2010-01-01

27

Participatory Innovation in SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several case studies in literature and handbooks about participatory design (PD) suggest that the use of emerging methods to generate user information is common practice. However, these authors address practices in academia or in leading companies and not necessarily the practice of the majority of product development companies. The mentioned companies like for example Microsoft (Sanders, 2004) are in a privileged position, having the possibilities to spend time, manpower and budget on extensive user studies and explore participatory design projects. But how does the Small-to-Medium sized Enterprise (SME) fare in this respect? Some literature is known in this context, Heiskanen et al. (2007) provide many insights on working with SMEs, especially on technology oriented SMEs. De Lille et al. (2009) gives an overview of problems designers experience when conducting user studies. Asboe (2009) provides an anthropologists perspective on user studies within SMEs.

Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine

2010-01-01

28

Relational Expertise in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social status. We illustrate our theoretical argument for a relational expertise with a running example from a participatory design process engaging an interprofessional group of participants in a project on future technology enabled learning environments.

Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

2014-01-01

29

Planning: The Participatory Process Model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The participatory planning process model developed by Peirce Junior College is described in this paper. First, the rationale for shifting from a traditional authoritarian style of institutional leadership to a participatory style which encourages a broader concern for the institution and lessens morale problems is offered. The development of a new…

McDowell, Elizabeth V.

30

Participatory Practices in Adult Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…

Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.

31

Seleção varietal de Phaseolus vulgaris quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino com base em variáveis de crescimento / Selection of Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties for tolerance to salt stress based on growth variables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar e selecionar variedades de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino e identificar, usando variedades de feijoeiro com diferentes graus de tolerância, variáveis que auxiliem na discriminagão de variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerânc [...] ia a esse tipo de estresse, independentemente do mecanismo apresentado pela planta. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetagão. Inicialmente foram avaliadas 48 variedades de P. vulgaris (alocadas nas subparcelas) em dois níveis de salinidade (distribuídos nas parcelas): solução nutritiva normal (SNN) a 0,81 dS m-1 e a teste (SNT) a 5,6 dS m-1, obtida pela adigão de NaCl no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetigões. A partir da massa seca da parte aérea calculou-se a relagão percentual de crescimento alcançada na SNT relativo à SNN das variedades, que variou de 138,7 a 54,1 %, discriminando-as de acordo com o critério de Scott-Knott em duas populagões: uma com 14 variedades mais "tolerantes" e outra com 34 variedades, onde ficaram agrupadas variedades "moderadamente tolerantes" e "sensíveis". Para identificar variáveis de crescimento que permitam selecionar feijoeiros quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino duas variedades tolerantes (Vermelho e CNF 5574), uma medianamente tolerante (FT 83-86) e uma sensível (LM 30074), classificadas no experimento anterior, foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com cinco níveis de salinidade (0,81; 2,7; 4,6; 6,5; e 8,4 dS m-1). Analisando-se a massa seca da raiz, do caule, do pecíolo, das folhas e da parte aérea, a área foliar e a área foliar específica, concluiu-se que a área foliar específica foi o índice que efetivamente mais contribuiu para a discriminação das variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerância à salinidade. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate and select varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for tolerance to salt stress and to identify, using bean varieties with different degrees of tolerance, variables to aid in the screening of salt-tolerant varieties, regardless of the mechanism used by the plant. The e [...] xperiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Initially, 48 P. vulgaris varieties were evaluated (allocated in subplots) at two salinity levels (distributed in the plots): normal nutrient solution (NNS) at 0.81 dS m-1 and test solution (TNS) at 5.6 dS m-1, which was obtained by adding NaCl in a randomized block design with four replications. The dry weight of aerial part was used to calculate the percentage of growth of the varieties achieved in TNS in relation to NNS, which ranged from 138.7 to 54.1%, discriminating them according to the Scott-Knott criterium in two populations: one with 14 more "tolerant" varieties and another with 34 varieties, which grouped "moderately tolerant" and "sensitive" varieties. To identify growth variables that allow selection of tolerant plants to salt stress, two tolerant (Vermelho and CNF 5574), a moderately tolerant (FT 83-86) and a sensitive (LM 30074) varieties, which were classified in a previous experiment, were grown in nutrient solutions with five levels of salinity (0.81, 2.7, 4.6, 6.5, and 8.4 dS m-1). Results of dry mass of root, stem, petiole, leaves and aerial part, leaf area and specific leaf area showed that the specific leaf area was the index that most effectively contributed to the discrimination of bean varieties for tolerance to salinity.

Cícero Antônio de Souza, Araújo; Hugo Alberto, Ruiz; José, Cambraia; Júlio César Lima, Neves; Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos, Freire; Fernando José, Freire.

2010-02-01

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Applications of Participatory Action Research with Students Who Have Disabilities. ERIC/OSEP Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief paper defines participatory action research, reviews the literature on its use, and offers examples of how researchers and practitioners are applying principles of participatory action research data to select effective practices and support change and innovation in schools. Generation of data-based strategies in natural environments is…

Warger, Cynthia; Burnette, Jane

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PARTAGE DES CONNAISSANCES ENTRE AGRICULTEURS ET CHERCHEURS POUR CREER DES INNOVATIONS VARIETALES. LEÇONS DES PROGRAMMES DE SELECTION PARTICIPATIVE DU SORGHO CONDUITS DANS LA REGION NORD DU NICARAGUA  

OpenAIRE

Sharing knowledge between farmers and scientists for creating varietal innovations: lessons from participatory sorghum breeding programs managed in the northern region of Nicaragua. The experience of research projects conducted between scientists and farmers show that the confrontation of knowledge and perspectives becomes truly effective when it is based on long term and a cross analysis of the practices of stakeholders to pursuing a common goal. Participatory Plant Breeding lends itself par...

Trouche, Gilles; Aguirre Acun?a, Silvio; Castro Briones, Blanca; Go?mez, Orlando; Guille?n, Hugo Francisco; Paz, Lino; Hocde?, Henri

2010-01-01

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Quantitative inheritance for fruit traits in inter varietal crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gene effects for important fruit traits of four inter-varietal crosses of okra were estimated by partitioning the means and variances of means of sixbasic generations from each cross into their genetic components to assess the gene action governing the inheritance of fruit yield and earlinessrelated traits in spring and rainy season. The additive, dominance and digenic non-allelic gene interactions were observed to govern most of thefruit traits. The non-additive gene effects were more pronounced than additive ones for most of the traits in both the environments. The evidenceof duplicate type of epistasis has been obtained for all the characters in different crosses in both the seasons. Thus for developing high yieldingokra cultivars, recurrent selection in biparental progenies would help in exploiting the duplicate type of non-allelic interactions and allowrecombination and concentration of genes having cumulative effects in population.

Deepak Arora, Salesh Kumar Jindal and T. R. Ghai

2010-12-01

35

Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

2014-01-01

36

Varietal difference in sensitivity to gamma-rays and ethylene-imine in rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry seeds of thirty five rice varieties were treated with different dose of gamma rays and concentration of ethylene-imine to observe the possible varietal different sensitivity to ethylene-imine, and to compare varietal sensitivity to EI with that to gamma rays. The results are presented in tables and figures. (SMN)

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Ethics and Participatory Water Planning  

OpenAIRE

Greater attention needs to be given to ethics related to the use, organisation and coordination of participatory forms of water planning. Working with diverse groups of people on water management issues requires the ability to understand and collectively make a range of decisions on the content, design and implementation of participatory processes. Ethical questions and sensitivities arise in such work including issues of changing existing power structures, privacy conditions and cultural sen...

Daniell, K. A.; White, I.; Rollin, D.

2009-01-01

38

Participatory approach in forest planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper stresses the importance of public participation in natural resources planning and management, with particular concern for forest planning. The function of participation is defined, main methods and tools are reviewed, pointing out, for each of them, the possibility of application in participatory forest planning. Finally opportunities and limits of the participatory approach are taken into consideration particularly concerning the Italian situation.

2006-01-01

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Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

40

Induced mutations for varietal improvement in soybean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since soybean necrotic virus (SMV-N), which was identified as a strain of soybean mosaic virus (SMV), has severe effects on such leading varieties as Kwangkyo and Kangrim, mutation studies were aimed at obtaining mutants resistant to SMV-N, without causing drastic changes in other agronomic characters, from these varieties. Prior to mutation induction, inheritance of resistance was determined and it was found that resistance was conditioned by a single recessive gene. With this information, soybean seeds were irradiated with 15 and 25 kR of gamma rays. The mutants were screened for SMV-N resistance, both under natural infection pressure and artificial inoculation. Through the selections, five lines were selected as desirable mutants and, according to the objective of this study, these mutants were stocked in a gene pool. Meanwhile, another mutation was induced to obtain a small seeded mutant with higher yield potential from the exotic variety CB-27. Through the usual selections, one mutant was registered as a new leading variety for soybean sprouts and named Bangsa-kong. Apart from that, attempts were made to determine the mutation frequency and mutation sector in soybean. Plant height and the number of seeds in M1 plants were closely related to the mutation frequency of visible characters. The mutation sector of the irradiated seeds was not apparent in M2 plants regardless of radiation dose. It was found that all seeds harvested from SMV infecte that all seeds harvested from SMV infected plants did not produce mottled seeds and all of the mottled seeds did not contain the virus. The soybean necrotic virus was not transmitted through the seeds of the variety Kwangkyo. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

41

Handbook of Participatory Planning in Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook is concerned with one specialized form of participation: participatory planning. It is based on several years of experience in participatory planning and is infused with the bias that sees a great deal of potential good in expanded participation in general and in participatory planning in particular. It is also recognized that…

Johnson, Rudolph

42

Digital publics and participatory education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.

Brian J. McNely

2010-10-01

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Participatory Innovation : A research agenda  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation.

Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

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Mobile Applications for Participatory Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

Drill, Sabrina L.

2013-01-01

45

Community-based participatory irrigation management at local government level in Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Ghana has attempted to decentralise the management of irrigation schemes to communities at local government level. This study examines the existing local participatory management structures and the principles of the Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) strategy designed to promote sustainable management of irrigation schemes in Ghana. Two community-based irrigation projects, Bontanga and Golinga in the Northern Region of Ghana were selected for the research. The study demonstrated that f...

Braimah, I.; King, R. S.; Sulemana, D. M.

2014-01-01

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Respuesta a la selección participativa en variedades de calabaza de la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México / Response to participatory selection in two varieties of squash from Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio en la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Estado de México, durante 2001, con el objetivo de estimar en calabaza (Cucurbita pepo L.) la respuesta a la selección participativa in situ en caracteres de planta, calidad de fruto y rendimiento de semilla. Se evaluaron dos variedades de l [...] a Sierra Norte de Puebla seleccionadas in situ: Mazapa (ciclos de selección 1 a 3), La Libertad (ciclos de selección 1 a 3) y un testigo, a una densidad de 27,639 plantas·ha-1, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La mayor respuesta por ciclo de selección, en promedio de localidades, ocurrió en la variedad Mazapa para número de frutos por planta (0.29 frutos; 31.8%), altura (1.0 cm; 6.1%) y ancho de fruto (0.5 cm; 2.4%), grosor de pulpa (0.1 cm; 5.8%), altura (0.034; 1.6%) y ancho de semilla (0.001 cm; 0.11%). La variedad La Libertad destacó en peso de semilla por fruto (12 g·fruto-1; 21%) y en peso de frutos por planta (0.1 kg·fruto-1; 6.6%). El segundo ciclo de selección de la variedad Mazapa sobresalió en peso de fruto (3.77 kg), peso de semilla por planta (98 g), grosor de pulpa (2.6 cm), alto de fruto (23.6 cm), ancho de fruto (20.3 cm) y ancho de semilla (0.934 cm). El tercer ciclo de selección en Mazapa mostró los valores más altos en número de frutos por planta (1.49), peso de fruto por hectárea (123.5 t·ha-1) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (3.83 t·ha-1). Abstract in english A study was conducted at two sites near the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, State of Mexico, in 2001, in order to estimate the response in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) to in situ participatory selection in terms of fruit quality and seed yield. Two native varieties from Sierra Norte de Puebla, selected [...] in situ, were evaluated: Mazapa (selection cycles 1 to 3) and Libertad (selection cycles 1 to 3), plus a control, at a density of 27,639 plants·ha-1, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The best response per selection cycle, based on averaging the two locations, occurred in the Mazapa variety for number of fruits per plant (0.29 fruits; 31.8%), fruit height (1.0 cm; 6.1%), fruit width (0.5 cm; 2.4%), flesh thickness (0.1 cm; 5.8%), seed height (0.034 cm; 1.6%) and seed width (0.001 cm; 0.11 %). The Libertad variety was better in gain for seed weight per fruit (12 g·fruit-1; 21%) and fruit weight per plant (0.1 kg·fruit-1; 6.6%). The second selection cycle in the Mazapa variety had the best gain in fruit weight (3.77 kg), seed weight per plant (98 g), flesh thickness (2.6 cm), fruit height (23.6 cm), fruit width (20.3 cm), and seed width (0.934 cm). The third selection cycle in Mazapa showed the highest values for number of fruits per plant (1.49), fruit weight per hectare (123.5 t·ha-1), and seed yield per hectare (3.83 t·ha-1).

Miguel Ángel, Sánchez-Hernández; Clemente, Villanueva-Verduzco; César, Sánchez-Hernández; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Evert, Villanueva-Sánchez.

2014-04-01

47

Crossing Intentions in Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we explore the role of 'crossing intentions' among participants involved in innovation processes with users. We use improvised theatre to investigate what happens in industrial (and other) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and to explore the barriers that hinder such activities. We propose that people who meet each other with different and conflicting intentions relevant to the theme together can create new insight (understood as movement of thought and action) that may become a driver of innovation. However, such meetings in which crossing intentions come to the surface are experienced as risky to participate in. We examine four examples of such meetings with the intent to disclose conceptual themes that show high potential for developing participatory innovation.

Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry

2010-01-01

48

Digital publics and participatory education  

OpenAIRE

This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983), or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, Americ...

Mcnely, Brian J.; Teston, Christa B.; Bolutife Olorunda; Noah Dunker

2010-01-01

49

A SNP-based PCR-RFLP capillary electrophoresis analysis for the identification of the varietal origin of olive oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Authenticity and traceability of high quality monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is a major concern for markets and consumers. Although analytical chemistry techniques are widely used to satisfy these needs recently developed DNA-based methods can serve as complementary approaches. A SNP database comprising 10 Greek olive varieties was constructed and five SNPs, residing in restriction sites, were selected for the development of a PCR-RFLP capillary electrophoresis method to discriminate these varieties using leaf DNA as template. An identification key was constructed indicating that five SNPs were adequate to discriminate nine out of the 10 varieties. As a proof of principle the assay was applied on DNA extracted from five of their corresponding monovarietal olive oils. Three SNPs were able to identify the varietal origin of these olive oils confirming the validity of this approach. PMID:23442703

Bazakos, Christos; Dulger, Ayse Ozgur; Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Spaniolas, Stelios; Spano, Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

2012-10-15

50

Using participatory approaches with older people in a residential home in Guyana: challenges and tensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory approaches are a popular and entrenched strategy in community development, yet a number of unresolved issues and tensions persist regarding the definition, rationales, outcomes and ethics of participation. Despite its popularity there are relatively few examples of participatory projects with older people or in institutional settings so their potential with this group is poorly understood. This case study presents some of the practical and ethical challenges that arose over the course of a participatory project that aimed to analyse and improve quality of life in a residential home for older people in Guyana. Through a qualitative process evaluation it examines the degree of participation achieved, the determinants of the participatory process, the benefits the approach brought and the ethical dilemmas encountered. Although the degree of participation achieved was limited, beneficial outcomes were observed, notably the selection of appropriate and desirable interventions and the effect on the residents themselves, who valued their part in the project. The participatory process was unpredictable and complex, however, and key determinants of it included the organizational dynamics of the home and the skills, actions and attitudes of the researcher. Adopting a participatory approach brought valuable benefits in a residential home, but others adopting the approach should ensure they critically consider at the outset the ethical and practical dilemmas the setting and approach may produce and have realistic expectations of participation. PMID:23143161

Hewitt, Gillian; Draper, Alizon K; Ismail, Suraiya

2013-03-01

51

Influência varietal e do solo no estado nutricional na cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp) pela análise foliar / Varietal and soil influence on nutritional status of sugarcane (Saccharum spp) as determined by foliar analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de se estudar o comportamento varietal e do solo na concentração de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-de--açúcar e, ao mesmo tempo, executar o levantamento do estado nutricional das variedades através da análise foliar, instalaram-se ensaios em quatro Grandes Grupos de Solos cultivan [...] do 16 plantadas sob idênticas condições de clima, adubação, tratos culturais, idade, estado de sanidade e procedência de mudas. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos ao acaso com 16 tratamentos (variedades) e 4 repetições. Realizou-se a amostragem foliar aos 4 meses de idade, tomando-se os 20 cm centrais da folha +3 (20 por parcela), desprezando-se a nervura principal. Determinaram-se os macronutrientes (nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio e enxofre) os quais foram expressos em percentagem de matéria seca. Os ensaios foram colhidos aos 18 meses de idade, sendo que para cada um deles determinou-se as produtividades em toneladas por pol/ha. Abstract in english Trials were established on four soil types (Latosolic B Terra Roxa - LR; Ortho Dark Red Latosol - LE and Red Yellow Podzolic Laras variation - PVls in the state of São Paulo and Textural B Terra Roxa - TE in Parana to study varietal and soil effects on macronutrient composition of sugarcane leaves a [...] nd to do a nutritional survey of varieties by foliar analysis. A randomized block designwas used with four replications of 16 varieties (CB 41-76; CB 45-155; CB 47-355; CB 49-260; CB 56-171; CB 61-80; IAC 50/134; IAC 51/205; IAC 52/150; IAC 52/326; Co 740; Co 775; CP 51-22 and NA 56-62). Varieties were planted under the same conditions of climate, fertilization, tillage and age, sanitation and source. A central 20 cm portion of each +3 leaf was taken (except for midrib for determining amounts of N, R, K, Ca, Mg and S, expressed -on a dry weight basis. Leaf samplesof 20 leaves per plot were selected at four months of age, for analysis. From the results obtained it was conclued that: a) There is a varietal effect on leaf composition of major elements, independent of soil type; b) Soil type has an influence on leaf composition of different varieties; c) The higher nutrient levels in the leaves did not always result in the highest production intpol/ha; d) Because of soil and varietal influence on leaf composition it is rifficult to generalize critical nutrient, levels obtained from foliar diagnosis; e) Critical levels of nutrients obtained from foliar diagnosis for une variety do not represented the same levels for all varieties.

Henrique Paulo, Haag; José, Orlando Filho.

52

Rice mutation breeding for varietal improvement in Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four mutant rice varieties were officially released for commercial production in Myanmar. One of the mutant varieties, Shwe War Tun, released in 1980, has been grown as the second largest variety in terms of growing area. Two new mutant varieties with desired quality characters and resistance to bacteria blight disease and white-backed plant hoppers were released in 2005. Rice is the major crop and is grown throughout the country under different agro-ecosystems in Myanmar. The annual total rice growing area is 6 million hectares, with 4 million hectares of monsoon rice and 2 million hectares of summer rice. The rice yield in Myanmar doubled in a 30 year period, that is, from 8 million metric tons in the 1960's to about 16 million tons in the 1990's. Development and adoption of improved rice varieties has significantly contributed to the increase of rice production. The national rice varietal improvement program has been undertaken at the Department of Agricultural Research, Yezin (formerly the Central Agricultural Research Institute until January 2004). Mutation breeding is one of the most effective ways of inducing genetic variability and new mutant lines with desirable traits. In Myanmar, rice improvement using induced mutation was initiated in the early 1970's, and the first mutant rice variety Shwe War Tun (a mutant of IR 5) developed through gamma irradiation was released in 1974. Another mutant variety, Shwe Thwe Tun (a mutant of IR 24), was released in 1980. Simutant of IR 24), was released in 1980. Since then, Mutant variety Shwe War Tun has been grown as the second largest rice variety in terms of occupying area in the country; it performed particularly well in rainfed lowland regions. During 1980 - 1990, induced mutation was used, attempting to improve some traditional rice varieties. However, no mutant lines with desirable traits were obtained. In this paper, breeding and performance of two new mutant varieties are reported. (author)

53

Gender and Innovation in Agriculture: A Case Study of Farmers’ Varietal Preference of Drought Tolerant Maize in Southern Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA. The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their gender based preference for Drought Tolerant maize variety and elucidated the reasons for preference. Three-stage stratified sampling technique was used. Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from a total of 48 farmers. Descriptive, Ranking and LSD were used to analyse the data collected. The result of the analysis showed that majority of the male and female farmers have primary education and are youths. The result of varietal preference differs between genders in some locations Male farmers identified big cobs with full grains, big seed, and multiple cobs as the main reasons for their preference while female farmers identified yellow colour of seed, nutrient fortified seed and big cobs with full grains as the main reasons for their preference. It is therefore recommended that effort should be made to involve male and female farmers in the varietal selection procedure as to facilitate easy adoption of hybrid maize. The women are more concerned with the food security of their family and hence are important segment in maize innovation that improve the food security of farming households and policies should not exclude female farmers.

O.E. Ayinde

2013-12-01

54

Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

55

Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre-established handbooks for the selection of stakeholders often conduct instrumental participation, limited to information dissemination. On the other hand, in some cantons participatory processes characterized by normative rationales take place. Here the goals of participatory processes are not limited to outcomes (e.g. acceptance of the project), but value the process of participation in itself. In these cantons actors are selected via social connections and the claimed 'common sense' of cantonal project officers. Here, the opportunity of public debate opens up, the inclusion of actors often start earlier in the decision-making processes and objectives are defined publicly and collectively. Cantonal authorities involved in river management do not all consider participatory processes as important. The acknowledgment of participatory processes is less related to an authority's recognition of the importance of participation and more to specific local experience.

Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

56

German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2…

Ulbrich, Christiane

2013-01-01

57

COINCIDENCIA EN LA SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE TOMATE Y LA SELECCIÓN POR RENDIMIENTO EN UNA FERIA DE AGROBIODIVERSIDAD / COINCIDENCE IN PARTICIPATORY VARIETY SELECTION OF TOMATO AND SELECTION IN A FAIR PERFORMANCE AGROBIODIVERSITY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se muestra la coincidencia en la selección de los productores en una feria de diversidad del cultivo del tomate y la selección practicada sobre la base del rendimiento real de cada una de las variedades expuestas en la feria. Para la realización del estudio, se sembró una parcela dem [...] ostrativa con 11 variedades de tomate en áreas de la Cooperativa de Producción Agropecuaria (CPA) “17 de Mayo”, ubicada en el Valle de Caujerí, San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo. Mayoritariamente las variedades sembradas se corresponden con las obtenidas a partir de los programas de mejoramiento genético ejecutados por diferentes instituciones científicas del país. Una vez que el cultivo arribó a la madurez fisiológica, se celebró la feria de diversidad, durante la cual cada productor pudo seleccionar libremente las variedades que consideraba más adecuadas a sus intereses y necesidades muy específicas. A lo largo del trabajo se presenta la comparación entre la selección realizada por los productores y el rendimiento para diferentes presiones de selección. Entre otros resultados, se pudo constatar la predilección de los productores por las variedades con altos rendimientos y su capacidad para seleccionarlas entre un conjunto más o menos amplio de variedades Abstract in english This research study shows the coincidence of growers´ selection in a tomato diversity fair with the one based on the actual yield of each of the varieties presented in it. To conduct the study, a demonstrative plot was seeded with 11 tomato varieties in the areas of “17 de Mayo” Agricultural Product [...] ion Cooperative (CPA), located in Valle de Caujerí, San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo. Most of the varieties sown match with those obtained by the breeding programs carried out at different scientific institutions of our country. Once the crop reached its physiological maturity, the diversity fair was celebrated, during which every grower could freely select the most adequate varieties according to their interests and specific needs. In the course of the experiment, there was a comparison between growers´ selection and yield for different selection pressures. Among other results, growers´ favorite high-yielding varieties became evident, besides showing their ability to select them within a rather large collection

C, de la Fe; C, Moya; J, Arzuaga; E, Fonseca.

2010-06-01

58

Participatory advocacy: a counter to media imperialism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge. PMID:12291103

Brown, M

1996-01-01

59

SOCIALANALYSIS-PARTICIPATORY APPROACH: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES  

OpenAIRE

The core aims of participatory development planning are to give people a say in the development decisions that may affect them and to ensure that development interventions are appropriate to the needs and preferences of the population that they are intended to benefit. Participatory development can be undertaken by government agencies or other development agencies and NGOs at the national, regional, municipal or community level.

Kulkarni, V. V.

2013-01-01

60

SOCIALANALYSIS-PARTICIPATORY APPROACH: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The core aims of participatory development planning are to give people a say in the development decisions that may affect them and to ensure that development interventions are appropriate to the needs and preferences of the population that they are intended to benefit. Participatory development can be undertaken by government agencies or other development agencies and NGOs at the national, regional, municipal or community level.

V. V. KULKARNI

2013-06-01

61

Participatory Design in an Urban Context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The general theme is democratic urban innovation and participatory design processes. The project aims at examining and assessing the possibi-lities for increa-sing public participation and citizenship in the urban development. Furthermore, the project aims at strengthening the understanding of the conditions necessary for estab-lishing urban social networks, and different methodologies for doing so are examined. As part of this, a study is done on electronic democracy, i.e., different forms of information and communi-cation technologies (IT/ICT, Internet) that are actually and potentially applicable to innovative urban community development. The project combines theories of communication, dialogue and innovation with theories of systems, information, media and decision making. The project involves a comparative study of selected projects in the capital regions of Den-mark (Copenhagen) and Japan (Tokyo). Theoretical inspiration comes from, e.g., Richard Sennett, Raymond Williams, Iris Marion Young, Johan Asplund, Oskar Negt, Hannah Arendt, Carole Pateman, Donald Schön, and Peter Checkland.

GØtze, John

1997-01-01

62

Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community. PMID:25423239

Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

2015-01-01

63

Hearing Voices: Participatory Research with Preschool Children with and without Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study seeks to extend current thinking on participatory research by actively engaging 36 young children with and without a known disability in all aspects of a research project. Matched according to age and gender, six dyads of children attending four early years settings in Northern Ireland chose the research question, selected the…

Gray, Colette; Winter, Eileen

2011-01-01

64

Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

2014-01-01

65

Integrating multiple criteria decision analysis in participatory forest planning  

OpenAIRE

Forest planning in a participatory context often involves multiple stakeholders with conflicting interests. A promising approach for handling these complex situations is to integrate participatory planning and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The objective of this paper is to analyze strengths and weaknesses of such an integrated approach, focusing on how the use of MCDA has influenced the participatory process. The paper outlines a model for a participatory MCDA process with five ...

Nordstro?m, Eva-maria; Eriksson, Ljusk Ola; O?hman, Karin

2010-01-01

66

Foresight Analysis at the Regional Level - A Participatory Methodological Framework  

OpenAIRE

The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model) with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural develop...

Anastasia Stratigea; Aliki Papadopoulou, Chrysaida –.

2013-01-01

67

\\`A propos du groupe fondamental des vari\\'et\\'es rationnellement connexes  

CERN Document Server

(On the fundamental group of rationnally connected varieties.) I show that the fundamental group of a normal variety which is rationally chain connected is finite. The proof holds in non-zero characteristic. Je d\\'emontre que le groupe fondamental d'une vari\\'et\\'e normale rationnellement connexe par cha\\^{\\i}nes est fini. La d\\'emonstration est valable en caract\\'eristique diff\\'erente de z\\'ero.

Chambert-Loir, A

2003-01-01

68

Quantitative inheritance for fruit traits in inter varietal crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)  

OpenAIRE

Gene effects for important fruit traits of four inter-varietal crosses of okra were estimated by partitioning the means and variances of means of sixbasic generations from each cross into their genetic components to assess the gene action governing the inheritance of fruit yield and earlinessrelated traits in spring and rainy season. The additive, dominance and digenic non-allelic gene interactions were observed to govern most of thefruit traits. The non-additive gene effects were more pronou...

Deepak Arora, Salesh Kumar Jindal And T. R. Ghai

2010-01-01

69

Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne

70

Collective form generation through visual participatory representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers.

Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant

71

Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems. PMID:20167055

2010-01-01

72

Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.

Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke

2011-01-01

73

Sustainable Water Resource Management and Participatory System Dynamics. Case Study: Developing the Palouse Basin Participatory Model  

OpenAIRE

The complexity of explaining highly scientific information and juggling a plethora of social values is leading agencies and communities such as those in the Palouse Basin to explore the use of participatory modeling processes using system dynamics. Participatory system dynamics as a methodology creates a transparent nexus of science, policy options, social concerns and local knowledge that enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. The process of developing a syst...

Barbara Cosens; Jan Boll; Allyson Beall; Fritz Fiedler

2011-01-01

74

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene de Lange

2012-01-01

75

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary s [...] chools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene, de Lange; Mart-Mari, Geldenhuys.

76

Participatory Action Research: A View from Xerox.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Quality of Work Life (QWL) program at the North American Manufacturing Division of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. States that the story of QWL is a description of participatory action research. Notes that the process has become an integral and flexible approach to solving problems and…

Pace, Larry A.; Argona, Dominick R.

1989-01-01

77

Participation and Participatory Planning in Educational Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory planning in educational systems is discussed in this conference paper. Definition is given to the hierarchical decision-making structure often characterized in societal systems. Tendencies towards change in the decision-making structure in educational systems are noted. (SM)

Eide, Kjell

1973-01-01

78

Lived Stories: Participatory Leadership in School Counseling  

Science.gov (United States)

The article is a personal and professional account by 2 counselor educators who worked together as professional school counselors in the same high school setting. Both reflect on the "storied" nature of their professional development and define participatory leadership in school counseling as emerging from engagement and participation in…

Lewis, Rolla E.; Borunda, Rose

2006-01-01

79

Online Social Networking as Participatory Surveillance  

OpenAIRE

In this article, I argue that online social networking is anchored in surveillance practices. This gives us an opportunity to challenge conventional understandings of surveillance that often focus on control and disempowerment. In the context of online social networking, surveillance is something potentially empowering, subjectivity building and even playful – what I call participatory surveillance.

Albrechtslund, Anders

2008-01-01

80

Participatory scenario development for environmental management: a methodological framework illustrated with experience from the UK uplands.  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodological framework is proposed for participatory scenario development on the basis of evidence from the literature, and is tested and refined through the development of scenarios for the future of UK uplands. The paper uses a review of previous work to justify a framework based around the following steps: i) define context and establish whether there is a basis for stakeholder engagement in scenario development; ii) systematically identify and represent relevant stakeholders in the process; iii) define clear objectives for scenario development with stakeholders including spatial and temporal boundaries; iv) select relevant participatory methods for scenario development, during initial scenario construction, evaluation and to support decision-making based on scenarios; and v) integrate local and scientific knowledge throughout the process. The application of this framework in case study research suggests that participatory scenario development has the potential to: i) make scenarios more relevant to stakeholder needs and priorities; ii) extend the range of scenarios developed; iii) develop more detailed and precise scenarios through the integration of local and scientific knowledge; and iv) move beyond scenario development to facilitate adaptation to future change. It is argued that participatory scenario development can empower stakeholders and lead to more consistent and robust scenarios that can help people prepare more effectively for future change. PMID:23774752

Reed, M S; Kenter, J; Bonn, A; Broad, K; Burt, T P; Fazey, I R; Fraser, E D G; Hubacek, K; Nainggolan, D; Quinn, C H; Stringer, L C; Ravera, F

2013-10-15

81

Evaluation of a Participatory Resource Monitoring System for Nontimber Forest Products: the Case of Amla (Phyllanthus spp. Fruit Harvest by Soligas in South India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995–2005 period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for participatory resource mapping, fruit productivity estimation, and promotion of improved harvest techniques. Major challenges involved ensuring adequate incentives for monitoring activities that lead to benefits only over the longer term, such as monitoring of extraction and regeneration rates. Maintaining long-term participation and interest in the latter requires ensuring resource tenure.

Tamara Ticktin

2008-12-01

82

Varietal Resistance of Cotton Against Earias spp.  

OpenAIRE

Studies were carried out on varietal resistance of cotton against Earias spp. during cropping season 1999. The seeds of 12 cotton varieties viz., Green Red Okra, Qalandri, Red Okra-VI, Red Okra (Insect Resistant), AENS-1/82 VIII, Red Okra, TH-228/87, AENS-10/87, TH-3/83, Reshmi, AEC-78 13/89 and TH-41/83 were sown on April 22, 1999 in a completely randomized design with strip cropping, each strip measuring 20 x 35 feet with nine rows of each variety. Observations on infestation of E...

Abro, G. H.; Syed, T. S.; Dayo, Z. A.

2003-01-01

83

Enabling objects for participatory design of socio-technical systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to identify and explore the role of objects in participatory ergonomics design processes. The question in focus is: What characterizes objects in PE processes? First the concept of boundary objects is introduced as a starting point for investigating the role of objects. Second, findings of a search to identify objects in PE processes are reported. Third, objects fulfilling the requirements for boundary objects are placed in one of five categories. Fourth, empirical findings from two PE case studies in which objects played an important role are presented. Finally, based on a grounded theory approach, a characterization of objects in PE design processes is developed and a framework for how the use of objects in PE processes could be conceptualized is proposed. In conclusion, the concept of objects in PE processes is contextual, and the ergonomist or other design actor needs to actively consider their selection and the stage at which they are to be used.

Broberg, Ole

2011-01-01

84

Participatory action research: involving students in parent education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity. PMID:23849187

Fowler, Cathrine; Wu, Cynthia; Lam, Winsome

2014-01-01

85

Participatory planning intercultural: Reflections for social work  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the nineties, participatory planning has emerged as a linking strategy for various social, political, economic and cultural sectors that assessed it as a potential for building consensus in the making of local processes forsocial improvement. Similarly, it was legitimized as a setting for practice for professionals trained in the social sciences, mainly Social Work. This article, from a geopolitical and geo-cultural perspective, presents contextual elements that determined the configuration of participatory planning in Latin America. These elements shall be staged in order to redefine diversity and the intercultural perspective that has been linked to this mobilizing strategy, against the institutionalized discourse of development and for the emergence of crisis and ruptures with this social paradigm from other practices and worldviews of life in the territories.

Esperanza Gómez Hernández

2012-01-01

86

Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

2014-01-01

87

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in  

OpenAIRE

Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aidi...

Korff, Y. Von; Daniell, K.; Moellenkamp, S.; Bots, P.; Bijlsma, R. M.

2012-01-01

88

Participatory planning intercultural: Reflections for social work  

OpenAIRE

Since the nineties, participatory planning has emerged as a linking strategy for various social, political, economic and cultural sectors that assessed it as a potential for building consensus in the making of local processes forsocial improvement. Similarly, it was legitimized as a setting for practice for professionals trained in the social sciences, mainly Social Work. This article, from a geopolitical and geo-cultural perspective, presents contextual elements that determined the configura...

Esperanza Gómez Hernández

2012-01-01

89

Using Participatory Paradigm to Learn Human Behaviour  

OpenAIRE

Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a human actor directly plays...

Taillandier, Patrick; Chu, Thanh-quang

2009-01-01

90

Does participatory governance hold its promises?  

OpenAIRE

"With the ratification of the Reform Treaty, the European Union will be based on two complementary principles: the principle of representative democracy and the principle of participatory democracy. Even though the two respective sub-headings in the draft Constitutional Treaty (Article I, 46 and Article I, 47) have been omitted, the Intergovernmental Conference did not introduce any change in substance. Article 11 of the Reform Treaty pledges to give citizens and representat...

Kohler-koch, Beate

2008-01-01

91

Sustainable Water Resource Management and Participatory System Dynamics. Case Study: Developing the Palouse Basin Participatory Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complexity of explaining highly scientific information and juggling a plethora of social values is leading agencies and communities such as those in the Palouse Basin to explore the use of participatory modeling processes using system dynamics. Participatory system dynamics as a methodology creates a transparent nexus of science, policy options, social concerns and local knowledge that enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. The process of developing a systems model uses the tenets of scientific theory, hypothesis testing and clear statements of assumptions. A unique aspect of the Palouse basin project is the use of system dynamics to describe ground water dynamics in a sole source confined aquifer system. There are, as of yet, no standards for analyzing participatory modeling projects, therefore, we use case study analysis to describe the process, insights and qualitative measurements of success.

Barbara Cosens

2011-04-01

92

Effect of vine foliar treatments on the varietal aroma of Monastrell wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment. PMID:24912724

Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

2014-11-15

93

Influence of grape-harvesting steps on varietal thiol aromas in Sauvignon blanc wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intense tropical fruit aroma of Sauvignon blanc wines has been associated with the varietal thiols 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH), derived from odorless precursors in the grape, and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), arising from 3MH during fermentation. Grapes and juice were sourced from five locations in Marlborough, New Zealand, taking hand-picked grapes and samples at four stages during the mechanical harvesting process and pressing, which were then fermented in replicated 750 mL bottles. With each set of juices, the highest concentrations of Cys-3MH and Glut-3MH were found in the juices pressed to 1 bar, but these juices produced wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. With three of the juices, there was an increase in varietal thiol content for wines made from juices that had been machine harvested compared to the hand-picked samples, which matched earlier findings of lower 3MH and 3MHA levels in wines made from hand-picked grapes. Juices that were more oxidized, and which showed a higher absorbance at 420 nm, were found to produce wines with lower 3MH and 3MHA concentrations. PMID:21854044

Allen, Thomas; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Girault, Melanie; Butler, Paul; Logan, Gerard; Jouanneau, Sara; Nicolau, Laura; Kilmartin, Paul A

2011-10-12

94

Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin Discriminação de vinhos tintos brasileiros de acordo com a região vitícola, varietal e vinícola  

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Full Text Available This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine analysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA. The main results show that wines from São Joaquim had higher values of A420, A520, A620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from Toledo had lower values of these variables; those from Vale do São Francisco had higher values of potassium, pH, density, and volatile acidity; from Serra do Nordeste A, they had higher titratable acidity; and from Planalto Superior B, higher hue. Regarding the varietal wines, PCA mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera, and Alfrocheiro. In relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and pH; and two by titratablel acidity.O trabalho avaliou a composição físico-química de 171 vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados na safra de 2006, representados por 21 varietais. Os vinhos foram elaborados por 58 vinícolas localizadas em sete regiões vitícolas do País com latitudes variando de 9º a 31º Sul. A análise físico-química foi feita em 2006 e a discriminação entre as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos varietais e as vinícolas foi realizada através da análise de componentes principais (ACP. Os principais resultados mostram que ao se considerar as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos elaborados em São Joaquim caracterizaram-se por valores mais elevados de A420, A520, A620, intensidade de cor, compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas e extrato seco, enquanto que os de Toledo apresentaram valores mais baixos dessas variáveis; os do Vale do São Francisco tiveram valores mais elevados de potássio, pH, densidade e acidez volátil; os da Serra do Nordeste A, maior acidez titulável; e os do Planalto Superior B, matiz mais elevado. No que se relaciona aos vinhos varietais, a ACP discriminou os vinhos feitos com as variedades Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera e Alfrocheiro. Com relação às vinícolas, vinte e duas delas foram discriminadas por apresentarem parâmetros mais elevados de determinadas variáveis, i.e., três delas por terem maior intensidade de cor; três, por seu matiz; oito, pelo teor de álcool; seis, por potássio, extrato seco, densidade e pH; e duas, pela acidez titulável.

Alberto Miele

2010-03-01

95

Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin / Discriminação de vinhos tintos brasileiros de acordo com a região vitícola, varietal e vinícola  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O trabalho avaliou a composição físico-química de 171 vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados na safra de 2006, representados por 21 varietais. Os vinhos foram elaborados por 58 vinícolas localizadas em sete regiões vitícolas do País com latitudes variando de 9º a 31º Sul. A análise físico-química foi [...] feita em 2006 e a discriminação entre as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos varietais e as vinícolas foi realizada através da análise de componentes principais (ACP). Os principais resultados mostram que ao se considerar as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos elaborados em São Joaquim caracterizaram-se por valores mais elevados de A420, A520, A620, intensidade de cor, compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas e extrato seco, enquanto que os de Toledo apresentaram valores mais baixos dessas variáveis; os do Vale do São Francisco tiveram valores mais elevados de potássio, pH, densidade e acidez volátil; os da Serra do Nordeste A, maior acidez titulável; e os do Planalto Superior B, matiz mais elevado. No que se relaciona aos vinhos varietais, a ACP discriminou os vinhos feitos com as variedades Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera e Alfrocheiro. Com relação às vinícolas, vinte e duas delas foram discriminadas por apresentarem parâmetros mais elevados de determinadas variáveis, i.e., três delas por terem maior intensidade de cor; três, por seu matiz; oito, pelo teor de álcool; seis, por potássio, extrato seco, densidade e pH; e duas, pela acidez titulável. Abstract in english This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine anal [...] ysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA). The main results show that wines from São Joaquim had higher values of A420, A520, A620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from Toledo had lower values of these variables; those from Vale do São Francisco had higher values of potassium, pH, density, and volatile acidity; from Serra do Nordeste A, they had higher titratable acidity; and from Planalto Superior B, higher hue. Regarding the varietal wines, PCA mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera, and Alfrocheiro. In relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and pH; and two by titratablel acidity.

Alberto, Miele; Luiz Antenor, Rizzon; Mauro Celso, Zanus.

2010-03-01

96

Varietal improvement in jute through induction and use of mutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A very limited number of varieties of jute is available in the cultivated species of Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius in Bangladesh. Use of gamma rays on seeds of the variety D-154 of the species capsularis resulted in a wide spectrum of variability, but there was only a narrow range of variability in the olitorius species. Treatment of the seeds of these species with chemical mutagens has not provided wide scope for selection. Crossing among mutants and mutants with varieties has added more variability in capsularis. A mutant, Atompat-38, of C. capsularis developed by using gamma rays on seeds of the variety D-154 has been released directly as a commercial variety (1988). It has a 12-15% higher fibre yield than the widely cultivated parent variety. It has a distinct genetic marker (hairy stipules modified into leaflets), and other additional advantages. A very promising line, C-443, developed through crossing Atompat-38 with CVL-1 of C. capsularis, is expected to be released very soon. This line has the combined features of the green petiole of CVL-1 and the modified leafy stipules of Atompat-38. It outyielded both the parents by 10-15% and has a good fibre quality, with less hard fibre at the bottom end of the stem. Other promising mutants are also undergoing advanced trials. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on broadening the genetic variability of the olitorius species through developing effective methods of treating seeds with chemical mutagens. 11 refating seeds with chemical mutagens. 11 refs, 2 tabs

97

Visual Participatory Approach to Violent Behaviour amongst Zimbabwean Students: Forms and Prevalence  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18. Data on forms and prevalence of violence were collected from the students. The majority of the participants portrayed physical violence, vandalism and sexual harassment. It was recommended that schools must develop clear policies in an endeavor to reduce or eliminate violence. Schools Psychological Services must provide psychotherapy to individuals concerned. Visual participatory methodology, a new body of knowledge in Zimbabwe, is a vital tool for future researchers.

Ephias Gudyanga

2014-04-01

98

Community-based participatory irrigation management at local government level in Ghana  

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Full Text Available Ghana has attempted to decentralise the management of irrigation schemes to communities at local government level. This study examines the existing local participatory management structures and the principles of the Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM strategy designed to promote sustainable management of irrigation schemes in Ghana. Two community-based irrigation projects, Bontanga and Golinga in the Northern Region of Ghana were selected for the research. The study demonstrated that farmers’ participation was minimal and limited to the discussion of irrigation service charges at the expense of other issues related to the sustainability of the projects/schemes. The study also established that there was less participation of women, and more than half of all the crop farmers on the two irrigation projects were reluctant to assume additional responsibilities without remuneration. The study therefore concluded that the sustainability of the PIM strategy depends on the adoption of an integrated management approach involving all stakeholders including local government, with appropriate incentives.

I Braimah

2014-07-01

99

Participatory Research: An Emerging Alternative Methodology in Social Science Research. Participatory Research Network Series No. 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book, consisting of a series of discussion papers and case studies, is a compilation of the papers presented at a region 1 workshop on participatory research in Africa. Included in the volume are the following discussion papers: "The Concept of Development in the Social Sciences," by Kemal Mustafa and Deborah Bryceson; "The Politics of…

Kassam, Yusuf, Ed.; Mustafa, Kemal, Ed.

100

Setting Up Participatory Research: A Discussion of the Initial Stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

A participatory research project was designed to teach eight British adults with learning disabilities about keeping healthy. The development of the project, the recruitment of the participants, and the involvement of the participants in the project are discussed, along with the role of researchers and support workers in participatory research.…

Burke, Anne; McMillan, Jane; Cummins, Lorraine; Thompson, Agnes; Forsyth, Watson; McLellan, James; Snot, Linda; Fraser, Anne; Fraser, Mary; Fulton, Charity; McGrindel, Elizabeth; Gillies, Lorraine; LeFort, Shelley; Miller, Gail; Whitehall, John; Wilson, John; Smith, Janet; Wright, David

2003-01-01

101

The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

2013-01-01

102

An evaluation framework for participatory modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in the UK.

Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

2012-04-01

103

Use of "EP"(Peroxidase) allele in soybean varietal characterization / Uso do alelo "EP" (Peroxidase) na caracterização varietal de soja  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso da técnica de PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction) na caracterização de cultivares de soja. O estudo foi realizado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas / UNESP e do Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu-SP. Foram utiliza [...] das quatorze cultivares de soja comerciais, das quais seis foram selecionadas como reação positiva à peroxidase (BRS 320, BRS 284, BRS 232, BRS 7860RR, BRSMG 760SRR, BRS295RR), quatro como reação negativa (BRS 326, BRS 8160RR, BRSMG 800A (NutriSoy), BRS Valiosa RR) e quatro como reação positiva e negativa (BRS 8060, BRS 270RR, FTS Campo Mourão e BRS 239). Assim, as 14 cultivares foram submetidas ao ensaio bioquímico colorimétrico tradicional e os resultados obtidos foram comparados com o ensaio de PCR convencional. Para a análise de PCR, o DNA foi extraído de sementes inteiras, sendo que os primers foram testados por PCR e visualizados por eletroforese em gel de agarose. A combinação dos primers prx9 + prx10 confirmou a utilização da reação de PCR para caracterizar as cultivares de soja considerada duvidosa por teste convencional colorimétrico. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of the molecular biology technique of PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction) in the characterization of soybean cultivars. The study was performed at the Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences/ UNESP and Institute of Bioscience, Botucat [...] u-SP. Fourteen commercial soybean cultivars were used, of which six were selected as positive reaction to peroxidase (BRS 320, BRS 284, BRS 232, BRS 7860RR, BRSMG 760SRR, BRS295RR), four as negative reaction (BRS 326, BRS 8160RR, BRSMG 800A (NutriSoy), BRS Valiosa RR) and four as double reaction (BRSGO 8060, BRS 270RR, FTS Campo Mourão and BRS 239). Thus, the results attained by the traditional biochemical colorimetric test for the 14 cultivars were compared with the conventional PCR assay. For PCR analysis, DNA was extracted from whole seeds and the primers were tested, and subsequently PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed. The combination of primers prx9 + prx10 confirmed the use of the PCR reaction to characterize soybean cultivars considered doubtful by conventional colorimetric text.

Bárbara Panoff, Valário; Cláudio, Cavariani; José de Barros, França-Neto; Elisa Serra Negra, Vieira; Juliana Pereira, Bravo; Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da, Silva.

2014-12-01

104

Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

Bozalek, Vivienne

2011-01-01

105

Effect of a Participatory Intervention to Reduce the Number of Unnecessary Cesarean Sections Performed in Shahrekord of Iran  

OpenAIRE

In this research the role of participatory people in decreasing cesarean frequency has been investigated. For this purpose 171 pregnant women randomly selected from all pregnant women in Shahrekord. A participator team including housewives, teachers, sales, health communicators` physicians, midwifes and nurses were responsible for educating the selected women about the indication of cesarean section and benefits of vaginal birth. The contexts of the educated women were evaluated by a question...

Forouzan Ganji; Hossein Yusefi; Azar Baradaran

2006-01-01

106

Mutation induction as a tool for varietal development in ornamental plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the current advancement in biotechnology has tremendously change the modern breeding approach, the induced mutation techniques is still very much in use as complementary tools. MINT experiences in using the techniques for varietal development in ornamental plants has helped to increase genetic variabilities in several ornamental plant species, produced twelve new mutant cultivars as well as developed efficient tissue culture system for six ornamental plant species as tool for in vitro mutagenesis procedures and micropropagation. The technology and expertise that have been established are ready for transfer to the horticulture industry. Sharing of capability and capacity between research institutions and private sector is one possible way by improving and maintaining long-term sustenance of the floriculture industry. (author)

107

Varietal Performance for Yield Potentials under Different Row Spacings of Nicotiana tabacum L.  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the varietal cum row spacing effect on the productivity of tabacco varieties viz. R-5, R-9, bubaki, sindi achho, R-6 and R-swabi as main plot and row spacing i.e., 60 and 75 cm as sub plot at Tandojam. It was observed that there was a significant (P<0.05 difference among tabacco varieties and row spacings. The variety R-5 was late maturing with highest yield of 958.33 and 1027.77 kg ha-1 at 60 and 75 cm row spacings, followed by R-swabi (888.88 kg ha-1 at both row spacing, this is due to the plant with thicker stem and broader leaves.

Saeed Ahmad Baloch

2002-01-01

108

Stereoselective formation of the varietal aroma compound rose oxide during alcoholic fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potent aroma compound rose oxide was quantified in several white wines by a headspace solid-phase microextration stable isotope dilution assay (HS-SPME-SIDA) and the enantiomeric ratios of the cis diastereomers were determined by enantioselective capillary GC. The most odor-active stereoisomer (23)-cis-rose oxide was detectable in all investigated white wines ranging from 0.2 to 12 microg/L. However, its contribution to the overall aroma in some white wine varieties can be neglected as indicated by a low odor activity value (OAV). The highest concentrations were found in Gewürztraminer wines, confirming the importance of rose oxide as a varietal aroma compound in this variety. Surprisingly, the enantiomeric ratio of cis-rose oxide in all investigated wines was substantially lower than in nonfermented musts and in some wines almost racemic cis-rose oxide was detected. Fermentation studies with a model must that contained deuterated water revealed that yeast is capable of reducing the precursor 3,7-dimethyl octa-2,5-dien-1,7-diol (geranyl diol I) yielding 3,7-dimethyl-5-octen-1,7-diol (citronellyl diol I) that gives rise to cis- and trans-rose oxide after acid catalyzed cylization. The deuterium labeling pattern of the resulting rose oxide stereoisomers and a clearly detectable kinetic isotope effect indicate that at least two different reductive pathways in yeast exist that yield cis-rose oxide with different enantiomeric ratios altering the genuine enantiomeric ratio in grape musts. The presence of (+)-cis-rose oxides in wines can therefore be attributed to the reductive yeast metabolism during fermentation. This observation corroborates recent findings that the modification of terpene derived varietal aroma is an integral part of yeast metabolism and not only a simple hydrolytical process. PMID:18247534

Koslitz, Stephan; Renaud, Lauren; Kohler, Marcel; Wüst, Matthias

2008-02-27

109

Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation. PMID:25039987

Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

2014-08-01

110

Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.

Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

2013-01-01

111

Release and formation of varietal aroma compounds during alcoholic fermentation from nonfloral grape odorless flavor precursors fractions.  

Science.gov (United States)

An odorless flavor precursor fraction extracted from different nonfloral grape varietals has been added to a grape must and has been fermented by three different yeast strains. The wines obtained were analyzed by sensory descriptive analysis and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to determine more than 90 aroma chemicals. The addition of the precursor fraction brought about a significant increase of the wine floral notes, irrespective of the yeast used. The levels of 51 wine aroma chemicals were found to depend on the precursor fraction addition and, in most cases, also on the yeast strain. Only beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, and vinylphenols were produced at concentrations well above threshold. However, the concerted addition of groups of compounds has shown that lactones, cinnamates, vanillins, and terpenes are together active contributors to the floral note. Different observations suggest that the formation of varietal aroma is an integral part of yeast metabolism and not a simple hydrolytical process. PMID:17616208

Loscos, Natalia; Hernandez-Orte, Purificacion; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2007-08-01

112

Varietal blends as a way of optimizing and preserving the anthocyanin content of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthocyanins are unstable compounds prone to degradation during storage of pomegranates juices, leading to disadvantageous color changes. Blending varietal pomegranate juices could be useful not only to preserve the genuine characteristics of fresh juices but also to study different factors affecting anthocyanin stability while maintaining to the utmost the matrix studied. The effects of critical factors such as anthocyanin concentration, pH, and endogenous ascorbic acid on pigment integrity were assessed through the study of the degradation kinetics of pomegranate phytochemicals in blended juices made from two distinct cultivars ('Wonderful' and 'Mollar de Elche'). Pigment concentration and pH were the factors affecting anthocyanin stability, whereas ascorbic acid did not alter the degradation of anthocyanins. These results contributed to the definition of the so-called "cultivar effect" and to preserving to a great extent the anthocyanin load and color characteristics of fresh varietal juices, avoiding phytochemical degradation and browning development during storage. PMID:24611561

Mena, Pedro; Martí, Nuria; García-Viguera, Cristina

2014-07-23

113

A face oculta de um processo participativo para escolha de chefias de enfermagem / The hidden face of a participatory process for the selection of head nurses / La cara oculta de un proceso participativo para elección de jefes en enfermería  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo discute a articulação das equipes de enfermagem no desenvolvimento de um processo consultivo de escolha de chefias num hospital universitário. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo exploratória e descritiva. A coleta de dados deu-se por meio de entrevistas com profissionais de enfermage [...] m. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo do tipo temática. Através das manifestações dos profissionais, visualizaram-se duas vertentes que representam movimentos de integração e movimentos de separação na trajetória de cada equipe. Em algumas unidades o processo ocorre de forma integrada, norteado pela participação e relações democráticas. Já em outras, o funcionamento grupal é caracterizado pela divisão interna e por um conflito subjacente. Um olhar sobre a totalidade dos setores aponta que as equipes de enfermagem estão em diferentes estágios de evolução nos modos de participação e envolvimento na dinâmica da vida política institucional. Abstract in spanish El estudio hace una discusión sobre de la articulación de los equipos de enfermería en el desarrollo de un proceso consultivo de elección de los jefes en un hospital universitario. Estudio cualitativo, de tipo exploratorio y descriptivo. La recolección de datos se dio por medio de entrevistas con pr [...] ofesionales de enfermería. Los datos se analizaron utilizándose la técnica de análisis de contenido del tipo temática. A través de las manifestaciones de los profesionales, se visualizan dos vertientes que representan movimientos de integración y movimientos de separación en la trayectoria de cada equipo. En algunas unidades el proceso se realiza en forma integrada, guiado por la participación y las relaciones democráticas. En otras, el funcionamiento grupal se caracteriza por la división interna y por un conflicto subyacente. Una mirada sobre la totalidad de los sectores señala que los equipos de enfermería están en diferentes niveles de evolución en los modos de participación y envolvimiento en la dinámica de la vida política institucional. Abstract in english The study presents a discussion about the articulation of nursing staffs in the development of a consulting process for the selection of head nurses in a university hospital. This is an exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of interviews with nursing work [...] ers. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Through the workers' expressions, two lines were observed that represent integration movements and separation movements in the trajectory of each staff. In some departments, the process takes place in an integrated way, guided by participation and democratic relationships. However, in others, the functioning of a group is characterized by internal division and underlying conflict. An overview on the totality of departments indicates that nursing staffs are at different evolution stages regarding the ways they participate and get involved in the dynamics of political-institutional life.

Gisela Maria Schebella Souto de, Moura; Ana Maria Müller de, Magalhães; Clarice Maria, Dall' Agnol; Louíse Viecili, Hoffmeister.

2012-09-01

114

FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

OpenAIRE

Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of anthocyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated fla...

Vergara, C.; Von Baer, D.; Mardones, C.; Gutie?rrez, L.; Hermosi?n-gutie?rrez, I.; Castillo-mun?oz, N.

2011-01-01

115

Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Using data from this study and the literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2% per °C. The classification of varieties should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet IOOC requirements. The differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype produced by environmental interaction, and the negative effect of the high seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further research.La industria oleícola del noroeste de Argentina creció sustancialmente durante las últimas dos décadas para producir aceite de oliva virgen exportable. Para evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los principales aceites varietales, se analizaron 563 muestras de aceite de 17 variedades en la provincia de La Rioja durante 2005-2008. Las variedades se clasificaron de acuerdo a su contenido de ácido oleico en bajo (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Utilizando datos de este trabajo y de la literatura, los aceites de variedades de origen español (Arbequina y Picual e italiano (Coratina y Frantoio mostraron consistentemente menor contenido de ácido oleico cuando crecieron en el noroeste de Argentina versus el Mediterráneo. Para Arbequina, el contenido de oleico disminuyó con la temperatura durante la síntesis y acumulación lipídica (-2 % por °C. La clasificación varietal por acido oleico debe ser útil para seleccionar aceites para mezclas correctivas y variedades para futuras plantaciones que cumplan con la normativa del COI. Diferencias en los perfiles de ácidos grasos entre el noroeste de Argentina y el Mediterráneo indican una interacción genotipo x ambiente, y el efecto negativo de la alta temperatura media estacional durante la síntesis de lípidos requerirá mayor investigación.

Rousseaux, M. C.

2011-12-01

116

Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety mixtures relative to their component varieties. For this purpose, six variety mixtures of spring barley and 14 component varieties were grown in each of 17 trial environments. Atotal of 28 observed and a priori plant characteristics, including grain yield, disease severity and weed competitiveness, were derived for each component variety in each trial. The relationship between intervarietal diversity of each characteristic and the mixing effect on grain yield was analysed. Additionally, various types of yield stability were estimated and compared among mixtures and component varieties. One mixture out-yielded all of its component varieties in almost half of the trial environments. Inter-varietal diversity in grain yield potential correlated significantly with mixing effect, as did straw length diversity when weighted with weed pressure. The grain yields of most mixtures were more stable across environments than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.

Kiær, Lars PØdenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.

2012-01-01

117

Participatory documentarisation in the service of reversibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first outlines that reversibility is a technical as well as institutional stake. He recalls the Andra's definition of reversibility, and outlines some specific characteristics (retrievability, possibility of action on the disposal process, possibility to make the design evolve). He discusses some implications of reversibility in terms of technologies, of information and of debate organisation. He indicates aspects which are less taken into account nowadays in the field of technical means and information. He proposes instruments for the process of information of parties (archiving, documentarisation), for the debate (document sharing, debate tools based on participatory documentary spaces). He outlines the importance of documentarisation, indicates different information media (various types of databases) and proposes an example based on 'Folksonomies'

118

Creativity in ethnographic interviews : reflexive participatory observation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article discusses interviews as participatory reflexive observation. It is based on experiences of interviewing policymakers and researchers about knowledge and evidence in health promotion. This particular group of informants challenged an approach to interviews as getting informants to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process.

Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

2014-01-01

119

Scandinavian Participatory Design : Dialogic curation with Teenagers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

2012-01-01

120

Foresight Analysis at the Regional Level - A Participatory Methodological Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural development. The specific region is in front of a great challenge referring to the potential location of a large infrastructure (airport, which can drive a considerable socio-economic restructuring, affecting mostly the agricultural sector due to the land loss and the pressures exerted from competitive land uses around the airport area.

Anastasia Stratigea

2013-05-01

121

Participatory Action Research for Dealing with Disasters on Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much disaster research has a basis in non-island case studies, although mono-disciplinary disaster-related research across past decades has often used case studies of individual islands. Both sets of work contribute to contemporary ‘participatory action research’ which investigates ways of dealing with disasters on islands. This paper asks what might be gained through combining disaster research, island studies, and participatory action research. What value does island studies bring to participatory action research for dealing with disasters? Through a critical (not comprehensive overview of participatory action research for dealing with disasters on islands, three main lessons emerge. First, the island context matters to a certain degree for disaster-related research and action. Second, islandness has much more to offer disaster-related research than is currently appreciated. Third, more studies are needed linking theory to evidence found on the ground on islanders’ terms. Limitations of the analyses here and future research directions are provided.

Ilan Kelman

2011-05-01

122

Augmenting the Participatory Design Concept in Systems Development  

OpenAIRE

Participatory Design (PD) is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems ...

Qin, Zheng; Indeje Wanyama

2010-01-01

123

K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria  

OpenAIRE

K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings....

Sang-Yeon Sung

2013-01-01

124

Learning from participation: Quick scan of Participatory Action:  

OpenAIRE

Projects using innovative concepts in coastal defence -like ComCoast- can benefit greatly from participatory action. It can lead to innovative solutions with a broad societal support base, as is shown in the plan for water storage in the Overdiepse polder and the inundation compensation scheme for farmers in the upper River Dinkel region. This is one of the main lessons learned in the report Learning from participation, a quick scan of participatory action in the Netherlands relevant for ...

Pol, C.; Glasius, A.; Winnubst, M.

2005-01-01

125

Quick scan of Participatory Action, Summary, conclusions and recommendations:  

OpenAIRE

Projects using innovative concepts in coastal defence -like ComCoast- can benefit greatly from participatory action. It can lead to innovative solutions with a broad societal support base, as is shown in the plan for water storage in the Overdiepse polder and the inundation compensation scheme for farmers in the upper River Dinkel region. This is one of the main lessons learned in the report Learning from participation, a quick scan of participatory action in the Netherlands relevant for ...

unknown

2005-01-01

126

New Approaches to Urban Planning - Insights from Participatory Communities  

OpenAIRE

The new approaches to urban planning, such as participatory time and e-planning, comprise methods that allow us to analyse, develop, implement and monitor physical, functional and participatory structures at the neighbourhood level and beyond. They enable models of planning that may bring about an architecture of opportunities. This means the building of a supportive infrastructure of everyday life that encourages citizens to participate not only in formal decision-making, but actually in th...

Horelli, Liisa; Jarenko, Karoliina; Kuoppa, Jenni; Saad-sulonen, Joanna; Wallin, Sirkku

2013-01-01

127

Report literature research geo-visualization and participatory spatial planning  

OpenAIRE

The use of geo-visualization for participatory planning purposes is a challenging field of research. Reason for this is that researchers involved with the subject currently lack a common rationale for the integration of the two complementary domains: participatory planning and geo-visualization. Consequently existing knowledge still needs to be extracted from various relevant sub-domains of research. Therefore a literature research was conducted to make an inventory of aspects that influence ...

Bloemmen, M. H. I.; Fransen, H.; Hoogerwerf, T. C.; Ligtenberg, A.; Lammeren, R. J. A.

2005-01-01

128

Bolivia's new constitution: Towards participatory democracy and political pluralism?  

OpenAIRE

In Bolivia, rights to increased political participation and the recognition of indigenous political systems are interrelated. The new constitution of 2009 defines Bolivia as a representative, participatory and communitarian democracy. It incorporates enhanced mechanisms and institutions for participatory democracy. Moreover, new social rights have been anchored in the constitution and a plurinational state is supposed to be constructed. The article raises the question of whether the new co...

Almut Schilling-Vacaflor

2010-01-01

129

Participatory Action Research for Dealing with Disasters on Islands  

OpenAIRE

Much disaster research has a basis in non-island case studies, although mono-disciplinary disaster-related research across past decades has often used case studies of individual islands. Both sets of work contribute to contemporary ‘participatory action research’ which investigates ways of dealing with disasters on islands. This paper asks what might be gained through combining disaster research, island studies, and participatory action research. What value does island studies bring to pa...

Ilan Kelman; James Lewis; Jc, Gaillard; Jessica Mercer

2011-01-01

130

Embedded, Participatory Research: Creating a Grounded Theory with Teenagers  

OpenAIRE

Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solution...

Shannon Crawford Barniskis

2013-01-01

131

Participatory forest management in Ethiopia : learning from pilot projects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

2014-01-01

132

Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

2014-07-01

133

The Healthy African American Families (HAAF) Project: From Community-Based Participatory Research To Community-Partnered Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

During the past two decades, there has been an increased use of community-based participatory research in public health activities, especially as part of efforts to understand health disparities affecting communities of color. This article describes the history and lessons learned of a long-standing community participatory project, Healthy African American Families (HAAF), in Los Angeles, California. HAAF evolved from a partnership formed by a community advisory board, university, and federal...

Ferre?, Cynthia D.; Jones, Loretta; Norris, Keith C.; Rowley, Diane L.

2010-01-01

134

Türkiye’de Kat?l?m Bankalar?n?n Tercih Edilme Sebepleri: Ampirik Bir Tetkik(Reasons for Preference of Participatory Banks in Turkey: An Empirical Investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interest-Free/Islamic Banking or Participatory Banking has been increasing its share in the world financial market. Although many researches about the reasons for preference of interest-free banks abroad Turkey have been conducted so far, the number of the studies related to the reasons for preference of participatory banks in Turkey is comparatively very low. This study is intended to contribute to the literature in question. To this effect; a sample of 217 participants was selected among the customers of three participatory banks in Bolu province in Turkey. The data was collected through conducting a survey. An exploratory factor analysis was run on the data. According to our findings, the principal factor affecting the participants’ preference of participatory banks is “Product/Service Quality”. “Image and Trust”, “Personnel Quality”, “Religious/Environmental Motivations” are the succeeding ones.

?smail ÖZSOY

2013-01-01

135

Analysis of carotenoids in grapes to predict norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wines from Apulia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine a correlation between carotenoid precursors in grapes and norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wine, carotenoids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS (ESI+) from four representative wine grape varieties of the Apulian region (Chardonnay, Merlot, Negroamaro, Primitivo) in two years of study (2006-2007), and C13-norisoprenoid aroma potential, DeltaC (microg/kg), was calculated from the difference of total carotenoid concentration between veraison and maturity. C13-norisoprenoids were analyzed by GC-MS in the obtained wines from 2006 and 2007 vintages. Higher DeltaC values, found in Chardonnay and Merlot grapes, corresponded to higher norisoprenoid contents in the respective wines, particularly characterized by highly flavorant compounds such as beta-damascenone and 3-oxo-alpha-ionol. A linear regression was determined that was significant at the 0.01% level (F=36.12, p=0.00096) with R=0.9261, between grape DeltaC values and total norisoprenoid contents in wine. These findings support the hypothesis that DeltaC could be a useful technological tool to predict norisoprenoid aroma of wine and, consequently, to identify grapes with higher aroma potential. PMID:20695424

Crupi, Pasquale; Coletta, Antonio; Antonacci, Donato

2010-09-01

136

Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved socially and politically. The PAREU model empowers the community to take action from the research they, themselves, conducted, and enables them to carry out future research. Finally, many of these communities (and the general public) lack the understanding of the nature of science, which leads to ignorance on the part of citizens in areas of science such as climate change. By participating in science/social science research, community members gain a better understanding of the nature of science, making them more informed citizens. The PAREU model is theoretically grounded in decades of research in social science and documented impacts of student research experiences. In addition to providing practical benefits for communities with needs solvable by scientific research, the model builds on and expands student skills gained from traditional REU programs Deep and sustained engagement among scientists, social scientists, and community leaders is expected to create better informed citizens and improve their ability to solve problems.

Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

2013-12-01

137

Participatory Design of the Participatory Culture: Students' Projections of e-Learning 2.0  

Science.gov (United States)

The participatory culture of Web 2.0 and the implicit empowerment of the learners have not been yet associated with participatory design projects that involve learners in the design and development of the new mediating tools. In this paper, we examine students' projections of Web 2.0 in higher education. Ninety seven undergraduate students participated in 20 design sessions exploiting two needs' elicitation techniques with the aim of envisioning of a course website that meets their learning particularities, that incorporates and exploits their new technological habits and which can be harmoniously situated in the daily routine of a modern, active student. 583 needs were produced and their abstract categorization is presented. Students proved that they had refined views about the elements that can render successful the next wave of e-learning applications and provided directions that can help designers and researchers in developing more informed designs. Students are the main agents of educational change and, hence, they deserve a more active and contributive role in the knowledge society.

Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Tsinakos, Avgoustos

138

POST-EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION: TOWARDS A MUCH MORE PARTICIPATORY PLANNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the devastating Great Wenchuan Earthquake occured in May 2008, China responded rapidly to mitigate the losses caused. Post-earthquake reconstruction planning plays a crucial role to the future development of earthquake struck areas. The post-earthquake reconstruction planning work has demonstrated to be an immediate action and tends to be a much more open and participatory. Since the influence of long term planned economy in the past and its centralised administration system, planning in China is comparatively information-close to ordinary people. However, the post-earthquake reconstruction planning turns to be a much wider participatory and more open than before, though it is still immature and there still many obstacles need to be overcome. This paper firstly introduces the Great Wenchuan Earthquake and the quick response of reconstruction planning in China. It depicts the intensive work of the reconstruction planning. Then it reviews the concept of participatory planning and the history of participatory planning in China. Thirdly, it identifies three new trends that a more participatory planning has showed in the reconstruction planning. Lastly, this paper points out some problems still exist in the reconstruction planning.

Sheng YING

2009-04-01

139

Assessing Vital Signs: Applying Two Participatory Evaluation Frameworks to the Evaluation of a College of Nursing  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…

Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.

2011-01-01

140

Theory Building through Praxis Discourse: A Theory- and Practice-Informed Model of Transformative Participatory Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Stakeholder participation in evaluation, where the evaluator engages stakeholders in the process, is prevalent in evaluation practice and is an important focus of evaluation research. Cousins and Whitmore proposed a bifurcation of participatory evaluation into the two streams of transformative participatory and practical participatory evaluation…

Harnar, Michael A.

2012-01-01

141

Une caract\\'erisation diff\\'erentielle des faisceaux analytiques coh\\'erents sur une vari\\'et\\'e complexe  

CERN Document Server

Nous g\\'en\\'eralisons, dans le contexte des faisceaux, un r\\'esultat classique de Grothendieck concernant l'int\\'egrabilit\\'e des connexions de type $(0,1)$ sur un fibr\\'e vectoriel ${\\cal C}^{\\infty}$ au dessus d'une vari\\'et\\'e complexe. En introduisant la notion de faisceau $\\bar{\\partial}$-coh\\'erent, qui est une notion qui vit dans le contexte ${\\cal C}^{\\infty}$, nous montrons l'existence d'une \\'equivalence (exacte) entre la cat\\'egorie des faisceaux analytiques coh\\'erents et la cat\\'egorie des faisceaux $\\bar{\\partial}$-coh\\'erents.

Pali, N

2003-01-01

142

Varietal Performance for Yield Potentials under Different Row Spacings of Nicotiana tabacum L.  

OpenAIRE

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the varietal cum row spacing effect on the productivity of tabacco varieties viz. R-5, R-9, bubaki, sindi achho, R-6 and R-swabi as main plot and row spacing i.e., 60 and 75 cm as sub plot at Tandojam. It was observed that there was a significant (P<0.05) difference among tabacco varieties and row spacings. The variety R-5 was late maturing with highest yield of 958.33 and 1027.77 kg ha-1 at 60 and 75 cm row spacings, followed by R-swabi (...

Saeed Ahmad Baloch; Zahoor Ahmad Soomro

2002-01-01

143

Empowerment and regulation : Dilemmas in participatory fisheries science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.

Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

2012-01-01

144

Participatory Design of Websites with Web Design Workshops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries we have included users in technology development with great success. "Participatory design" entails collaboration among designers, developers, and users from the earliest stages of conception through to implementation of websites and other technology. Using participatory methods, a project to redesign the library website began with workshops to identify user needs and preferences. The results of these workshops led to the identification of key tasks for the main page. They also generated a hierarchy of tasks for sub-pages and rich information about how students and faculty members use current websites in their work. In our article, we explain our reasons for running participatory design workshops, describe our methods, review participants and recruitment, and summarize key findings. We also include information about our local implementation and general conclusions about the value of design workshops for website design and development.

Alison Bersani

2008-03-01

145

Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be primarily responsible for managing and controlling them. The core aspect of the study is the use of cross-sectional survey research design in generating the required primary data. The place of study is the bonny NLNG construction project while the duration of study is between March, 2012 and February, 2013. A sample of 396 (35 supervisors, 98 foremen and 263 workmen respondents determined at 5% level of significance for sample error, using Yamane’s formula, was selected from a population of 40,568 employees using stratified random sampling method for the purpose of questionnaire administration. The results indicated that reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is to a large extent dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the Bonny NLNG construction project as buttressed by the 82% and 81% large extent response rate respectively. It therefore recommends among others: regular site safety audits to identify/eliminate sub-causes of accident, regular staff training to improve their hazard identification skills, formation of health and safety committee to identify/eliminate potential hazards at the task level and making hazard identification/reporting everyone’s responsibility.

Mba Okechukwu Agwu

2013-08-01

146

Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease prevention, and other health issues in California. The survey is used for policy and program development, advocacy, and research. Methods The development of the California Health Interview Survey involves more than 145 people from more than 60 state and local policymaking bodies, public health agencies, advocacy groups, research organizations, and health care organizations. They participate as volunteers in an advisory board, on technical advisory committees, and in work groups that interact with California Health Interview Survey research staff in an accountable advisory process that shapes survey topics, measures, and sample design and determines languages selected for translation. Survey results and data are provided to the communities involved in the survey. Results California Health Interview Survey data have been widely used by local, state, and national public health leaders, policymakers, advocates, and researchers to improve access to health insurance and health care services and to develop and target prevention programs for obesity and chronic illnesses. Conclusion The California Health Interview Survey participatory research model has been an effective approach to planning and implementing a health survey and should be considered by developers of other large health surveys.

E. Richard Brown, PhD

2005-09-01

147

Distance management – a challenge in participatory interventions in virtual organizations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Virtual organizations challenge the first line managers as they have to be able to manage from afar as distance managers. Investigating distance management in participatory multi-level interventions this paper presents a case study of four SMEs which have applied the multi-level participatory PoWRS program (Prevention of Work-Related Stress) over a six month period. Interviews were conducted with employees, in-house process facilitators, project managers and first line managers. The results show that distance managers are even more challenged in interventions especially regarding coordination of activities and ensuring commitment.

Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv

2014-01-01

148

Disentangling participation power and decision-making in participatory design  

CERN Document Server

Providing a critical view on user participation in design, disentangling decision making and power in design, this book uses fieldwork material from two large participatory design projects: one experimental in the field of urban planning, the other a product development project within health care. Addressing power issues in participatory design is critical to providing a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of participation. Design is decision-making: during a design process a huge number of decisions?taken before the designers end up with a design result - an artefact or system

Bratteteig, Tone

2014-01-01

149

Actionable Ethnography in Participatory Innovation: A Case Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory research, design material.

Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens

2011-01-01

150

Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection

151

FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of anthocyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated flavonols in wine in which they are present in free and conjugated forms. These compounds are responsible for important wine antioxidant properties. In the present work, using only the concentrations of free and conjugated quercetin and myricetin, differentiation between Carménère and Merlot varieties was better achieved. Flavonol profiles of wine produced in Chile were studied with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. An overview of the concentration range of flavonols present in 248 Chilean red wines is presented, finding that the mean concentration of the sum of total myricetin and total quercetin were higher in Carménère (81.5 mgL-1 and Merlot (78.9 mgL¹ than in Cabernet Sauvignon (53.9 mgL¹ wines. These mean levels were higher than the majority of the concentrations reported in the literature. The chemometric analysis shows that the ratio of total quercetin/total myricetin combined with the concentration of free myricetin allowed the varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines.

C VERGARA

2011-12-01

152

FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of antho [...] cyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated flavonols in wine in which they are present in free and conjugated forms. These compounds are responsible for important wine antioxidant properties. In the present work, using only the concentrations of free and conjugated quercetin and myricetin, differentiation between Carménère and Merlot varieties was better achieved. Flavonol profiles of wine produced in Chile were studied with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. An overview of the concentration range of flavonols present in 248 Chilean red wines is presented, finding that the mean concentration of the sum of total myricetin and total quercetin were higher in Carménère (81.5 mgL-1) and Merlot (78.9 mgL¹) than in Cabernet Sauvignon (53.9 mgL¹) wines. These mean levels were higher than the majority of the concentrations reported in the literature. The chemometric analysis shows that the ratio of total quercetin/total myricetin combined with the concentration of free myricetin allowed the varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines.

C, VERGARA; D, VON BAER; C, MARDONES; L, GUTIÉRREZ; I, HERMOSÍN-GUTIÉRREZ; N, CASTILLO-MUÑOZ.

2011-12-01

153

/ PARTICIPATORY SOIL IMPROVEMENT: A CUBAN CASE STUDY IN FERTILITY MANAGEMENT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La degradación mundial de la calidad del suelo y el agotamiento de las reservas de fertilizantes hechos a base de petróleo amenazan la seguridad alimentaria global. A pesar de que la investigación científica ha desarrollado soluciones técnicas para el mejoramiento del suelo con bajos insumos, los ag [...] ricultores que producen a pequeña escala no adoptan dichas prácticas frecuentemente. Con la meta de aumentar la implementación de prácticas que mejoran el suelo, un estudio de caso en la comunidad de San Andrés, Cuba, probó una metodología participativa para explorar el conocimiento local, identificar las tecnológicas que podían satisfacer las necesidades de la comunidad, e impulsar la innovación campesina con las tecnologías seleccionadas. A través de una investigación cualitativa, el estudio exploró el corpus, la praxis, y el kosmos que la comunidad tiene para conceptualizar, manejar y tomar decisiones sobre sus suelos. El análisis de etnopedología indicó que aunque los productores reconocen que la calidad de sus suelos está empeorando y que comparten una meta general sobre el mejoramiento de sus tierras a largo plazo, las estrategias existentes del manejo de la fertilidad son inadecuadas para satisfacer la demanda de los cultivos. Los resultados sugieren que la introducción de nuevas tecnologías a la comunidad podría acelerar la formación de una praxis más adecuada. Para satisfacer las necesidades de manejo de nutrientes, se seleccionaron abonos verdes y compost como las tecnologías más adecuadas para los sistemas de producción existentes. Es por ello que la “feria de fertilidad del suelo” reunió a investigadores y miembros de la comunidad, para experimentar con diferentes tipos de abonos verdes y compost, así como evaluar su comportamiento en contextos locales. El trabajo considera que la feria es una puerta de entrada al manejo sostenible del suelo por medio de la innovación campesina. Para guiar el futuro diseño del mejoramiento participativo del suelo, el trabajo expone las lecciones aprendidas de una experiencia que integró la etnopedología y las ferias del suelo. Abstract in english The degrading quality of soils worldwide and an uncertain supply of petroleum-based fertilizers are a threat to global food security. Although research has developed low-input technical solutions to improve soil resource, such technologies are rarely adopted by small farmers in the global south. Wit [...] h the goal of increasing farmer adoption of soil building practices, a case study in the community of San Andrés, Cuba, tested a participatory methodology to explore local knowledge, identify research technologies to meet community needs, and catalyze farmer innovation on the selected technologies. Through qualitative research, the study explored the corpus, praxis, and kosmos that the community held to conceptualize, manage, and make decisions about their soils. Analysis of ethnopedology indicated that although individuals recognized the degrading quality of their soils, and shared a wider goal of long-term land improvement, existing nutrient management strategies were inadequate to satisfy crop needs. Results suggested that introducing new technologies to the community could accelerate the formation of a more appropriate praxis. To satisfy nutrient management needs, green manures, and compost were identified as the technologies best suited to existing production systems. Then, a “soil fertility fair” joined researchers and community members, to experiment with green manures and compost, and evaluate the types most feasible to local conditions. The paper considers the fair as a gateway to sustainable soil management through farmer innovation. To help guide the future design of participatory soil improvement, the paper expounds lessons learned from the research experience with ethnopedology and soil fairs

Lisa, Kissing; A, Pimentel; María, Valido.

2009-06-01

154

Hearing a Voice: Results of a Participatory Action Research Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in participatory action research (PAR) is rising among academics, researchers, families, and youth themselves who are involved in the system of care. PAR combines systematic research and professional guidance with the development of a practical intervention tailored to the user population in collaboration with the user population. We…

Dold, Claudia J.; Chapman, Richard A.

2012-01-01

155

Cultivating Communication: Participatory Approaches in Land Restoration in Iceland  

OpenAIRE

Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of “participation” is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land ...

Brita Berglund 1958; Lars Hallgren; Arado?ttir, A?sa L.

2013-01-01

156

Cultivating Communication: Participatory Approaches in Land Restoration in Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of “participation” is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land restoration projects. Our methods included semi-structured interviews with agency staff and involved stakeholders, participant observations, and document review. The findings showed that participation was seen as a method to accomplish the agency’s tasks, and the focus was primarily on the outputs, or products, of the participatory processes. This interpretation worked well and created positive outcomes as long as process factors, such as interaction with other stakeholders and shared influence, were adequately attended to and joint gains were assured, but other stakeholders expressed dissatisfaction when they were not. We conclude that, although tangible outcomes are necessary for environmental agencies, maintaining a balance between product and process focus in participatory projects is important for optimal results. To increase their ability to deal with process factors, environmental agencies, and ultimately environmental management, would benefit from enhancing their personnel’s understanding of participation, and capacity to conduct participatory processes. To facilitate participation, this understanding should also be integrated in the institutional framework the agencies work within.

Brita Berglund

2013-06-01

157

The implied producer investigating an emergent typology in participatory culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Whereas many good things can be said about the ability of digital media to facilitate the public access to cultural material, there has been no significant development in the theoretical understanding of ubiquitous digital media's potential for participatory culture -- and what human typologies emerges from this reconfiguration? The small Swedish Biennale, Electrohype run an impressively straight line of investigations into the participatory spaces of art -- thereby also facilitating the dissemination of the, at that time, almost unnoticed field of media art. It appears, from the Electrohype Biennales, that we are not 'just' dealing with a 'new' genre or style within the art category; on the other hand we are not dealing with a pure commercial culture either (the abstract notion of 'the user' has its limits); what is becoming evident is that the 'implicit' roles of the participatory 'actors' in culture and art are being transformed. This paper investigates this emergent 'persona' in the post-digital participatory culture, and names it 'the implicit producer'.

SØndergaard, Morten

2012-01-01

158

Community Writing, Participatory Research, and an Anthropological Sensibility  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research is a radical praxis through which marginalized people acquire research capabilities that they use to transform their own lives. In this article, I examine how parent writers incorporated facets of community writing into their research practice as they developed their practices and identities as researchers. I also consider…

Hurtig, Janise

2008-01-01

159

Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

2012-01-01

160

Participatory Educational Planning: Report of a Field Experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a partial report on a three-year field experiment in participatory educational planning in a suburban school district. It is shown that teachers, administrators, parents, and students, working voluntarily with technical support as a "collateral organization" within a district, can substantially broaden the scope of educational study…

Johnson, Rudolph; Stromquist, Nelly P.

161

Manager or Participatory Leader? What Does It Take?  

Science.gov (United States)

Changing principals' orientation from manager to participatory leader takes planning, determination, and time. Management by Walking Around (MBWA), the crucial prerequisite, requires a demonstrated commitment to making people the highest priority, using time efficiently, scheduling MBWA and following through, leading by example, demonstrating the…

Frase, Larry E.; Melton, R. Gerald

1992-01-01

162

Local Democracy, Rural Community, and Participatory School Governance  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the indigenization of democracy in India by conceptualizing participatory deliberative decision-making practice as a tool to strengthen the functioning of local schools and to enhance democratic responsiveness within communities. Drawing on case-studies of bottom-up approaches to school governance, this study examines an…

Arvind, Gaysu R.

2009-01-01

163

Participatory Evaluation with Youth Leads to Community Action Project  

Science.gov (United States)

4-H has long emphasized the importance of civic engagement and community service for positive youth development. One pathway to this ideal is youth action research and evaluation. This article demonstrates how participatory youth research and evaluation can lead to the successful implementation of community action projects. It describes the…

Ashton, Carolyn; Arnold, Mary E.; Wells, Elissa E.

2010-01-01

164

Participatory Culture Gets Schooled: Reflections on a Digital Literacies Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a course description of a Digital Literacies class offered to both undergraduate and graduate students at an American university. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the pedagogical bones of this course, drawing upon theories of learning in a participatory culture, including a discussion of how, and where, the course fell…

Avila, JuliAnna

2013-01-01

165

Seeking Renewal, Finding Community: Participatory Action Research in Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…

Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

166

Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

2014-01-01

167

Requirements for Participatory Framework on Governmental Policy Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.

Birut? PITR?NAIT?

2012-06-01

168

Investigating the Design Process : Participatory Design in Agile Software Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings – The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.

Kautz, Karlheinz

2011-01-01

169

Farmers’ rice seed selection and supply system in Nepal: understanding a critical process for conserving crop diversity  

OpenAIRE

Farmers? rice seed selection, acquisition and exchange practices, and their relationship with management of on-farm rice varietal diversity, were studied in two contrasting agro-ecosystems in Nepal. Data came from 135 households using questionnaires, focus group discussions and direct field observations. Seed selection is primarily for maintenance of productivity and purity of a variety. The rigor applied to selection is inversely related to access to quality seed from outside sources. Excl...

Rana et al.

2011-01-01

170

Sensibilidade dos microssatélites para determinar a pureza varietal em sementes de milho Microsatellite markers to determine maize inbred seed purity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em um sistema de produção de sementes, o limite de contaminação varietal em lotes de linhagens de milho é zero, de modo que a presença de apenas uma semente de genótipo estranho acarreta a reprovação do lote. Várias técnicas vêm sendo estudadas para determinar a pureza varietal, incluindo marcadores moleculares baseados em polimorfismo de DNA. Nessa pesquisa foi avaliada a sensibilidade da técnica de microssatélites para detectar a presença de sementes de outros genótipos em lotes de linhagens de milho. Utilizaram-se quatro linhagens (L1, L2, L3 e L4, onde as sementes da L2 eram contaminantes da L1 e, as da L4, contaminantes da L3. Para simulação de diferentes níveis de contaminação, 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 sementes do genótipo estranho foram misturadas a "bulks" de 100 sementes da linhagem comercial. Em seguida, efetuou-se a extração de DNA das amostras de sementes das quatro amostras preparadas. Por outro lado, para simular níveis inferiores de contaminação, foram misturados DNA do genótipo contaminante em níveis de 0,01; 0,013; 0,02; 0,04; 0,1; 0,2; 1; 2; 5; 10 e 100%. A amplificação dos microssatélites foi realizada utilizando o iniciador BNLG125 para a L1+L2 e o BNLG240 para L3+L4. Observou-se que os marcadores microssatélites foram eficientes para determinar a pureza varietal de lotes de sementes de linhagens de milho, utilizados neste estudo, com sensibilidade para detecção de concentrações de DNA iguais ou superiores a 0,01%, apresentando nitidez e repetibilidade, especialmente com a utilização de gel de poliacrilamida. Ao mesmo tempo, a presença de DNA estranho nas amostras constituídas por "bulks" foi detectada eficientemente por essa técnica, indicando a possibilidade de sua utilização em testes de rotina para avaliar a presença de outras cultivares, em lotes de sementes de milho.Genotype contamination in seed production of maize inbred seed lots is not tolerated, i.e. the presence of only one seed from another genotype in a lot is sufficient to discard this lot. Many procedures have been studied to detect genotype purity in different crops, including molecular markers based on DNA polymorphism. This research aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the microsatellite technique to detect the contaminating seeds in maize inbred lines. Four inbred lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4 were used. Samples of 100 seeds each of L1 were prepared considering L2 as a contaminant while seeds of L4 were contaminants in L3 seed lots. To simulate different contamination levels, 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 seeds of the foreign genotype were mixed with the inbred line and then DNA was extracted from each treatment. Successive DNA samples dilutions of 0.01; 0.013; 0.02; 0.04; 0.1; 0.2; 1; 2; 5; 10 and 100% were also realized with to simulate low contamination levels. For both analysis microsatellites amplifications were performed with the primers BNLG125 for L1+L2 and BNLG240 for L3+L4. The results showed that the microsatellite technique is efficient to determine the varietal purity of inbred maize used in this research. The sensitive technique is able to detect a 0.01% DNA contaminant level. Standardization and intensity were better when a polyacrylamide matrix was used. The presence of foreign DNA in the contaminated lots was efficiently detected with the microsatellite technique, indicating the usefulness of this procedure to detect the presence of foreign seeds within maize inbred lots.

Nilza Patrícia Ramos

2006-04-01

171

Varietes de descente, gerbes et obstruction de Brauer-Manin (Descent varieties, gerbes and Brauer-Manin obstruction)  

CERN Document Server

Nous montrons comment associer \\`a une gerbe d\\'efinie sur un corps de nombres une obstruction de Brauer-Manin mesurant, comme dans le cas des vari\\'et\\'es, le d\\'efaut d'existence d'une section globale. Ceci nous conduit \\`a une g\\'en\\'eralisation de la dualit\\'e de Tate-Poitou au cas non-ab\\'elien. We find a way to associate to a gerbe defined over a number field a Brauer-Manin obstruction, which measures, as for varieties, the defect to the existence of a global section. This leads us to a generalization of Tate-Poitou duality in the non-abelian case.

Douai, J C; Zahnd, S; Douai, Jean-Claude; Emsalem, Michel; Zahnd, Stephane

2003-01-01

172

Francisco B. Cruz: de la ‘agricultura pródiga’ a la revolución varietal azucarera en Cuba, 1878-1930  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A través de la figura del agrónomo y científico cubano Francisco B. Cruz, este artículo explora el cambio en el sistema de cultivo cañero a finales del siglo XIX debido, entre otros factores, al fracaso del modelo basado en la agricultura prodiga. Asimismo, se destaca la participación de la Estación Experimental en la puesta en marcha del programa global de la revolución varietal. En este sentido, se subraya el papel de Francisco B. Cruz y las conexiones con otros actores institucionales y privados con diversos intereses en la reorganización de la industria azucarera cubana. La investigación se basa en documentos de la etapa y, fundamentalmente, en la documentación de la Estación Central Agronómica, hoy en día Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical ‘Alejandro de Humboldt’.

Leida Fernández Prieto

2013-03-01

173

The design game in Participatory Design and design education : Chances, risks and side effects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used in a way that will be labeled as »interested«, rather than in a way labeled as »taking for granted«. It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction.

Törpel, Bettina

2006-01-01

174

The impact of participatory research on urban teens: an experimental evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is much practice of community-based participatory research in economically-developing countries and increasingly in North America, there has been little systematic assessment of empowerment effects. Youth-led participatory research holds particular promise for fostering positive development and civic participation among economically disadvantaged urban youth. The present investigation uses a clustered-randomized, within-school experimental design to test the effects of youth-led participatory research on the psychological empowerment of 401 students attending urban public schools. We find that attending a participatory research elective class during the school day was associated with increases in sociopolitical skills, motivation to influence their schools and communities, and participatory behavior. We found no significant effects for perceived control at school. The implications for participatory research and related youth development interventions are discussed. PMID:22875686

Ozer, Emily J; Douglas, Laura

2013-03-01

175

Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. PMID:25555777

Zakirova, Venera

2014-11-01

176

Geo-information tools for participatory spatial planning : fulfilling the criteria for 'good' governance ?  

OpenAIRE

The last few decades have seen increasing attempts to foster ‘collaborative’ and ‘participatory’ approaches to spatial planning and decision-making, with a more sophisticated conceptualisation of the contested term, participation. Participatory, ‘bottom-up’ geo-information technologies have been concurrently developing and these are expected to strengthen participatory spatial planning; important among these has been the transformation of conventional mapping and GIS tools into Pa...

Mccall, M. K.; Dunn, C. E.

2012-01-01

177

Stakeholder involvement in stages of a participatory process illustrated in interior design cases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a previous study (Vink et al., 2008) an overview was made of the involvement of different stakeholders in a participatory design process. In this paper this overview was used to describe four participatory design cases focused on improvising productivity, health, and comfort by interior design. It appeared that this overview is useful to describe the involvement in participatory interior design projects. However, it can only serve as an initial benchmark as much is dependent on the specific case at hand.

Vink, Peter Delft University of Technology

2008-01-01

178

Co-engineering participatory modelling processes for water planning and management  

OpenAIRE

Broad-scale multi-stakeholder decision-aiding processes for complex water planning and management issues are typically organised or "co-engineered" by several agencies or actors. These participatory processes are therefore co-initiated, co-designed and co-implemented by a number of people. It is postulated here that this co-engineering can critically impact on both the participatory processes and their outcomes. Co-engineering has received scant attention in studies of participatory decision-...

Daniell, K. A.

2008-01-01

179

Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: Insights based on participatory research  

OpenAIRE

Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged...

Baas, Niels; Jong, Menno D. T.; Drossaert, Constance H. C.

2013-01-01

180

Sustainable E-Participation through participatory experiences in education  

OpenAIRE

The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010) enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and edu...

Ursula Maier-Rabler; Stefan Huber

2010-01-01

181

POST-EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION: TOWARDS A MUCH MORE PARTICIPATORY PLANNING  

OpenAIRE

After the devastating Great Wenchuan Earthquake occured in May 2008, China responded rapidly to mitigate the losses caused. Post-earthquake reconstruction planning plays a crucial role to the future development of earthquake struck areas. The post-earthquake reconstruction planning work has demonstrated to be an immediate action and tends to be a much more open and participatory. Since the influence of long term planned economy in the past and its centralised administration system, planning i...

Ying, Sheng

2009-01-01

182

Capturing and representing deliberation in participatory planning practices  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we argue for the importance of capturing and representing deliberation in participatory planning practices. We discuss the concept of deliberation in planning theory, and argue for a paradigm that puts deliberation at the centre of public participation to planning decision. We argue that in order to enable effective participation, the normally ephemeral delib- eration process needs to be captured and represented so that the information and knowledge gathered during deliberation ...

Liddo, Anna; Buckingham Shum, Simon

2010-01-01

183

How Sustainable is Participatory Watershed Development in India?  

OpenAIRE

Watershed conservation is widely recognized as a major strategy for rural development throughout the developing world. In India, the apparent success of participatory approaches to watershed development resulted in a decentralization of project planning, implementation, and management to local communities at the village scale. We explore the effectiveness of this so-called community-based approach in achieving sustainable soil and water conservation in four semi-arid regions in India, and ana...

Bouma, J. A.; Soest, D. P.; Bulte, E. H.

2007-01-01

184

Design of Institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak Management  

OpenAIRE

This research aims to formulate policy and institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak management. This research was conducted in District Solok and District Tanah Datar, West Sumatera Province. This study object is focused in Lake Singkarak area. The results of research are: (1) interest and influence of stakeholders are varied based on institution, need, region, utility orientation, (2) policy alternatives for lake Singkarak management are firstly co-management and secondly lake managem...

Genius Umar

2011-01-01

185

Communicating citizenship - social positioning in participatory decision making  

OpenAIRE

"The proposed presentation has two aims: (a) It will outline a theoretical understanding of 'citizenship' that is rooted in sociological systems theory and in sociolinguistic approaches. With this approach it tries to develop a sociological supplement to the more normative notions of governance and citizenship in the legal and political sciences. (b) It will apply these theoretical considerations to a comparative view on forms of citizenship, which can be observed in participatory procedures ...

Bora, Alfons; Hausendorf, Heiko

2004-01-01

186

Predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine: back to the future  

OpenAIRE

The pioneering work of Jean Dausset on the HLA system established several principles that were later reflected in the Human Genome Project and contributed to the foundations of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine. To effectively develop systems medicine, we should take advantage of the lessons of the HLA saga, emphasizing the importance of exploring a fascinating but mysterious biology, now using systems principles, pioneering new technology developments and c...

Auffray, Charles; Charron, Dominique; Hood, Leroy

2010-01-01

187

Fairness and Social Welfare in Incentivizing Participatory Sensing  

OpenAIRE

Participatory sensing has emerged recently as a promising approach to large-scale data collection. However, without incentives for users to regularly contribute good quality data, this method is unlikely to be viable in the long run. In this paper, we link incentive to users' demand for consuming compelling services, as an approach complementary to conventional credit or reputation based approaches. With this demand-based principle, we design two incentive schemes, Incentive...

Luo, Tie; Tham, Chen-khong

2014-01-01

188

Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection.

Sheng, Grant; Yam, Kevin; Hassas, Aranak [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies

2001-07-01

189

Embedded, Participatory Research: Creating a Grounded Theory with Teenagers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solutions for other librarians while furthering a theoretical research agenda.Methods – This example of embedded, participatory techniques used grounded theory methods based on the experiences of teens who participated in art programs at a public library. Fourteen teens participated in interviews, and six of them assisted in coding,analyzing, and abstracting the data, and validating the resulting theory.Results – Employing the teenagers within the research team resulted in a teen-validated theory. The embedded techniques of the practitioner-researcher resulted in a theory that can be applied to practice.Conclusions – This research framework develops the body of literature based on real world contexts and supports hands-on practitioners. It also provides evidence-based theory for funding agencies and assessment. In addition, practitioner-based research that incorporates teens as research partners activates teens’ voices. It gives them a venue to speak for themselves with support from an interested and often advocacy-minded adult.

Shannon Crawford Barniskis

2013-03-01

190

Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L.) from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja)  

OpenAIRE

The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino,...

Rousseaux, M. C.; Searles, P. S.; Castro, D. N.; Rondanini, D. P.

2011-01-01

191

Perfil sensorial de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros através de análise descritiva quantitativa / Sensory profile of brazilian varietal white wines by quantitative descriptive analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling) foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ). Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, mate [...] riais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado. Abstract in english Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay) were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, t [...] heir respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and differences among the wine samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeters non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The collected data were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed a great difference within the sensory profile of Riesling and Gewürztraminer wines, whereas Chardonnay wines showed a lesser variation. PCA separated samples into two groups: a first group formed by wines higher in sweetness and fruitty flavor and aroma; and a second group of wines higher in sourness, adstringency, bitterness, alcoholic and fermented flavors.

Jorge Herman, BEHRENS; Maria Aparecida Azevedo P. da, SILVA.

2000-04-01

192

Perfil sensorial de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros através de análise descritiva quantitativa Sensory profile of brazilian varietal white wines by quantitative descriptive analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, materiais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado.Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and differences among the wine samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeters non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The collected data were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The results showed a great difference within the sensory profile of Riesling and Gewürztraminer wines, whereas Chardonnay wines showed a lesser variation. PCA separated samples into two groups: a first group formed by wines higher in sweetness and fruitty flavor and aroma; and a second group of wines higher in sourness, adstringency, bitterness, alcoholic and fermented flavors.

Jorge Herman BEHRENS

2000-04-01

193

Cycles de codimension 2 et H^3 non ramifi\\'e pour les vari\\'et\\'es sur les corps finis  

CERN Document Server

\\`A toute vari\\'et\\'e projective et lisse X sur un corps fini on associe son troisi\\`eme groupe de cohomologie non ramifi\\'ee \\`a coefficients Q/Z(2). On passe en revue les liens entre ce groupe, le groupe de Chow des cycles de codimension 2 sur X, et certaines conjectures locales-globales pour l'existence d'un z\\'ero-cycle de degr\\'e 1 sur les vari\\'et\\'es d\\'efinies sur un corps global de caract\\'eristique positive. On discute la structure et la taille du troisi\\`eme groupe de cohomologie non ramifi\\'e. Ceci am\\`ene \\`a conjecturer sa finitude. Nous conjecturons que ce groupe est nul pour les vari\\'et\\'es de dimension 3 g\\'eom\\'etriquement unir\\'egl\\'ees. ----- To every smooth projective variety X over a finite field is associated its third unramified cohomology group with coefficients Q/Z(2). We review the links between this group, the second Chow group of X and certain local-global conjectures for the existence of a zero-cycle of degree 1 on varieties defined over a global field of positive characteristic...

Colliot-Thélène, Jean-Louis

2011-01-01

194

Ethical Considerations of Community-based Participatory Research: Contextual Underpinnings for Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The nature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) poses distinctive ethical challenges. In the absence of organized guidelines, a remarkable amount of researchers’ time and energy will be spent tackling these ethical challenges. The study aimed to explore ethical issues and principles potentially arising when conducting CBPR. Methods: This qualitative study conducted in CBPR Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Required data were gathered through systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews. Representatives of community, academia, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) participated in our study. Ten interviews with representatives of partner organizations, four group interviews with academic staff, and four with representatives of community were conducted. Repeated thematic analysis was used to elicit ethics-related overarching themes from transcribed interviews. As recommendations, these themes were then organized into a set of CBPR-related ethical issues and principles. Results: Four CBPR ethical guidelines (including 173 articles) were selected from a systematic review. Overarching themes relating to ethical principles which emerged from interviews were as follows: Trust, transparency and accountability, equity and inclusion, power imbalance, tolerance and conflict management, and attention to cultural sensitivity. Practical principles that emerged included: Consensus rather than informed consent, ownership of data and research achievements, and sustainability and maintenance of relationships. According to findings and in comparison to international guidelines, the present study put more emphasis on cultural sensitivity and sustainability as CBPR ethical tangles. Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged. PMID:25400893

Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Morasae, Esmaeil Khedmati; Shahandeh, Khandan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Seydali, Elham; Aramesh, Kiarash; Abknar, Nina Loori

2014-01-01

195

The Effect of Participatory Education on Attitude of School Personnel Towards HIV/AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School personnel`s knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS have a great role in students` knowledge of and attitude to this infection. Studies in Iran show that students and teachers have not adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS .The aim of this study is to assess the effect of participatory education on attitudes of personnel of schools toward HIV/AIDS. One hundred and fourteen school personnel were selected randomly to participate in an interventional study. The participants took part in a three-day workshop on HIV/AIDS prevention program in schools. The workshop content included the principles of HIV/AIDS and procedures for its control and prevention; the methods used were group discussion and group work for presentation of a HIV/AIDS prevention programme at schools through a logical framework method. A questionnaire was given to the participants to evaluate their knowledge of and attitude toward HIV/AIDS before and after the interventions. The mean age of participants was 40.87 (SD = 6.58. There was no significant relationship between gender/official post/length of service and attitude before or after the workshop. There was a significant change in personnel`s attitude to HIV/AIDS after the workshop. There was a significant correlation between the increase of personnel�s knowledge of and attitude to HIV/AIDS after the workshop introducing methods such as participatory education and asking participants to suggest a program for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in their fields are useful for increasing knowledge and changing their attitude toward HIV/AIDS.

2007-01-01

196

Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian…

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Manson, Spero M.

2011-01-01

197

Evaluation of the capacity development of actors within participatory planning process  

OpenAIRE

This paper focuses on measuring the capacity development within the participatory planning process of formulation of development strategy. It starts with the discussion of how individual, collaborative and governance capacities became a part of collaborative and consensus planning, and continues with proposing the mixed method approach. Quantitative methods have been used to measure the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction that participatory approach had o...

?oli? Ratka

2014-01-01

198

Dirty Truth: Personal Narrative, Victimhood and Participatory Theatre Work with People Seeking Asylum  

Science.gov (United States)

An emphasis on personal narratives characterises a great deal of participatory theatre practice with refugee groups. It is important to understand how these narratives are conditioned by bureaucratic performance if practitioners are to avoid re-enactments of victimhood in participatory projects. Bureaucratic performance concerns the legal and…

Jeffers, Alison

2008-01-01

199

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach  

OpenAIRE

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also...

Bitso, Constance

2006-01-01

200

Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

2010-01-01

201

Influences on Teachers' Use of Participatory Learning Strategies in Health Education Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Participatory learning strategies are integral to the effectiveness of school-based health education programmes; however, use of such methods is not the norm in teaching. The omission of participatory learning strategies is a common form of programme breakdown leading to erosion of positive learning and behavioural outcomes. Based on a…

Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia; Lester, Leanne; Midford, Richard; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne

2014-01-01

202

The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

2008-01-01

203

Paradox Lost and Paradox Regained: Comments on Chouinard's "The Case for Participatory Evaluation..."  

Science.gov (United States)

Jill Chouinard, in her article "The Case for Participatory Evaluation in an Era of Accountability" (this issue, p. 237), may be re-iterating what has often been claimed and arguably is infused already in much of our theory and practice: the value of participatory approaches in some, perhaps many situations. She summarizes these claims eloquently…

Datta, Lois-ellin

2013-01-01

204

Planning and implementation of a participatory evaluation strategy: A viable approach in the evaluation of community-based participatory programs addressing cancer disparities  

OpenAIRE

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been posited as a promising methodology to address health concerns at the community level, including cancer disparities. However, the major criticism to this approach is the lack of scientific grounded evaluation methods to assess development and implementation of this type of research. This paper describes the process of development and implementation of a participatory evaluation framework within a CBPR program to reduce breast, cervical, an...

Scarinci, Isabel C.; Johnson, Rhoda E.; Hardy, Claudia; Marron, John; Partridge, Edward E.

2009-01-01

205

Applying Participatory Methods to Address Motivational Aspects in Informal Workplace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.

Teresa Holocher

2011-02-01

206

The Dangerous Museum : Participatory practices and controversy in museums today  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Whereas museums shunned controversy in the past, this article argues that as museums embrace the new trend of audience participation some have also opted to introduce "hot topics" into museum exhibitions. Museum professionals who have adopted this particular form of museum practice predict that it has the potential to reform museums as we know them and to turn museums into active agents for democratic change in society. In a bid to understand and scrutinize the implications of this development in museums, the article consults critiques raised by art critics writing about a related development in contemporary art, i.e. relational and participatory art forms.

2014-01-01

207

How Participatory Budgeting Changes the Meaning and Practices of Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n2p301 What does it mean to be a citizen today? In an era where boundaries are being questioned, where identities are being transformed, where social and political claims are being updated from the traditional ‘recognition’ or ‘redistribution’ discourse to a more globalized discourse supported by a theoretical appeal to human rights, it is important to clarify where the ‘citizen’ stands, morally and politically speaking.This paper is supported by a a strong moral and political reading of citizenship, echoing some republican tradition where citizenship is associated with virtue; and b the assumption that there is a strong correlation between virtuous citizens and a virtuous republic or ‘democracy’. In order to reflect upon the transformations of the concept of citizenship I will look at some of the practices it involves, more precisely, I will look into the participatory budgeting experience in Portugal trying to show how the progressive implementation of such measure promises to bring Portuguese’s democracy to a new level with a more robust practice of citizenship.This paper has three moments: first, I will situate myself from a theoretical standpoint, regarding the concept of citizenship I want to defend. I will show how the way in which we conceive citizenship a will determine the forms and shapes democracy can take and b will influence the future of democracy, insofar it can contribute, enhance or undermine democratic aspirations and goals. Second, after arguing for an active sense of citizenship I will advance the argument that the future of democracy lies in participatory practices, in which the citizen plays a key role. Third, I will turn to a case study in order to illuminate my theoretical argument. Having participatory budgeting experiment in Portugal as paradigmatic case of analysis, I will identify some elements present in the Portuguese case that corroborate our hypothesis that the future of democracy must rely in participatory mechanisms and practices.

Marta Rios Alves Nunes da Costa

2013-12-01

208

Changing Minds A Guide to Facilitated Participatory Planning  

CERN Document Server

This book draws on the work of thinkers and doers throughout the world who have grappled with the challenge of planning complex institutions, especially health systems and development projects. Their problem: Conventional planning methods often do not work. The solution: Involve all the key stakeholders in making the plan. The challenge: Devise a planning system that the principals and stakeholders can trust, and that is inclusive, balanced, and dynamic. Facilitated participatory planning (or FPP) is a new way of planning for a world that is complex, competitive, and fast-changing; a world whe

Dodge, Cole P

2011-01-01

209

Participation and power : In participatory research and action research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers to participation conceptualised as various degrees of codetermination in organisations and in research processes?’ The anthology is part of a follow-up on an initiative taken in 2010 by Professor Werner Fricke, editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Action Research for many years. His vision was to create an academy of AR and PR.

2014-01-01

210

Participatory Design in the Developing World : Issues and opportunities from case studies of adapting Nordic participatory approaches to a South African context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the field of participatory design originating in Scandinavia, where approaches are developed for actively engaging local stakeholders in change processes, a major part of the research has been confined to Western contexts. The need to study participatory design in broader settings outside Western organisations has been stressed in the research community over the last decade, but later research indicates that still relatively few studies are done in developing countries. Researchers recognise that participatory design approaches cannot simply be transferred to developing country settings as there are numerous challenges for enabling participation, e.g. power distance, cultural barriers, low educational levels and geographical distances. However, participatory design offers substantial opportunities for developing countries, regarding empowerment in local communities and democratisation of change processes. Arguably, the appropriation of participatory design approaches and methods to developing world settings is an important priority in research cooperation between Nordic and Southern African universities. This work presents issues and opportunities for introducing participatory design in a South African context, based on two case studies. In the first case, concepts for new information technology were developed for a small-scale wine farm in the Western Cape, engaging multiple stakeholders on the farm. In the second case, hyper-local storytelling distributed through Bluetooth technology was explored in a socially challenged suburb in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town. Issues on appropriation of strategies and methods for participation are discussed, and directions for further research in the field are identified.

Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester

211

Determination of antioxidant capacities, ?-dicarbonyls, and phenolic phytochemicals in Florida varietal honeys using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Honeys contain phenolic compounds and ?-dicarbonyls with antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities, respectively. The type and concentration of these compounds vary depending on the floral source and geographical location where the honey is produced. Seventeen varietal honeys, including 12 monofloral and 5 multifloral honeys, were sampled from different regions of Florida. The monofloral honeys included those from citrus, tupelo, palmetto, and gallberry. These honeys were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and free radical scavenging capacity and compared with three New Zealand Manuka honeys. Phenolic phytochemicals and ?-dicarbonyls were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Several honey varieties from gallberry, Manuka, and multifloral displayed a total phenolic content >1000 ?g GAE/g. A citrus honey had the lowest total phenolic content of 286 ?g GAE/g. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the honeys ranged from 1.48 to 18.2 ?mol TE/g. All honeys contained 3-deoxyglucosone at a higher concentration than methylglyoxal or glyoxal. Manuka honeys had higher concentrations of methylglyoxal than other varieties. Plant hormones 2-cis,4-trans-abscisic acid and 2-trans,4-trans-abscisic acid were the most abundant phytochemicals in all honeys. Coumaric acid, rutin, chrysin, pinocembrin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol were also found in samples but at lower concentrations. PMID:25102012

Marshall, Sara M; Schneider, Keith R; Cisneros, Katherine V; Gu, Liwei

2014-08-27

212

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

213

K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

Sang-Yeon Sung

2013-12-01

214

Participatory design in the development of the wheelchair convoy system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In long-term care environments, residents who have severe mobility deficits are typically transported by having another person push the individual in a manual wheelchair. This practice is inefficient and encourages staff to hurry to complete the process, thereby setting the stage for unsafe practices. Furthermore, the time involved in assembling multiple individuals with disabilities often deters their participation in group activities. Methods The Wheelchair Convoy System (WCS is being developed to allow a single caregiver to move multiple individuals without removing them from their wheelchairs. The WCS will consist of a processor, and a flexible cord linking each wheelchair to the wheelchair in front of it. A Participatory Design approach – in which several iterations of design, fabrication and evaluation are used to elicit feedback from users – was used. Results An iterative cycle of development and evaluation was followed through five prototypes of the device. The third and fourth prototypes were evaluated in unmanned field trials at J. Iverson Riddle Development Center. The prototypes were used to form a convoy of three wheelchairs that successfully completed a series of navigation tasks. Conclusion A Participatory Design approach to the project allowed the design of the WCS to quickly evolve towards a viable solution. The design that emerged by the end of the fifth development cycle bore little resemblance to the initial design, but successfully met the project's design criteria. Additional development and testing is planned to further refine the system.

Olson Joseph

2008-01-01

215

Play. Learn. Innovate : Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other people‘s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives – in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was – in order to understand why this was the case – I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking – the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students – we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis – I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations – complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; Mäyrä, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory – and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation. Further, I argue that this approach opens up promising way

Sproedt, Henrik

2012-01-01

216

Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Emnet for denne afhandling er design af engagerende interaktive miljøer, og afhandlingen er positioneret i krydsfeltet mellem participatory design, designteori og interaktionsdesign. Afhandlingens emne er blevet adresseret gennem et forskningsprogram vedrørende design af engagerende interaktive udstillingsrum på museer og oplevelsescentre. Afhandlingen består af syv forskningsartikler, sammenfattet i en generel oversigt, som sammenbinder argumenterne fra de inkluderede artikler og beskriver relateret arbejde og forskningsmetode. Bidraget afspejler et fokus på at forstå engagement i udstillingsrum og at forme designprocesser indenfor rammerne af ideen om engagerende interaktive miljøer. Den første del af bidraget relaterer sig til at konceptualisere aspekter af engagement i relation til interaktive miljøer. Begrebet participatory engagement præsenteres som et generelt perspektiv, der belyser hvordan individer og grupper investerer deres tid, evner og viden i interaktive miljøer. Indenfor dette overordnede perspektiv præsenteres means of engagement som de konkrete midler, der medierer engagement. Dette begreb rækker ud over individuelle teknologier og brugerflader og favner den mængde af elementer, der arrangeres gennem design, og som i sammenhæng medierer engagement. Gennem en diskussion af begrebet motivation argumenteres der for, at museer kan skabe engagement ved at mediere mellem de besøgendes hverdagspraksis og den faglige viden præsenteret på museet. Bidragets anden og største del beskæftiger sig med tilrettelæggelse af designundersøgelser. Denne del sammenfattes gennem begrebet fiktionsrum (fictional space), som er et perspektiv på skabelsen af designrum, hvori etablerede normer og konventioner ændres eller tilsidesættes indenfor participatory designundersøgelser. Motivationen for at skabe fiktionsrum i participatory design er at invitere deltagere i design til at gentænke eksisterende praksisser og forstille sig, hvordan deres praksis kunne være, hvis eksisterende konventioner blev ændret. Denne motivation gøres mere håndgribelig ved at relatere den til de designudfordringer, som museer står overfor. Der argumenteres for, at fiktionsrum skabes gennem games of make-believe, som er medieret af props, der bemyndiger forestillingsevnen og virker som både forankrende og transcenderende elementer. Begrebet om fiktionsrum udvikles med baggrund i designteori og udfoldes indenfor rammerne af participatory design. Fiktionsrum og de begreber, der præsenteres i relation til dette, er ikke metoder eller teknikker til at udføre designundersøgeler. Disse fordrer dog refleksion og handling i relation til især tre aspekter vedrørende designundersøgelser, der specifikt søger at ændre eller tilsidesætte etablerede konventioner. For det første belyser begrebet om fiktionsrum, hvordan designundersøgelser tilrettelægges, og specielt hvordan forskellige props bruges til både at forankre design aktiviteter i nuværende praksisser og til at transcendere disse praksisser. For det andet fordrer begrebet om fiktionsrum som et produkt games of make-believe refleksion over, hvordan specifikke designundersøgelser forløber, og hvordan deltagere ændrer og tilsidesætter elementer af etablerede praksisser. Dette giver mulighed for en mere nuanceret forståelse af, hvordan deltagere forstiller sig, at deres praksis kan ændres, iiiog hvilke aspekter der indeholder mest potentiale af modstand. For det tredje giver begrebet om fiktionsrum værktøjer, hvormed designere kan reflektere over, hvordan de ideer, scenarier eller modeller, der udvikles gennem specifikke designundersøgelser, er udtryk for deltagernes gentænkning af eksisterende praksisser.

Dindler, Christian

2010-01-01

217

Application of Participatory Approach in Community Forest Resource Management Based on a Case Study Performed in Fujian Province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After China’s collective forest right system reform, cooperation organizations have played an important role in the development of community forestry. In order to analyze the demands and attitudes of stakeholders of community forests, a participatory approach which included brainstorming, material collection, PRA tools, semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys, was used in a forest management survey involving four village cases. According to the application of the participatory approach it can be seen that the different types of stakeholders had different demands and attitudes toward community forest management. Farmers were more focused on economic benefit while forestry bureaus were more concerned about attaining the maximum level of forestry farmers’ ecological, economic and social efficiency. Cooperative members had more positive attitudes than non-cooperative members. According to all stakeholders, the harvest quota control system is the most unreasonable policy. In addition, based on the results of the SWOT strategy analysis matrix for forest management policies and systems at the level of forestry farmers, four strategy selections are proposed.

Yilei Hou

2013-01-01

218

A Stepwise, Participatory Approach to Design and Implement Community Based Adaptation to Drought in the Peruvian Andes  

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Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.

Ralph Lasage

2015-02-01

219

Inhibition of IgE-mediated Secretion from Human Basophils with a Highly Selective Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase, Btk, Inhibitor  

OpenAIRE

The study of receptor-mediated signaling in human basophils is often limited by the availability of selective pharmacological agents. The early signaling reaction mediated by Fc?RI aggregation is thought to require the activity of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (btk), an enzyme that has been identified as important in B cells signaling because mutations lead to X-linked agammaglobulinemia. This study uses the btk selective irreversible inhibitor, PCI-32765, to explore the role of btk in a variet...

Macglashan, Donald; Honigberg, Lee; Smith, Ashley; Buggy, Joseph; Schroeder, John T.

2011-01-01

220

Starting with ourselves in deepening our understanding of generativity in participatory educational research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Participatory educational research is generally characterised by a commitment to making a difference in the lives of those who participate in the research and more broadly, to promoting social transformation. This suggests a potentially fruitful synergy between participatory educational research and [...] the multidisciplinary body of academic work on generativity as a human capacity that has at its core a desire to contribute to the well-being of others. As a research team of teacher educators from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, we seek to add an alternative dimension to current debates on participatory educational research by focusing on understanding the 'how' and 'what' of generativity in a participatory research process. The research question we address is: How does/can engagement in participatory educational research facilitate generativity? While participatory research literature often concentrates on collaboration between researchers and 'researched' communities, we are taking a reflexive stance by exploring our own participation in our dual roles as university community members and as researchers studying our colleagues' experiences in relation to integration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related issues in university curricula. We describe how our use of the visual method of storyboarding facilitated insight into generativity in participatory educational research. Building on an earlier concept of generativity, we identify and discuss significant generativefeatures ofparticipation, playfulness, passion, and perspicacity in our research process.

Linda, van Laren; Ronicka, Mudaly; Kathleen, Pithouse-Morgan; Shakila, Singh.

221

Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672

Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F

2013-10-01

222

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Sonia M. N. Felipone

2013-09-01

223

Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements : The Strengths and Challenges of Participatory Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.

Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde

2014-01-01

224

Participatory research with youth: idealising safe social spaces or building transformative links in difficult environments?  

Science.gov (United States)

Freire's theory of social change informs analysis of youth-focused participatory research, with researchers describing links between participation and young people's critical thinking. There is less analysis of how youth move from the safe social space of a participatory research project to take health-promoting action in difficult real-world contexts. This article analyses a project conducted with Papua New Guinean youth, disrupting assumptions that critical thinking inevitably leads to critical action on health. Findings suggest the need to shift the focus of participatory research from supporting 'safe social spaces' to supporting 'transformative action in context' to concretely contribute to improving youth health. PMID:24058110

Vaughan, Cathy

2014-01-01

225

Participatory research in psychology - A practical example in the field of drug counseling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article gives insights into the work of the self-help- and research-group of the "Projekt Selbstverständigung über Drogengebrauch" as an example of participatory research in psychology. In a first step the basics of the project will be discussed by distinguishing it from other approaches in drug research, positioning it within the field of participatory research and analyzing it in regard to its theoretical basics. In a second step the practical work of the project will be described to illustrate problems that emerged as well as first solutions that could be helpful for further development of participatory research.

Christoph Vandreier

2011-08-01

226

Varietal improvement of Brassica species through introduction, hybridization and mutation breeding techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germplasm of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea was collected from various parts of Bangladesh and evaluated for yield, oil content etc. prior to the breeding programme. Seeds of the B. campestris variety YS-52, possessing good agronomic characteristics, were treated with mutagens (gamma rays and sodium azide) to widen the genetic variation. Mutants were selected for higher yield and resistance against Alternaria brassicae. The two mutant lines BINA 1 and BINA 2 were selected exceeding the parent variety considerably in yield and disease resistance. They are candidates for recommended varieties. Brassica juncea variety RCM 625 was treated with gamma rays and EMS. Four higher yielding and earlier maturing mutants are being evaluated further. 6 tabs

227

The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins human consumption and large-scale cultivation.

Burbano C.

1999-01-01

228

HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH  

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Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.

PROF.B.SUNDARARAMAN

2013-04-01

229

Using Participatory Design in a Health Information System.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the experience of developing an interactive Health Information System (iHIS) currently under test in a hospital, which benefited from the practices of the User-Centred Design (UCD), in a Participatory Design (PD) approach. Techniques from the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and/or Usability Engineering (UE), combined with traditional Software Engineering (SE), allowed an effective and usable solution from the user's point of view. The good results usually achieved with this approach were confirmed. Despite these good results, we deem that if there is not some control of the procedure by the project manager, it may be difficult to end the requirement analysis, since requirement reformulation is fostered. PMID:22255544

Teixeira, Leonor; Saavedra, Vasco; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

2011-01-01

230

Design Anthropology in Participatory Design : From Ethnography to Anthropological Critique?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions between research and design. This half-day workshop invites participant to discuss and explore opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical.

Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

231

Mathematics, critical literacy, and youth participatory action research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math preparation and accelerate students into higher-order math literacy. This study differs from and extends other studies that describe mathematics as a tool for social critique. It considers youth research in and through mathematics as a more ideologically open endeavor in that youth do not simply reproduce predetermined criticisms of social inequality. Thus, this project translates extensive work in critical literacy, new media literacy, and youth participatory action research to a mathematics context. PMID:19830806

Yang, K Wayne

2009-01-01

232

Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania are likely to be too small to satisfy current local wood demand.

Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.

2014-01-01

233

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that drove the networking process. The paper discusses cycles of the participatory process undertaken for the EE networking in Mafeteng schools, including identification of problems, problem solving, and reflective workshop and study tour. Finally the paper outlines issues that emerged in participatory EE networking, which include school governance, teachers’ existing knowledge, and communication, decision-making and power relations.

Constance BITSO

2006-01-01

234

'Now we call it research': participatory health research involving marginalized women who use drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces. PMID:21059151

Salmon, Amy; Browne, Annette J; Pederson, Ann

2010-12-01

235

Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project  

OpenAIRE

The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be prima...

Mba Okechukwu Agwu; Cletus Izunwanne Emeti

2013-01-01

236

Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study  

OpenAIRE

Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian communities. This paper draws upon authors’ collaboration with one American Indian tribe to recommend theoretical revision and practical strategies for ...

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Dee Geiger, Sarah; Manson, Spero M.

2011-01-01

237

Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey  

OpenAIRE

Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease pr...

E Richard Brown, Phd; Sue Holtby, Mph; Elaine Zahnd, Phd; George B Abbott, Md

2005-01-01

238

Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice  

OpenAIRE

The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009–2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impac...

Simonds, Vanessa W.; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

2013-01-01

239

Developing a logic model for youth mental health: participatory research with a refugee community in Beirut  

OpenAIRE

Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian re...

Afifi, Rema A.; Makhoul, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T.

2011-01-01

240

Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production in the Netherlands. Participatory methods are used to facilitate the exchange of ideas, experiences and knowledge of all relevant stakeholders and to create a basis for implementation of the final...

Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, I. J. M.

2004-01-01

241

Economic aspects in landscape decision-making: a participatory planning tool based on a representative approach  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we develop a method for spatial decision support that combines economic efficiency â¿¿ measured by the concept op willingness to pay â¿¿ with a participatory planning tool, that allows for an active collaboration among the actors involved, in such a way that decision makers can draw on the outcomes in their spatial planning and design process. The method is called RITAM, a Dutch acronym for spatially explicit, participatory and interdisciplinary trade-off meth...

Heide, C. M.; Blaeij, A. T.; Heijman, W. J. M.

2008-01-01

242

Who are the active citizens? : Characterizations of citizens in participatory urban planning processes  

OpenAIRE

This article presents the variety of different active citizens and participants involved in a collaborative and participatory planning process within an urban regeneration project in Denmark. In much of the literature on planning and citizen participation citizens are often regarded as a homogenous group. This article argues that there are no `ordinary´ citizens, and claims that citizens are very different and participate in various ways. A criticism raised in relation to participatory proce...

Agger, Annika

2008-01-01

243

Linking participatory and GIS-based land use planning methods; A case study from Burkina Faso  

OpenAIRE

Sustainable land use planning is crucial for realizing the aim of food security and for combating land degradation in the Sahel. A participatory land use planning workshop was organised in a village in the eastern region of Burkina Faso to investigate land use problems, their causes, effects and possible solutions. Participatory research tools and GIS were combined to get insight into possible conflicts or synergies between different land use options as mapped by different ethnic groups. Pict...

Hessel, R.; Berg, J.; Kabore, O.; Kekem, A. J.; Verzandvoort, S. J. E.

2009-01-01

244

An Opportunity for Renewals: : The Participatory Process and Social and Income Diversity in Brownfield Development  

OpenAIRE

Reardon, Mitchell. (2010) An Opportunity for Renewal: The Participatory Process and Social and Income Diversity in Brownfield Developments Urban and Regional Planning, advanced level, master thesis for master exam in Urban and Regional Planning, 30 ECTS credits. Supervisor: Dr. Thomas Borén Language: English   Participatory planning and the redevelopment of brownfield locations have both figured prominently in urban and regional planning strategies in recent decades. Despite their growing i...

Reardon, Mitchell

2010-01-01

245

Integration of local participatory and regional planning for resources management using remote sensing and GIS  

OpenAIRE

With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used in the planning process, efficient geographic information gathering and relevant spatial analytical tools necessary to support the negotiation among the stakeholders are lacking. Besides, methods a...

Sedogo, L. G.

2002-01-01

246

Methods for Developing Multiscale Participatory Scenarios: Insights from Southern Africa and Europe  

OpenAIRE

Scenario planning is increasingly recognized as a useful tool for exploring change in social-ecological systems on decadal to centennial time horizons. In environmental decision making, scenario development tends to include participatory methods for engaging stakeholders and is conducted at multiple scales. This paper presents insights from participatory scenario development in two separate multiscale environmental assessments. We find that, to engage stakeholders at multiple scales, it is im...

Monika Zurek; Reinette Biggs; Kasper Kok

2007-01-01

247

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

OpenAIRE

The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-...

Yee Ming Chen ,; Bo-Yuan Wang

2009-01-01

248

An e-participatory map over process methods in urban planning  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we put the concept of e-participation in a wider perspective. Based on experiences of using participatory process methods in urban planning, we address the importance of communicating underlying epistemological beliefs in various participatory methods. Using eight cases of urban planning, we show how an analysis of the interplay of the concept of agenda, participant, and method can be used when developing strategies for e-participation. The investigation reveals a lack of proce...

Hansson, Karin; Ekenberg, Love; Cars, Go?ran; Danielson, Mats

2013-01-01

249

A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management  

OpenAIRE

To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN) modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition,...

Meike Duespohl; Sina Frank; Petra Doell

2012-01-01

250

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

OpenAIRE

Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems...

André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios

2008-01-01

251

Citizen Participation for the Improvement of Local Management: Realities, Myths and Challenges about the Participatory Budgets  

OpenAIRE

The conceptions of participatory phenomenon are wide and generate various positions. Several authors agree that municipal government, as the face of the State closer to its citizens, is the privileged place to develop participatory public policies, which contributes to make more transparent, efficient, inclusive and democratic the government management. This proximity would allow local actors to participate in communal development processes and would enable them to diagnose problems, particip...

María Laura Pagani

2012-01-01

252

Gendered Risk Perceptions Associated with Human-Wildlife Conflict: Implications for Participatory Conservation  

OpenAIRE

This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1) gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in a participatory conservation context, and (2) highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal c...

Gore, Meredith L.; Kahler, Jessica S.

2012-01-01

253

Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process  

OpenAIRE

Objectives. To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design. Community-based participatory research. Methods. Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and obse...

Jardine, Cynthia G.; Angela James

2012-01-01

254

Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.

Pascal Perez

2010-12-01

255

Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research gr...

Fuller Jeffrey; Hermeston Wendy; Passey Megan; Fallon Tony; Muyambi Kuda

2012-01-01

256

Does Participatory Planning Foster the Transformation Toward More Adaptive Social-Ecological Systems?  

OpenAIRE

The need for social-ecological systems to become more adaptive is widely acknowledged. Social effects generated by participatory planning have been claimed to contribute to this transformation, but little empirical evidence is available that backs up or opposes this notion. We aimed to offer some insights regarding questions as to which social effects are formed in participatory planning processes and at what costs, and to then discuss their contribution to the transformation toward more adap...

Susanne Menzel; Matthias Buchecker

2013-01-01

257

Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.

Ahari Saeid

2012-03-01

258

The PhOCoe Model--ergonomic pattern mapping in participatory design processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discipline and practice of human factors and ergonomics is quite rich in terms of the availability of analysis, development and evaluation tools and methods for its various processes. However, we lack effective instruments to either map or regulate comprehensively and effectively, cognitive and organizational related impacts, especially the environmental ones. Moreover, when ergonomic transformations through design - such as a new workstation design or even an entire new facility - is at play, ergonomics professionals tend to stay at bay, relying solely on design professionals and engineers. There is vast empirical evidence showing that participation of ergonomists as project facilitators, may contribute to an effective professional synergy amongst the various stakeholders in a multidisciplinary venue. When that happens, everyone wins - users and designers alike -because eventual conflicts, raised up in the midst of options selection, are dissipated in exchange for more convergent design alternatives. This paper presents a method for participatory design, in which users are encouraged to actively participate in the whole design process by sharing their real work activities with the design team. The negotiated results inferred from the ergonomic action and translated into a new design, are then compiled into a "Ergonomic Pattern Manual". This handbook of ergonomics-oriented design guidelines contains essential guidelines to be consulted in recurrent design project situations in which similar patterns might be used. The main drive is simple: nobody knows better than workers themselves what an adequate workplace design solution (equipment, workstation, office layout) should be. PMID:22317120

Silva e Santos, Marcello

2012-01-01

259

Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

Karina Speil

2010-12-01

260

Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

2015-01-01

261

Microsatellite polymorphism in wheat from Brazilian cultivars; inter- and intra-varietal studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eleven samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum from different Brazilian cultivars and six American varieties were compared for polymorphism, using primers for nine different STR loci. STR analysis of DNA from single grains of the Brazilian varieties showed that for most loci there was very little intra-cultivar polymorphism. The polymorphic variation observed for Brazilian cultivars was similar to that seen in the American varieties. For the Brazilian cultivars PCR analysis could be performed on only one half of a grain. The American samples required more seeds for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of five amplified microsatellites selected at random from the Brazilian samples were also determined and compared to those of the Chinese Spring variety. Although generally the dinucleotide sequence repeat was preserved for most loci, there were significant differences in sequences interspersed within the repeat domain. This result suggested that it may be possible to unequivocally identify the geographical origin of the cultivar by inspection of the DNA sequences of the repeat region.

Lima Vitor Lopes de Abreu

2003-01-01

262

Studying the features of radionuclides entering depending on varietal tomato composition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was evaluated the initial material of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in accordance with the degree of accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 as well as there were revealed the sources for selection breeding with the minimal accumulation of radionuclides. In course of the study there were presented the parameters of adaptive ability, ecological stability and radionuclide content in varieties (Dokhodnyj; Talalikhin; Fakel; F1 Sozvezdie) and parthenocarpic lines of tomato. Research results showed the substantial variability in accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 by various varieties and lines. Hybrid F1 Sozvesdie, Talalikhin variety and parthenocarpic lines 1 and 7 proved the ability to accumulate minimal amount of radionuclides. It was not proposed to cultivate at the contaminated areas the tomato variety Fakel. As a result of study there was created a hybrid F1 Sozvesdie. Its cultivation on the contaminated areas made it possible to obtain ecologically safe products

263

Film production, social media marketing and participatory culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish youth film ‘Lev Stærkt’ (Live strong) is recently shot in Aarhus, and as part of the release and marketing plan, the producers incorporate social media showing behind the scenes video clip as a way to include and engage the film’s target groups a year before the planned release. Using Facebook and the mobile, photo-based app Instagram as the main platforms, the producers of the movie are following the users and followers online closely to understand but also stage and direct their expectations in the relation to the movie. As such, the marketing of the movie is representing a new tendency within film and TV industry, in which behind the scene clips and comments are used in advantage to promote the product, as well as using social media as the main marketing channel (Caldwell, 2008; Gray, 2010; Johnson, 2012). Social media marketing is in itself representing a new field within branding and marketing, and there is a boom of new handbook literature describing “Everything You Need to Know to Get Social Media Working in Your Business” (Wollan & Nick Zhou, 2010). Social media makes it easy to engage the consumers as strategic communicators, it is cheap and fast compared to print and electronic media, and it demonstrates that the film company are fashion-conscious when it comes to new media and marketing tools. The history of ‘participatory culture’ might be seen in the light of digital online media, in which the boarders – following Habermas concepts - between lifeworld, public sphere and market, respectively, are getting blurred. Social media marketing illustrates this mixed culture in an excellent way. This new media culture is challenging the very understanding of media democracy in itself, and has caused a committed academic debate, of both critical and more optimistic viewpoints (e.g. Couldry, Livingstone & Markham, 2007; Gauntlet, 2011). ‘Participatory culture’ might also been seen in the light of culture policy, in which the concept of ‘cultural democracy’ and cultural citizenship – an important issue within Scandinavian social democratic culture policy history – describes a model focus on how to include and empower the citizens’ diverse cultures (Skot-Hansen, 2002). By using the online marketing strategy of Danish youth film as an example, I will discuss the different cultural values that are at stake at the same time and critically discuss how social media marketing is challenging the very concept of ‘participatory cultural citizenship’ in itself. References: Caldwell, John Thornton (2008): Production culture - Critical Practice in Film and Television, Duke University Press: London, Durham. Couldry, N., Livingstone, S. & Markham, T. (2007): Media consumption and public engagement: beyond the presumption of attention, New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan. Gray, Jonathan (2010): Show sold separately, New York: New York University Press Gauntlett, David (2011): Making is connecting: the social meaning of creativity from DIY and knitting to YouTube and Web 2.0, Cambridge, UK, Malden, MA: Polity Press. Johnson, Catherine (2012): Branding television, London: Routledge. Skot-Hansen, Dorte (2002) ‘Danish cultural policy--from Monoculture towards Cultural Diversity’, in: International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 197 - 210 Wollan, Robert Smith, Nick Zhou, Catherine (2010): Social Media Management Handbook: Everything You Need to Know to Get Social Media Working in Your Business, Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA

Waade, Anne Marit

264

A Multi-Stage Method for Connecting Participatory Sensing and Noise Simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales.

Mingyuan Hu

2015-01-01

265

Does Participatory Planning Foster the Transformation Toward More Adaptive Social-Ecological Systems?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for social-ecological systems to become more adaptive is widely acknowledged. Social effects generated by participatory planning have been claimed to contribute to this transformation, but little empirical evidence is available that backs up or opposes this notion. We aimed to offer some insights regarding questions as to which social effects are formed in participatory planning processes and at what costs, and to then discuss their contribution to the transformation toward more adaptive social-ecological systems based on empirical evidence. Consequently, we investigated the social effects of participatory planning processes, including the social learning processes leading to them. We conducted semistructured interviews with members of advisory groups involved in river engineering projects in Switzerland. Our results indicate that participatory planning processes can somewhat contribute to maintaining and spreading knowledge and social capital among individuals in a planning group, and this may help them collectively deal with new and complex challenges. However, it is costly in terms of time and patience to build up ecological knowledge, communicative capacities, and trust, with the latter also eroding over time. Overall, we conclude that the contribution of participatory planning via positive social outcomes to the transformation toward adaptive capacity social-ecological systems is smaller than optimists might hope. However, other forms of planning very likely result in no social effects or even the destruction of social capital. Participatory planning, in contrast, can offer the conditions for relational and cognitive learning contributing to the maintenance of social and political capital. Based on our results, we suggest shifting resources from technical to communicative aspects of planning processes and implementations. We recommend that project leaders provide stakeholders with firsthand information about projects, explain rationales and data behind decisions, and clearly communicate that stakeholders do not have decision making competence to support participants in finding their roles in similar participatory planning settings.

Susanne Menzel

2013-03-01

266

Scientific bases for a participatory forest landscape management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Madagascar – a biodiversity hotspot of international importance – the villagers depend on the forest first for its soil as a reserve of arable land as well as a shelter and a pasture for the herds, and second for the production of timber, charcoal and other forest products. Most of the currently proposed conservation management systems for forests do not take into consideration villagers’ needs, in Madagascar too; indeed degradation and deforestation have continuously occurred in places where the forest is under great pressure. In targeting the improvement of the livelihood of local populations and the maintenance of “multifunctionality”, especially the ecological value of the forest, the present project aims at developing scientific criteria for a sustainable management of forest landscapes in western Madagascar at a regional scale. A detailed inventory of resources and a specific understanding of stakeholder requirements and strategies will allow drawing an accurate picture of the human-forest interface. A participatory approach paves the way for realistic management criteria that are really adequate to the ecological and social situations. The management criteria will provide a tool for further discussions on landscape management in central Menabe.

Jean-Pierre Sorg

2006-12-01

267

Learning for sustainability: participatory resource management in Cambodian fishing villages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable attention is now being given to the role and importance of education and learning implications of participatory resource and environmental governance. The contention is that such learning has the potential to transform behaviour, and in the case of resource management, may help change current patterns in resource use towards a more sustainable social-ecological system. Our purpose is to establish the opportunities for learning afforded to those participating in local level resource management committees in two Cambodian fishing communities and consider the learning outcomes from such opportunities. Our approach was qualitative and used a case study design. The findings establish a wide range of committee resource management activities that resulted in both instrumental (e.g., learning about administrative procedures) and communicative (e.g., insights into the need to conserve mangroves) learning. It was revealed that such learning can lead to changes in behaviour at the community level (e.g., managing local waste). Our findings also indicated a number of motivators and enablers of learning such as opportunities for dialogue, leadership and the presence of declining resources. PMID:18079038

Marschke, Melissa; Sinclair, A John

2009-01-01

268

Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design  

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Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

Martin Johansson

2005-01-01

269

On participatory design of home-based healthcare  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory design (PD) activities in private homes challenge how we relate to the PD process, compared to PD in professional settings. Grounded in a project related to chronic dizziness among older people, we identified four challenges when performing PD with ill, weak users in their private homes. The challenges are (1) designing for, and negotiating knowledge about, the home, (2) ill, weak users and their participation in PD, (3) divergent interests of participants and (4) usable and sustainable post-project solutions. These challenges have to be carefully addressed, and we use them to reflect upon differences between a home-based PD process with non-workers, such as ours, and work-place projects, such as Utopia. Through this reflection, the paper contributes to a more general discussion on PD in non-work settings with weak users. Indeed, differences do exist between traditional PD projects in work settings, such as Utopia, and home-based PD with weak users especially in relation to knowledge about settings and how to reconcile differences in interests. The home as a place for (technology-assisted) treatment and PD must be carefully analyzed. Diverse interests and roles as well as possibilities for post-project solutions should be negotiated among all stakeholders.

Grönvall, Erik; Kyng, Morten

2013-01-01

270

Sustainable E-Participation through participatory experiences in education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010 enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and educational characteristics as a prerequisite for e-participation and argues that social media literacy is indispensable for e-participation to be sustainable. Young people’s affinity spaces (Jenkins, et.al., 2006 can only lay down the foundations for social media literacy, but their further development depends on education. Political Education would be well advised to adapt innovative pedagogical approaches to the acquirement of new media literacy. This paper introduces an exemplary educational tool – predominately but not exclusively for political/civic education – namely the website PoliPedia.at. Teachers can use it to deliberately create a balanced space for collaboration between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives. PoliPedia – as a participative online tool – has the potential to facilitate participation experience in political/civic education and supports social media education. Thereby the embedding of technology in pedagogical and societal conceptualizations is crucial.

Ursula Maier-Rabler

2010-09-01

271

Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for imFOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

272

Participatory workspace design : A new approach for ergonomists?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineersalike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants.

Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

2010-01-01

273

On Sensor Data Verification for Participatory Sensing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of sensor data verification in Participatory Sensing (PS systems using an air quality/pollution monitoring application as a validation example. Data verification, in the context of PS, consists of the process of detecting and removing spatial outliers to properly reconstruct the variables of interest. We propose, implement, and test a hybrid neighborhood-aware algorithm for outlier detection that considers the uneven spatial density of the users, the number of malicious users, the level of conspiracy, and the lack of accuracy and malfunctioning sensors. The algorithm utilizes the Delaunay triangulation and Gaussian Mixture Models to build neighborhoods based on the spatial and non-spatial attributes of each location. This neighborhood definition allows us to demonstrate thatit is not necessary to apply accurate but computationally expensive estimators to the entire dataset to obtain good results, as equally accurate but computationally cheaper methods can also be applied to part of the data and obtain good results as well. Our experimental results show that our hybrid algorithm performs as good as the best estimator while reducing the execution time considerably.

Diego Mendez

2013-03-01

274

A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

Bridgelall, Raj

2014-03-01

275

Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor descriptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determinadas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante.

Alberto Miele

2011-12-01

276

Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors / Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determin [...] adas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor des [...] criptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.

Alberto, Miele; Luiz Antenor, Rizzon.

1172-11-01

277

Tackling the motivation to monitor: success and sustainability of a participatory monitoring program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monitoring of species and their ecosystem attributes is a fundamental requirement in applied ecology and conservation. However, landscape scale monitoring requires an immense effort and commitment, especially when species have a wide distribution or are migratory in nature. Participatory monitoring, whereby local communities are engaged, is increasingly being proposed to address landscape scale monitoring. Its implementation is met with many challenges related to finances, motivation of the local people, lack of trained manpower, and nondirect legal use of the species in question. It is of interest to determine what makes a participatory monitoring program interesting for locals to ensure their long term engagement. Using the unique 26-year program of hunters' observations of moose (Alces alces in Sweden as a case study, we present the evolution of this highly successful participatory monitoring program and show that tackling the motivation to monitor, early involvement of local NGOs, social activities revolving around use of the resource, the biology and economic value of the species, and technical and practical aspects related to the monitoring, together create a successful participatory monitoring program. When users benefit directly from the resource, participate in conservation/management decision making, socialize with other participants, and get rewards for their commitment and effective monitoring, participatory monitoring schemes can then become rewarding and sustainable.

Navinder J. Singh

2014-12-01

278

PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE IN THE PUBLIC HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS OF THE SCANDINAVIAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES  

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Full Text Available The diminished trust of citizens in the public sector, the increased complexity of policy issues and the reforms in accordance with the new public management principles generate the need of focusing more extensively on participatory governance. Participatory governance can be defined as the genuine engagement of citizens and other organizations in the formulation of policies and strategies, in the decision-making process from the public sector and in the implementation of the decisions. The present paper's objectives are to define the concept of participatory governance, to argue in favor of implementing it in the public sector and to find to what extent public healthcare institutions from Scandinavian and Baltic countries publish information on participatory governance and how they perceive community engagement. The research findings are that the information on participatory governance disclosed on the websites of relevant institutions from within the Scandinavian and Baltic public healthcare systems is scarce. The countries with the greatest concern for community engagement are Denmark and Sweden. It is argued that there should be a shift in focus within the public sector in general and within the healthcare system in particular, so that citizens are genuinely involved in the relevant processes and their satisfaction is indeed at an adequate level.

Stefanescu Aurelia

2011-12-01

279

Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo / Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção A [...] grícola do Estado de São Paulo) e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira), figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral), existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente. Abstract in english During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo) , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit gro [...] wers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine), fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

Wilson, Barbosa; Celso Valdevino, Pommer; Mariângela Drugovick, Ribeiro; Renato Ferraz de Arruda, Veiga; Antonio Alberto, Costa.

2003-08-01

280

Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira, figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral, existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente.During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit growers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine, fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

Wilson Barbosa

2003-08-01

281

"From Worse to Better": How Kenyan Student-Teachers Can Use Participatory Action Research in Health Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on Kenyan student-teachers' professional learning and development in health education in a participatory action research project conducted in one Kenyan teacher training college. The aim was to explore the potential of participatory action research to instigate change in student-teachers' health education practices in…

Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume

2014-01-01

282

A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

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Full Text Available Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory research community. We also assume that the diversity of participatory forms of research is rarely considered by potential participants when they make their decisions about whether or not to participate in a proposed process. We specifically address how to avoid stakeholders’ reluctance to be involved in participatory research projects based on disillusion with past experiences. We argue that the disappointment experienced by stakeholders and other participants (i.e., researchers and policy makers can be avoided by being upfront and precise about how “participation” will be implemented, and what kind of involvement is expected from participants. Such a collective effort from the research community can also clarify the variety of possible implementations for potential participants. Building on earlier efforts to characterize and categorize the diversity of participatory research approaches, we develop a conceptual analytic procedural framework to make participants’ roles explicit in the implementation of different participatory research processes. This framework consists of three facets: (1 the flows of information among participants and the control over these flows for each step in a process, i.e., who will be expected to produce information, who will use this information, and who will receive the results; (2 the timing of the involvement of participants in the different steps of the research process, and the framing power that is associated with each process step; and (3 the organization of communication among participants for each information flow, i.e., in what configuration (bilaterally or as a group, mediated or face to face the interactions among researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers will take place. This framework can accommodate a wide variety of research methods, and highlights exactly how participants are involved in research processes. We are prescriptive in dealing with the need to be procedurally explicit when engaging in participatory research. We anticipate that using this framework will lead to more thoughtful acceptances or refusals to participate in proposed research processes. Our framework is based on various experiences with participatory research. It is intended to be used from the very beginning of a participatory research process as a conceptual guide for researchers. We suggest a protocol to transform it into more practical guidelines for communicating about upcoming participatory research processes. The leader of such processes should propose at each key stage an explicit, yet adaptive, plan for the following stages. This plan should also specify in what ways participants will be involved, and how the plan itself can be questioned and revised.

Katherine A. Daniell

2010-06-01

283

Participatory Theater, Is It Really? A Critical Examination of Practices in Timor-Leste  

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Full Text Available Dance, music, and oral narratives are an important and vibrant part of cultural practice and heritage in Timor-Leste. But while Timorese people have used such creative methods and processes during rituals, celebrations, and their fight for independence, today arts and artistic expression become an increasingly popular strategy in development cooperation. Especially diff erent forms of so-called participatory theater with origins in development cooperation, arts, and social movements, present themselves as innovative, participatory, and well applicable in terms of capacity building and stimulating positive social transformation. Based on the author’s experience and observations, this article critically examines the alliance between various stakeholders in Timor-Leste engaging with the fact that the current scene of participatory theater can hardly be seen as an independent grassroots or even social movement, rather than an initiated top-down process by donors with specific agendas.

Julia Scharinger

2013-01-01

284

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

Rene Loewenson

2011-07-01

285

[Participatory Quality Development: Engaging Community Members in All Phases of Project Planning and Implementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community participation, recognised as a central feature of successful health promotion and prevention, is often difficult to implement. In this research project internationally recognised methods of participatory health research were applied to demonstrate ways in which community members can be engaged. Participatory health research is characterised by a close collaboration between academic researchers, practitioners and community members in order to generate common knowledge. It is not a question of translating knowledge from research into practice, but rather a question of promoting a collective learning process on the part of all participants for the purpose of developing solutions which address the interests and needs of local people. The result of the project is a new approach for strengthening the quality of prevention and health promotion interventions: participatory quality development (PQD). PMID:24937351

Wright, M T; Kilian, H; Block, M; von Unger, H; Brandes, S; Ziesemer, M; Gold, C; Rosenbrock, R

2014-06-17

286

The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

Cheryl Forchuk

2014-06-01

287

Promises, Premises and Risks: Sharing Responsibilities, Working Up Trust and Sustaining Commitment in Participatory Design Projects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope of what is achievable. In this paper, we report on our various experiences of ‘boundary crossing’ in four very different participatory design contexts. We argue that in each setting a key task consists of enlisting the effort, imagination, trust and commitment of users, and the sharing of risks and responsibilities. We compare and discuss the different strategies, methods we have devised to achieve this within the local politics of each setting.

Büscher, Monika; Hartswood, Mark

2002-01-01

288

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes re [...] sults of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

Rene, Loewenson; Walter, Flores; Abhay, Shukla; Maija, Kagis; Amuda, Baba; Ashraf, Ryklief; Clara, Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay, Kakde.

2011-07-01

289

Varietal trial on palmarosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken at Nagarjun Medicinal Plants Garden from 1984 - 1987 with object to find out the suitable variety of palmarosa having high yield of foliage and oil. From the pooled analysis the variety IW - 3631 showed highest dry foliage yield (10271 KG / ha) which was significantly superior over all varieties i.e, IW 3632, IW-3630, IW RRL (B) - 65 and IW - 3629 except IW RRL (B) - 49. Oil contents and oil yield was also found to be more in variety IW 3631. Varieties IW - 3629 gave lowest oil yield and was at par with varieties IW - 3630 and IW - 3632. PMID:22556553

Thakare, R D; Khode, P P; Sethi, H N

1991-07-01

290

VARIETAL TRIAL ON PALMAROSA  

OpenAIRE

Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken at Nagarjun Medicinal Plants Garden from 1984 – 1987 with object to find out the suitable variety of palmarosa having high yield of foliage and oil. From the pooled analysis the variety IW – 3631 showed highest dry foliage yield (10271 KG / ha) which was significantly superior over all varieties i.e, IW 3632, IW-3630, IW RRL (B) – 65 and IW – 3629 except IW RRL (B) – 49. Oil contents and oil yield was also found to be more in varie...

Thakare, R. D.; Khode, P. P.; Sethi, H. N.

1991-01-01

291

Review. Supporting problem structuring with computer-based tools in participatory forest planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of study: This review presents the state-of-art of using computerized techniques for problem structuring (PS) in participatory forest planning. Frequency and modes of using different computerized tool types and their contribution for planning processes as well as critical observations are described, followed by recommendations on how to better integrate PS with the use of forest decision support systems. Area of study: The reviewed research cases are from Asia, Europe, North-America, Africa and Australia. Material and methods: Via Scopus search and screening of abstracts, 32 research articles from years 2002-2011 were selected for review. Explicit and implicit evidence of using computerized tools for PS was recorded and assessed with content-driven qualitative analysis. Main results: GIS and forest-specific simulation tools were the most prevalent software types whereas cognitive modelling software and spreadsheet and calculation tools were less frequently used, followed by multi-criteria and interactive tools. The typical use type was to provide outputs of simulation–optimization or spatial analysis to negotiation situations or to compile summaries or illustrations afterwards; using software during group negotiation to foster interaction was observed only in a few cases. Research highlights: Expertise in both decision support systems and group learning is needed to better integrate PS and computerized decision analysis. From the knowledge management perspective, it is recommended to consider how the results of PS —e.g. conceptual models— could be stored into a problem perception database, and how PS and decision making could be streamlined by retrievals from such systems. (Author)

Hujala, T.; Khadka, C.; Wolfslehner, B.; Vacik, H.

2013-09-01

292

Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (P<0.05) with livestock species and nature of causative agent. Out of the 36 diseases mentioned by farmers, 50%, 22.2%, 19.4%, 5.5% and 2.8% were diseases of cattle, sheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. PMID:23149306

Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

2013-05-01

293

A case study in the participatory design of a collaborative science-based learning environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.

Chin, George, Jr.

294

Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215

Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

2015-01-01

295

Participatory knowledge-management design: A semiotic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation between experts from different (sub-)fields need to be situated and tailored to provide effective support even if the common aspects of the data need to be described by ontologies that are generic in respect to the sub-disciplines involved. To understand and approach this design problem, we apply a semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user's communication with herself, himself or other users of the software. Tailoring or “end-user development” – i.e. adapting the knowledge-management system to a specific (sub-)discipline, task or context – then refines both the message and adapts the structure of the interaction to the situated requirements. The essential idea of this paper is to define a new perspective for designing and developing interactive systems to support collaborative knowledge management. The key concept is to involve domain experts in participatory knowledge design for mapping and translating their professional models into the proper vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can be defined. Finally, the results of applying our approach to a real-world case in an archaeological context are presented.

Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

2012-01-01

296

Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215

Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.

2015-01-01

297

Participatory Gis: Experimentations for a 3d Social Virtual Globe  

Science.gov (United States)

The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.

Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

2013-08-01

298

Varietal differences of wheat for 13C-discrimination and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Final report for the period 1 January 1993 - 31 December 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the varietal differences of wheat for shoot dry weight, 13C-discrimination, total N-yield and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Four wheat varieties were exposed to different watering regimes (i.e., W0 as normal irrigation of W1 as water stress) during the following growth periods: (i) from 3-leaf stage to third nod stage; (ii) from 3 nod stage to heading; and (iii) from heading to milk-dough stage. For drought recovery study, the experiment included another three water regime treatments induced by varying the irrigation of plants during the selected growth periods (i.e., W10, W100 and W010). The results indicated that water stress during the selected growth periods greatly decreased shoot dry weight, nabla value, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. The (i) and (ii) are considered critical growth periods as far as the above-mentioned parameters are considered. Expression of any tested parameter under water stress as percentage of that of the corresponding control indicated that Dalcahue, Sakha-69 and Bonadur were less sensitive to water stress than the other varieties at (i), (ii) and (iii) growth periods, respectively. On the other hand, Bonadur at (i) and (ii) growth periods and Sakha-69 at (iii) growth period were more sensitive than the other varieties. Exposing of wheat varieties to water stress during (i) and (ii) growth periods resulted in severe injury with regard to shoot dry weight, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Re-irrigation of the stressed wheat varieties, resulted in drought recovery with different magnitude depending on the variety and the growth period in which the plants were exposed to water stress. Generally, the results demonstrated that Bonadur has better capacity to recover from drought than the other varieties. Therefore, Bonadur may be considered a possible candidate for programs aimed at breeding wheat for drought recovery. (author). 34 refs, 10 tabs

299

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007 brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.

Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva

2008-12-01

300

Using participatory design to develop (public) health decision support systems through GIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public) health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD) process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team) in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs). Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP) that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data). Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different standard mapping file formats (e.g. ESRI, MapInfo, CSV). Discussion Based on the evaluation of Phase 1, the PD process has served both as a facilitator and a barrier. In terms of successes, the PD process identified two key components that are important to users: increased data/map sharing functionality and interoperability. Some of the challenges affected developers and users; both individually and as a collective. From a development perspective, this project experienced difficulties in obtaining personnel skilled in web application development and GIS. For users, some data sharing barriers are beyond what a technological tool can address (e.g. third party data). Lastly, the PD process occurs in real time; both a strength and a limitation. Programmatic changes at the provincial level and staff turnover at the organizational level made it difficult to maintain buy-in as participants changed over time. The impacts of these successes and challenges will be evaluated more concretely at the end of Phase 2. Conclusion PD approaches, by their very nature, encourage buy-in to the development process, better addresses user-needs, and creates a sense of user-investment and ownership. PMID:18042298

Dredger, S Michelle; Kothari, Anita; Morrison, Jason; Sawada, Michael; Crighton, Eric J; Graham, Ian D

2007-01-01

301

Participatory appraisal of foot and mouth disease in the Afar pastoral area, northeast Ethiopia: implications for understanding disease ecology and control strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important disease of livestock that still affects extensive areas of the world. This study described the use of participatory appraisal tools such as pair-wise ranking, matrix scoring and proportional piling to assess the perception of livestock keepers about the clinical signs and epidemiological features of cattle diseases with particular emphasis on FMD. Strong agreement among informant groups (W = 0.710; P = 0.000) in pair wise ranking indicated that the diseases were common problem to all the selected districts. Matrix scoring of disease indicators/signs also showed strong agreement (W = 0.504 to 0.955; P = 0.000) that implied significant current veterinary knowledge by Afar pastoralists. Age specific means of annual incidence rates estimated by proportional piling were significantly (P < 0.05) different but negatively correlated for FMD, CBPP and pasteurellosis. However, correlation was not significant for anthrax, blackleg and other important diseases. Age specific means of annual mortality was significantly (P < 0.05) but negatively correlated for FMD, CBPP, pasteurellosis and other important cattle diseases with correlation coefficients of -0.72, -0.81, -0.8 and -0.55, respectively. However, correlation (r = 0.12) was not significant for anthrax and not correlated at all for blackleg. This study indicated that pastoralists have detailed knowledge about their livestock health problems, and hence the combined use of participatory appraisal and conventional methods is essential for an ultimate disease control strategy. PMID:19575306

Shiferaw, T J; Moses, K; Manyahilishal, K E

2010-02-01

302

Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency

303

Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency.

Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Research and Training; Pollard, Simon; Twigger-Ross, Clare [National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, London (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

304

Towards a dynamic conservation of agrobiodiversity : Locally managing the varietal diversity of a tree “from the Whites” (coconut, Cocos nucifera L.) and of a plant “from the ancestors” (taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) in Vanuatu  

OpenAIRE

The varietal diversity of coconut and taro in an isolated village from Vanuatu are identified using tools from agronomy, anthropology, genetics and geography. The result of this interdisciplinary work suggests that its validation, both from the local as well as scientific points of view, depends not only upon the social relationships with the plants, which have been shaped by their biology and their history, but also upon the purposes for which they are intended, namely, to preserve a cultura...

Caillon, Sophie

2005-01-01

305

Hearing Voices: A Response to "Case Study of a Participatory Health-Promotion Intervention in School"  

Science.gov (United States)

Venka Simovska's article "Case Study of a Participatory Health-Promotion Intervention in School" provides important insights regarding the active involvement of youths in service programs. This response essay extends Simovska's discussions and frames them within three key areas: positive youth development, youth voice, and meaningful…

Harrist, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

306

Addressing Perinatal Disparities Using Community-Based Participatory Research: Data into Action  

Science.gov (United States)

Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…

Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace

2011-01-01

307

The Promise of a Community-Based, Participatory Approach to Service-Learning in Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on how one teacher education program utilized a Learn and Serve America grant to embed service-learning experiences into its practices. Included are narrative reflections on how the program faculty developed a community-based, participatory approach to service-learning in order to act as a responsive partner to the needs of…

Tinkler, Alan; Tinkler, Barri; Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Mugisha, Vincent M.

2014-01-01

308

Participation and Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Environmental Education Processes: For What Are People Empowered?  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory action research (PAR) derived from anti-colonial struggles in the third world in the 1960s. Traditionally it has been a method of the margins because of its commitment to linking social justice to research. Because of its counter-hegemonic tendency it has had great appeal among environmental educators advocating a socially critical…

Le Grange, Lesley

2009-01-01

309

LINKING SERVICE AND NUTRITION RESEARCH: AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper outlines how community service activities can evolve as a mechanism to identify and initiate community-based participatory research projects in diet/healthy eating. Background: The Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) is sponsored by the United States Departm...

310

Developing digital technologies for university mathematics by applying participatory design methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included in this paper along with future research directions.

Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

2013-01-01

311

Promoting Equity in an Early Years Context: The Role of Participatory Educational Teams  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an alternative participatory pedagogy in Early Years as a contribution to the promotion of equity and social justice for children, particularly those from ethnic minorities and low income families, enhancing their chances of educational success. The development of mass education was implemented in many countries by…

Formosinho, João; Figueiredo, Irene

2014-01-01

312

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Participatory Empowerment Group for Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a Participatory Empowerment Group (PEG) for Chinese type 2 diabetes patients in Shanghai. Method: A randomized waiting list control and pretest and posttest comparisons were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention by comparing blood sugar level and health-related quality of life.…

Lou, Vivian W. Q.; Zhang, Yiqi

2006-01-01

313

Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

2008-01-01

314

Community-Based Participatory Research with Hispanic/Latino Leaders and Members  

Science.gov (United States)

Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders…

Amendola, Mary Grace

2013-01-01

315

Urban Indian Voices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Health and Needs Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…

Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell

2010-01-01

316

Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

2004-01-01

317

Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) as a Collaborative Evaluation Capacity Building Strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) of measuring participants' reaction to the training. PATEM provides rich information; allows to document evaluation findings; becomes organic part of the training that helps participants process their experience individually and as a group; makes sense to participants; is an…

Kuzmin, Alexey

2012-01-01

318

Who are the active citizens? : Characterizations of citizens in participatory urban planning processes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article presents the variety of different active citizens and participants involved in a collaborative and participatory planning process within an urban regeneration project in Denmark. In much of the literature on planning and citizen participation citizens are often regarded as a homogenous group. This article argues that there are no `ordinary´ citizens, and claims that citizens are very different and participate in various ways. A criticism raised in relation to participatory processes is that these often tend to favour certain modes of communication based on an implicit ideal of the citizen as being resourceful, mastering political skills and know-how and time. However, many citizens do not `fit´ this stereotype, and thus there is a risk that many citizens are biased by the way the institutional settings for participation are designed. A characterization of active citizens in participatory processes could be useful for practitioners in order to be aware that their choices of techniques and involvement are part of shaping the nature of the participatory process and their overall inclusiveness and representativeness.

Agger, Annika

2008-01-01

319

Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

2013-01-01

320

New Partnerships Require New Approaches to Participatory Program Evaluations: Planning for the Future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses this era of transition in program evaluation, which is marked by growing cooperation between government and civil society, and suggests participatory program evaluation as an approach to lessen undue influence by any one partner and promote a positive culture of evaluation. (SLD)

McHardy, Joan

2002-01-01

321

Evaluation of the capacity development of actors within participatory planning process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on measuring the capacity development within the participatory planning process of formulation of development strategy. It starts with the discussion of how individual, collaborative and governance capacities became a part of collaborative and consensus planning, and continues with proposing the mixed method approach. Quantitative methods have been used to measure the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction that participatory approach had on the actors. Evaluation has shown significant increase in actors’ capacities during the planning process. Qualitative methods aim to reach understanding of the actors’ perception of the results of the participatory planning process they were engaged in. Local actors recognized results as the following: opportunity for gaining a new knowledge, understanding of problems, importance of information and cooperation exchange, recognition of ‘others’, capability for evaluation of plans, understanding of different roles and responsibilities, importance of team work and bundling of knowledge from different sources in problem solving, and collective action and interaction. Thus, the participatory planning holds potential as a continual process of developing the capacities of actors.

?oli? Ratka

2014-01-01

322

A Signature Pedagogy for Leadership Education: Preparing Principals through Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This study proposes participatory action research as a signature pedagogy for principal preparation programs. Signature pedagogies bring professional knowledge and core values together in distinctive teaching and learning arrangements. A rationale and learning results are presented that describe key components of action research intended to help…

Sappington, Neil; Baker, Paul J.; Gardner, Dianne; Pacha, Joe

2010-01-01

323

Strategic Development Planning at the Community Level: A Modification to Participatory Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategic development planning encompasses the setting of communitywide objectives; appraisal of external forces; analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; and development of a community-owned strategic plan. As an appropriate method transferred from business, it overcomes criticisms of other community participatory planning…

Warner, Michael

1996-01-01

324

Focus Groups with Young People: A Participatory Approach to Research Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present our experiences of conducting focus groups with young people as part of a participatory approach to research design and participant recruitment. The research is a prospective, 10-year, qualitative, longitudinal project investigating young people's daily lives, relationships, and identities, and the ways these change over…

Bagnoli, Anna; Clark, Andrew

2010-01-01

325

Improving Secondary Learning Disabilities Programs: A System-Wide Participatory Model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a systemwide participatory planning model designed to facilitate improvement of secondary learning disabilities programs. The model had three phases: central program planning and description, school-based program planning, and implementation and evaluation. This program generated a sense of shared ownership and direction among one…

Billingsley, Bonnie S.; Houck, Cherry K.

1988-01-01

326

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

327

Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (recentralization of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.

Andreas Neef

2008-05-01

328

A Case Study of Youth Participatory Evaluation in Co-Curricular Service Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the practice of participatory evaluation through an exploratory single case study of the Evaluation Team of Books & Beyond, a co-curricular service-learning program of the Global Village Living-Learning Center at Indiana University. The paper, which is authored by three undergraduate members of the evaluation team and their…

Samuelson, Beth Lewis; Smith, Ross; Stevenson, Eleanor; Ryan, Caitlin

2013-01-01

329

Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

2012-01-01

330

Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

2009-01-01

331

Changing Coverage of Domestic Violence Murders: A Longitudinal Experiment in Participatory Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

Stressing relation-building and participatory communication approaches, the Rhode Island Coalition against Domestic Violence worked with journalists to develop a best practices handbook on news coverage of domestic violence murders. This study compares print coverage of domestic violence murders prehandbook (1996-1999) and posthandbook…

Ryan, Charlotte; Anastario, Mike; DaCunha, Alfredo

2006-01-01

332

Participatory Mapping with Urban Youth: The Visual Elicitation of Socio-Spatial Research Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory mapping attempts to engage youth in the generation of personalized maps, as a way to both harness the value of individual knowledge about geographic space, and to concurrently empower the research participants by inviting them to take an active stake in the representation and explication of their spatial environment. Engagement in…

Literat, Ioana

2013-01-01

333

Citizen Participation for the Improvement of Local Management: Realities, Myths and Challenges about the Participatory Budgets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conceptions of participatory phenomenon are wide and generate various positions. Several authors agree that municipal government, as the face of the State closer to its citizens, is the privileged place to develop participatory public policies, which contributes to make more transparent, efficient, inclusive and democratic the government management. This proximity would allow local actors to participate in communal development processes and would enable them to diagnose problems, participating in decision-making and public policies designing and its evaluation. Moreover, it is noticed that the State transfer its duties to the society through manipulation of participatory policies, which are used as artificial means to build consensus. This article explores the fundamentals, implementation methodologies and results in four cases of participatory budgeting (in La Plata, San Fernando, San Miguel and San Martín. The main lines of analysis focused on the characterization of the projects generated by this policy, the changes in local management and the type of social participation. This research used semi structured and in depth interviews, observations, documentary research with secondary sources of information generated by municipalities (website, laws, institutional documentation, brochures, statistics and academic works produced by other researchers.

María Laura Pagani

2012-11-01

334

Using Participatory Action Research and Photo Methods to Explore Higher Education Administration as an Emotional Endeavor  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we build on Wood's (2010, 2012) recent call to consider higher education as a work place that conjures emotion among constituents, particularly positional leaders, like department chairs. Using a participatory action research and photo-enhanced methodological approach, we illustrate the emotional labor that was poured into the…

Gonzales, Leslie D.; Rincones, Rodolfo

2013-01-01

335

Participatory Exploration of Digitalizing Cultural Content : Getting Married. Are We Ready?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes a joint investigation of a Herero wedding ceremony as a sample of cultural content to be digitalized. We have through participatory exploration scrutinized embodied media bias and representation with Herero elders in Namibia. One finding is that this method has enabled the elders to be active agents in the digital portrayal and construction of their culture.

Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2014-01-01

336

Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

337

JAKFISH Policy Brief: coping with uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity in fisheries management through participatory knowledge development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The legitimacy of the scientific underpinning of European fisheries management is often challenged because of perceived exclusion of fishers knowledge and the lack of transparency in generating scientific advice. One of the attempts to address this lack of legitimacy has been through participatory knowledge development. In this paper, we will present the results of the JAKFISH project (Judgement and Knowledge in Fisheries Management involving Stakeholders) that focussed on the interplay between different actors in constructing the underpinning of policy decisions for sustainable fisheries. We tested participatory modelling as a tool to enhance mutual understanding and to increase legitimacy and found that it can be instrumental in developing a broader knowledge base for fisheries management and in building up trust between scientists and stakeholders. However, the participatory approach may not always work. Through social network analyses we found that the number of connections and the frequency of interactions between individuals in different groups (science, fisheries, eNGOs, policy) provides an important clue on the potential effectiveness of participatory approaches. We used three concepts to evaluate the role of scientific knowledge in policy making: salience, legitimacy and credibility. In situations with high stakes and high uncertainties, the evaluation of scientific analyses for policy decisions needs to involve a broader peer community consisting of scientists, policy-makers, NGOs and fisheries in order to increase legitimacy of results. When stakes are low and uncertainties are modest, the credibility of scientific results are sufficiently addressed through traditional scientific peer review

Pastoors, M.A.; Ulrich, Clara

2012-01-01

338

A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b work practice improvement, and c working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1 the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2 the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.

Jittra Rukijkanpanich

2010-07-01

339

Dealing with Messiness and Uncertainty in Practitioner Research: The Nature of Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the experiences and perceptions of K-12 teachers as they engaged in a participatory action research (PAR) project, "Science Across the Curriculum." Although the experiences and professional learning of two of the project participants are highlighted, the challenges that all participants experienced as they conceptualized…

Goodnough, Karen

2008-01-01

340

Best Practices in the Reporting of Participatory Action Research: Embracing Both the Forest and the Trees  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory action research (PAR) represents an approach that is deeply consonant with counseling psychology's commitments to social equity and action. However, counseling psychologists who would like to study this literature, or who would like to write about a project of their own, may discover that the reporting of PAR is not straightforward:…

Smith, Laura; Rosenzweig, Lisa; Schmidt, Marjorie

2010-01-01

341

Participatory Model of Mental Health Programming: Lessons Learned from Work in a Developing Country.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes application of participatory model for creating school-based mental health services in a developing country. Describes process of identifying individual and cultural factors relevant to mental health. Discusses importance of formative research and collaboration with stakeholders to ensure cultural specificity of interventions, and the…

Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Varjas, Kristen; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Jayasena, Asoka

1998-01-01

342

Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan  

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Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s, and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.

Nilufar Matin

2010-09-01

343

To protect or abandon: a participatory process on landslide risk mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

With escalating costs of landslide risk mitigation and relief, a challenge for local authorities is to develop landslide risk mitigation measures that are viewed as efficient, feasible and fair by the many stakeholders involved. Innovative measures and the participation of stakeholders in the decision making process are essential elements in developing effective strategies to deal with the ever-changing spatial and temporal patterns of landslide risk. A stakeholder-led policy process, however, can face many social and economic challenges. One of the most difficult is deciding between costly protection measures or relocating homes. Particularly in areas with high population density, protection works are often not built because of economic/environmental constraints or private interests of the local residents. At the same time it not always possible to relocate households even if the costs are deemed less than protecting them. These issues turned out to be crucial in a recent participatory process for selecting risk mitigation measures in the town of Nocera Inferiore, Southern Italy, which experienced a landslide in 2005 causing three fatalities. The paper reports on this process which was structured in a series of meetings with a group of selected residents and several parallel activities open to the public. The preparatory work included semi-structured interviews carried out with key local stakeholders and a public survey eliciting residents' views on landslide risk mitigation. After describing the background of the landslide risk management problem in Nocera Inferiore, the paper focuses on three packages of risk mitigation measures (each of them not exceeding a total cost of 7 million Euro, namely the available funds) and the key trade-offs that emerged during the meetings with the residents. The participants reached a unanimous consensus on fundamental priorities, i.e. the improvement of the warning system, the implementation of an integrated system of monitoring and territorial survey and the stabilization of the open slopes with naturalistic engineering works. Much more debate was devoted to the relocation of residents from the most endangered areas and/or the need to build passive structural works, especially on private properties. Notwithstanding the difficulties in reaching a shared "compromise solution" for risk mitigation, the results demonstrate the value of citizen participation in landslide risk mitigation decisions and highlight the role that participation can play in risk management more generally.

Scolobig, A.; Bayer, J.; Cascini, L.; Ferlisi, S.

2012-04-01

344

Genetic Merit Based Genotype Selection for Physical Fruit Traits in Mango  

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Full Text Available Selection indices based on their genetic merit of fruit characters were constructed for fruit yield/tree in 48 genotypes in mango (Mangifera indica L.. Genotypes, SBM 01-35, SBM 01-26, SBM 01-9, SBM 01- 10 and SBM 01-26 in on year while, SBM 01-12, SBM 01-36, SBM 01-26, SBM 01-28 and SBM 01- 9 in off year recorded highest fruit yield /tree. Genotypes SBM 01-10, SBM 01-36, SBM 01-09, SBM 01-30 and SBM 01-6 exhibited comparatively high estimates of selection indices during on year while, SBM 01-36 followed by SBM 01-12, Totapari, SBM 01-17 and SBM 01-29 showed the maximum estimates of selection index for fruit yield/ tree during off year. Alphonso followed by SBM 01-5, SBM 01-13, Langra and SBM 01-14 during on year and Dashehari, Safeda, SBM 01-3 and SBM 01-39 in off year exhibited the minimum estimates of varietal indices. Genotypes differed considerably in their ranking pattern based on selection indices. Genotypes SBM 01-9, SBM 01-10, SBM 01-30, SBM 01-6 and SBM 01-36 showed maximum varietal indices and phenotypic performance in both the years thus, appeared promising for use as parent in mango improvement programme.

Arun Kumar Barholia

2014-06-01

345

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

2011-04-01

346

Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology (MUPARMIBO), some particular bioenergy options were recommended for each study village in two districts. The participatory approach was extended to the selection of possible projects that villagers may implement using their own resources. Some of these projects include production and marketing of improved stoves, improved fish smoking and drying ovens, and planting of multi-purpose tree species. Where villagers keep cattle under the zero-grazing system and can afford initial costs, biogas plants were recommended. The need for information on available technologies, development of skills and financing mechanisms were seen as critical elements for the adoption of bioenergy options 56 refs, 12 figs, 7 tabs

Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

1998-12-31

347

From Water Poverty to Water Prosperity—A More Participatory Approach to Studying Local Water Resources Management  

OpenAIRE

The Water Poverty Index (WPI), a tool designed for integrated analysis of water issues, was set-up in a community in Madhya Pradesh, India through a transparent and participatory process. Though the aim of the WPI is to primarily use existing statistical data, quantitative information from census and local records was combined with qualitative data from community interviews and participatory exercises. The inclusion of community chosen indicators and the adjustment of values so that higher nu...

Wilk, Julie; Jonsson, Anna

2013-01-01

348

Process evaluation of a participatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Both low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE) is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is scarce. This study evaluates the process of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme, including the perceived implementation of the prioritised ergonom...

Driessen Maurice T; Proper Karin I; Anema Johannes R; Bongers Paulien M; van der Beek Allard J

2010-01-01

349

Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study  

OpenAIRE

A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...

Getchell, J. K.; Vatta, A. F.; Motswatswe, P. W.; Krecek, R. C.; Moerane, R.; Pell, A. N.; Tucker, T. W.; Leshomo, S.

2012-01-01

350

Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction/Management (DRR and DRM). Participatory surveys (and participatory monitoring) elicit local people's knowledge about the specifics of the hazard concerning frequency, timing, warning signals, rates of flow, spatial extent, etc. And significantly, only this local knowledge from informants can reveal essential information about different vulnerabilities of people and places, and about any coping or adjustment mechanisms that local people have. The participatory methods employed in Mleta included historical discussions with key informants, village social transects, participatory mapping with children, semi-structured interviews with inhabitants, and VCA (Vulnerability & Capacity Analysis). The geolomorphological map produced on the base of the local geology has been realized with ArcGIS. This allowed the assessment of the areas at risk and the relative maps. We adapted and tested the software programme CyberTracker as a survey tool, a digital device method of field data collection. Google Earth, OpenStreetMap, Virtual Earth and Ilwis have been used for data processing.

Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

2014-05-01

351

Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating communities of practice, and in what way do they promote the negotiation of a shared understanding? •Which commonalities can be derived from the participatory design of a "third space" community among communities of practice through participation in the Danish seed industry? The work will be based on preliminary field research including qualitative semi-structured interviews staging the local concept to knowledge and innovation quantified by large-scale questionnaires. A random target group will work with imaging, tagging and categorising their personal experience and thoughts of knowledge and innovation through advanced online photo diaries. The outcomes will be presented in a 3-step workshop series with representatives from the involved communities of practice. A "future workshop" will focus on commonalities and contradictions between the involved domains and how they redefine shared knowledge from their previous experience. A second workshop will focus on hands-on user experience based on a prototype predesigned from the preliminary research findings. The final workshop will build up a common knowledge discourseamong its participants, and work towards an overall requirement specification for a preferred future knowledge innovation method in the Danish seed industry. The three workshops will be recorded by video and subsequently hermeneutically analysed to determine relevant boundary objects and commonalities between the participating communities of practice.

Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte

352

Participatory learning and knowledge assessment with a game-based method relying on student-generated questions  

CERN Document Server

A game based on student-generated multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was used to promote participatory learning and as a knowledge assessment tool in the framework of an elementary course in Photonics. Under the instructor's guidance, students were asked to author MCQs, including both question stems and four possible answers (three distractors and one correct answer). They were told that good enough questions would enter a repository from which MCQs for the final exam could be drawn. The student-generated MCQs were then reviewed by the instructor, who discarded unsuitable questions and made amendments to ensure quality standards. The resulting repository (with the key to the correct answers) was made available to the students, whereupon a subset of questions were selected by the instructor to set the MCQ test for the final exam (consisting of a MCQ test based on student-generated questions and a problem-solving part set entirely by the instructor). The MCQ repository was large enough to ensure that rote learnin...

Abad, Enrique; Gil, Julia

2015-01-01

353

Innovating Science Teaching by Participatory Action Research – Reflections from an Interdisciplinary Project of Curriculum Innovation on Teaching about Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics. The teaching itself explicitly aimed at general educational objectives, i.e., fostering students’ communication and evaluation abilities as essential components for preparing young people for active participation in society. Participatory Action Research has been used as a collaborative strategy of cyclical curriculum innovation and research. Using past experiences and selected results from accompanying research, this project and its methodology will be reflected upon from the viewpoint of the chemistry group taking part in the project. Core issues reflected upon include how the project contributed to the creation of feasible curriculum materials, how it led to innovative structures in practice, and whether it supported experienced teachers’ ongoing professional development. General considerations for the process of curriculum innovation will also be derived.

Timo Feierabend

2011-01-01

354

A new approach to varietal identification in plants by microsatellite high resolution melting analysis: application to the verification of grapevine and olive cultivars  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are popular molecular markers in many plant species due to their stable and highly polymorphic nature. A number of analysis methods have been described but analyses of these markers are typically performed on cumbersome polyacrylamide gels or more conveniently by capillary electrophoresis on automated sequencers. However post-PCR handling steps are still required. High resolution melting can now combine detailed sequence analysis with the closed-tube benefits of real-time PCR and is described here as a novel way to verify the identity of plant varieties such as grapevine and olive. Results DNA melting profiles for various plant variety and rootstock samples were compared to profiles for certified reference samples. Two closely related grapevine rootstocks differing by as little as a single di-nucleotide repeat could be rapidly differentiated while there was high reproducibility of melting profiles for identical cultivars. Conclusion This novel microsatellite analysis method allows high sample throughput with greatly reduced time to results for varietal certification and is amenable to other microsatellite analyses.

Wright Christopher D

2008-05-01

355

Towards tailor-made participation : How to involve different types of citizens in participatory planning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Public participation has become an important element of governance in many Western European countries. However, among scholars and practitioners there is a recognition that participatory governance processes tend to produce systematic exclusions. Knowledge about 'who' participates and 'how' they participate can enhance our understanding of participatory processes. This paper presents some characterisations of citizens based on a review of the literature on participation. In addition, examples of how to tailor participation for different type of citizens are provided based on studies of urban regeneration programmes and local environmental initiatives in Denmark. The paper concludes that in order to broaden the inclusion of affected citizens, public authorities need to be tailor participation processes by applying distinct approaches to different types of citizens

Agger, Annika

2012-01-01

356

Participatory ergonomic intervention for prevention of low back pain: assembly line redesign case.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain. PMID:22317739

Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

2012-01-01

357

Organization of school work in focus: the limits of antidemocratic inheritance and potential of participatory processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically, democratic and participatory processes in the Brazilian society, and specifically in school, have been permeated by intermittences, weaknesses and resistances caused by multiple determinations. The text focuses on aspects concerningthe organization of education work through two lines of analysis: the first angle refers to the social constructs of structural and organic nature linked to relations of power andanti-democratic practices of the society in general. The second angle reference to a kindof ethnographic research, conducted within a public school in the Minas Gerais state. We seek to grasp the challenges on building practices and strategies in support of the participatory processes of the school community in the pedagogic project design and in the operation of the school board. We propose, with these analyses, to contribute withreflections on the status of teachers, as a subject, in the school organization throughconnections with work activities related to their everyday practice.

Maria Vieira Silva

2011-10-01

358

A SURVEY ON LOCATION BASED PRIVACY PRESERVING FRAMEWORK FOR PARTICIPATORY SENSING  

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Full Text Available There is wide range of use cheap embedded sensors on mobile devices like cameras, microphones, Wi-Fi adapters, accelerometers, Bluetooth and so on. In the participatory sensing with these embedded sensors we have a threat in communication while participatory sensing can be used by the individual and communities greatly. When we are collecting and analysing the locations of participators, we have various threats in aspects of privacy. And the existing proposals are mainly focused on providing privacy for participators locations. But there is no chance in protecting the trajectory data. And very few are done in the aspect of protecting trajectory data. I am proposing the effective analysis on trajectories that having special temporal history information can reveal the participators locations and the relevant personal privacy

C Chandrasekhar Reddy

2014-08-01

359

Communication between people with schizophrenia and their medical professionals: a participatory research project.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe a participatory research project undertaken by a group of people with schizophrenia under the guidance of a university researcher. Participatory research involves members of the research group in meaningful participation in all stages of the research process. In this study, group members chose the topic-experiences with medical professionals-and method of data collection-in-depth interviews that they conducted with each other. They developed and performed a readers' theater presentation of the results and their recommendations for how they would like to be treated by medical professionals. The results indicate that good communication with medical professionals is essential to people with schizophrenia; it helps them accept the fact that they are ill and learn to live with the illness. The research offered a transformative experience to group members and is contributing to change in the practice of health care for people with severe mental illnesses. PMID:15068580

Schneider, Barbara; Scissons, Hannah; Arney, Laurie; Benson, George; Derry, Jeff; Lucas, Ken; Misurelli, Michele; Nickerson, Dana; Sunderland, Mark

2004-04-01

360

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-a-vis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

Yee Ming Chen

2009-09-01

361

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

CERN Document Server

The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers' understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-avis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

Chen, Yee Ming

2009-01-01

362

Integrating adaptive governance and participatory multicriteria methods: a framework for climate adaptation governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate adaptation is a dynamic social and institutional process where the governance dimension is receiving growing attention. Adaptive governance is an approach that promises to reduce uncertainty by improving the knowledge base for decision making. As uncertainty is an inherent feature of climate adaptation, adaptive governance seems to be a promising approach for improving climate adaptation governance. However, the adaptive governance literature has so far paid little attention to decision-making tools and methods, and the literature on the governance of adaptation is in its infancy in this regard. We argue that climate adaptation governance would benefit from systematic and yet flexible decision-making tools and methods such as participatory multicriteria methods for the evaluation of adaptation options, and that these methods can be linked to key adaptive governance principles. Moving from these premises, we propose a framework that integrates key adaptive governance features into participatory multicriteria methods for the governance of climate adaptation.

Stefania Munaretto

2014-06-01

363

Using Participatory Epidemiology Tools to Investigate Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP in Maasai Flocks, Northern Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory Epidemiology (PE was applied on the Maasai rangeland of northern Tanzania to understand pastoralist’s perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP. The study was conducted during the period of April 2008 and caprine disease event was directed during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. Participatory methods such as Focus Group Discussion (FGD, proportional piling and matrix scoring were used to characterize pastoralist perceived clinical signs and risk factors for CCPP. The estimated mean incidence and case mortality rate of CCPP was 31.6 and 61.4%, respectively. Matrix scoring showed moderate to good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs and risk factors. It was concluded that PE complimented with local knowledge could generally be used to generate disease information at low cost and therefore assist the design of feasible disease surveillance systems and control programmes at local and national level.

Emmanuel Senyael

2010-10-01

364

The Effects of Participatory English Classes on the Motivation of Science Students for Learning English  

Science.gov (United States)

This study researched the effects of participatory English classes on the motivation of university students of an engineering department who had failed in learning English in their junior-and senior high school days. As a participatory class is generally said to be able to make learners feel achievement and to raise their autonomy in learning, the author empirically gave the students English classes for 14-times in the form of a workshop for the first semester in 2009 and examined their changes in motivation and English reading abilities. As the results of a questionnaire and a test in the last class, it was found that the students attended all classes with strong motivation and improved their WPM and ability to comprehend in reading English.

Tsuchiya, Maiko

365

Generative and Participatory Parametric Frameworks for Multi-player Design Games  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generative design processes have been the focus of current architectural research and practice largely due to the phenomenon of emergence explored within self-organisation, generative grammars and evolutionary techniques.These techniques have been informing participatory urban design modalities, which are investigated in this paper by critically reviewing theories, practices, and (software applications that explore multi-player online urban games, with respect to not only their abilities to facilitate online trans-disciplinary expert collaboration and user participation but also to support implementation of democratic ideals in design practice.The assumption is that even if generative and participatory parametric frameworks for multi-player design games may not replace politics as a discipline concerned with the study of government and policies of government, they may reduce the bureaucratic apparatus supporting government by establishing a direct interface between experts such as politicians, urban planners, designers, and users.

Henriette Bier

2014-08-01

366

Socioeconomic Obstacles to Establishing a Participatory Plant Breeding Program for Organic Growers in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proponents of participatory plant breeding (PPB contend that it is more conducive to promoting agricultural biodiversity than conventional plant breeding. The argument is that conventional plant breeding tends to produce crops for homogenous environments, while PPB tends to be directed at meeting the diverse environmental conditions of the farmers participating in a breeding program. Social scientific research is needed to highlight the complex socioeconomic factors that inhibit efforts to initiate PPB programs. To contribute, we offer a case study of a participatory organic seed production project that involved a university breeding program, commercial organic seed dealers, and organic farmers in the Northeastern United States. We demonstrate that, although PPB may indeed promote agricultural biodiversity, several socioeconomic obstacles must be overcome to establish such a program.

Ruth Mendum

2009-12-01

367

The preservation of genetic resources of the vine requires cohabitation between institutional clonal selection, mass selection and private clonal selection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clonal selection allows control of virus diseases and selection of genotypes on agronomic, viticultural or enological criteria. Clonal selection has the major drawback that it impoverishes genetic diversity and exposes growers to environmental instability of clones (genotype X environment interaction. Clonal selection has become the almost unique way of propagating plant material for vineyards, hence threatening the genetic diversity of the grapevine. For major grapevine varieties, some genetic diversity is maintained in institutional collections. However, this way of conservation is insufficiently developed, it is expensive and remains fragile. A cost effective way to preserve intra-varietal diversity is to maintain a limited proportion of mass selection in vine propagation. Private clonal selection can also contribute, in a more limited way, in maintaining genetic resources. Another approach to carry out conservation and selection of grapevine is the methodology followed in Portugal. This strategy is exemplified with the conservation/selection of an ancient Portuguese variety. The work begins with the “ex situ” conservation of a representative sample of the intravarietal diversity of the variety, which, in practice, corresponds to a large field trial with hundreds of clones under an experimental design suitable for reducing random variation of quantitative traits. From evaluating those traits (yield and must quality traits, the intravarietal diversity is quantified and the range of the predicted genotypic effects for each of those traits is analyzed. Different mass selections (polyclonal selections are carried out for distribution and planting of new vineyards. These different mass selections provide high economic gains and also the preservation of diversity in a complementary manner to that which started the work on-farm conservation.

Roby Jean-Philippe

2014-01-01

368

Educational innovation in formative assessment and participatory methodology: following the introduction of new degrees  

OpenAIRE

This paper is aimed at presenting and analysing the innovation processes implemented during three academic years by a group of teachers from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in the Science Degree in Physical Activity and Sport. The main objective is to provide response to the questions raised on the new ways of teaching, by means of participatory methodologies and formative assessment systems. The stages of the process followed, the actions undertaken for each of them, their outcomes, adva...

Mª, Luisa Santos Pastor; Javier Castejo?n Oliva, F.; Fernando Marti?nez Mun?oz, L.

2012-01-01

369

Farmworker pesticide exposure and community-based participatory research: rationale and practical applications.  

OpenAIRE

The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and se...

Arcury, T. A.; Quandt, S. A.; Dearry, A.

2001-01-01

370

Addressing Perinatal Disparities in Urban Setting: Using Community Based Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans (AA) nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers focused on developing effective and sustainable interventions and programs targeting needs of the community. The current paper details use of the Perinatal Period of Risk (PPO...

Masho, Saba W.; Keyser-marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara B.; Chapman, Derek; Singleton, Rose; Svikis, Dace

2011-01-01

371

Academic Incentives for Faculty Participation in Community-based Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

Recognizing the need to overcome the obstacles of traditional university- and discipline-oriented research approaches, a variety of incentives to promote community-based participatory research (CBPR) are presented. Experiences of existing CBPR researchers are used in outlining how this methodological approach can appeal to faculty: the common ground shared by faculty and community leaders in challenging the status quo; opportunities to have an impact on local, regional, and national policy; a...

Nyden, Philip

2003-01-01

372

Community-Based Participatory Research and Smoking Cessation Interventions: A Review of the Evidence  

OpenAIRE

This article presents a review of the evidence on the use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and smoking cessation interventions. An overview of CBPR is provided, along with a description of the search methods and quality scoring. Research questions are explored to determine: if CBPR improves the quality of research methods and community involvement in cessation intervention studies; and, cessation outcomes when using CBPR approaches. Results of the review are provided along wit...

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Heath, Janie; Williams, Lovoria B.; Tingen, Martha S.

2011-01-01

373

Teaching Community-Based Participatory Research Principles to Physicians Enrolled in a Health Services Research Fellowship  

OpenAIRE

To improve health and reduce disparities through health services research, investigators are increasingly turning to techniques that actively involve individuals and institutions who would be affected by the research. In one such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR), community members participate in every aspect of designing and implementing research with the expectation that this process will enhance the translation of research into practice in communities. Because few phy...

Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Lucas, Georgina I.; Tinney, Barbara; Mangione, Carol; Schuster, Mark A.; Wells, Ken; Wong, Marlene; Schwarz, Donald; Tuton, Lucy W.; Howell, Joel D.; Heisler, Michelle

2009-01-01

374

Community–University Partnerships: Using Participatory Action Learning and Action Research (PALAR)  

OpenAIRE

This article positions participatory action learning and action research (PALAR) as a preferred methodology for community-university partnerships to achieve a holistic outcome that benefits the common interest. Evidence for this claim is illustrated through case studies of two community engagement programs, one in South Africa and the other in Australia. The South African study explains how relationships, reflection and recognition (the three R’s of PALAR) are important elements that promot...

Judith Kearney; Lesley Wood; Ortrun Zuber-Skerritt

2013-01-01

375

Incorporating Youth-Led Community Participatory Research into School Health Center Programs and Policies  

OpenAIRE

Training adolescents as student researchers is a strategy that can improve the delivery of care at school-based health centers (SBHCs) and significantly shift school health policies impacting students. From 2003 to 2006, the University of California, San Francisco, in partnership with Youth In Focus, implemented a participatory student research project to enhance the existing evaluation of the Alameda County SBHC Coalition and its participating clinic members, and to help develop and implemen...

Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire; Geierstanger, Sara; Kandawalla, Spenta; Kurlaender, Tamar

2008-01-01

376

Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda  

OpenAIRE

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, ...

Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza; Hussein Shimelis; Rob Melis; Julia Sibiya; Magnifique Ndambe Nzaramba

2012-01-01

377

A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seed system in Benin  

OpenAIRE

A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed system (OPSS) was conducted along a gradient of rainfall and distance to the oil palm research centre across the oil palm growing belt of Benin. The objective was to identify, jointly with key actors, the constraints in the OPSS and to assess the performance of the OPSS from a farmers’ perspective. The methodology included introductory community meetings, group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, field ...

Akpo, E.; Vissoh, P. V.; Tossou, R. C.; Crane, T.; Kossou, D. K.; Richards, P.; Stomph, T. J.; Struik, P. C.

2012-01-01

378

Digital Media Meets Informal Learning: Opportunities for Generating New Participatory Roles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the rich learning that happens between defined learning spaces, such as that between formal curriculum and informal projects. Here we apply the notion of “hybrid space,” to understand how such in-between learning spaces can facilitate a shift in participatory roles for college students engaged in a community media project. This study also highlights the ways in which media as a production medium can further transform the learning experience.

Kathryn Hayes

2012-06-01

379

Unintentional democratisation? The Argentinazo and the politics of participatory budgeting in Buenos Aires, 2001-2004  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an account of the emergence of Participatory Budgeting (PB) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, based on information collected during six months of field research carried out in April-September 2003. The aim is to trace the conditions and context within which this was established. This is of particular interest in view of the fact that PB in Buenos Aires was implemented in the midst of the recent crisis known as the Argentinazo, which arguably constituted an unlikely moment for it...

Rodgers, Dennis

2005-01-01

380

A reflexive cartography and environmental conservation: a model of participatory zoning  

OpenAIRE

The Model of Participatory Zoning was developed by the Cartographic Laboratory Diathesis at the University of Bergamo (Italy) and was applied in the framework of Program Régional Parc W/ECOPAS (Ecosystèmes Protégés en Afrique Sahélienne). This model establishes a specific research methodology and develops some GIS (geographic information system)-based analytical tools. The research team designed these analytical tools in order to employ environmental protection models in the field resear...

Casti, Emanuela

2014-01-01

381

Development and Evaluation of a Toolkit to Assess Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

An earlier investigation by academic and community co-investigators led to the development of the Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Model, which defined major dimensions and key indicators of partnership readiness. As a next step in this process, we used qualitative methods, cognitive pretesting, and expert reviews to develop a working guide, or toolkit, based on the model for academic and community partners to assess and leverage their readiness for CBPR...

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha

2011-01-01

382

School-based participatory health education for malaria control in Ghana: engaging children as health messengers  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background School children have been increasingly recognized as health messengers for malaria control. However, little evidence is available. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school-based malaria education intervention on school children and community adults. Methods This study was conducted in the Dangme-East district of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, between 2007 and 2008. Trained schoolteachers designed participatory healt...

Mizoue Tetsuya; Bosompem Kwabena M; Jimba Masamine; Hanafusa Shigeki; Adjovu Josiah K; Nonaka Daisuke; Ayi Irene; Takeuchi Tsutomu; Boakye Daniel A; Kobayashi Jun

2010-01-01

383

Participatory Appraisal and Scanning Surveillance Based Contagious Diseases Risk Profile of District Rahim Yar Khan (Pakistan)  

OpenAIRE

Spatio-temporal prevalence and importance of contagious diseases of livestock in district Rahim Yar Khan (Pakistan) were investigated through conflation of data based upon participatory appraisal and scanning surveillance from January 2007 to August 2009. Results revealed that haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) and foot and mouth disease (FMD) were the most important diseases of riverine and canal irrigated areas, while FMD and black quarter (BQ) were the most serious and prevalent diseases of Cho...

Fraz Munir Khan

2010-01-01

384

What are possible barriers and facilitators to implementation of a Participatory Ergonomics programme?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are common among workers. Participatory Ergonomics (PE) is used as an implementation strategy to prevent these symptoms. By following the steps of PE, working groups composed and prioritised ergonomic measures, and developed an implementation plan. Working group members were responsible to implement the ergonomic measures in their departments. Little is known about factors that hamper (barriers) or enhance (facilitato...

Driessen Maurice T; Groenewoud Karin; Proper Karin I; Anema Johannes R; Bongers Paulien M; van der Beek Allard J

2010-01-01

385

Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health  

OpenAIRE

"nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and loc...

Majdzadeh, R.; Setareh Forouzan, A.; Pourmalek, F.; Malekafzali, H.

2009-01-01

386

The ECOSENSUS Project: Co-Evolving Tools, Practices and Open Content for Participatory Natural Resource Management  

OpenAIRE

ECOSENSUS (Electronic/Ecological Collaborative Sensemaking Support System)[www.ecosensus.info] is an ESRC e-Social Science pilot project, using a Participatory Action Research methodology to evolve tools and work practices for collaborative work in environmental and natural resource management between a European-based team, and stakeholders involved in the region of concern, the North Rupununi District of Guyana. To promote long term capacity building in the region and beyond, the project's o...

Berardi, Andrea; Bachler, Michelle; Bernard, Calvin; Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ganapathy, Savitha; Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Reynolds, Martin; Ulrich, Werner

2006-01-01

387

Participatory research for adaptive water management in a transition country. A case study from Uzbekistan  

OpenAIRE

Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provid...

Hirsch, D.; Abrami, G.; Giordano, R.; Liersch, S.; Matin, N.; Schlu?ter, M.

2010-01-01

388

Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan  

OpenAIRE

Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provid...

Nilufar Matin; Maja Schlüter; Stefan Liersch; Raffaele Giordano; Geraldine Abrami; Darya Hirsch

2010-01-01

389

The intersection of people, technology and local space. PPGIS and Web in practice for participatory planning  

OpenAIRE

This study concerns about the contributions of Web 2.0 tools to Public Participation Geographic Information System (PPGIS) and of PPGIS to participatory planning. Web 2.0 tools are increasingly occupying an important role in the universe of geographic information consciousness. Both Web 2.0 and PPGIS are about decentralization, public mapping, and local knowledge, encouraging throughout productive results. The project develops a Web 2.0 PPGIS mashup application through free, easy-...

Bugs, Geisa Tamara

2009-01-01

390

A transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented research approach: Sounds nice but what do you mean?  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approaches to research on urbansustainable development. Phronetic planning research, as described by Bent Flyvberg (2004), is highlighted as one interesting approach which combines many of the general themes here dealt with. A special section is devoted to discuss quality criteria of transdisciplinary research. The paper is written as a background to a thesis in progress on Malmö and urban sustainable development.

Andre?n, Sabina

2010-01-01

391

Participatory approach to data warehousing in health care: UGANDA’S Perspective  

OpenAIRE

This licentiate thesis presents the use of participatory approach to developing a data warehouse for data mining in health care. Uganda is one of the countries that faced the largest brunt of the HIV/AIDS epidemic at its inception in the early 1980s with reports of close to a million deaths. Government and nongovernmental interventions over the years saw massive reductions in HIV prevalence rates over the years. This reduction in HIV prevalence rates led to great pra...

Otine, Charles

2011-01-01

392

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation  

OpenAIRE

Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, a...

Pieter Bots; Sabine Moellenkamp; Daniell, Katherine A.; Yorck von Korff; Bijlsma, Rianne M.

2012-01-01

393

Participatory Ecosystem Management Planning at Tuzla Lake (Turkey) Using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping  

OpenAIRE

A participatory environmental management plan was prepared for Tuzla Lake, Turkey. Fuzzy cognitive mapping approach was used to obtain stakeholder views and desires. Cognitive maps were prepared with 44 stakeholders (villagers, local decisionmakers, government and non-government organization (NGO) officials). Graph theory indices, statistical methods and "What-if" simulations were used in the analysis. The most mentioned variables were livelihood, agriculture and animal husb...

Celik, Filiz Dadaser; Ozesmi, Uygar; Akdogan, Asuman

2005-01-01

394

The public interest in planning in Japanese jurisprudence: the limits to participatory democracy  

OpenAIRE

While mainstream academic literature tends to emphasise the place of ‘participatory democracy’ as key to realising the public interest in planning policy, this paper argues that the statutory framework as well as a fair judicial system both need to underpin the ideal of the public interest in planning development. The legal cases analysed in this paper illustrate why citizen participation have failed to change values or practices in Japanese planning, even in recent years. The paper demon...

Shibata, Kuniko

2008-01-01

395

Multiple criteria decision analysis with consideration to place-specific values in participatory forest planning  

OpenAIRE

The combination of multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and participatory planning is an approach that has been applied in complex planning situations where multiple criteria of very different natures are considered, and several stakeholders or social groups are involved. The spatial character of forest planning problems adds further to the complexity, because a large number of forest stands are to be assigned different treatments at different points in time. In addition, experience fro...

Nordstro?m, Eva-maria; Eriksson, Ljusk Ola; Karin, O?hman

2011-01-01

396

MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN COMMUNITY TOURISM PARTICIPATORY PLANNING IN SAMUI ISLAND, THAILAND  

OpenAIRE

Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for th...

Kannapa Pongponrat; Naphawan Jane Chantradoan

2012-01-01

397

The role of Volunteered Geographic Information in participatory planning : Examples from Denmark and Finland  

OpenAIRE

Due to developments in pervasive computing and the diffusion of digital media technologies, the amount of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is rising rapidly. This paper investi- gates the potential of applying VGI to a participatory planning context. What kind of VGI was considered useful in the planning process and what were the strengths and weaknesses of the type of data collected? The paper looks at the methods and contents associated with VGI before looking at the implementation ...

Maarit Kahila; Anne-Marie Sanvig Knudsen

2012-01-01

398

MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN COMMUNITY TOURISM PARTICIPATORY PLANNING IN SAMUI ISLAND, THAILAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for the success of the planning for local tourism activities.

Kannapa Pongponrat

2012-06-01

399

Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions  

OpenAIRE

Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecologica...

Pascal Perez; Dominique Rollin; Albena Popova; Jones, Natalie A.; Matthew Hare; Peter Coad; Jean-Emmanuel Rougier; Nils Ferrand; Ribarova, Irina S.; Ian White; Daniell, Katherine A.; Stewart Burn

2010-01-01

400

Power relations in participatory research and community development : a case study from northern England.  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores power relations within a participatory health and social needs project that took place in a South Asian community in northern England. The project involved a number of different individuals and agencies, each of which began with a rather different combination of interests, agendas, resources, and power bases. Drawing on detailed observations made during the project, together with a series of evaluation interviews, we explore the ways in which these were continually re-nego...

Hampshire, K.; Hills, E.; Iqbal, N.

2005-01-01

401

Balancing Scientific and Community Interests in Community-Based Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between scientific and community interests in several differe...

Resnik, David B.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.

2010-01-01

402

How agency models inspire large scale participatory planning and its evaluation  

OpenAIRE

We describe how three models, for sustainable change, human agency in collective resource management, and socio-environmental systems, have been used to design a protocol and the tools for a large scale (1500 participants, 35 villages) multi-level participatory process held in Africa for Integrated Natural Resource Management, through the European Project Afromaison. The process especially combines a common action model to support proposals by stakeholders, an integration matrix to build cohe...

Ferrand, N.; Hassenforder, E.; Ducrot, R.; Barreteau, O.; Abrami, G.

2013-01-01

403

Investigating Health Disparities through Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons Learned from a Process Evaluation  

OpenAIRE

This article describes one university's efforts to partner with a local agency (the “Coalition”) within a disadvantaged, predominantly African American neighborhood, to assist them with studying their community's health disparities and health care access. The final, mutually agreed-upon plan used a community-based participatory research approach, wherein university researchers prepared neighborhood volunteers and Coalition members to conduct face-to-face interviews with residents about th...

Bryan, Valerie; Brye, Willette; Hudson, Kenneth; Dubose, Leevones; Hansberry, Shantisha; Arrieta, Martha

2014-01-01

404

Beyond the “I“: Framing a model of participatory ethical decision-making for international engineering communication  

OpenAIRE

The article reports on findings of an ethics education unit in a cross-institutional partnership—an American university and an Indian university—that uses noncooperative gaming theory to extend ethics education to take on a global, group/systems perspective. Authors assert that a role of engineering communication at the global level is to position stakeholders to see ethical decision-making as participatory. The authors also comment on four deliberative challenges that students face as th...

Hannah, Mark A.; Andrew Berardy; Spierre, Susan G.; Seager, Thomas P.

2013-01-01

405

Prisons, Pipelines, and the President: Developing Critical Math Literacy through Participatory Action Research  

OpenAIRE

Academic success, and the economic well-being it usually affords, is closely tied to math achievement. Key national indicators reveal decades of underperformance of African American males in mathematics. Scholars argue that the schooling experiences of Black males are highly-racialized, are often bereft of significance, and result in academic and social marginalization. The author reports findings from an eight-month participatory action research (PAR) project involving seven high-school aged...

Terry, Clarence L.

2010-01-01

406

Review: Community-based participatory research approach to address mental health in minority populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, a synthesis of studies employing community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address mental health problems of minorities, strengths and challenges of the CBPR approach with minority populations are highlighted. Despite the fact that minority community members voiced a need for innovative approaches to address culturally unique issues, findings revealed that most researchers continued to use the traditional methods in which they were trained. Moreover, researchers continued to view mental health treatment from a health service perspective. PMID:20464489

Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Shattell, Mona M; Coady, Maria; Wiens, Brenda

2011-10-01

407

Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data  

OpenAIRE

Background: Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective: To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of exi...

Michelle Redman-MacLaren; Jane Mills; Rachael Tommbe

2014-01-01

408

Morphological Characterization of the Cuban Creole Goat: Basis for Participatory Management of a Zoogenetic Resource  

OpenAIRE

This research provides an external morphological characterization of the population of Creole goats in the Cuban community, 26 de Julio, as an essential element for designing a strategy of participatory management for this animal. This goat was characterized using zoometry, morphology and phaneroptic aspects. From a morphometric point of view, researchers defined the population of Cuban Creole goats in the study community to be medium in size with medium proportions and harmonic proport...

Ruiz-najera, R. E.; Coutino-ruiz, R. R.; Medina-jonapa, F. J.; Ley-de Coss, A.; Pinto-ruiz, R.; Gomez-castro, H.; Fonseca-fuentes, N.; Guevara-hernandez, F.; La O-arias, M.; Espinosa-moreno, J. A.; Rodriguez-larramendi, Luis A.

2012-01-01

409

Urban Indian voices: a community-based participatory research health and needs assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other community research efforts to inform program development, support proposals for external funding, and develop a comprehensive service system model to be implemented in the community. PMID:20683823

Johnson, Chad V; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A; Hellman, Chad M; Burkhart, Russell

2010-01-01

410

Between Citizenship and Clientship: The Politics of participatory governance in Malawi.  

OpenAIRE

In the twenty years since the post-Cold War wave of democratisation spread across Africa, experiments in participatory governance have revealed fundamental contradictions between their normative bases and their practical application on the ground. Responding to calls for a greater focus on ‘the politics of everyday life’ including the actions of local actors in the context of less-westernised aspects of indigenous political culture, and drawing on the experiences and actions, over a six ...

Gaynor, Niamh

2010-01-01

411

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL LAND SYSTEMS AND WATER USE DURING THE APPLICATION OF PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT  

OpenAIRE

The identification of water rights is essential to the application of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) policies. Water and agricultural land have traditionally had strong relationships. We must clarify land tenure conditions and their relationships with water rights. This paper presents the results of studies focused on the relationships between agricultural land systems and water use in several African and Asian countries. It describes different situations related to land systems an...

Oka, Naoko; Koide, Junji; Mostafa, Harby; Sakata, Satoshi; Wakeyo, Mekonnen B.; Fujimoto, Naoya

2013-01-01

412

Path-dependency in plant breeding: challenges facing participatory reforms in the Ethiopian Sorghum Improvement Program  

OpenAIRE

Participatory plant breeding (PPB) seeks to involve farmers more closely in crop improvement in order to improve breeding impact. While PPB aims to reform breeding practice, there has been little analysis of the current practice breeding institutions. Such an analysis is necessary, both to understand why a breeding programme works the way it does, and to assess the possibilities of for reforms. This paper develops theories of path-dependency, social construction of technology, and actor-netwo...

Mcguire, S. J.

2008-01-01

413

Participatory action research and the construction of academic identity among postgraduate research students  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the construction of academic identity among postgraduate research students who emerged from a participatory action research (PAR) project. The article reports on how postgraduate research students constructed their academic identity deliberately, as they pursue their studies in a sustainable learning environment (SuLE) project. The aim is to contribute towards an understanding of the impact PAR has on research work of postgraduate students in the Faculty of...

Tshelane, Molaodi David

2013-01-01

414

Using Community-Based Participatory Research as a Guiding Framework for Health Disparities Research Centers  

OpenAIRE

There has been growing interest in conducting community-based health research using a participatory approach that involves the active collaboration of academic and community partners to address community-level health concerns. Project EXPORT (Excellence in Partnerships, Outreach, Research, and Training) is a National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) initiative focused on understanding and eliminating health disparities for racial and ethnic minorities and medically un...

Trinh-shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia; Tandon, S. Darius; Abesamis, Noilyn; Hoe-asjoe, Heniretta; Rey, Mariano

2007-01-01

415

For a public sociology on participatory democracy. Reflexive feedback on research conducted in an association  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper develops a reflexive approach on the relations between research and action in works on participatory democracy; a topic in which bridges are numerous between academic, political and activist fields. It aims at analyzing the impact of the close links between sociologists and actors on the methods and results of research and, reciprocally, the role of sociology in developing participatory practices. Relying on Michael Burawoy’s reflection on “public sociology”, our own research experience in an association, and other research studies conducted in Europe, we define five ways sociologists carry out research on participatory democracy in collaboration with the actors. Beyond a reflection on the social reception of our research, the challenge is to develop a critical and committed sociology on participatory democracy with a view to contributing to the political debate and public action from a critical viewpoint.

Este artículo desarrolla un enfoque reflexivo sobre las relaciones entre investigación y acción en los trabajos sobre democracia participativa, una temática en la que los vínculos entre los campos académicos, políticos y militantes son numerosos. El objetivo es analizar el impacto de las estrechas relaciones entre sociólogos y actores sociales en los métodos y resultados de la investigación y, al mismo tiempo, el papel de la sociología en el desarrollo de las prácticas participativas. Apoyándose en la reflexión de Michael Burawoy sobre la “sociología pública”, en nuestra propia experiencia de investigación en una asociación y en otras investigaciones en Europa, se definen cinco posturas de sociólogos que trabajan en colaboración con los actores sociales sobre la democracia participativa. Más allá de una reflexión sobre la receptividad social de nuestras investigaciones, el desafío consiste en desarrollar una sociología a la vez crítica y comprometida sobre la democracia participativa, para contribuir al debate político y a la acción pública a partir de una capacidad de distancia crítica.

Nez, Héloïse

2012-12-01

416

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health p...

Felipone, Sonia M. N.; Dos Santos, Tereza L. F.; Pontuschka, Ni?dia N.; Baeder, Angela M.; Jutta Gutberlet

2013-01-01

417

Stepping into futures: exploring the potential of interactive media for participatory scenarios on social ecological systems  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we present a strategy for the development of interactive media scenarios to help communicate uncertainties and complexities in coupled human and natural systems. Insights arising from Complex Adaptive Systems theory advocate the need for more adaptive perspectives on natural resources management. For the collaborative exploration of future complexities and uncertainties, participatory scenario development has proven to be a powerful approach. A range of communication strategies...

Vervoort, J. M.; Kok, K.; Lammeren, R. J. A.; Veldkamp, A.

2010-01-01

418

Your Vision or My Model? Lessons from Participatory Land Use Scenario Development on a European Scale  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory processes in scenario development have received increasing attention throughout the last years. Combining qualitative stakeholder and quantitative expert information (i.e. modelling) offers unique opportunities to mix good data, scientific rigour, imagination and expertise from different perspectives. However, this task is all but easy as it requires a careful balancing of approaches and an acceptance of different levels of knowledge and trust in different methods across disciplinary boundaries. In spite of a growing body of literature we are still in the early stages of learning how to deal effectively with participatory scenario development. In the PRELUDE project of the European Environment Agency a relatively far-reaching participatory approach to scenario development was applied: a group of stakeholders from across Europe was given full responsibility to develop long-term alternative land use scenarios in cooperation with experts and modellers. The scenarios have been used in a formal outreach process with key clients and stakeholders at the European and Member State level afterwards. The aim of this paper is to document the methods used, analyse their strengths and weaknesses and draw some general conclusions regarding participatory processes in scenario development. This paper argues that in future scenario development more attention needs to be paid to strengthen the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis. A set of compelling and coherent storylines can effectively trigger strategic conversations among policy-makers and key stakeholders about potential future developments and related response strategies. A weak integration with quantitative results can undermine this outcome, which is one of the ultimate objectives of any scenario exercise.

Volkery, Axel; Ribeiro, Teresa

2008-01-01

419

Empowering Smallholder Women Farmers through Participatory Seed Potato Management: Lessons from Welmera District, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG) can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholde...

Ali Mohammed Oumer; Wudineh Getahun Tiruneh; Chilot Yirga Tizale

2014-01-01

420

The Rochester project: An examination of participatory democracy for teen pregnancy prevention policymaking  

OpenAIRE

An increasingly important political and policy issue is how to find an optimal location for citizens’ voices and input in policymaking processes. Participatory democracy, of which the principles of public participation, idea sharing and deliberation are central, seeks to locate the public within the policymaking process. Certain fields, however, of policy remain dominated by “expert knowledge.” Public health programs and policymaking, in particular, often reflect the contribution of phy...

Johnson, Corie Ashani

2007-01-01

421

Moving Beyond "Health Education": Participatory Filmmaking for Cross-Cultural Health Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of developing short films with women in Australian Aboriginal (Yol?u) communities in northeast Arnhem Land, questions arose about how the content and the process of production were defined and adjusted to suit both parties. This research examines how filmmakers take roles as health educators and how Yol?u women as the "actors" define and direct the film. It explores ways that the filmmakers tried to ensure that Yol?u identity was maintained in a biomedical agenda through the use of storytelling in language. An important dialogue develops regarding ownership and negotiation of health information and knowledge, addressing this intersection in a way that truly characterizes the spirit of community-based participatory research. Although the filmmaking processes were initially analyzed in the context of feminist and educational empowerment theories, we conclude that Latour's (2005) theory of actor networks leads to a more coherent way to explore participatory filmmaking as a health education tool. The analysis in this work provides a framework to integrate health communication, Indigenous women's issues, and filmmaking practices. In contrasting participatory filmmaking with health promotion and ethnographic film, the importance of negotiating the agenda is revealed. PMID:25411999

Zemits, Birut; Maypilama, Lawurrpa; Wild, Kayli; Mitchell, Alice; Rumbold, Alice

2014-11-20

422

Evaluation of Bayesian Networks in Participatory Water Resources Management, Upper Guadiana Basin, Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual appeal. This research focuses on developing and testing a set of evaluation criteria for public participation. The advantages and limitations of these criteria are discussed in the light of a specific participatory modeling initiative. Modeling work was conducted in the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain, where uncontrolled groundwater extraction is responsible for wetland degradation and conflicts between farmers, water authorities, and environmentalists. Finding adequate solutions to the problem is urgent because the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive requires all aquatic ecosystems to be in a “good ecological state” within a relatively short time frame. Stakeholder evaluation highlights the potential of Bayesian networks to support public participation processes.

John Bromley

2010-09-01

423

Participatory organizational change in community-based health and human services: from tokenism to political engagement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community psychologists have long worked with community-based human service organizations to build participatory processes. These efforts largely aim at building participatory practices within the current individual-wellness paradigm of human services. To address collective wellness, human service organizations need to challenge their current paradigm, attend to the social justice needs of community, and engage community participation in a new way, and in doing so become more openly political. We use qualitative interviews, focus groups, organizational documents, and participant observation to present a comparative case study of two organizations involved in such a process through an action research project aimed at transforming the organizations' managerial and practice paradigm from one based on first-order, ameliorative change to one that promotes second-order, transformative change via strength-based approaches, primary prevention, empowerment and participation, and focuses on changing community conditions. Four participatory tensions or dialectics are discussed: passive versus active participation, partners versus clients, surplus powerlessness versus collective efficacy, and reflection/learning versus action/doing. PMID:19142722

Bess, Kimberly D; Prilleltensky, Isaac; Perkins, Douglas D; Collins, Leslie V

2009-03-01

424

Forming social capital--does participatory planning foster trust in institutions?  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory planning that includes interest groups and municipal representatives has been presented as a means to deal with the increasing difficulty to reach arrangements due to progressively scarce land resources. Under dispute is whether collaborative forms of planning augment social capital or whether they might actually cause the destruction of such a valuable social commodity. In this paper we focus on trust in institution as a specific dimension of social capital because we argue that this is one of the effects the convenors of such participatory planning procedures are most interested in. We pursue a pre-post design and survey advisory group members of five on-going river-related planning processes in Switzerland. Controlling for generalised trust, we investigate how trust in institutions is affected over time by the quality of such processes and the degree of participation they offer. We find that generalised trust is highly correlated with initial levels of trust and so is process quality. Particularly the latter finding challenges the usually assumed direction of causality according to which process quality influences trust building. Additionally, we find a positive (non-significant) effect of process quality on changes in trust, while a higher degree of participation rather seems to hinder trust building. We suppose this indicates that under the conditions of limited time and resources more attention should be paid to how to improve the quality of participatory processes than putting much effort in increasing the degree of participation. PMID:24211564

Menzel, Susanne; Buchecker, Matthias; Schulz, Tobias

2013-12-15

425

Methods for Developing Multiscale Participatory Scenarios: Insights from Southern Africa and Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scenario planning is increasingly recognized as a useful tool for exploring change in social-ecological systems on decadal to centennial time horizons. In environmental decision making, scenario development tends to include participatory methods for engaging stakeholders and is conducted at multiple scales. This paper presents insights from participatory scenario development in two separate multiscale environmental assessments. We find that, to engage stakeholders at multiple scales, it is important that the issues explored at each scale be relevant and credible to stakeholders at that scale. An important trade-off exists between maintaining relevance to stakeholders at different scales and maintaining consistency across scales to allow for comparison of scenarios. Where downscaling methods are used to ensure consistency, there can be important consequences for (1 the diversity of scenario outcomes, (2 temporal mismatches in the storylines at different scales, and (3 power relationships among stakeholders at different scales. We suggest that development of participatory scenarios at multiple scales has a strong potential to contribute to environmental decision making, but it requires a substantial investment of time and resources to realize its full potential.

Monika Zurek

2007-06-01

426

The Role of Participatory Modeling in Landscape Approaches to Reconcile Conservation and Development  

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Full Text Available Conservation organizations are increasingly turning to landscape approaches to achieve a balance between conservation and development goals. We use six case studies in Africa and Asia to explore the role of participatory modeling with stakeholders as one of the steps towards implementing a landscape approach. The modeling was enthusiastically embraced by some stakeholders and led to impact in some cases. Different stakeholders valued the modeling exercise differently. Noteworthy was the difference between those stakeholders connected to the policy process and scientists; the presence of the former in the modeling activities is key to achieving policy impacts, and the latter were most critical of participatory modeling. Valued aspects of the modeling included stimulating cross-sector strategic thinking, and helping participants to confront the real drivers of change and to recognize trade-offs. The modeling was generally considered to be successful in building shared understanding of issues. This understanding was gained mainly in the discussions held in the process of building the model rather than in the model outputs. The model itself reflects but a few of the main elements of the usually rich discussions that preceded its finalization. Problems emerged when models became too complex. Key lessons for participatory modeling are the need for good facilitation in order to maintain a balance between "models as stories" and technical modeling, and the importance of inviting the appropriate stakeholders to achieve impact.

Habtemariam Kassa

2010-06-01

427

Exploring Action Research as an Approach to Interactive (Participatory) Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation plan. Action…

Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida

2012-01-01

428

Participatory rural appraisal to investigate constraints in reporting cattle mortalities in the Odi district of North West Province, South Africa  

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Full Text Available Mortalities in cattle can have severe financial implications for small scale and communal farmers in South Africa. They could also be a measurable indicator for surveillance of animal diseases, such as those listed by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE, or diseases included in the regulations of the South African Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984. In order to prevent further mortalities and for accurate surveillance and monitoring of diseases, it is important that farmers participate in the determination of causes of mortality in their cattle. This paper reports on constraints of the reporting diseases to the state veterinary services, the study area being Odi district, in the North West Province. The method that was followed was based on participatory rural appraisal. The selected cattle owners participated in every phase. They were the ones who first spoke to veterinary services about ways to decrease the diseases and mortalities of their cattle. A questionnaire to verify the facts complemented the survey. A total number of 60 farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages. One farmer withdrew, leaving 59 farmers. Most of the farmers in the study were men (n = 55. The area of study was communal and the farming system traditional and extensive. It was suspected that there was a communication problem and this was proven by the results of the research, as 23 farmers were not even aware that mortalities have to be reported by law. The real problem was that causes of death were not being diagnosed because farmers were not aware that a necropsy could give information on the causes of death. Farmers were keen to receive training in elementary necropsy techniques so as to be able to discuss the cause of death of cattle with the state veterinarian.

J.H. Owen

2012-06-01

429

Assessing the Impact of Varietal Resistance and Planting Dates on the Incidence of African Yam Bean Flower Thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti, Hochst. Ex. A. Rich in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Hochst. Ex. A. Rich is one of the underutilized leguminous crops in the tropics despite its nutritional potentials. One of the major reasons for the gross neglect of this crop in many parts of Africa is its low grain yield when compared to other grain legumes under monocrop. The infestation of the plant by flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti has been recorded as the major causes of low yield of the crop. M. sjostedti can cause yield losses of up to 100%. Following its current status as a minor crop, only very few researches have been undertaken in its production especially as it relates to insect control. Hence, in this study we assessed the effect of varietal resistance and three planting dates on the incidence of the thrips and crop yields in Nigeria during 2009/2010 farming seasons. The results indicated that all the varieties planted in May of each season were less infested by M. sjostedti and differed significantly from those planted in June and July of each season. Amongst the varieties assessed, TSs9 was the most resistance and differed significantly from the rest of the varieties. The results of the grain yields showed that all the varieties performed better with higher grain yields when planted in May than those planted later. The flowering and podding formation stages of AYB planted in July coincided with the peak population densities of M. sjostedti resulting in a considerable reduction in grain yields. The highest grain yields were recorded under a combination of early planting with resistant varieties. It could therefore be concluded that planting African yam bean earlier in the season has significant effect on M. sjostedti incidence and grain yield.

Emmanuel O. Ogah

2011-01-01

430

Varietal effects of eight paired lines of transgenic Bt maize and near-isogenic non-Bt maize on soil microbial and nematode community structure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A glasshouse experiment was undertaken to provide baseline data on the variation between conventional maize (Zea mays L.) varieties and genetically modified maize plants expressing the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Bt, Cry1Ab). The objective was to determine whether the variation in soil parameters under a range of conventional maize cultivars exceeded the differences between Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. Variations in plant growth parameters (shoot and root biomass, percentage carbon, percentage nitrogen), Bt protein concentration in shoots, roots and soil, soil nematode abundance and soil microbial community structure were determined. Eight paired varieties (i.e. varieties genetically modified to express Bt protein and their near-isogenic control varieties) were investigated, together with a Bt variety for which no near-isogenic control was available (NX3622, a combined transformant expressing both Bt and herbicide tolerance) and a conventional barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety which was included as a positive control. The only plant parameter which showed a difference between Bt varieties and near-isogenic counterparts was the shoot carbon to nitrogen ratio; this was observed for only two of the eight varieties, and so was not attributable to the Bt trait. There were no detectable differences in the concentration of Bt protein in plant or soil with any of the Bt-expressing varieties. There were significant differences in the abundance of soil nematodes, but this was not related to the Bt trait. Differences in previously published soil nematode studies under Bt maize were smaller than these varietal effects. Soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, was strongly affected by plant growth stage but not by the Bt trait. The experimental addition of purified Cry1Ab protein to soil confirmed that, at ecologically relevant concentrations, there were no measurable effects on microbial community structure.

Griffiths, Bryan S; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

2007-01-01

431

Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527

Seyednezami Nasrin

2007-08-01

432

Evaluation of the effectiveness of deworming and participatory hygiene education strategy in controlling anemia among children aged 6-15 years in Gadagau community, Giwa LGA, Kaduna, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background : Anemia is one of the most common and most serious health disorders worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO estimated that about 40% of the total world?s population (more than 2 billion individuals suffer from anemia. In developing countries, the prevalence rate of anemia is about 20% in school-aged children. More than 10 million African children are thought to be anemic (Hb <11 g/dl. Also, in Africa, it is estimated that more than half of all children over 5 years and pregnant women are anemic. Community-based estimates of anemia prevalence in settings where malaria is endemic range between 49% and 76%. In Nigeria, the prevalence rate for anemia among children was 29.4%. It was highest in the South-East (49.7% and lowest in the North-East (11.1%. Objective : The study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of deworming and participatory hygiene education strategy in controlling anemia among children aged 6-15 years in the Gadagau community, north-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional descriptive study of 306 children aged 6-15 years selected from two rural communities (Gadagau, which was the study group and Karau-Karau, which was the control group in the Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria using a multistage sampling technique. The studies involved parasitological examination and anemia evaluation before and at 3 months after the children were dewormed. Results : Only 301 children (150 children in study group and 151 children in control group were studied. The results showed that those who were dewormed and had participatory hygiene education lectures (study group had significantly higher mean hemoglobin, from an initial 10.4 g/dl to a post-intervention of 12.4 g/dl (paired t-test = 13.96; P = 0.00. Also, there was a rise in the mean hemoglobin of the control group, but not as much as in the study group, from an initial mean hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl to a post-intervention of 11.2 g/dl (paired t-test = 2.89; P = 0.004. Comparing the study and the control groups, those who were dewormed and also had participatory hygiene education lectures (study group had a significantly higher reduction in the level of children who had ova of intestinal helminthes present in their stool than those in the control group (? 2 = 31.61; df = 1, P = 0.00. Conclusion : This study therefore concludes that including participatory hygiene education to deworming programmes will greatly improve the hemoglobin level of children in areas where there is a high prevalence of hookworm infections, especially as a short-term preventive measure for anemia in children.

Sufiyan M

2011-03-01

433

Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment  

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Full Text Available Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of narrative socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993–2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e. through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC. After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also discussed. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

F. Caille

2007-11-01

434

Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment  

Science.gov (United States)

Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain), as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of narrative socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993-2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e. through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives) for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also discussed. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

Caille, F.; Riera, J. L.; Rodríguez-Labajos, B.; Middelkoop, H.; Rosell-Melé, A.

2007-11-01

435

Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993–2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e., through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC. After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also presented. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

F. Caille

2007-05-01

436

The usefulness of Decision Support Systems in participatory forest planning: a comparison between Finland and Italy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of study: Participation of stake holders is considered an essential element in producing, at different spatial and temporal scales, forest plans accepted by local community and fulfilling the requirements of Sustainable Forest Management. Increasingly, computer-based decision support systems (DSS) and tools are being introduced to assist stake holders and decision-makers in coping with the complexities inherent in participatory forest planning. The study aimed to investigate how useful the users and researchers see DSS tools and which opportunities they perceive DSS might carry for enhancing participatory forest planning in their field of activity. Area of study: 15 Italian and Finnish researchers and practitioners were interviewed. Material and methods: Face-to-face structured interviews were used to collect opinions and experiences. Quantitative and qualitative information were analyzed to investigate differences between Italian and Finnish respondents as well as between researchers and practitioners Main results: Results showed that in Italy there has been more focus on forest-level and medium-term problems and the intelligence phase, while in Finland there has been more attention to region-level and long-term problems and equally intelligence, design, and choice phases of decision-making. Deviations probably reflect different planning contexts and culture, variability in experiences and expertise in DSS and in availability of suitable DSS. Research highlights: The study suggests to pay attention to evaluating the success criteria of participatory planning when preparing for the use of DSS and related tools in practical forest planning processes. Experience sharing is a key to reaching more successful use of DSS. (Author)

Meo, I. de; Ferretti, F.; Hujala, T.; Kangas, A.

2013-09-01

437

Participatory Design at the Museum - inquiring into children's everyday engagement in cultural heritage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We address the challenge of creating intersections between children’s everyday engagement and museum exhibitions. Specifically, we propose an approach to participatory design inquiry where children’s everyday engagement is taken as the point of departure. We base our discussion on a design workshop – Gaming the Museum – where a primary school class was invited to participate in creating future exhibition spaces for a museum based on their everyday use of computer games and online communities. We reflect on the results of the workshop and discuss more broadly the qualities of design inquiries that use the everyday engagement of children as point of departure for designing interactive museum exhibitions.

Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

438

Engaging youth in bullying prevention through community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies that engage youth in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focus on issues of safety/violence, include elementary school-aged youth, or quantitatively assess outcomes of the CBPR process. This article expands understanding of CBPR with youth by describing and evaluating the outcomes of a project that engaged fifth-grade students at 3 schools in bullying-focused CBPR. Results suggest that the project was associated with decreases in fear of bullying and increases in peer and teacher intervention to stop bullying. We conclude with implications for the engagement of elementary school-aged youth in CBPR to address bullying and other youth issues. PMID:25423250

Gibson, Jennifer E; Flaspohler, Paul D; Watts, Vanessa

2015-01-01