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Sample records for participatory varietal selection

  1. Participatory varietal selection and village seed banks for self-reliance: lessons learnt

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    Sreenath Dixit

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Farmers have been collecting, selecting and saving the seeds of harvested crops for use as seed to meet their planting requirement in the following season. In the past four decades, the management of seed production and supply have undergone a drastic change. Hybrid technology has increased the productivity significantly, but at the same time, the farmers' dependence on external agencies has gone up. With the objective of ensuing the supply of quality seeds of improved/high yielding varieties, ICRISAT-led Watershed Consortium made an attempt to promote the concept of village seed banks. An in-depth study of the seed villages at the Asian Development Bank (ADB and Tata-ICRISAT sites of Vidisha and Guna Districs, Madhya Pradesh, documented successful community initiatives providing valuable insights into the concept. This paper elucidates case studies on the community initiatives for establishing and running seed banks through ADB-funded project in the Madhya Pradesh and documents the process of scaling up the same through APRLP-funded project in Andhra Pradesh.

  2. Gendered production spaces and crop varietal selection: Case study in Yucatán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lope-alzina, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of gender relations and gendered domains on maize and squash varietal selection in a village in Yucatán State, southeast Mexico. Results of the exploratory study indicate that the traditional production spaces of homegardens and agricultural fields are complementary gendered domains of varietal maintenance for both crops although with different cropping patterns, while a `new¿ space, of land allocated to some families for future residential construction (te...

  3. Effectiveness of participatory breeding and variety selection for sorghum technology adoption in Zambia

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    Lloyd Mbulwe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Participatory breeding and variety selection has been proposed as an effective way of disseminating improved technologies to farmers for social-economic benefits. As a result the Sorghum and Millets Improvement Programme (SMIP, of the Zambia Agriculture Research Institution (ZARI, in collaboration with the farming systems scientists at Mansa Research Station, in Luapula Province tested the effectiveness of this methodology. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated based on the number of farmers rating new improved agriculture technologies favourably and willing to adopt the improved technologies after being exposed to participatory breeding. An on-farm participatory sorghum variety demonstration trial was conducted during the 2011/2012 rainy season in Zambia, Milenge district, of the Luapula province. The trial consisted of 12 improved sorghum germplasm lines of which six were hybrids and six were varieties developed by SMIP. The germplasm was evaluated by the farmers, extension and research staff on farm. The germplasm was evaluated for its value for cultivation and use. The methodology that was used is called participatory breeding which is part of the broader concept of participatory rural extension and the Innovative Platform for Technology Adoption (IPTA advocated by the Forum for Agriculture Research in Africa. The results of the methodology indicated that this methodology is effective if farmers are committed and good agriculture policies are in place. When farmers feel part of the developmental process, it is easier for them to adopt improved technologies.

  4. Farmer's Knowledge of Horticultural Traits and Participatory Selection of African Eggplant Varieties (Solanum aethiopicum in Tanzania

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    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Participatory selection was conducted in 2008 through 2009 to identify farmers' preference for species and horticultural traits that may constitute future breeding objectives. Vegetable farmers were selected from Moshi and Arusha regions, test population comprised twenty-six accessions from four Solanum species (eggplant and relatives. Purposive sampling was used to select the farming communities with high African eggplant production activities; a multistage random sampling procedure was adopted to select farmers from three regions for participatory meeting. The focus group discussion sessions identified fruit shape, taste, earliness, medicinal properties, marketability and resistance to diseases as farmers' preferred traits in S. aethiopicum; taste and marketability for S. melongena, taste and medicinal properties among S. macrocarpon and S. anguivi. Fruits characterized by cream colour at commercial harvest are most preferred compared to green, to a lesser extent is purple. Interestingly high fruits per plant, fruits per cluster and fruit cluster per plant best described S. anguivi. Fruit yield was superior in Db3 (S. aethiopicum Gilo group, top five accessions for organoleptic properties are Db3, Ab2, MM 1619, S00052 and MM 1086. Characters indicated above may constitute breeding objectives and population identified may serve as pollen parents for development of new varieties in african eggplant. Intraspecific hybridization within S. aethiopicum Gilo cultigroup, hybridization among Gilo and Shum cultigroups and interspecific hybridization between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi may evolve new population aimed at improving fruit yield.

  5. MULTI-STAKEHOLDER VARIETAL INNOVATION PLATFORMS. A SOCIOTECHNICAL PARTNERSHIP RESEARCH SCHEME ASSESSED IN BENIN

    OpenAIRE

    Lanc?on, Jacques; Carette, Caroline; Lokossou, Bernardin; Tomekpe?, Kodjo; Hocde?, Henri; Corbalan, Jean-antoine; Heurtaux, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Participatory plant breeding research may be hampered by the fact that results that have been obtained in very specific localized settings cannot be disseminated and scaled. Varietal innovation platforms aim to overcome this problem by ensuring that the viewpoints of people involved in assessments are representative of broad interest groups and that assessment results will be validated and disseminated by an organization. Each platform is designed as a sociotechnical scheme consisting of a fi...

  6. Development of a Methodology for Selecting Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management: A Case Study on Participatory Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Guillermo A.; Prabhu, Ravi

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes an application of multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in assessing criteria and indicators adapted for a particular forest management unit. The methods include: ranking, rating, and pairwise comparisons. These methods were used in a participatory decision-making environment where a team representing various stakeholders and professionals used their expert opinions and judgements in assessing different criteria and indicators (C&I) on the one hand, and how suitable and applicable they are to a forest management unit on the other. A forest concession located in Kalimantan, Indonesia, was used as the site for the case study. Results from the study show that the multicriteria methods are effective tools that can be used as structured decision aids to evaluate, prioritize, and select sets of C&I for a particular forest management unit. Ranking and rating approaches can be used as a screening tool to develop an initial list of C&I. Pairwise comparison, on the other hand, can be used as a finer filter to further reduce the list. In addition to using these three MCA methods, the study also examines two commonly used group decision-making techniques, the Delphi method and the nominal group technique. Feedback received from the participants indicates that the methods are transparent, easy to implement, and provide a convenient environment for participatory decision-making.

  7. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

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    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  8. Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review

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    Greenhalgh Trish

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory Research (PR entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness, or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers. Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships. Methods We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods. Results The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies, comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist review methods. Discussion The systematic and stage-based procedure addressed challenges to PR assessment and generated our robust understanding of complex and heterogeneous PR practices. To date, realist reviews have focussed on evaluations of relatively uniform interventions. In contrast our PR search yielded a wide diversity of partnerships and research topics. We therefore developed tools to achieve conceptual clarity on the PR field, as a beneficial precursor to our theoretically-driven synthesis using realist methods. Findings from the ongoing review will be provided in forthcoming publications.

  9. A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies. PMID:23669576

  10. Participatory Privacy: Enabling Privacy in Participatory Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    De Cristofaro, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...

  11. Participatory telerobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  12. Replacement adoption: a case of varietal substitution among farmers adopting Sawah rice production technology in Nigeria and Ghana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. O., Oladele; T., Wakatsuki.

    Full Text Available This paper examined the incidence of replacement adoption through varietal substitution among farmers adopting Sawah-ecotechnology rice production technology in Nigeria and Ghana. A simple random sampling was used to select 80 farmers in Nigeria and 70 farmers in Ghana. Data were collected in June 2 [...] 010 with a structured questionnaire in villages where Sawah rice production technology had been introduced. In Nigeria, 30 % of the farmers practice varietal substitution with the use of WITA 3, while in Ghana 40% practice varietal substitution using jasmine and sycamore. The results from the Probit model showed that significant variables include yield (t = 4.12) participation in on farm demonstration (t = 2.77) contact with Sawah agent (t = -1.93), varietal adaptability (t = -2.29), market price (t = 2.50), lodging proneness (t = 2.45), age (t = -3.35) and farming experience (t = 2.49) in Nigeria and Ghana. It therefore implies that the issues of varietal substitution must be viewed within the prevailing socio-economic and farming system milieu of farmers in order to enhance continuous adoption and sustained profit from Sawah technology

  13. Inter and Intra-Varietal Variations in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Under Saline Conditions

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    M. Ahsan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three wheat varieties (Kharchia-65, KRL1-4 and Alexandria were tested for their salt tolerance at 125 mol m-3 NaCl salinity. Inter- and intra-varietal variations in these wheat varieties were also investigated for ion contents (Na+, K+, Cl- , K+/Na+ ratio, yield and yield components under saline conditions. Although environmental conditions were uniform , but variability within varieties was found to higher than the variability between varieties. KRL1-4 was found salt tolerant than Kharchia-65 and Alexandria under saline conditions. These inter- and intra-varietal variations suggested that improvement for salt tolerance might be achieved through selection from within already existing varieties and, or by crossing salt tolerant and salt sensitive wheat genotypes.

  14. Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water condition is a research project under Program Research of Sustainable Production of High Yielding Irrigated Rice under Minimal Water Input (IRPA- 01-01-03-0000/ PR0068/ 0504). Several agencies were involved in this project such as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). The project started in early 2004 with approved IRPA fund of RM 275,000.00 for 3 years. The main objective of the project is to generate superior genotypes for minimal water requirement through induced mutation techniques. A cultivated rice Oryza sativa cv MR219 treated with gamma radiation at 300 and 400 Gray were used in the experiment. Two hundred gm M2 seeds from each dose were screened under minimal water stress in greenhouse at Mardi Seberang Perai. Five hundred panicles with good filled grains were selected for paddy field screening with simulate precise water stress regime. Thirty eight potential lines with required adaptive traits were selected in M3. After several series of selection, 12 promising mutant line were observed tolerance to minimal water stress where two promising mutant lines designated as MR219-4 and MR219-9 were selected for further testing under several stress environments. (author)

  15. Epistasis en la variedad, la cruza varietal, el compuesto varietal y el sintético del maíz / Epistasis in the variety, varietal cross, composite variety and synthetic of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fidel, Márquez-Sánchez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquí se presentan los arreglos epistáticos que ocurren en la variedad de polinización libre, así como en la cruza varietal, el compuesto varietal y el sintético, de maíz (Zea mays L.) con base en el modelo de Holland. Para el análisis se involucran 2 loci con 2 alelos cada uno. Al comparar los rendi [...] mientos teóricos de la variedad contra la cruza varietal y el del compuesto varietal contra los sintéticos, la superioridad de la variedad y del compuesto varietal se debe principalmente a la mayor cantidad de efectos epistáticos dominantes heterocigóticos así como a las interacciones epistáticas en donde se encuentran involucrados. Abstract in english Epistatic effects are derived for the open-pollinated variety, the variety cross, the variety composite and the synthetic variety in maize (Zea mays L.), according to the Holland method. In this paper 2 loci and 2 alleles in each locus are considered. Comparisons showed that yield in the variety cro [...] ss is higher than in the variety, and that yield in the composite variety is higher than in the synthetic. These results are mainly attributed to a higher amount of epistatic dominant heterozygous effects in the variety cross and the variety composite, as well as to the epistatic interactions whenever they are involved.

  16. Demand estimation and marketing plan for Varietize Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwaz, Mazen

    2007-01-01

    This study is a demand estimation and marketing plan for Varietize Technologies - a Vancouver based R&D company that is introducing its first product. Varietize recognized the market opportunity for its latest designed product, the "iTV" - a product that interfaces between the Internet and the TV to allow access for online TV content. The study begins with a demand analysis section that uses Prof. Meredith's model that categorizes different demand factors and determinants to look into dif...

  17. Farmers’ Perceptions of Finger Millet Production Constraints, Varietal Preferences and Their Implications to Finger Millet Breeding in Uganda

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    Lawrence Owere

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an important food security and cash crop in Uganda but its production is constrained by a number of factors. However, information on farmers’ perceptions of constraints and varietal preferences is limited. A study was conducted to; identify varieties and varietal preferences in finger millet, and assess farmers’ constraints to finger millet production and coping mechanisms. The study involved a participatory rural appraisal, and a survey. Farmers identified the major constraint as high labour requirements especially for weeding since over 95% of the farmers used broadcasting as a method of planting. Other constraints that occurred across all the districts were blast disease and low yielding cultivars. Farmers also reported to have developed some coping mechanisms to counter the constraints. In terms of preference for new cultivars, farmers preferred high grain yield, brown seed colour, compact head shape, tolerance to blast disease, high tillering ability, moderate plant height (1 ± 0.2 m, early maturity, tolerance to shattering and ease of threshing without compromising other preferred attributes. The study further revealed that a considerable proportion of the farmers had limited or no knowledge on finger millet blast disease, its causes and mechanisms of coping. Farmers also reported that blast disease symptoms in all locations were on the increase over the years and pointed out the most susceptible and tolerant cultivars. These findings therefore, present an urgent need for information sharing with farmers and other agricultural development partners, and continuous development of blast resistant cultivars with farmer preferred attributes.

  18. Respuesta a la selección masal participativa en calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) / Response to participatory mass selection in sweet squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clemente, Villanueva-Verduzco; Miguel Ángel, Sánchez-Hernández; Irma, Sánchez-Cabrera; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Gema, Parra-Benavides; Evert, Villanueva-Sánchez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en Achichipico, Morelos, México con el fin de evaluar el avance genético in situ de cuatro ciclos de selección masal participativa con respecto de la variedad original en una población de calabaza de dulce (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), en la asociación maíz-calabaza, utilizan [...] do un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se estableció un surco de calabaza cada cuatro de maíz, en surcos de 20 m de largo espaciados a 0.9 m. Se estimó el avance genético por ciclo de selección y se hizo un análisis de varianza para catorce caracteres de planta, fruto y semilla. Se obtuvo ganancia genética por ciclo de selección en color de pulpa (14.1 %), sabor de pulpa (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por hectárea (11.8 %), rendimiento de frutos por planta (9.8 %), peso de fruto (6.5 %) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (5.1 %). El análisis de varianza detectó diferencias altamente significativas entre ciclos de selección para ancho de fruto, color y sabor de pulpa, El resto de caracteres no presentaron diferencias. Sin embargo, existió una clara tendencia numérica al incremento permanente en su magnitud. Abstract in english An experiment was conducted in Achichipico, Morelos, Mexico, to assess in situ the genetic gain of four cycles of participatory mass selection, with regard to the original variety, in a sweet squash population (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) intercropped with maize. The experimental design was a randomiz [...] ed block design with four replications. After every four rows of maize, one row of squash without maize was sown in rows 0.9 m apart and 20 m long. Genetic gain was calculated for each selection cycle and an analysis of variance was performed on data of fourteen plant, fruit and seed traits. Genetic gain per selection cycle in flesh color and flavor was 14.1 % and 11.8 %, respectively; in fruit yield per hectare (11.8 %), fruit yield per plant (9.8 %), fruit weight (6.5 %) and seed yield per hectare (5.1 %). The analysis of variance detected highly significant differences among selection cycles only for fruit width, flesh color and flavor, while the other traits were not statistically different. A clear upward numerical trend was observed.

  19. Coffee varietal differentiation based on near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Díez, I; González-Sáiz, J M; Sáenz-González, C; Pizarro, C

    2007-01-15

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to discriminate between arabica and robusta pure coffee varieties and blends of varied varietal composition. Direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC) pre-processing method was applied on a set of 191 roasted coffee NIR spectra from both pure varieties and blends varying the final robusta content from 0 to 60% (w/w) in order to remove information unrelated to the actual varietal composition of samples. The corrected NIR spectra, as well as raw NIR spectra, were used to develop separate classification models using the potential functions method as class-modelling technique, exploring several options more or less restrictive according to the final number of considered categories. All constructed classification models were compared to evaluate their respective qualities and to show the suitability of applying DOSC method as pre-processing step for developing improved classification models for coffee varietal identification purposes. PMID:19071292

  20. Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project

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    Chovanova Hana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed attitude amongst experts on the other will continue to play a role even after closure.

  1. Iterative participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design.

  2. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social status. We illustrate our theoretical argument for a relational expertise with a running example from a participatory design process engaging an interprofessional group of participants in a project on future technology enabled learning environments.

  3. Varietal Performance of Gram and Comparative Effectiveness of Three Insecticides Against Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hb.).

    OpenAIRE

    Said Mir Khan; Syed Faizullah

    1999-01-01

    A research project was initiated to evaluate varietal resistance of gram against pod borer and to determine the comparative efficacy of three insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (Hb). Gram varieties Viz. NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91 and KARAK-1 were selected while three insecticides namely Thiodan 35 EC, Cymbush 10EC and Actelic 50 EC were applied. KARAK-1 variety of gram was found significantly least susceptible to the attack of gram pod borer, followed by NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91. All the tested inse...

  4. Participatory visualization with Wordle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them. PMID:19834182

  5. Use of Multispectral Imaging in Varietal Identification of Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Multispectral imaging is an emerging non-destructive technology. In this work its potential for varietal discrimination and identification of tomato cultivars of Nepal was investigated. Two sample sets were used for the study, one with two parents and their crosses and other with eleven cultivars to study parents and offspring relationship and varietal identification respectively. Normalized canonical discriminant analysis (nCDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze and compare the results for parents and offspring study. Both the results showed clear discrimination of parents and offspring. nCDA was also used for pairwise discrimination of the eleven cultivars, which correctly discriminated upto 100% and only few pairs below 85%. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was further used to classify all the cultivars. The model displayed an overall classification accuracy of 82%, which was further improved to 96% and 86% with stepwise PLS-DA models on high (seven) and poor (four) sensitivity cultivars, respectively. The stepwise PLS-DA models had satisfactory classification errors for cross-validation and prediction 7% and 7%, respectively. The results obtained provide an opportunity of using multispectral imaging technology as a primary tool in a scientific community for identification/discrimination of plant varieties in regard to genetic purity and plant variety protection/registration.

  6. Participatory management of waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noosorn, Narongsak

    2005-05-01

    The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice. PMID:16124458

  7. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text

  8. Participatory and persuasive telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations. PMID:21893945

  9. Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    Many scholars point out that in complex and contested decision-making and planning situations, participatory processes have clear advantages over "traditional" or non-participatory processes. Improving our understanding of which participatory process elements or combination of elements contribute to specific outcomes demands a comparative diagnosis of multiple case studies based on a systematic framework. This paper describes the theoretical foundation and application of a diagnostic framework developed for the description and comparative analysis of participatory processes. The framework for the Comparison of Participatory Processes (COPP) is composed of three dimensions: context, process, and outputs outcomes and impacts. For each dimension, a list of variables is provided, with associated selectable options. The framework also requires clarification of three monitoring and evaluation elements. The COPP framework is then applied to five participatory processes across five different contexts: three located in the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and two in eastern Africa. The goal is to test first if the framework facilitates the development of a comprehensive and clear description of participatory processes, and second, if a diagnostic step can be facilitated by applying the descriptions in a cross-comparative analysis. The paper concludes that despite a few challenges, the COPP framework is sufficiently generic to derive clear and consistent descriptions. A sample of only five case studies restricts the derivation of robust insights. Nevertheless, three testable hypothesis were derived, which would need to be tested with a much larger sample of case studies in order to substantiate the efficacy of process characteristics and attributes. Ultimately, such hypotheses and subsequent analytical efforts would contribute to the advancement of this increasingly prominent research domain. PMID:25884891

  10. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?

  11. A Trust-based Recruitment Framework for Multi-hop Social Participatory Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Amintoosi, Haleh; Kanhere, Salil S.

    2013-01-01

    The idea of social participatory sensing provides a substrate to benefit from friendship relations in recruiting a critical mass of participants willing to attend in a sensing campaign. However, the selection of suitable participants who are trustable and provide high quality contributions is challenging. In this paper, we propose a recruitment framework for social participatory sensing. Our framework leverages multi-hop friendship relations to identify and select suitable a...

  12. Evaluation of the biophysical limitations on photosynthesis of four varietals of Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Aston, T.; Ewers, B.; Weinig, C.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluating performance of agricultural varietals can support the identification of genotypes that will increase yield and can inform management practices. The biophysical limitations of photosynthesis are amongst the key factors that necessitate evaluation. This study evaluated how four biophysical limitations on photosynthesis, stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit, maximum carboxylation rate by Rubisco (Ac), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (Aj) and triose phosphate use (At) vary between four Brassica rapa genotypes. Leaf gas exchange data was used in an ecophysiological process model to conduct this evaluation. The Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) integrates the carbon uptake and utilization rate limiting factors for plant growth. A Bayesian framework integrated in TREES here used net A as the target to estimate the four limiting factors for each genotype. As a first step the Bayesian framework was used for outlier detection, with data points outside the 95% confidence interval of model estimation eliminated. Next parameter estimation facilitated the evaluation of how the limiting factors on A different between genotypes. Parameters evaluated included maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax), quantum yield (?J), the ratio between Vc-max and electron transport rate (J), and trios phosphate utilization (TPU). Finally, as trios phosphate utilization has been shown to not play major role in the limiting A in many plants, the inclusion of At in models was evaluated using deviance information criteria (DIC). The outlier detection resulted in a narrowing in the estimated parameter distributions allowing for greater differentiation of genotypes. Results show genotypes vary in the how limitations shape assimilation. The range in Vc-max , a key parameter in Ac, was 203.2 - 223.9 umol m-2 s-1 while the range in ?J, a key parameter in AJ, was 0.463 - 0.497 umol m-2 s-1. The added complexity of the TPU limitation did not improve model performance in the genotypes assessed based on DIC. By identifying how varietals differ in their biophysical limitations on photosynthesis genotype selection can be informed for agricultural goals. Further work aims at applying this approach to a fifth limiting factor on photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance.

  13. El panorama varietal del cultivo de zanahoria en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 7,000 and 9,800 hectares of carrot are grown annually in Argentina. Major producing provinces are Mendoza, Buenos Aires, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Córdoba and San Juan, with differences in environmental conditions and cultivars adapted. Carrot cultivars can be classified in three ways: as annual or biennials, according to the root shape in several varietal types, and as hybrids or open-pollinated cultivars (OP. The aim of this study was to characterize the carrot cultivars supply in the major producing provinces of Argentina. Data from interviews and surveys to seed sellers, agents of Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, agronomists and service companies of the carrot chain were compiled and processed. Mendoza mainly has 91 % of its cultivated area with biennial cultivars, 76 % of cultivars type Flakkee and 92 % of OP cultivars. In Buenos Aires annual carrots are roughly not cultivated, the main varietal types are Flakkee (80 % and Nantes, and 21 % of its carrot surface is grown with hybrids. In Santiago del Estero almost the totality of the cultivars are OP, with 60 % of annual cultivars (“criolla” type. Santa Fe is characterized by the greatest use of hybrids (40 %, being all grown biennial cultivars and Nantes type. In Córdoba and San Juan exclusively OP cultivars are grown with high proportion of annual cultivars. Open-pollinated biennial cultivars of the Flakkee type are actually the most grown in Argentina.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- En Argentina se cultivan anualmente entre 7.000 y 9.800 hectáreas de zanahoria. Las principales provincias productoras son: Mendoza,Buenos Aires, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Córdoba y San Juan. Cada zona difiere en condiciones ambientales y cultivares adaptadas. Las cultivares de zanahoria pueden clasificarse según tres criterios: en anuales o bienales, según la forma de sus raíces en tipos varietales, y en híbridas o variedades de polinización abierta (VPA. Con el objetivo de caracterizar la oferta varietal de zanahoria en las principales provincias productoras de Argentina, se recopilaron y procesaron datos a partir de entrevistas y encuestas a distribuidores de semillas, agentes del Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, asesores profesionales y empresas de servicios de la cadena agroalimentaria de zanahoria. Mendoza tiene 91 % de su superficie con cultivares bienales, 76 % de cultivares tipo Flakkee y 92 % de VPA. En Buenos Aires no se cultivan prácticamente zanahorias anuales, los tipos varietales más utilizados son Flakkee (80 % y Nantesa, y la superficie con híbridoses de 21 %. En Santiago del Estero casi la totalidad de loscultivos son VPA, con 60 % de cultivares anuales (tipo “criolla”.Santa Fe se caracteriza por la mayor utilización de híbridos (40%, siendo la totalidad de sus cultivares bienales y del tipo Nantesa.En Córdoba y San Juan se cultivan exclusivamente VPA con alta participación de anuales. Las cultivares bienales de polinización abierta, tipo Flakkee, son actualmente las más cultivadas en Argentina.

  14. Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change managem...

  15. Digital publics and participatory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McNely

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.

  16. Varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to saline conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, V I; Shabala, S

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to assess varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity and to investigate physiological mechanisms conferring these differences. Methods Production of biomass in fourteen varieties grown under saline conditions was analysed in a pot experiment. For two contrasting varieties, the Danish variety Titicaca and the Bolivian variety Utusaya gas exchange, chlorophyll content index (CCI), fluorescence and ion relations were studied. Results Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties; least affected were two varieties from the Bolivian altiplano and a variety from Peru. Titicaca and Utusaya both had substantially increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap. But, Utusaya was much more efficient in restricting xylem Na+ loading. Xylem Na+ and K+ loading were found to be uncoupled. Utusaya maintained a relatively high stomatal conductance resulting in an only 25% NaCl-induced reduction in net CO2 assimilation compared to a 67% reduction in salt treated Titicaca plants. Maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII was not affected by salinity. Conclusion In addition to maintaining high gas exchange, tolerant varieties better control xylem Na+ loading. To what extent this control is related to radial root Na+ uptake or to the activity of Na+/H+-exchangers at the xylem parenchyma boundary remains to be studied.

  17. Mobile Applications for Participatory Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

  18. Respuesta a la selección participativa en variedades de calabaza de la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México / Response to participatory selection in two varieties of squash from Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel Ángel, Sánchez-Hernández; Clemente, Villanueva-Verduzco; César, Sánchez-Hernández; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Evert, Villanueva-Sánchez.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Estado de México, durante 2001, con el objetivo de estimar en calabaza (Cucurbita pepo L.) la respuesta a la selección participativa in situ en caracteres de planta, calidad de fruto y rendimiento de semilla. Se evaluaron dos variedades de l [...] a Sierra Norte de Puebla seleccionadas in situ: Mazapa (ciclos de selección 1 a 3), La Libertad (ciclos de selección 1 a 3) y un testigo, a una densidad de 27,639 plantas·ha-1, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La mayor respuesta por ciclo de selección, en promedio de localidades, ocurrió en la variedad Mazapa para número de frutos por planta (0.29 frutos; 31.8%), altura (1.0 cm; 6.1%) y ancho de fruto (0.5 cm; 2.4%), grosor de pulpa (0.1 cm; 5.8%), altura (0.034; 1.6%) y ancho de semilla (0.001 cm; 0.11%). La variedad La Libertad destacó en peso de semilla por fruto (12 g·fruto-1; 21%) y en peso de frutos por planta (0.1 kg·fruto-1; 6.6%). El segundo ciclo de selección de la variedad Mazapa sobresalió en peso de fruto (3.77 kg), peso de semilla por planta (98 g), grosor de pulpa (2.6 cm), alto de fruto (23.6 cm), ancho de fruto (20.3 cm) y ancho de semilla (0.934 cm). El tercer ciclo de selección en Mazapa mostró los valores más altos en número de frutos por planta (1.49), peso de fruto por hectárea (123.5 t·ha-1) y rendimiento de semilla por hectárea (3.83 t·ha-1). Abstract in english A study was conducted at two sites near the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, State of Mexico, in 2001, in order to estimate the response in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) to in situ participatory selection in terms of fruit quality and seed yield. Two native varieties from Sierra Norte de Puebla, selected [...] in situ, were evaluated: Mazapa (selection cycles 1 to 3) and Libertad (selection cycles 1 to 3), plus a control, at a density of 27,639 plants·ha-1, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The best response per selection cycle, based on averaging the two locations, occurred in the Mazapa variety for number of fruits per plant (0.29 fruits; 31.8%), fruit height (1.0 cm; 6.1%), fruit width (0.5 cm; 2.4%), flesh thickness (0.1 cm; 5.8%), seed height (0.034 cm; 1.6%) and seed width (0.001 cm; 0.11 %). The Libertad variety was better in gain for seed weight per fruit (12 g·fruit-1; 21%) and fruit weight per plant (0.1 kg·fruit-1; 6.6%). The second selection cycle in the Mazapa variety had the best gain in fruit weight (3.77 kg), seed weight per plant (98 g), flesh thickness (2.6 cm), fruit height (23.6 cm), fruit width (20.3 cm), and seed width (0.934 cm). The third selection cycle in Mazapa showed the highest values for number of fruits per plant (1.49), fruit weight per hectare (123.5 t·ha-1), and seed yield per hectare (3.83 t·ha-1).

  19. Gender and Innovation in Agriculture: A Case Study of Farmers’ Varietal Preference of Drought Tolerant Maize in Southern Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Ayinde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA. The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their gender based preference for Drought Tolerant maize variety and elucidated the reasons for preference. Three-stage stratified sampling technique was used. Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from a total of 48 farmers. Descriptive, Ranking and LSD were used to analyse the data collected. The result of the analysis showed that majority of the male and female farmers have primary education and are youths. The result of varietal preference differs between genders in some locations Male farmers identified big cobs with full grains, big seed, and multiple cobs as the main reasons for their preference while female farmers identified yellow colour of seed, nutrient fortified seed and big cobs with full grains as the main reasons for their preference. It is therefore recommended that effort should be made to involve male and female farmers in the varietal selection procedure as to facilitate easy adoption of hybrid maize. The women are more concerned with the food security of their family and hence are important segment in maize innovation that improve the food security of farming households and policies should not exclude female farmers.

  20. Rekindling Values in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant that different approaches and conceptualization exist in this field today. We argue that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in PD. This requires focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD.

  1. Unraveling the rich phenotypic and genetic diversity in rice for varietal improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) has two distinct varietal groups identified as the indica and japonica subspecies. With the advent of molecular markers the indica subspecies was divided into the indica and aus subpopulation groups and the japonica subspecies into the aromatic, tropical japon...

  2. German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2…

  3. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...0579-AD08 Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...that allow the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under the same...

  4. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...0579-AD08 Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...that allow the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under the same...

  5. Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector

  6. Sustained participatory design and implementation of ITHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector. PMID:20543362

  7. Cohomologie des fibr\\'{e}s en droites sur les vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s magnifiques de rang minimal

    CERN Document Server

    Tchoudjem, A

    2005-01-01

    R\\'{E}SUM\\'{E} : Le th\\'{e}or\\`{e}me de Borel-Weil-Bott d\\'{e}crit la cohomologie des fibr\\'{e}s en droites sur les vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s de drapeaux. On g\\'{e}n\\'{e}ralise ici ce th\\'{e}or\\`{e}me \\`{a} une plus grande classe de vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s projectives : les vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s magnifiques de rang minimal. ABSTRACT : The Borel-Weil-Bott theorem describes the cohomology of line bundles over flag varieties. Here, one generalizes this theorem to a wider class of projective varieties : the wonderful varieties of minimal rank.

  8. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  9. Values-Led Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding.

  10. Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

  11. COINCIDENCIA EN LA SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE TOMATE Y LA SELECCIÓN POR RENDIMIENTO EN UNA FERIA DE AGROBIODIVERSIDAD / COINCIDENCE IN PARTICIPATORY VARIETY SELECTION OF TOMATO AND SELECTION IN A FAIR PERFORMANCE AGROBIODIVERSITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, de la Fe; C, Moya; J, Arzuaga; E, Fonseca.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra la coincidencia en la selección de los productores en una feria de diversidad del cultivo del tomate y la selección practicada sobre la base del rendimiento real de cada una de las variedades expuestas en la feria. Para la realización del estudio, se sembró una parcela dem [...] ostrativa con 11 variedades de tomate en áreas de la Cooperativa de Producción Agropecuaria (CPA) “17 de Mayo”, ubicada en el Valle de Caujerí, San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo. Mayoritariamente las variedades sembradas se corresponden con las obtenidas a partir de los programas de mejoramiento genético ejecutados por diferentes instituciones científicas del país. Una vez que el cultivo arribó a la madurez fisiológica, se celebró la feria de diversidad, durante la cual cada productor pudo seleccionar libremente las variedades que consideraba más adecuadas a sus intereses y necesidades muy específicas. A lo largo del trabajo se presenta la comparación entre la selección realizada por los productores y el rendimiento para diferentes presiones de selección. Entre otros resultados, se pudo constatar la predilección de los productores por las variedades con altos rendimientos y su capacidad para seleccionarlas entre un conjunto más o menos amplio de variedades Abstract in english This research study shows the coincidence of growers´ selection in a tomato diversity fair with the one based on the actual yield of each of the varieties presented in it. To conduct the study, a demonstrative plot was seeded with 11 tomato varieties in the areas of “17 de Mayo” Agricultural Product [...] ion Cooperative (CPA), located in Valle de Caujerí, San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo. Most of the varieties sown match with those obtained by the breeding programs carried out at different scientific institutions of our country. Once the crop reached its physiological maturity, the diversity fair was celebrated, during which every grower could freely select the most adequate varieties according to their interests and specific needs. In the course of the experiment, there was a comparison between growers´ selection and yield for different selection pressures. Among other results, growers´ favorite high-yielding varieties became evident, besides showing their ability to select them within a rather large collection

  12. Classification of white varietal wines using chemical analysis and sensorial evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Šnuderl, Katja; Mocak, Jan; Brodnjak-Von?ina, Darinka; Sedlá?kova, Bibiana

    2012-01-01

    The ways of application of multivariate data analysis and ANOVA to classification of white varietal wines are here demonstrated. Wine classification was performed using the following classification criteria: winevariety, year of production, wine producer, and wine quality, as found by sensorial testing (bouquet, colour, and taste). Subjective wine evaluation, made by wine experts, is combined with commonly used chemical and physico-chemical properties, measured in analytical laboratory. Impor...

  13. Varietal Tracing of Virgin Olive Oils Based on Plastid DNA Variation Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, M.; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernández, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of ...

  14. To each participatory sciences. Conditions for a participatory biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis SALLES

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and scientific requirements for a citizen science monitoring programme on biodiversity in Arcachon Bay (France. The sociological study reveals tensions between different conceptions of what a citizen science programme should be: a means for storing oriented-data; a new way to co-create scientific knowledge; a political communication tool; a way to develop citizen stewardship; or a place for expressing activist environmental demands. Citizen science programmes also tend to reveal tensions between participatory governance and classical management of environmental issues. Despite a seeming consensus amongst actors on biodiversity conservation, in practice contests over different citizen science conceptions have the potential to re-define environmental issues, to re-specify relationships between science and society and outline new management priorities.

  15. Participatory management in today's health care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced

  16. Yeast genes required for conversion of grape precursors to varietal thiols in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Margarita; Gardner, Richard C

    2015-08-01

    Three varietal thiols are important for the tropical fruit aromas of Sauvignon blanc: 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) and its acetylated derivative 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA). These thiols are produced by yeast during fermentation from precursors in grape juice. Here we identify genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are required for the transport and cleavage of two thiol precursors: cysteine-4MMP and glutathione-3MH. A full-length copy of IRC7 is absolutely required for the cleavage of both precursors in the tested strains; the deleted form of the enzyme found in most yeast strains is incapable of converting these compounds into detectable thiols. By using strains that overexpress full-length IRC7, we further show that the glutathione transporter OPT1 and the transpeptidase CIS2 are also required for conversion of glut-3MH to its varietal thiol. No transporter for cys-4MMP was identified: a strain deleted for all nine known cysteine transport genes was still capable of converting cys-4MMP to its varietal thiol, and was also able to take up cysteine at high concentrations. Based on these results, we conclude that cysteine and glutathione precursors make a relatively minor contribution to 3MH production from most grape juices. PMID:26038341

  17. Mobile Crowd Sensing and Computing: When Participatory Sensing Meets Participatory Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Bin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Daqing; Yu, Zhiwen; Chin, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of mobile sensing and mobile social networking techniques, Mobile Crowd Sensing and Computing (MCSC), which leverages heterogeneous crowdsourced data for large-scale sensing, has become a leading paradigm. Built on top of the participatory sensing vision, MCSC has two characterizing features: (1) it leverages heterogeneous crowdsourced data from two data sources: participatory sensing and participatory social media; and (2) it presents the fusion of huma...

  18. Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2014-01-01

    This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts.

  19. Participatory Design in an Urban Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GØtze, John

    1997-01-01

    The general theme is democratic urban innovation and participatory design processes. The project aims at examining and assessing the possibi-lities for increa-sing public participation and citizenship in the urban development. Furthermore, the project aims at strengthening the understanding of the conditions necessary for estab-lishing urban social networks, and different methodologies for doing so are examined. As part of this, a study is done on electronic democracy, i.e., different forms of information and communi-cation technologies (IT/ICT, Internet) that are actually and potentially applicable to innovative urban community development. The project combines theories of communication, dialogue and innovation with theories of systems, information, media and decision making. The project involves a comparative study of selected projects in the capital regions of Den-mark (Copenhagen) and Japan (Tokyo). Theoretical inspiration comes from, e.g., Richard Sennett, Raymond Williams, Iris Marion Young, Johan Asplund, Oskar Negt, Hannah Arendt, Carole Pateman, Donald Schön, and Peter Checkland.

  20. Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naydene de Lange; Mart-Mari Geldenhuys

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual meth...

  1. Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community. PMID:25423239

  2. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  3. Who needs us? : Inquiring into the participatory practices of others and what it means for participatory designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgado, Mariana; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna

    In this paper we look at participatory activities as practiced by others, meaning practitioners not from the participatory design fields, and address the question whether we, as participatory design researchers and practitioners are still needed. By understanding what others do, we aim to better understand and articulate our own participatory practice and our own future role. The results of our inquiry show that participatory designers are needed, even in contexts where other participatory practitioners prevail, but that we should learn from them and collaborate with them.

  4. Mobile Phone Based Participatory Sensing in Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.; Böhlen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Although many observations in the hydrologic sciences are easy to obtain, requiring very little training or equipment, spatial and temporally-distributed data collection is hindered by associated personnel and telemetry costs. Lack of data increases the uncertainty and can limit applications of both field and modeling studies. However, modern society is much more digitally connected than the past, which presents new opportunities to collect real-time hydrologic data through the use of participatory sensing. Participatory sensing in this usage refers to citizens contributing distributed observations of physical phenomena. Real-time data streams are possible as a direct result of the growth of mobile phone networks and high adoption rates of mobile users. In this research, we describe an example of the development, methodology, barriers to entry, data uncertainty, and results of mobile phone based participatory sensing applied to groundwater and surface water characterization. Results are presented from three participatory sensing experiments that focused on stream stage, surface water temperature, and water quality. Results demonstrate variability in the consistency and reliability across the type of data collected and the challenges of collecting research grade data. These studies also point to needed improvements and future developments for widespread use of low cost techniques for participatory sensing.

  5. An attractive choice : education researchers’ use of participatory methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ebersohn, L. (Liesel); Ferreira, Ronel; Beukes, J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are often favoured in education research. This study aimed to determine collaborative partnership trends between education researchers and teachers in order to understand the use of participatory theory and practice in education studies. Seven symposium presentations by education scholars from various higher education institutions were analysed using trend analysis from a community of practice theoretical framework. It emerged that participatory meth...

  6. Varietal identification of coffee seeds by RAPD technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Crochemore; Liliane Moreira Nunes; Giselly Aparecida Andrade; Hugo Bruno Correa Molinari; Maria Elizabeth Vasconcellos

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed the identification of cultivars and/or lines of Coffea arabica of commercial interest, using PCR-RAPD markers. The DNA of ground seeds lots of 12 cultivars and/or lines were evaluated with five primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16, and OPX 09) were obtained from a selection of 56 primers. The electrophoretic profiles allowed distinction among eight cultivars and/or lines as well as heterogeneity between and within lots of IAPAR59.Classicamente, a identificação de ...

  7. Introduction: The Participatory Turn in Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Krivý

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.

  8. Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne

    This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  9. Collective form generation through visual participatory representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant

    In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers.

  10. Participatory Planning of Appropriate Rainwater Harvesting and Management Techniques in the Central Rift Valley Dry Lands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanu Biazin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive efforts of rainwater harvesting and management (RWHM interventions for moisture-stressed areas in Ethiopia, the adoption and wider dissemination of the newly introduced techniques have been generally meager. The objective of this study was, therefore, to develop appropriate RWHM techniques through a participatory planning process in the Central Rift Valley (CRV dry lands of Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, a combination of literature reviews, focus group discussions, questionnaire surveys, agro-meteorological analyses and field experimentations were undertaken. Perceived agro-meteorological challenges were determined through the questionnaire survey and validated through meteorological data analyses. Potential in situ RWHM techniques were selected in a participatory process and field-tested for two consecutive growing seasons to evaluate their performances. Those techniques which were selected in a participatory process showed statistically higher crop yields than the existing practices under both low and normal rainfall years. The result of this study implied that the introduction of new RWHM techniques can be successful when they are adjusted and modified in accordance with the existing tillage, hoeing and related land management practices. It was concluded that participatory planning of in situ RWHM techniques allows both the utilization of existing knowledge and opportunities while empowering the farmers to select and introduce new practices as per the existing socioeconomic and environmental settings. The new participatory planning approach will augment the recent efforts of promoting various types of RWHM techniques for improved rainfed agriculture in the vast dry lands of Ethiopia.

  11. Ethyl propiolate derivatisation for the analysis of varietal thiols in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Piano, Federico; Duhamel, Nina; Barker, David; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2013-10-18

    Varietal thiols [3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP)] have been extensively studied in the recent literature. Nonetheless the hardest obstacle for research focussing on this class of compounds is the lack of quick, user-friendly and sensitive analytical methods. The current paper presents the use of ethyl propriolate (ETP) as a novel derivatising agent to quantify varietal thiols and the first time quantification of the thiol-ETP adducts via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Method optimisation including choice of the best SPE cartridge, derivatisation pH and adducts stability is presented. Validation of the method via stable isotope dilution was carried out. Detection limits in both model wine (4MMP 7.2ng/L, 3MHA 40.0ng/L and 3MH 91.2ng/L) and white wine (4MMP 24.5ng/L, 3MHA 120.9ng/L and 3MH 194.6ng/L) for the novel ETP-based method were lower than those obtained with the p-HMB method. Finally, 14 New Zealand Sauvignon blanc were analysed with both the new method and the organo-mercury based procure: good correlations were obtained for 3MH and 3MHA. Detection limits obtained with the new methods, its rapidity and reproducibility make this protocol perfectly suitable for oenological purposes. PMID:24034138

  12. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.

  13. Varietal identification of coffee seeds by RAPD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Crochemore

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the identification of cultivars and/or lines of Coffea arabica of commercial interest, using PCR-RAPD markers. The DNA of ground seeds lots of 12 cultivars and/or lines were evaluated with five primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16, and OPX 09 were obtained from a selection of 56 primers. The electrophoretic profiles allowed distinction among eight cultivars and/or lines as well as heterogeneity between and within lots of IAPAR59.Classicamente, a identificação de cultivares do cafeeiro utiliza descritores morfológicos da semente e da planta em crescimento. O uso de marcadores moleculares, além de permitir uma identificação genética precisa, possibilita a caracterização dos genótipos com menor custo de mão-de-obra e de tempo, pois a descrição é realizada com pequenas quantidades de DNA genômico, extraído em qualquer etapa de crescimento da planta. Este estudo visou a identificação de cultivares/linhagens de Coffea arabica, de interesse comercial para o IAPAR, utilizando-se marcadores do tipo PCR-RAPD. O DNA de sementes moídas de 12 lotes de cultivares e/ou linhagens foi avaliado com cinco primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16 e OPX 09 obtidos de uma pré-seleção de 56 primers. Os perfis eletroforéticos mostraram diferenças entre oito cultivares/linhagens e uma baixa heterogeneidade foi detectada dentro de um lote de IAPAR59 e entre dois lotes deste mesmo cultivar.

  14. Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin / Discriminação de vinhos tintos brasileiros de acordo com a região vitícola, varietal e vinícola

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Miele; Luiz Antenor, Rizzon; Mauro Celso, Zanus.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou a composição físico-química de 171 vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados na safra de 2006, representados por 21 varietais. Os vinhos foram elaborados por 58 vinícolas localizadas em sete regiões vitícolas do País com latitudes variando de 9º a 31º Sul. A análise físico-química foi [...] feita em 2006 e a discriminação entre as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos varietais e as vinícolas foi realizada através da análise de componentes principais (ACP). Os principais resultados mostram que ao se considerar as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos elaborados em São Joaquim caracterizaram-se por valores mais elevados de A420, A520, A620, intensidade de cor, compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas e extrato seco, enquanto que os de Toledo apresentaram valores mais baixos dessas variáveis; os do Vale do São Francisco tiveram valores mais elevados de potássio, pH, densidade e acidez volátil; os da Serra do Nordeste A, maior acidez titulável; e os do Planalto Superior B, matiz mais elevado. No que se relaciona aos vinhos varietais, a ACP discriminou os vinhos feitos com as variedades Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera e Alfrocheiro. Com relação às vinícolas, vinte e duas delas foram discriminadas por apresentarem parâmetros mais elevados de determinadas variáveis, i.e., três delas por terem maior intensidade de cor; três, por seu matiz; oito, pelo teor de álcool; seis, por potássio, extrato seco, densidade e pH; e duas, pela acidez titulável. Abstract in english This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine anal [...] ysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA). The main results show that wines from São Joaquim had higher values of A420, A520, A620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from Toledo had lower values of these variables; those from Vale do São Francisco had higher values of potassium, pH, density, and volatile acidity; from Serra do Nordeste A, they had higher titratable acidity; and from Planalto Superior B, higher hue. Regarding the varietal wines, PCA mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera, and Alfrocheiro. In relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and pH; and two by titratablel acidity.

  15. I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441

  16. Participatory ergonomics and new work: reducing neck complaints in assembling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez, S A; Hallbeck, M S; Vink, P

    2012-01-01

    A participatory ergonomics approach is used to create a new work environment, which is aimed at reducing neck complaints in a cell phone assembly. The participatory ergonomics program included an initiative, problem identification, a selection of solutions, an implementation and evaluation. Twenty-eight women, all operators on an assembly line of cell phone boards, voluntarily participated in the design and evaluation of a device before implementing the device to all 215 employees performing that job. Prior to and after the intervention, RULA, comfort experiences and interviews were used. After introducing an adjustable angled small counter, these measurements showed both posture and comfort improvements. 90% of the 215 workers preferred the new work station and the neck complaints were reduced in 75% of the group. It also showed that the initial prototype needed to be modified as to reduce its sharp edges/compression points for the forearm. This project shows the importance of iterative testing and that an initiative by workers enlarges the chance of successful implementation. PMID:22317512

  17. Scenario workshops: A useful method for participatory water resources planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzilacou, Dionyssia; Kallis, Giorgos; Mexa, Alexandra; Coccosis, Harris; Svoronou, Eleni

    2007-06-01

    This article reports on a scenario workshop (SW) for water resources management at the island of Naxos, Greece. The workshop was part of a European research project studying the advantages and limitations of different participatory methods in the context of the Water Framework Directive. It involved policy makers, scientists, business representatives, and citizens from different parts of the island. On the first day, participants worked to envision a sustainable development future for the island and its water resources. Discussion was inspired by four alternative water development scenarios prepared by the organizers. Participants' vision statements emphasized a diversified development path and balanced water solutions. On the second day, participants worked to plan the actions needed to realize their common vision. The SW turned out to be a good method to initiate a multipartner dialogue, to include new stakeholders in the water policy debate, and to a certain extent, to promote learning between participants. On the other hand, it did not appear well suited to resolve conflicts and aid decisions in the face of scientific complexity and uncertainty. SW seems to be a good method for the "upstream," preparatory, capacity-building tasks of a planning process but not for the production of substantive decision outputs such as consensual agreements or action plans. The Naxos experiment also raised the centrality of framing, participant selection, and facilitation in participatory processes.

  18. Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naydene, de Lange; Mart-Mari, Geldenhuys.

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary s [...] chools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

  19. A Trust-based Recruitment Framework for Multi-hop Social Participatory Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Amintoosi, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    The idea of social participatory sensing provides a substrate to benefit from friendship relations in recruiting a critical mass of participants willing to attend in a sensing campaign. However, the selection of suitable participants who are trustable and provide high quality contributions is challenging. In this paper, we propose a recruitment framework for social participatory sensing. Our framework leverages multi-hop friendship relations to identify and select suitable and trustworthy participants among friends or friends of friends, and finds the most trustable paths to them. The framework also includes a suggestion component which provides a cluster of suggested friends along with the path to them, which can be further used for recruitment or friendship establishment. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed recruitment framework in terms of selecting a large number of well-suited participants and providing contributions with high overall trust, in comparison with one-hop recruitment ...

  20. Participatory capacity building in action in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Zapater

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The south-western Colombian department of Nariño has developed an innovative, demand-led and participatory initiative for the local integration of IDP s. The long-term sustainability of such partnerships between local administrations and grassroots communities hinges on ability to influence national and international financial flows.

  1. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  2. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  3. Online Social Networking as Participatory Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue that online social networking is anchored in surveillance practices. This gives us an opportunity to challenge conventional understandings of surveillance that often focus on control and disempowerment. In the context of online social networking, surveillance is something potentially empowering, subjectivity building and even playful – what I call participatory surveillance.

  4. Use of "EP"(Peroxidase) allele in soybean varietal characterization / Uso do alelo "EP" (Peroxidase) na caracterização varietal de soja

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bárbara Panoff, Valário; Cláudio, Cavariani; José de Barros, França-Neto; Elisa Serra Negra, Vieira; Juliana Pereira, Bravo; Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da, Silva.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso da técnica de PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction) na caracterização de cultivares de soja. O estudo foi realizado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas / UNESP e do Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu-SP. Foram utiliza [...] das quatorze cultivares de soja comerciais, das quais seis foram selecionadas como reação positiva à peroxidase (BRS 320, BRS 284, BRS 232, BRS 7860RR, BRSMG 760SRR, BRS295RR), quatro como reação negativa (BRS 326, BRS 8160RR, BRSMG 800A (NutriSoy), BRS Valiosa RR) e quatro como reação positiva e negativa (BRS 8060, BRS 270RR, FTS Campo Mourão e BRS 239). Assim, as 14 cultivares foram submetidas ao ensaio bioquímico colorimétrico tradicional e os resultados obtidos foram comparados com o ensaio de PCR convencional. Para a análise de PCR, o DNA foi extraído de sementes inteiras, sendo que os primers foram testados por PCR e visualizados por eletroforese em gel de agarose. A combinação dos primers prx9 + prx10 confirmou a utilização da reação de PCR para caracterizar as cultivares de soja considerada duvidosa por teste convencional colorimétrico. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of the molecular biology technique of PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction) in the characterization of soybean cultivars. The study was performed at the Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences/ UNESP and Institute of Bioscience, Botucat [...] u-SP. Fourteen commercial soybean cultivars were used, of which six were selected as positive reaction to peroxidase (BRS 320, BRS 284, BRS 232, BRS 7860RR, BRSMG 760SRR, BRS295RR), four as negative reaction (BRS 326, BRS 8160RR, BRSMG 800A (NutriSoy), BRS Valiosa RR) and four as double reaction (BRSGO 8060, BRS 270RR, FTS Campo Mourão and BRS 239). Thus, the results attained by the traditional biochemical colorimetric test for the 14 cultivars were compared with the conventional PCR assay. For PCR analysis, DNA was extracted from whole seeds and the primers were tested, and subsequently PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed. The combination of primers prx9 + prx10 confirmed the use of the PCR reaction to characterize soybean cultivars considered doubtful by conventional colorimetric text.

  5. Exemples de vari\\'et\\'es projectives strictement convexes de volume fini en dimension quelconque

    CERN Document Server

    Marquis, Ludovic

    2010-01-01

    We build examples of properly convex projective manifold $\\Omega/ \\Gamma$ which have finite volume, are not compact, nor hyperbolic in every dimension $n \\geqslant 2$. On the way, we build Zariski-dense discrete subgroups of $\\SL_{n+1}(\\R)$ which are not lattice, nor Schottky groups. Moreover, the open properly convex set $\\Omega$ is strictly-convex, even Gromov-hyperbolic. Nous construisons des exemples de vari\\'et\\'es projectives $\\Omega/ \\Gamma$ proprement convexes de volume fini, non hyperbolique, non compacte en toute dimension $n \\geqslant 2$. Ceci nous permet au passage de construire des groupes discrets Zariski-dense de $\\SL_{n+1}(\\R)$ qui ne sont ni des r\\'eseaux de $\\SL_{n+1}(\\R)$, ni des groupes de Schottky. De plus, l'ouvert proprement convexe $\\Omega$ est strictement convexe, m\\^eme Gromov-hyperbolique.

  6. Mutation induction as a tool for varietal development in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the current advancement in biotechnology has tremendously change the modern breeding approach, the induced mutation techniques is still very much in use as complementary tools. MINT experiences in using the techniques for varietal development in ornamental plants has helped to increase genetic variabilities in several ornamental plant species, produced twelve new mutant cultivars as well as developed efficient tissue culture system for six ornamental plant species as tool for in vitro mutagenesis procedures and micropropagation. The technology and expertise that have been established are ready for transfer to the horticulture industry. Sharing of capability and capacity between research institutions and private sector is one possible way by improving and maintaining long-term sustenance of the floriculture industry. (author)

  7. Evaluation of a Participatory Resource Monitoring System for Nontimber Forest Products: the Case of Amla (Phyllanthus spp. Fruit Harvest by Soligas in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ticktin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995–2005 period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for participatory resource mapping, fruit productivity estimation, and promotion of improved harvest techniques. Major challenges involved ensuring adequate incentives for monitoring activities that lead to benefits only over the longer term, such as monitoring of extraction and regeneration rates. Maintaining long-term participation and interest in the latter requires ensuring resource tenure.

  8. Enabling objects for participatory design of socio-technical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and explore the role of objects in participatory ergonomics design processes. The question in focus is: What characterizes objects in PE processes? First the concept of boundary objects is introduced as a starting point for investigating the role of objects. Second, findings of a search to identify objects in PE processes are reported. Third, objects fulfilling the requirements for boundary objects are placed in one of five categories. Fourth, empirical findings from two PE case studies in which objects played an important role are presented. Finally, based on a grounded theory approach, a characterization of objects in PE design processes is developed and a framework for how the use of objects in PE processes could be conceptualized is proposed. In conclusion, the concept of objects in PE processes is contextual, and the ergonomist or other design actor needs to actively consider their selection and the stage at which they are to be used.

  9. A Participatory Perspective on Cross-Cultural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Designers face a number of challenges in terms of when and how to design interactive systems with indigenous groups. Every layer of development faces obstacles from designing localized interfaces to facilitating prototype evaluations in the wild. This article argues for the importance of continuous user involvement and participatory design. This is highlighted through explaining ongoing research in the creation of a 3D visualization knowledge management system to support preservation of indigenous knowledge (IK) in Africa. Through the sharing of experiences from the field I underpin the importance of acknowledging users' expertise and knowledge about the design context. Through presentation of a selection of these challenges in localizing systems development I wish to raise awareness of an required sensitivity to cultural differences in IT.

  10. Participatory Plant Breeding for quality: maize in South West of France

    OpenAIRE

    Chable, Veronique; Goldringer, Isabelle; Kendall, Jennifer; Lebrun, Rémi; Lassaigne, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Participatory plant breeding (PPB) in maize aims at identifying the effects and interactions of breeding and management innovations on maize nutritional, organoleptic and end-use qualities from PPBM on-farm activities for maize in the Périgord region. New milling tests and quality parameters are performed in parallel, to provide methodological tools to farmers to select diversified populations providing high quality products that had made the historical and cultural value of the plant in the...

  11. Visual Participatory Approach to Violent Behaviour amongst Zimbabwean Students: Forms and Prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Ephias Gudyanga; Nomsa Matamba; Anna Gudyanga

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18). Data on forms and prevalence ...

  12. Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope with this kind of complexity in regards to technology development and design projects. Based on experiences and lessons learned from the project "The Digital North Denmark (DDN), the chapter reflects on participatory research in a complex organizational setting of researchers, stakeholders and users emphasising practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. 

  13. Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

  14. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Sbi?rcea, Bri?ndus?a-antonela; Ianovici, Nicoleta

    2011-01-01

    By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting g...

  15. Adaptive Personalized Privacy in Participatory Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Agir, Berker; Papaioannou, Thanasis G.; Narendula, Rammohan; Aberer, Karl; Hubaux, Jean-pierre

    2012-01-01

    The participatory sensing paradigm, through the growing availability of cheap sensors in mobile devices, enables applications of great social and business interest, e.g. electrosmog exposure measurement, early earthquake detection, etc. However, users' privacy concerns regarding their activity traces need to be adequately addressed first. Existing static privacy-enabling approaches, which hide or obfuscate data, offer some protection at the expense of data value, but no privacy guarantees, wh...

  16. From Participatory Sensing to Mobile Crowd Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Daqing; Zhou, Xingshe

    2014-01-01

    The research on the efforts of combining human and machine intelligence has a long history. With the development of mobile sensing and mobile Internet techniques, a new sensing paradigm called Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS), which leverages the power of citizens for large-scale sensing has become popular in recent years. As an evolution of participatory sensing, MCS has two unique features: (1) it involves both implicit and explicit participation; (2) MCS collects data from two ...

  17. Awareness and Learning in Participatory Noise Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Becker M; Caminiti S; Fiorella D.; Francis L.; Gravino P.; Haklay M.; Hotho A.; Loreto V.; Mueller J.; Ricchiuti F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measurin...

  18. Investigating Geosparql Requirements for Participatory Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A. J. S.

    2015-06-01

    We propose that participatory GIS (PGIS) activities including participatory urban planning can be made more efficient and effective if spatial reasoning rules are integrated with PGIS tools to simplify engagement for public contributors. Spatial reasoning is used to describe relationships between spatial entities. These relationships can be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively using geometrical algorithms, ontological relations, and topological methods. Semantic web services utilize tools and methods that can facilitate spatial reasoning. GeoSPARQL, introduced by OGC, is a spatial reasoning standard used to make declarations about entities (graphical contributions) that take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple or statement. GeoSPARQL uses three basic methods to infer topological relationships between spatial entities, including: OGC's simple feature topology, RCC8, and the DE-9IM model. While these methods are comprehensive in their ability to define topological relationships between spatial entities, they are often inadequate for defining complex relationships that exist in the spatial realm. Particularly relationships between urban entities, such as those between a bus route, the collection of associated bus stops and their overall surroundings as an urban planning pattern. In this paper we investigate common qualitative spatial reasoning methods as a preliminary step to enhancing the capabilities of GeoSPARQL in an online participatory GIS framework in which reasoning is used to validate plans based on standard patterns that can be found in an efficient/effective urban environment.

  19. Mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues that in such an assessment of power it is needed also to drawn in the social context because different social contexts will be more or less vulnerable to different mechanisms of power. The paper takes the stand the rural settings are especially vulnerable to dis-engagement of local citizens, sub-ordination of the rural by the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis of a Danish rural participatory planning project. The paper concludes that rural planning literature and analysis will benefits from paying attention to the three – in rural participatory planning projects – specific mechanisms of power ‘Institutionalising knowledge and competencies’; ‘Structuring of criticism’ and ‘Undermining the objectives of the others’

  20. Varietal blends as a way of optimizing and preserving the anthocyanin content of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Martí, Nuria; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are unstable compounds prone to degradation during storage of pomegranates juices, leading to disadvantageous color changes. Blending varietal pomegranate juices could be useful not only to preserve the genuine characteristics of fresh juices but also to study different factors affecting anthocyanin stability while maintaining to the utmost the matrix studied. The effects of critical factors such as anthocyanin concentration, pH, and endogenous ascorbic acid on pigment integrity were assessed through the study of the degradation kinetics of pomegranate phytochemicals in blended juices made from two distinct cultivars ('Wonderful' and 'Mollar de Elche'). Pigment concentration and pH were the factors affecting anthocyanin stability, whereas ascorbic acid did not alter the degradation of anthocyanins. These results contributed to the definition of the so-called "cultivar effect" and to preserving to a great extent the anthocyanin load and color characteristics of fresh varietal juices, avoiding phytochemical degradation and browning development during storage. PMID:24611561

  1. Changes in varietal volatile composition during shelf-life of two types of aromatic red sweet Brachetto sparkling wines

    OpenAIRE

    GERBI, Vincenzo; RIO SEGADE, SUSANA; TORCHIO, FABRIZIO; GIACOSA, SIMONE; ROLLE, LUCA GIORGIO CARLO; GIORDANO, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    This work constitutes the first contribution to elucidate the varietal volatile composition of two types of sparkling wines manufactured with Brachetto grapes and its relative evolution during the shelf-life. After bottling, the volatile composition differed significantly among the typologies of sparkling wines evaluated, namely lightly ones (final bottle pressure 3.0 bar). Free 2-phenyl ethanol was the major aromatic compound (71-78%) in Bra...

  2. Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseaux, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Using data from this study and the literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2% per °C. The classification of varieties should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet IOOC requirements. The differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype produced by environmental interaction, and the negative effect of the high seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further research.La industria oleícola del noroeste de Argentina creció sustancialmente durante las últimas dos décadas para producir aceite de oliva virgen exportable. Para evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los principales aceites varietales, se analizaron 563 muestras de aceite de 17 variedades en la provincia de La Rioja durante 2005-2008. Las variedades se clasificaron de acuerdo a su contenido de ácido oleico en bajo (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Utilizando datos de este trabajo y de la literatura, los aceites de variedades de origen español (Arbequina y Picual e italiano (Coratina y Frantoio mostraron consistentemente menor contenido de ácido oleico cuando crecieron en el noroeste de Argentina versus el Mediterráneo. Para Arbequina, el contenido de oleico disminuyó con la temperatura durante la síntesis y acumulación lipídica (-2 % por °C. La clasificación varietal por acido oleico debe ser útil para seleccionar aceites para mezclas correctivas y variedades para futuras plantaciones que cumplan con la normativa del COI. Diferencias en los perfiles de ácidos grasos entre el noroeste de Argentina y el Mediterráneo indican una interacción genotipo x ambiente, y el efecto negativo de la alta temperatura media estacional durante la síntesis de lípidos requerirá mayor investigación.

  3. Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars PØdenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.

    2012-01-01

    Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety mixtures relative to their component varieties. For this purpose, six variety mixtures of spring barley and 14 component varieties were grown in each of 17 trial environments. Atotal of 28 observed and a priori plant characteristics, including grain yield, disease severity and weed competitiveness, were derived for each component variety in each trial. The relationship between intervarietal diversity of each characteristic and the mixing effect on grain yield was analysed. Additionally, various types of yield stability were estimated and compared among mixtures and component varieties. One mixture out-yielded all of its component varieties in almost half of the trial environments. Inter-varietal diversity in grain yield potential correlated significantly with mixing effect, as did straw length diversity when weighted with weed pressure. The grain yields of most mixtures were more stable across environments than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.

  4. Visual Participatory Approach to Violent Behaviour amongst Zimbabwean Students: Forms and Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephias Gudyanga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18. Data on forms and prevalence of violence were collected from the students. The majority of the participants portrayed physical violence, vandalism and sexual harassment. It was recommended that schools must develop clear policies in an endeavor to reduce or eliminate violence. Schools Psychological Services must provide psychotherapy to individuals concerned. Visual participatory methodology, a new body of knowledge in Zimbabwe, is a vital tool for future researchers.

  5. Teacher Motivation and Satisfaction: Impact on Participatory Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Larry E.; Sorenson, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Uses the Job Characteristics Model and Job Diagnostic Survey instrument to study the effects of 73 San Diego teachers' motivation and satisfaction on participatory management. Teachers are generally dissatisfied by the absence of feedback, autonomy, and task-related interaction. Participatory management opportunities must be differentiated…

  6. A configurable architecture for e-participatory budgeting support

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Alfaro; Javier Gomez; Lavin, Jose M.; Molero, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgets are emerging as a paradigm for participation. However, there are many variants of such experiences suggesting a look of general methodology. Moreover there is a little use of ICT in this application context. We present a configurable architecture for e-participatory budget formation support.

  7. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  8. An Attractive Choice: Education Researchers' Use of Participatory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, L.; Ferreira, R.; Beukes, J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are often favoured in education research. This study aimed to determine collaborative partnership trends between education researchers and teachers in order to understand the use of participatory theory and practice in education studies. Seven symposium presentations by education scholars from various higher education…

  9. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in the UK.

  10. Participatory Design Meets Mixed Reality Design Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Emmanuel; Gauffre, Guillaume; Bach, Cédric; Salembier, Pascal

    Participatory design and model-based approaches are two major HCI design approaches. Traditionally opposed, the first ones promote user's creativity while the second ones support a more systematic approach of the design space. In Mixed Reality domain, combining these two aspects is especially crucial in order to support the design and to help the users to take into account the wide variety of emerging technologies. We introduce in this paper a solution to bring these two approaches together. In addition, we illustrate how the outcomes of this combination of formal and informal approaches serve as input for the implementation of the designed solution

  11. EVALUACIÓN MORFOAGRONÓMICA DE GERMOPLASMA DE ARROZ DE DIFERENTE ORIGEN Y GRUPO VARIETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra H. D\\u00EDaz Sol\\u00EDs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la morfología del arroz esimportante en la investigación porque en ella se basa ladiferenciación de las variedades y los estudios de fisiología ymejoramiento. El trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo decaracterizar morfoagronómicamente un grupo de genotipos,conocer las variables que contribuyen a diferenciarlos y lascaracterísticas que pudieran ser importantes para seleccionarlos progenitores del Programa de Mejoramiento con el propósitode buscar una mayor eficiencia del cultivo. En el mismo seevaluaron 10 genotipos de arroz de diferente origen y grupovarietal. La siembra se realizó en bandejas y luego se trasplantóen surcos de 2.40 m de longitud. Se realizaron evaluaciones endos etapas del cultivo que incluyeron tanto variables cuanti-tativas como cualitativas, asimismo el Sistema de EvaluaciónEstándar y el Formulario de Descripción Varietal fueron lasmetodologías empleadas. Los datos obtenidos fueron procesadosmediante Componentes Principales y Conglomerados con laayuda del programa estadístico MINITAB y se determinaronlas Correlaciones de Pearson. Los resultados revelaron laexistencia de diferencias morfoagronómicas en las variedadesde arroz y de correlaciones entre las variables cuantitativasevaluadas, asimismo se confirmaron marcados contrastes entrelos tipos índicas y japónicas para la mayoría de los caracteresestudiados. Las dos componentes obtenidas explicaron el 69.3 %de la variación total. Los genotipos fueron agrupados en seisgrupos o clases, casi todos los individuos con grupo varietalcomún se concentraron a excepción de Nipponbare, Nerica-1y Bluebonnet-50 que se ubicaron en clases independientes. Solo hubo similitud para todas las variedades en dos de los12 caracteres cualitativos evaluados.

  12. De novo transcriptome characterization of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina unveils varietal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturini Luca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants such as grapevine (Vitis spp. display significant inter-cultivar genetic and phenotypic variation. The genetic components underlying phenotypic diversity in grapevine must be understood in order to disentangle genetic and environmental factors. Results We have shown that cDNA sequencing by RNA-seq is a robust approach for the characterization of varietal diversity between a local grapevine cultivar (Corvina and the PN40024 reference genome. We detected 15,161 known genes including 9463 with novel splice isoforms, and identified 2321 potentially novel protein-coding genes in non-annotated or unassembled regions of the reference genome. We also discovered 180 apparent private genes in the Corvina genome which were missing from the reference genome. Conclusions The de novo assembly approach allowed a substantial amount of the Corvina transcriptome to be reconstructed, improving known gene annotations by robustly defining gene structures, annotating splice isoforms and detecting genes without annotations. The private genes we discovered are likely to be nonessential but could influence certain cultivar-specific characteristics. Therefore, the application of de novo transcriptome assembly should not be restricted to species lacking a reference genome because it can also improve existing reference genome annotations and identify novel, cultivar-specific genes.

  13. Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

  14. Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.

  15. A face oculta de um processo participativo para escolha de chefias de enfermagem / The hidden face of a participatory process for the selection of head nurses / La cara oculta de un proceso participativo para elección de jefes en enfermería

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gisela Maria Schebella Souto de, Moura; Ana Maria Müller de, Magalhães; Clarice Maria, Dall' Agnol; Louíse Viecili, Hoffmeister.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo discute a articulação das equipes de enfermagem no desenvolvimento de um processo consultivo de escolha de chefias num hospital universitário. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo exploratória e descritiva. A coleta de dados deu-se por meio de entrevistas com profissionais de enfermage [...] m. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo do tipo temática. Através das manifestações dos profissionais, visualizaram-se duas vertentes que representam movimentos de integração e movimentos de separação na trajetória de cada equipe. Em algumas unidades o processo ocorre de forma integrada, norteado pela participação e relações democráticas. Já em outras, o funcionamento grupal é caracterizado pela divisão interna e por um conflito subjacente. Um olhar sobre a totalidade dos setores aponta que as equipes de enfermagem estão em diferentes estágios de evolução nos modos de participação e envolvimento na dinâmica da vida política institucional. Abstract in spanish El estudio hace una discusión sobre de la articulación de los equipos de enfermería en el desarrollo de un proceso consultivo de elección de los jefes en un hospital universitario. Estudio cualitativo, de tipo exploratorio y descriptivo. La recolección de datos se dio por medio de entrevistas con pr [...] ofesionales de enfermería. Los datos se analizaron utilizándose la técnica de análisis de contenido del tipo temática. A través de las manifestaciones de los profesionales, se visualizan dos vertientes que representan movimientos de integración y movimientos de separación en la trayectoria de cada equipo. En algunas unidades el proceso se realiza en forma integrada, guiado por la participación y las relaciones democráticas. En otras, el funcionamiento grupal se caracteriza por la división interna y por un conflicto subyacente. Una mirada sobre la totalidad de los sectores señala que los equipos de enfermería están en diferentes niveles de evolución en los modos de participación y envolvimiento en la dinámica de la vida política institucional. Abstract in english The study presents a discussion about the articulation of nursing staffs in the development of a consulting process for the selection of head nurses in a university hospital. This is an exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of interviews with nursing work [...] ers. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Through the workers' expressions, two lines were observed that represent integration movements and separation movements in the trajectory of each staff. In some departments, the process takes place in an integrated way, guided by participation and democratic relationships. However, in others, the functioning of a group is characterized by internal division and underlying conflict. An overview on the totality of departments indicates that nursing staffs are at different evolution stages regarding the ways they participate and get involved in the dynamics of political-institutional life.

  16. Revisiting the issue of elite capture in participatory initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Saito-Jensen, Moeko

    2013-01-01

    Based on case studies of two communities implementing participatory forestry in Tanzania and India, we revisit the issue of elite capture of participatory initiatives. Our cases illustrate how initial elite capture of the participatory initiatives is circumvented over time through various forms of resistance orchestrated by initially disadvantaged groups. Based on the cases we argue that studies of elite capture should be based on in-depth and longitudinal empirical investigations that carefully characterize forms and outcomes of elite capture and consider both the changing dynamics of social settings and the perceptions held by the people under study.

  17. The Main Advantages of Community Based Participatory Health Programs: An Experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Baradarn Eftekhari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: This study was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Thirteen community based programs related to health that were active for last five years were selected and assessed. Data analysis was based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach considering the predetermined structure according to study questions. Results: In this study, strengths points of community participatory health programs based on the locality of the implementation of the programs; governmental organization and nongovernmental organizations (NGO’s were evaluated. The main strengths of these programs were the presence of the spirit of empathy and high motivation in working for community, absorbing the community assistance, community empowerment, presence of female volunteers, using local volunteers, creation of social prestige and evidence based decision making for community problem solving. Conclusion: Capacity building of the community, NGOs and policymakers plays key role in participation mechanisms, partnership, team working and mobilizing of necessary resources in the promotion of participatory community based health programs.

  18. Participatory investigation of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in goats in the Hammer and Benna-Tsemay districts of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, S; Zerihun, A; Gebre-Egziabher, B; Tibbo, M

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted in two selected districts of Southern Omo zones of Ethiopia, namely Hammer and Benna-Tsemay, during November 2004 and May 2005 to determine the status of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). Participatory disease investigation was conducted in the goat flocks owned by pastoralists of the districts. Participatory methods such as proportionate piling and matrix scoring of diseases were used to characterise major diseases of goats. Clinical and post-mortem examinations and isolation of the causative agent of CCPP were done. Serological tests were conducted using CFT. CCPP (locally termed Sompo) ranked as the first important disease of goats in the study area. Local perception of causes and signs of CCPP were described. Matrix scoring between groups revealed that disease signs and causes showed weak, moderate and good agreement by Kendall's coefficient concordance (W = 0.21-0.99). The overall sero-prevalence of CCPP was 15.5%. The causative agent was isolated from sick animals in the lab. The characteristic clinical signs, gross lesions, bacteriological isolation of the causative agent supported by participatory epidemiological disease investigation revealed that CCPP is a major disease of goats in the study districts. Participatory epidemiology using indigenous knowledge could efficiently be used to generate sufficient information with minimum cost, local materials and within reasonably short period of time, assisting the designing of feasible disease control programme in developing countries. PMID:18975122

  19. La Investigacion Participativa en America Latina: Retablo de Papel, 10 (Participatory Research in Latin America: Series, 10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.

    The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory Research"; "The Researcher and the…

  20. Participatory documentarisation in the service of reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first outlines that reversibility is a technical as well as institutional stake. He recalls the Andra's definition of reversibility, and outlines some specific characteristics (retrievability, possibility of action on the disposal process, possibility to make the design evolve). He discusses some implications of reversibility in terms of technologies, of information and of debate organisation. He indicates aspects which are less taken into account nowadays in the field of technical means and information. He proposes instruments for the process of information of parties (archiving, documentarisation), for the debate (document sharing, debate tools based on participatory documentary spaces). He outlines the importance of documentarisation, indicates different information media (various types of databases) and proposes an example based on 'Folksonomies'

  1. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brîndu?a-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  2. Creativity in ethnographic interviews : reflexive participatory observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses interviews as participatory reflexive observation. It is based on experiences of interviewing policymakers and researchers about knowledge and evidence in health promotion. This particular group of informants challenged an approach to interviews as getting informants to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process.

  3. Scandinavian Participatory Design : Dialogic curation with Teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.

  4. Participatory Games: Experiential learning to bridge disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, E.; Suarez, P.; Mendler de Suarez, J.; Bachofen, C.

    2014-12-01

    While the benefits of multi-disciplinary education have been extolled, there is more to success than producing students who are able to articulate the theorems of all pertinent disciplines. Here, we will describe case studies in which participatory scenario exercises and games can make the difference between memorizing information from an "outside" discipline, and actually internalizing the priorities and complications of the issue from an alien perspective. Case studies include teaching Red Cross community-based volunteers the Probability Distribution Function of seasonal rainfall forecasts, as well as requiring students of Columbia University's Master's Program in Climate and Society to study both natural and social aspects of climate. Games create a model system of the world, in which players assume a role and make decisions with consequences, facing complex feedback loops. Taking such roles catalyzes "AHA" moments that effectively bring home the intricacies of disciplinary paradigms outside of one's own.

  5. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

  6. Evaluating participatory research: Framework, methods and implementation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a structured participatory process and associated evaluation protocol developed to detect systems learning by decision makers involved in the management of natural resources. A series of facilitated participatory workshops were conducted to investigate learning when decision makers and influencers were confronted with the multiple, complex interactions arising from decisions concerned with the nexus of water, food and energy security. The participatory process and evaluation of learning were trialled in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), where integrated scientific evidence was systematically presented to challenge existing beliefs concerned with the effectiveness of proposed policy actions and development investments. Consistent with theoretical propositions, individually held values, beliefs and attitudes were deployed as the primary factors (and psychometrics) that underpin and influence environmental management decision making. Observed and statistically significant changes in the three psychometrics expressed by decision makers in response to the facilitated presentation of scientific evidence during the participatory process, provided supportive evidence of systems learning and the evaluation protocol. PMID:25929196

  7. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  8. MORE SMART, SECURED AND PRIVACY CONCERNED PARTICIPATION IN PARTICIPATORY SENSING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sayara Bano Sheikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Participatory Sensing (PS is an arising archetype that focuses on the collection of data produced from a large number of connected, always-on, always-carried mobile devices. Sensing paradigm leverages humans as part of the sensing infrastructure. PS enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants to share local knowledge acquired by their mobile sensor equipped devices. Hence personal information of user is conveyed by reports. Thus, a number of privacy concerns may hamper the large-scale deployment of PS applications. In PS, the targets is to provide a high level of privacy and security to data producers like users who are providing sensed information and consumers like applications that are accessing the gathered information. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in PS and introduce an acceptable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we accommodate a set of privacy requirements aiming at protecting privacy for both data producers and consumers. We present here a realistic architectural instantiation that attains privacy guarantees with provable security at very low additional computational cost and almost no extra communication overhead.

  9. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia : learning from pilot projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  10. Revisiting participatory budgeting as a potential service delivery catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, D. J.; Reutener, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to argue the value of public participation in budgetary process to advance the delivery of public services. Various authors have written about participatory budgeting and some of their views differ considerably. The intention of this article is not to present participatory budgeting as the acme of service delivery initiatives, but rather to assess its applicability in a community environment to achieve a measure of success. Service delivery...

  11. Possibility of Implementing Participatory Budgeting in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Maram Al Maskati

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at providing a general overview about participatory budgeting as well as providing a studyon the possibility whether participatory budgeting can be implemented in the kingdom of Bahrain. The researchwas conducted with the assist of primary data as well as secondary data. The primary data consists of a surveydistributed to 52 samples as well as an interview performed at the Ministry of Finance in the kingdom ofBahrain. The secondary data revolved around some previous studies...

  12. The Power of Ambiguity: How Participatory Budgeting Travels the Globe

    OpenAIRE

    Ganuza, Ernesto; Baiocchi, Gianpaolo

    2012-01-01

    From its inception in Brazil in the late 1980s, Participatory Budgeting has now been instituted in over 1500 cities worldwide. This paper discusses what actually travels under the name of Participatory Budgeting. We rely on science studies for a fundamental insight: it is not enough to simply speak of “diffusion” while forgetting the way that the circulation and translation of an idea fundamentally transform it (Latour 1987). In this case, the travel itself has made PB into an attractive ...

  13. Needs Assessment for Participatory Evaluation of Environmental Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory McDuff

    Traditional evaluation methods have been deemed ineffective for evaluating environmental education (EE) programs. In contrast, ongoing, participatory evaluation involving local stakeholders in problem identification, evaluation design, data collection, analysis, and use of results was found to provide improved and more useful results. This article describes a case in which participatory evaluation was implemented at the Wildlife Clubs of Kenya, the largest grassroots environmental education organization for youth in Africa.

  14. Participatory Design of Websites with Web Design Workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Bersani; Nora Dimmock; Nancy Fried Foster

    2008-01-01

    At the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries we have included users in technology development with great success. "Participatory design" entails collaboration among designers, developers, and users from the earliest stages of conception through to implementation of websites and other technology. Using participatory methods, a project to redesign the library website began with workshops to identify user needs and preferences. The results of these workshops led to the identification ...

  15. 4Sensing - decentralized processing for participatory sensing data

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Heitor Jose? Simo?es Baptista

    2010-01-01

    Participatory sensing is a new application paradigm, stemming from both technical and social drives, which is currently gaining momentum as a research domain. It leverages the growing adoption of mobile phones equipped with sensors, such as camera, GPS and accelerometer, enabling users to collect and aggregate data, covering a wide area without incurring in the costs associated with a large-scale sensor network. Related research in participatory sensing usually proposes an architecture bas...

  16. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-01-01

    K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings....

  17. Community-Based Participatory Research for Improved Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Smikowski, Jane; Dewane, Sarah; JOHNSON, MARK E.; BREMS, CHRISTIANE; Bruss, Catherine; Roberts, Laura W.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using a participatory approach involving a community of experts, this cours...

  18. Participatory approaches and the measurement of human well-being

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sarah; Pettit, Jethro

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the use of participatory methods in international development research, and asks what contribution these can make to the definition and measurement of well-being. It draws on general lessons arising from the project level, two larger-scale policy research processes sponsored by the World Bank, and the experience of quality of life studies. It also considers emerging experiments with using participatory methods to generate quantitative data. The paper closes by assessing t...

  19. Probabilistic Registration for Large-Scale Mobile Participatory Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hachem, Sara; Pathak, Animesh; Issarny, Vale?rie

    2013-01-01

    One of the main benefits of mobile participatory sensing becoming a reality is the increased knowledge it will provide about the real world, as it is expected to rely on a large number of smart and mobile devices. Nowadays, those devices have the ability to host different types of sensors that will be incorporated in every aspect of our daily lives. However, given the constantly increasing number of capable mobile devices, any participatory sensing approach should be, first and foremost, scal...

  20. Community-Based Participatory Evaluation: The Healthy Start Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Braithwaite, Ronald L.; McKenzie, Robetta D.; Pruitt, Vikki; Holden, Kisha B.; Aaron, Katrina; Hollimon, Chavone

    2012-01-01

    The use of community-based participatory research has gained momentum as a viable approach to academic and community engagement for research over the past 20 years. This article discusses an approach for extending the process with an emphasis on evaluation of a community partnership–driven initiative and thus advances the concept of conducting community-based participatory evaluation (CBPE) through a model used by the Healthy Start project of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., in A...

  1. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  2. FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, VERGARA; D, VON BAER; C, MARDONES; L, GUTIÉRREZ; I, HERMOSÍN-GUTIÉRREZ; N, CASTILLO-MUÑOZ.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of antho [...] cyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the most concentrated flavonols in wine in which they are present in free and conjugated forms. These compounds are responsible for important wine antioxidant properties. In the present work, using only the concentrations of free and conjugated quercetin and myricetin, differentiation between Carménère and Merlot varieties was better achieved. Flavonol profiles of wine produced in Chile were studied with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. An overview of the concentration range of flavonols present in 248 Chilean red wines is presented, finding that the mean concentration of the sum of total myricetin and total quercetin were higher in Carménère (81.5 mgL-1) and Merlot (78.9 mgL¹) than in Cabernet Sauvignon (53.9 mgL¹) wines. These mean levels were higher than the majority of the concentrations reported in the literature. The chemometric analysis shows that the ratio of total quercetin/total myricetin combined with the concentration of free myricetin allowed the varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines.

  3. Türkiye’de Kat?l?m Bankalar?n?n Tercih Edilme Sebepleri: Ampirik Bir Tetkik(Reasons for Preference of Participatory Banks in Turkey: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?smail ÖZSOY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest-Free/Islamic Banking or Participatory Banking has been increasing its share in the world financial market. Although many researches about the reasons for preference of interest-free banks abroad Turkey have been conducted so far, the number of the studies related to the reasons for preference of participatory banks in Turkey is comparatively very low. This study is intended to contribute to the literature in question. To this effect; a sample of 217 participants was selected among the customers of three participatory banks in Bolu province in Turkey. The data was collected through conducting a survey. An exploratory factor analysis was run on the data. According to our findings, the principal factor affecting the participants’ preference of participatory banks is “Product/Service Quality”. “Image and Trust”, “Personnel Quality”, “Religious/Environmental Motivations” are the succeeding ones.

  4. Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved socially and politically. The PAREU model empowers the community to take action from the research they, themselves, conducted, and enables them to carry out future research. Finally, many of these communities (and the general public) lack the understanding of the nature of science, which leads to ignorance on the part of citizens in areas of science such as climate change. By participating in science/social science research, community members gain a better understanding of the nature of science, making them more informed citizens. The PAREU model is theoretically grounded in decades of research in social science and documented impacts of student research experiences. In addition to providing practical benefits for communities with needs solvable by scientific research, the model builds on and expands student skills gained from traditional REU programs Deep and sustained engagement among scientists, social scientists, and community leaders is expected to create better informed citizens and improve their ability to solve problems.

  5. Awareness and learning in participatory noise sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai Muki; Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D P; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  6. The Palouse Basin Participatory Model Pilot Project: A Participatory Approach to Bi-state Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.

  7. Possibility of Implementing Participatory Budgeting in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maram Al Maskati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at providing a general overview about participatory budgeting as well as providing a studyon the possibility whether participatory budgeting can be implemented in the kingdom of Bahrain. The researchwas conducted with the assist of primary data as well as secondary data. The primary data consists of a surveydistributed to 52 samples as well as an interview performed at the Ministry of Finance in the kingdom ofBahrain. The secondary data revolved around some previous studies as well as the assist of published books andthe World Wide Web. The research analysis stated that people would love to see participatory budgeting beingimplemented in the kingdom. Finally, the author reached a conclusion stating that participatory budgeting can’tbe implemented in the kingdom at the mean time but it could be possible in the near future by starting theexecution gradually in one of the five governorates in the kingdom with the assist of the Municipal Councilwhich was appointed by the citizens. The author also suggested for participatory budgeting to be taught inschools as well as integrating an online tool to solve the problem of participation through the e-GovernmentAuthority.

  8. Let Them do the Work : A Participatory Place Branding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenker, Sebastian; Erfgen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This conceptual essay seeks to develop a participatory approach to place branding. In doing so, it offers guidance on how to implement a participatory place branding strategy within place management practice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on theoretical insights drawn from the combination of distinct literatures on place branding, general marketing, and collaborative governance. Findings: The paper highlights the importance of residents in the place branding process and argues that their special functions as ambassadors for the place constitute the most valuable assets in place branding. Thus, a participatory place branding approach involving residents is needed. To implement this approach, three stages are necessary: (stage 1) defining a shared vision for the place including core place elements; (stage 2) implementing a structure for participation; (stage 3) supporting residents in their own place branding projects. Originality/value: The inclusion of residents is often requested in contemporary place branding literature. Unfortunately, none of these articles offer a real strategy for participatory place branding so far. Thus, this conceptual essay provides a participatory place branding approach to help place managers implement such structure.

  9. POST-EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION: TOWARDS A MUCH MORE PARTICIPATORY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng YING

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After the devastating Great Wenchuan Earthquake occured in May 2008, China responded rapidly to mitigate the losses caused. Post-earthquake reconstruction planning plays a crucial role to the future development of earthquake struck areas. The post-earthquake reconstruction planning work has demonstrated to be an immediate action and tends to be a much more open and participatory. Since the influence of long term planned economy in the past and its centralised administration system, planning in China is comparatively information-close to ordinary people. However, the post-earthquake reconstruction planning turns to be a much wider participatory and more open than before, though it is still immature and there still many obstacles need to be overcome. This paper firstly introduces the Great Wenchuan Earthquake and the quick response of reconstruction planning in China. It depicts the intensive work of the reconstruction planning. Then it reviews the concept of participatory planning and the history of participatory planning in China. Thirdly, it identifies three new trends that a more participatory planning has showed in the reconstruction planning. Lastly, this paper points out some problems still exist in the reconstruction planning.

  10. Augmenting the Participatory Design Concept in Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng QIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory Design (PD is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems development. By recognizing the complementarities of the tools of these two approaches (SSM and QFD, we can enhance Participatory Design in systems development. Findings from literature review show that a comprehensive application of this concept is yet to be done in information systems development. The approach builds on the seven phases of Soft Systems Methodology by applying the Quality Function Deployment techniques to elicit information from complex and amorphous real-world situations to augment the Participatory Design process.Keywords: Participatory Design; Soft Systems Methodology; Quality Function Deployment; House of Quality

  11. Possibility of Implementing Participatory Budgeting in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maram Al Maskati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at providing a general overview about participatory budgeting as well as providing a study on the possibility whether participatory budgeting can be implemented in the kingdom of Bahrain. The research was conducted with the assist of primary data as well as secondary data. The primary data consists of a survey distributed to 52 samples as well as an interview performed at the Ministry of Finance in the kingdom of Bahrain. The secondary data revolved around some previous studies as well as the assist of published books and the World Wide Web. The research analysis stated that people would love to see participatory budgeting being implemented in the kingdom. Finally, the author reached a conclusion stating that participatory budgeting can’t be implemented in the kingdom at the mean time but it could be possible in the near future by starting the execution gradually in one of the five governorates in the kingdom with the assist of the Municipal Council which was appointed by the citizens. The author also suggested for participatory budgeting to be taught in schools as well as integrating an online tool to solve the problem of participation through the e-Government Authority.

  12. Theory Building through Praxis Discourse: A Theory- and Practice-Informed Model of Transformative Participatory Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnar, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Stakeholder participation in evaluation, where the evaluator engages stakeholders in the process, is prevalent in evaluation practice and is an important focus of evaluation research. Cousins and Whitmore proposed a bifurcation of participatory evaluation into the two streams of transformative participatory and practical participatory evaluation…

  13. Francisco B. Cruz: de la ‘agricultura pródiga’ a la revolución varietal azucarera en Cuba, 1878-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leida Fernández Prieto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A través de la figura del agrónomo y científico cubano Francisco B. Cruz, este artículo explora el cambio en el sistema de cultivo cañero a finales del siglo XIX debido, entre otros factores, al fracaso del modelo basado en la agricultura prodiga. Asimismo, se destaca la participación de la Estación Experimental en la puesta en marcha del programa global de la revolución varietal. En este sentido, se subraya el papel de Francisco B. Cruz y las conexiones con otros actores institucionales y privados con diversos intereses en la reorganización de la industria azucarera cubana. La investigación se basa en documentos de la etapa y, fundamentalmente, en la documentación de la Estación Central Agronómica, hoy en día Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical ‘Alejandro de Humboldt’.

  14. The use of P-32 for determining varietal resistance of rice to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens stal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resistance was assessed uased on the feeding activities of the insect on 15-day old seedling of six test varietes namely TN 1, Asahan, Brantas, Citarum, Serayu and Mudgo. A level of 175 ?Ci per seedling appeared to give sufficiently high absorption of radiophosphorus by the brown planthoppers. The level of radioactivity in the brown planthopper fed for 24 hours on labelled rice plants appeared to be correlated with the susceptibility of the rice plant to brown planthopper. The radioactivity in the honeydew of those hoppers was less correlated with the rice susceptibility. The promising resistance screening method using P-32 tracer is thus more reliable when the radioactivity is detected in the insect rather than in the honeydew. (author)

  15. Sensibilidade dos microssatélites para determinar a pureza varietal em sementes de milho Microsatellite markers to determine maize inbred seed purity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Patrícia Ramos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Em um sistema de produção de sementes, o limite de contaminação varietal em lotes de linhagens de milho é zero, de modo que a presença de apenas uma semente de genótipo estranho acarreta a reprovação do lote. Várias técnicas vêm sendo estudadas para determinar a pureza varietal, incluindo marcadores moleculares baseados em polimorfismo de DNA. Nessa pesquisa foi avaliada a sensibilidade da técnica de microssatélites para detectar a presença de sementes de outros genótipos em lotes de linhagens de milho. Utilizaram-se quatro linhagens (L1, L2, L3 e L4, onde as sementes da L2 eram contaminantes da L1 e, as da L4, contaminantes da L3. Para simulação de diferentes níveis de contaminação, 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 sementes do genótipo estranho foram misturadas a "bulks" de 100 sementes da linhagem comercial. Em seguida, efetuou-se a extração de DNA das amostras de sementes das quatro amostras preparadas. Por outro lado, para simular níveis inferiores de contaminação, foram misturados DNA do genótipo contaminante em níveis de 0,01; 0,013; 0,02; 0,04; 0,1; 0,2; 1; 2; 5; 10 e 100%. A amplificação dos microssatélites foi realizada utilizando o iniciador BNLG125 para a L1+L2 e o BNLG240 para L3+L4. Observou-se que os marcadores microssatélites foram eficientes para determinar a pureza varietal de lotes de sementes de linhagens de milho, utilizados neste estudo, com sensibilidade para detecção de concentrações de DNA iguais ou superiores a 0,01%, apresentando nitidez e repetibilidade, especialmente com a utilização de gel de poliacrilamida. Ao mesmo tempo, a presença de DNA estranho nas amostras constituídas por "bulks" foi detectada eficientemente por essa técnica, indicando a possibilidade de sua utilização em testes de rotina para avaliar a presença de outras cultivares, em lotes de sementes de milho.Genotype contamination in seed production of maize inbred seed lots is not tolerated, i.e. the presence of only one seed from another genotype in a lot is sufficient to discard this lot. Many procedures have been studied to detect genotype purity in different crops, including molecular markers based on DNA polymorphism. This research aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the microsatellite technique to detect the contaminating seeds in maize inbred lines. Four inbred lines (L1, L2, L3 and L4 were used. Samples of 100 seeds each of L1 were prepared considering L2 as a contaminant while seeds of L4 were contaminants in L3 seed lots. To simulate different contamination levels, 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 seeds of the foreign genotype were mixed with the inbred line and then DNA was extracted from each treatment. Successive DNA samples dilutions of 0.01; 0.013; 0.02; 0.04; 0.1; 0.2; 1; 2; 5; 10 and 100% were also realized with to simulate low contamination levels. For both analysis microsatellites amplifications were performed with the primers BNLG125 for L1+L2 and BNLG240 for L3+L4. The results showed that the microsatellite technique is efficient to determine the varietal purity of inbred maize used in this research. The sensitive technique is able to detect a 0.01% DNA contaminant level. Standardization and intensity were better when a polyacrylamide matrix was used. The presence of foreign DNA in the contaminated lots was efficiently detected with the microsatellite technique, indicating the usefulness of this procedure to detect the presence of foreign seeds within maize inbred lots.

  16. Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Richard Brown, PhD

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease prevention, and other health issues in California. The survey is used for policy and program development, advocacy, and research. Methods The development of the California Health Interview Survey involves more than 145 people from more than 60 state and local policymaking bodies, public health agencies, advocacy groups, research organizations, and health care organizations. They participate as volunteers in an advisory board, on technical advisory committees, and in work groups that interact with California Health Interview Survey research staff in an accountable advisory process that shapes survey topics, measures, and sample design and determines languages selected for translation. Survey results and data are provided to the communities involved in the survey. Results California Health Interview Survey data have been widely used by local, state, and national public health leaders, policymakers, advocates, and researchers to improve access to health insurance and health care services and to develop and target prevention programs for obesity and chronic illnesses. Conclusion The California Health Interview Survey participatory research model has been an effective approach to planning and implementing a health survey and should be considered by developers of other large health surveys.

  17. Grassroots ergonomics: initiating an ergonomics program utilizing participatory techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalk, D M

    2001-06-01

    The introduction of ergonomics programs throughout the world requires an easy to understand and inexpensive process. Participatory ergonomic intervention techniques have proven to be beneficial in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. The participatory approach to ergonomics has also been found to be a useful application within industrialized (developed) countries and industrially developing countries (IDCs). Grassroots Ergonomics principles utilize expertise within a workforce that focuses on participatory ergonomics interpretations of quantitative and qualitative risk and exposure assessment information that in turn results in a peer-developed ergonomics training. Regardless of the intricacy of the exposure assessment tools, workers should fully assist in gathering and analyzing data, then in identifying and implementing solutions. A coordinated and multidisciplinary application of this approach within IDCs would succeed in the creation and sharing of job-specific ergonomics training information for high physical exposure professions, such as agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, and small-scale enterprises, to initiate ergonomics programs regionally. PMID:11378149

  18. A participatory approach to healing and transformation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkel, Elize

    2011-12-01

    In this article I describe my personal journey from working as private practitioner to participating in the wider South African society. Post-apartheid South African society struggles with overwhelming problems related to poverty, illness, violence, sexism, and racism. Moreover, in those communities where the trauma is most severe, professional resources are scarce. I propose a participatory approach which invites therapists to respond to these socio-economic and political challenges and the problems that arise from them by thinking and acting outside the constraints of their consultation rooms and of traditional therapeutic conversations, into active participation in ways that might support healing and social transformation. I use two examples to illustrate and discuss the participatory approach with which I have engaged for over 10 years. The illustrative examples show how a participatory approach can create ripples that impact communities in healing and transformative ways. PMID:22145721

  19. Empowerment and regulation : Dilemmas in participatory fisheries science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

    2012-01-01

    Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.

  20. Role of Participatory Rural Appraisal in Community Development (A Case Study of Barani Area Development Project in Agriculture, Live Stock and Forestry Development in Kohat)

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Alam; Sabir Ihsan

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the role of participatory approach in community development. Barani Area Development Project is one of Govt: sponsored project, which was started in 2001. The aim of this project was to encourage community and ensure maximum participation to sustain the project in district kohat. Kalabat, Jangle Khail , Lachi ,Usterzo and Kachi were selected for this study. Proportion allocation method of sampling was used for the selection of respondents, 150 community mem...

  1. Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection

  2. Distance management – a challenge in participatory interventions in virtual organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv

    2014-01-01

    Virtual organizations challenge the first line managers as they have to be able to manage from afar as distance managers. Investigating distance management in participatory multi-level interventions this paper presents a case study of four SMEs which have applied the multi-level participatory PoWRS program (Prevention of Work-Related Stress) over a six month period. Interviews were conducted with employees, in-house process facilitators, project managers and first line managers. The results show that distance managers are even more challenged in interventions especially regarding coordination of activities and ensuring commitment.

  3. Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephanie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; He, Wenbo [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Groat, Michael [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Edwards, Benjamin [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Horey, James L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.

  4. Disentangling participation power and decision-making in participatory design

    CERN Document Server

    Bratteteig, Tone

    2014-01-01

    Providing a critical view on user participation in design, disentangling decision making and power in design, this book uses fieldwork material from two large participatory design projects: one experimental in the field of urban planning, the other a product development project within health care. Addressing power issues in participatory design is critical to providing a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of participation. Design is decision-making: during a design process a huge number of decisions?taken before the designers end up with a design result - an artefact or system

  5. Actionable Ethnography in Participatory Innovation: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory research, design material.

  6. / PARTICIPATORY SOIL IMPROVEMENT: A CUBAN CASE STUDY IN FERTILITY MANAGEMENT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lisa, Kissing; A, Pimentel; María, Valido.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La degradación mundial de la calidad del suelo y el agotamiento de las reservas de fertilizantes hechos a base de petróleo amenazan la seguridad alimentaria global. A pesar de que la investigación científica ha desarrollado soluciones técnicas para el mejoramiento del suelo con bajos insumos, los ag [...] ricultores que producen a pequeña escala no adoptan dichas prácticas frecuentemente. Con la meta de aumentar la implementación de prácticas que mejoran el suelo, un estudio de caso en la comunidad de San Andrés, Cuba, probó una metodología participativa para explorar el conocimiento local, identificar las tecnológicas que podían satisfacer las necesidades de la comunidad, e impulsar la innovación campesina con las tecnologías seleccionadas. A través de una investigación cualitativa, el estudio exploró el corpus, la praxis, y el kosmos que la comunidad tiene para conceptualizar, manejar y tomar decisiones sobre sus suelos. El análisis de etnopedología indicó que aunque los productores reconocen que la calidad de sus suelos está empeorando y que comparten una meta general sobre el mejoramiento de sus tierras a largo plazo, las estrategias existentes del manejo de la fertilidad son inadecuadas para satisfacer la demanda de los cultivos. Los resultados sugieren que la introducción de nuevas tecnologías a la comunidad podría acelerar la formación de una praxis más adecuada. Para satisfacer las necesidades de manejo de nutrientes, se seleccionaron abonos verdes y compost como las tecnologías más adecuadas para los sistemas de producción existentes. Es por ello que la “feria de fertilidad del suelo” reunió a investigadores y miembros de la comunidad, para experimentar con diferentes tipos de abonos verdes y compost, así como evaluar su comportamiento en contextos locales. El trabajo considera que la feria es una puerta de entrada al manejo sostenible del suelo por medio de la innovación campesina. Para guiar el futuro diseño del mejoramiento participativo del suelo, el trabajo expone las lecciones aprendidas de una experiencia que integró la etnopedología y las ferias del suelo. Abstract in english The degrading quality of soils worldwide and an uncertain supply of petroleum-based fertilizers are a threat to global food security. Although research has developed low-input technical solutions to improve soil resource, such technologies are rarely adopted by small farmers in the global south. Wit [...] h the goal of increasing farmer adoption of soil building practices, a case study in the community of San Andrés, Cuba, tested a participatory methodology to explore local knowledge, identify research technologies to meet community needs, and catalyze farmer innovation on the selected technologies. Through qualitative research, the study explored the corpus, praxis, and kosmos that the community held to conceptualize, manage, and make decisions about their soils. Analysis of ethnopedology indicated that although individuals recognized the degrading quality of their soils, and shared a wider goal of long-term land improvement, existing nutrient management strategies were inadequate to satisfy crop needs. Results suggested that introducing new technologies to the community could accelerate the formation of a more appropriate praxis. To satisfy nutrient management needs, green manures, and compost were identified as the technologies best suited to existing production systems. Then, a “soil fertility fair” joined researchers and community members, to experiment with green manures and compost, and evaluate the types most feasible to local conditions. The paper considers the fair as a gateway to sustainable soil management through farmer innovation. To help guide the future design of participatory soil improvement, the paper expounds lessons learned from the research experience with ethnopedology and soil fairs

  7. Participatory tools working with crops, varieties and seeds. A guide for professionals applying participatory approaches in agrobiodiversity management, crop improvement and seed sector development

    OpenAIRE

    Boef, W.S., de; Thijssen, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in field study assignments. The objectives of practising participatory tools in training on local agrobiodiversity management and related to that the objectives of this guide are many. However, the curre...

  8. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the ?(15)N and ?(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions. PMID:26041233

  9. Characterization of the Geographical and Varietal Origin of Wheat and Bread by Means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS Methods and Chemometrics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Longobardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food authentication, in terms of geographical and varietal/animal origins, is considered of primary importance at all levels of the production process. Therefore, it is clear that there is an economic basis to develop analytical methods able to certify the declared origin of food products, in order to protect consumers and honest producers from fraud and unfair competition, respectively; consequently, during recent years, several food authentication techniques have been proposed. This review attempted to present in a critical way the contribution of High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HR-NMR and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS techniques in the assessment of quality and authenticity, mainly in terms of characterization of geographical and varietal origin, of wheat and wheat products, focusing on the most important studies to this direction.

  10. Gender and Innovation in Agriculture: A Case Study of Farmers’ Varietal Preference of Drought Tolerant Maize in Southern Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayinde, O. E.; Abduolaye, T.; Olaoye, G.; Akangbe, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA). The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their...

  11. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  12. Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

  13. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  14. Participatory Evaluation of an Educational Game for Social Skills Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…

  15. Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

    2012-01-01

    The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions…

  16. Participatory Action Research: Collective Reflections on Gender, Culture, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alice; Chatzopoulos, Nikolaos; Politi, Anastasia; Roz, Julieta

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is the experiences of three undergraduate students who engaged in a participatory action research (PAR) project with a group of preadolescent Latina girls attending a public school in Boston, MA, USA. The aim of the 2-year project was to explore how the girls constructed knowledge about girlhood and other gender-related…

  17. Requirements for Participatory Framework on Governmental Policy Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birut? PITR?NAIT?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.

  18. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  19. Participatory and Dialogue Democracy in U.S. Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Shiuli

    2009-01-01

    Teaching math to reflect values of democracy has to begin with some consideration of how democracy is conceptualized. A review of various theories of democracy conducted by Hagen (1992) provides everyone with a good starting point as it identifies three primary forms of democracy: competitive, participatory, and dialogue. In this essay, the author…

  20. Rethinking Gaps: Literacies and Languages in Participatory Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocson, Korina; Rosa, Jonathan; Curwood, Jen Scott

    2015-01-01

    Growing efforts in the study of digital literacies push for continued (re)shaping of policy and pedagogical interventions. In this column, we take up concerns in participatory cultures to revisit a longstanding issue pertaining to language. Evident in the literature on digital literacies is an implicit treatment of language, particularly around…

  1. Participatory Culture Gets Schooled: Reflections on a Digital Literacies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, JuliAnna

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a course description of a Digital Literacies class offered to both undergraduate and graduate students at an American university. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the pedagogical bones of this course, drawing upon theories of learning in a participatory culture, including a discussion of how, and where, the course fell…

  2. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  3. Participatory Education in a South African Context: Contradictions and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Caroline

    1993-01-01

    A participatory English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) curriculum development project in South Africa, "Use, Speak and Write English" (USWE), is described. USWE's attempt to translate its curriculum framework into workable materials is reported. Suggestions for handling the challenges facing adult basic education are suggested. (Contains 40…

  4. China Earthquake Relief: Participatory Action Work with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…

  5. Manager or Participatory Leader? What Does It Take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Larry E.; Melton, R. Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Changing principals' orientation from manager to participatory leader takes planning, determination, and time. Management by Walking Around (MBWA), the crucial prerequisite, requires a demonstrated commitment to making people the highest priority, using time efficiently, scheduling MBWA and following through, leading by example, demonstrating the…

  6. The implied producer investigating an emergent typology in participatory culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Whereas many good things can be said about the ability of digital media to facilitate the public access to cultural material, there has been no significant development in the theoretical understanding of ubiquitous digital media's potential for participatory culture -- and what human typologies emerges from this reconfiguration? The small Swedish Biennale, Electrohype run an impressively straight line of investigations into the participatory spaces of art -- thereby also facilitating the dissemination of the, at that time, almost unnoticed field of media art. It appears, from the Electrohype Biennales, that we are not 'just' dealing with a 'new' genre or style within the art category; on the other hand we are not dealing with a pure commercial culture either (the abstract notion of 'the user' has its limits); what is becoming evident is that the 'implicit' roles of the participatory 'actors' in culture and art are being transformed. This paper investigates this emergent 'persona' in the post-digital participatory culture, and names it 'the implicit producer'.

  7. Investigating the Design Process : Participatory Design in Agile Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings – The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.

  8. Perfil sensorial de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros através de análise descritiva quantitativa Sensory profile of brazilian varietal white wines by quantitative descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herman BEHRENS

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, materiais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado.Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and differences among the wine samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeters non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The collected data were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The results showed a great difference within the sensory profile of Riesling and Gewürztraminer wines, whereas Chardonnay wines showed a lesser variation. PCA separated samples into two groups: a first group formed by wines higher in sweetness and fruitty flavor and aroma; and a second group of wines higher in sourness, adstringency, bitterness, alcoholic and fermented flavors.

  9. Mortality in Chicks Associated with Economic Impact and Prospect of Layer Chick Rearer Package Programme of the Participatory Livestock Development Project in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M.T. Islam; M. A. Samad

    2004-01-01

    The Participatory Livestock Development Project (PLDP) has been implemented in Bangladesh for the alleviation of poverty through livestock production, employment, income generation and intake of nutrition in rural people. The management and disease problems with cost-benefit analysis of the layer chick rearer package programme of the PLDP have been evaluated in randomly selected 10 layer chick rearing units (n=3100 chicks) from day-old chicks up to 60 days to marketing of Muktagacha areas in ...

  10. Determination of antioxidant capacities, ?-dicarbonyls, and phenolic phytochemicals in Florida varietal honeys using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sara M; Schneider, Keith R; Cisneros, Katherine V; Gu, Liwei

    2014-08-27

    Honeys contain phenolic compounds and ?-dicarbonyls with antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities, respectively. The type and concentration of these compounds vary depending on the floral source and geographical location where the honey is produced. Seventeen varietal honeys, including 12 monofloral and 5 multifloral honeys, were sampled from different regions of Florida. The monofloral honeys included those from citrus, tupelo, palmetto, and gallberry. These honeys were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and free radical scavenging capacity and compared with three New Zealand Manuka honeys. Phenolic phytochemicals and ?-dicarbonyls were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Several honey varieties from gallberry, Manuka, and multifloral displayed a total phenolic content >1000 ?g GAE/g. A citrus honey had the lowest total phenolic content of 286 ?g GAE/g. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the honeys ranged from 1.48 to 18.2 ?mol TE/g. All honeys contained 3-deoxyglucosone at a higher concentration than methylglyoxal or glyoxal. Manuka honeys had higher concentrations of methylglyoxal than other varieties. Plant hormones 2-cis,4-trans-abscisic acid and 2-trans,4-trans-abscisic acid were the most abundant phytochemicals in all honeys. Coumaric acid, rutin, chrysin, pinocembrin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol were also found in samples but at lower concentrations. PMID:25102012

  11. Values-led Participatory Design - Mediating the Emergence of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can potentially

  12. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. PMID:25555777

  13. Participatory approaches in support of the decision-making processes. The ambivalence of participation

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Federica

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation concerns the analysis of participatory practices in support of the decision-making processes. In particular, the research work is based on an important consideration, according to which, traditional participatory processes do not work in practical terms. Indeed, the evolution of the concept of participation reveals that although the implementation of the participatory processes arose from the necessity of strongly criticizing the contemporary society of the 1960’s, nowad...

  14. Contingent democratisation? The rise and fall of participatory budgeting in Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of participatory budgeting in Buenos Aires following the crisis of December 2001 was a highly unlikely event. The different parties involved had competing and contradictory agendas that did not coincide with participatory budgeting's stated aims of extending citizen participation in government, but these interacted in a way that contingently created a space for a viable process to develop. Subsequent political shifts led to the demise of participatory budgeting, but the Bue...

  15. Co-engineering participatory modelling processes for water planning and management

    OpenAIRE

    Daniell, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Broad-scale multi-stakeholder decision-aiding processes for complex water planning and management issues are typically organised or "co-engineered" by several agencies or actors. These participatory processes are therefore co-initiated, co-designed and co-implemented by a number of people. It is postulated here that this co-engineering can critically impact on both the participatory processes and their outcomes. Co-engineering has received scant attention in studies of participatory decision-...

  16. Structure in Creativity; effects of structuring tools on results of participatory scenario development workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, M.; Kok, K.; Veldkamp, T.; Sarkki, S.

    2012-01-01

    Scenario projects increasingly combine quantitative models with qualitative, participatory products in order to make scenarios more coherent, relevant, credible and creative. A major advantage of adding participatory, qualitative scenarios is their ability to produce creative, innovative, non-linear products. Integrating participatory results with quantitative models, however, can lower their credibility of both products when they are not consistent. The low level of structure in most partici...

  17. Stakeholder involvement in stages of a participatory process illustrated in interior design cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Peter Delft University of Technology

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study (Vink et al., 2008) an overview was made of the involvement of different stakeholders in a participatory design process. In this paper this overview was used to describe four participatory design cases focused on improvising productivity, health, and comfort by interior design. It appeared that this overview is useful to describe the involvement in participatory interior design projects. However, it can only serve as an initial benchmark as much is dependent on the specific case at hand.

  18. No contest: participatory technologies and the transformation of urban authority

    OpenAIRE

    Mcquarrie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This essay describes the transformation of civic participation from a tool of democratization into a tool for elite authority. Looking at various participatory projects in community-based organizations in a city in America’s Rust Belt, the essay demonstrates how the very architecture of civil society is being manipulated to marginalize dissent. This raises the question of whether the design of institutions has outpaced our critiques of them.

  19. Participatory assessment of the Toliara Bay reef fishery, southwest Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Mahafina; Jocelyne Ferraris; Ambroise Brenier

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure the sustainable management of reef fisheries, it is necessary to obtain data about the effects of these fisheries on both fish resources and the ecosystems that sustain them. Ecosystem-based surveys provide this information, but are difficult to implement because of technical, financial and human resources requirements. In this regard participatory assessment methods have the potential to increase the amount of data collected at low cost, while taking advantage of local tra...

  20. Partnership readiness for community-based participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette O. Andrews; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

    2010-01-01

    The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners’ readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 par...

  1. Participatory Digital Design:A Study with Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Heyerdahl, Ida Margrethe

    2007-01-01

    This master thesis explores Participatory Design where teenagers get the opportunity to participate in the public discussion of cultural heritage using their language and their own media. This study focuses on bringing teenagers as users, testers and informants into the technology design process. The roles user, tester and informants are based on Allison Druins roles of children in a technology design process. The research done for this thesis have taken place at Trosterudklubben. This yout...

  2. Sustainable E-Participation through participatory experiences in education

    OpenAIRE

    Ursula Maier-Rabler; Stefan Huber

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010) enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and edu...

  3. HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Sundararaman, Prof B.; Kl Muthuramu, Dr

    2013-01-01

    Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer) to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management...

  4. El Niño platforms: participatory disaster response in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, J. F.; Ore?, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to greater extremes (droughts and floods) in river regimes around the world. While the number of major calamities is predicted to rise, the efforts of the public sector, experts and local stakeholders are badly coordinated. Consequently, aid does not reach target groups, resulting in unnecessary losses. Hence, there is a need for more participatory and integrative approaches. To ensure a more concerted response to climate-induced disasters, stakeholders coul...

  5. Keeping track of nature : interdisciplinary insights for participatory ecological monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Staddon, Samantha Clair

    2012-01-01

    Participatory ecological monitoring aims to bring together conservationists and members of the public to collect scientific data about changes in nature – in species, habitats, ecosystems and natural resources. Given that such monitoring not only concerns measures of nature but inherently the participants doing the measuring, it is as much to do with social processes as it is to do with ecological ones. By drawing on detailed ethnographic work from the community forests of Ne...

  6. Scanner tags, comic book piracy and participatory culture

    OpenAIRE

    Delwiche, Aaron Trinity University

    2014-01-01

    To learn more about the motivations of individuals who scan and distribute comic books, this study reports findings from a content analysis of 389 scanner tags extracted from comic books posted on the torrent network Pirate Bay. Coded according to four categories linked to the literature on comic fandom and participatory culture, tags were analyzed in terms of recognition, aesthetic style, textual signifiers, and visual signifiers. Though comic book pirates seek recognition from their peers, ...

  7. Criticism and Self-criticism: participatory evaluation in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Ferreira Machado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches some possibilities implementation of participatory evaluation,which is seen as an important dimension of the accomplished pedagogical work inrural schools organized according to politician-pedagogical principles of the movementof landless rural workers. Among the authors who base this study are Freitas (1995,Perrenoud (1986 and Pistrak (2002. The research of participant nature, whose maininstrument was the comment had with central objective to analyze where measuredcritical and the self-criticism as a proposition of participatory evaluation, reflected in thedaily life of rural schools. The results of the research show the value of systematicevaluation in the context of these schools. It was possible to see that a transformativeand emancipatory education can not do without the critical and participatory evaluation,which includes students and educators as subjects of the process of teaching andlearning. Although it is a practice complex and sometimes conflicting, participatoryevalution is essential tool for collective reflection and systematization of educationalactivities and actions triggered in school, so as to strengthen the educational project ofthe rural social movements

  8. Inhibition of IgE-mediated Secretion from Human Basophils with a Highly Selective Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase, Btk, Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Macglashan, Donald; Honigberg, Lee; Smith, Ashley; Buggy, Joseph; Schroeder, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The study of receptor-mediated signaling in human basophils is often limited by the availability of selective pharmacological agents. The early signaling reaction mediated by Fc?RI aggregation is thought to require the activity of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (btk), an enzyme that has been identified as important in B cells signaling because mutations lead to X-linked agammaglobulinemia. This study uses the btk selective irreversible inhibitor, PCI-32765, to explore the role of btk in a variet...

  9. Can participatory ergonomics become 'the way we do things in this firm' - the Scandinavian approach to participatory ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way changes are made in firms have only had limited attention. In the Scandinavian countries legislation has, through mandatory joint working environment committees, tried to establish an organizational unit promoting direct participation. Several studies have showed that the intentions of the legislators are not automatically fulfilled, and they have reviled preconditions for more successful achievement. This opens for many supplementary regulatory strategies to improve activities in firms, but one has been in focus: establishing formalized management systems within occupational health and safety. This strategy may be contrary to the general intentions in the laws. Some of the conditions which must be taken into consideration are discussed.

  10. Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

    Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations, flow measurement sites and shallow groundwater wells. The network is now used to monitor hydro-meteorological parameters in collaboration with key stakeholders in the catchment. Preliminary results indicate that the network is working well. The benefits of this approach compared to conventional narrow scientific/technical approaches have been shown by gaining rapid insight into the hydrology of the catchment, identifying best sites for the instruments; and voluntary participation of stakeholders in installation, monitoring and safeguarding the installations. This approach has proved simple yet effective and yielded good results. Based on this experience gained in applying the approach in establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network, we conclude that the integrated participatory approach helps to assimilate local and expert knowledge in catchments monitoring which consequently results in: (i) identifying best sites for the hydrologic monitoring; (ii) instilling the sense of ownership; (iii) providing security of the installed network; and (iv) minimizing costs for installation and monitoring.

  11. The Effect of Participatory Education on Attitude of School Personnel Towards HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available School personnel`s knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS have a great role in students` knowledge of and attitude to this infection. Studies in Iran show that students and teachers have not adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS .The aim of this study is to assess the effect of participatory education on attitudes of personnel of schools toward HIV/AIDS. One hundred and fourteen school personnel were selected randomly to participate in an interventional study. The participants took part in a three-day workshop on HIV/AIDS prevention program in schools. The workshop content included the principles of HIV/AIDS and procedures for its control and prevention; the methods used were group discussion and group work for presentation of a HIV/AIDS prevention programme at schools through a logical framework method. A questionnaire was given to the participants to evaluate their knowledge of and attitude toward HIV/AIDS before and after the interventions. The mean age of participants was 40.87 (SD = 6.58. There was no significant relationship between gender/official post/length of service and attitude before or after the workshop. There was a significant change in personnel`s attitude to HIV/AIDS after the workshop. There was a significant correlation between the increase of personnel�s knowledge of and attitude to HIV/AIDS after the workshop introducing methods such as participatory education and asking participants to suggest a program for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in their fields are useful for increasing knowledge and changing their attitude toward HIV/AIDS.

  12. Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing how students engage with music outside school music programs can help music educators and their programs evolve. This article offers a look at music teaching and learning in terms of how people are increasingly interacting with music in participatory ways that involve digital technologies and media. This participatory culture offers a…

  13. BeeSim: Leveraging Wearable Computers in Participatory Simulations with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Kylie; Danish, Joshua; Zaitlen, Benjamin; Glosson, Diane; Jacobs, Alexander; Phelps, David

    2010-01-01

    New technologies have enabled students to become active participants in computational simulations of dynamic and complex systems (called Participatory Simulations), providing a "first-person"perspective on complex systems. However, most existing Participatory Simulations have targeted older children, teens, and adults assuming that such concepts…

  14. Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

  15. Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Constance BITSO

    2006-01-01

    Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also...

  16. PESANTREN AND PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT: The Case of the Pesantren Maslakul Huda of Kajen, Pati, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Budiwiranto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This chapter discusses the implementation of participatory development in the pesantren Maslakul Huda of Kajen, Pati, Central Java. It argues that participatory development in the pesantren Maslakul Huda has led to the creation of genuine participation in which local people are able to identify their own problems and potentials, and to create alternative solutions. The role of the kyai in this pesantren  is limited to giving Islamic justification to the acceptance of participatory development, and program implementation is in the hands of senior santris and village facilitators. The use of participatory action research and the creation of the self-help group as a people’s forum enable them to express their own perspective on their problems without the kyai’s interference. However, the pesantren utilises participatory development to enhance its economic position among the local people.

  17. Participatory assessment of the Toliara Bay reef fishery, southwest Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mahafina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the sustainable management of reef fisheries, it is necessary to obtain data about the effects of these fisheries on both fish resources and the ecosystems that sustain them. Ecosystem-based surveys provide this information, but are difficult to implement because of technical, financial and human resources requirements. In this regard participatory assessment methods have the potential to increase the amount of data collected at low cost, while taking advantage of local traditional ecological knowledge. In order to investigate the reef fishery of Toliara Bay, southwest Madagascar, we used participatory fish survey and interview data collected on site. These methods included: (i monitoring of catch landings during six months by wholesale fish merchants, (ii household surveys of fishing catch and effort and fish consumption conducted by school children, and (iii semi-structured interviews of reef users. One thousand five hundred and eighty six fishing trips were sampled between September 2006 and February 2007, 326 households were surveyed by trained school children in January 2007, and 70 reef users were interviewed in July/August 2006. Data collected by participants have been compiled and compared to reference values when available, allowing an assessment of the sustainability of the reef fishery. The results of this study confirm the unsustainable nature of resource exploitation and underline the need for rapid management responses in order to reverse this trend. It also highlights the great potential of participatory assessment methods for gathering large amounts of relevant information on the status and evolution of the ecosystem upon which the fishery depends, while promoting education and awareness about the protection and sustainable use of natural resources.

  18. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter

    Sustainable use of nontimber forest products (NTFP) in Amazonia, the World’s largest remaining contiguous rainforest, largely rests upon understanding patterns of resource use involving rural livelihoods to better inform conservation science. Brazil encompasses three-quarters of Amazonia, where non-indigenous semi-subsistence groups referred to as caboclos, outnumber native Amerindians by a factor of ten. The Brazilian government has committed to supporting participatory programs where monitoring biodiversity and co-management of natural resources are spearheaded by residents of sustainable-use protected areas. Notable among these initiatives is the Programa de Monitoramento da Biodiversidade e do Uso de Recursos Naturais em Unidades de Conservação Estaduais do Amazonas (ProBUC). ProBUC aims to 1) sensitize community residents to the importance of monitoring the state of natural resource use and establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects in three conservation units, including two extractive reserves. Extractive reserves, defined as forest areas inhabited by extractive populations granted long-term usufruct rights to forest resources which they collectively manage, are among the most important protected area types, accounting for one seventh of Brazilian Amazonia. Here, we present the results of a two-year participatory monitoring program of extractive activities by caboclos inhabiting one of ProBUC’s pilot areas, the Uacari Sustainable Development Reserve, as well as the Médio Juruá Extractive Reserve, both within the Juruá River basin of western Brazilian Amazonia. We discuss the most important extractive activities for ~100 households, how socio-economic factors influence NTFP extractive patterns across households, and the benefits and constraints of using participatory approaches to monitor extractivism in Amazonia.

  19. The Dangerous Museum : Participatory practices and controversy in museums today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Whereas museums shunned controversy in the past, this article argues that as museums embrace the new trend of audience participation some have also opted to introduce "hot topics" into museum exhibitions. Museum professionals who have adopted this particular form of museum practice predict that it has the potential to reform museums as we know them and to turn museums into active agents for democratic change in society. In a bid to understand and scrutinize the implications of this development in museums, the article consults critiques raised by art critics writing about a related development in contemporary art, i.e. relational and participatory art forms.

  20. How Participatory Budgeting Changes the Meaning and Practices of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rios Alves Nunes da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n2p301 What does it mean to be a citizen today? In an era where boundaries are being questioned, where identities are being transformed, where social and political claims are being updated from the traditional ‘recognition’ or ‘redistribution’ discourse to a more globalized discourse supported by a theoretical appeal to human rights, it is important to clarify where the ‘citizen’ stands, morally and politically speaking.This paper is supported by a a strong moral and political reading of citizenship, echoing some republican tradition where citizenship is associated with virtue; and b the assumption that there is a strong correlation between virtuous citizens and a virtuous republic or ‘democracy’. In order to reflect upon the transformations of the concept of citizenship I will look at some of the practices it involves, more precisely, I will look into the participatory budgeting experience in Portugal trying to show how the progressive implementation of such measure promises to bring Portuguese’s democracy to a new level with a more robust practice of citizenship.This paper has three moments: first, I will situate myself from a theoretical standpoint, regarding the concept of citizenship I want to defend. I will show how the way in which we conceive citizenship a will determine the forms and shapes democracy can take and b will influence the future of democracy, insofar it can contribute, enhance or undermine democratic aspirations and goals. Second, after arguing for an active sense of citizenship I will advance the argument that the future of democracy lies in participatory practices, in which the citizen plays a key role. Third, I will turn to a case study in order to illuminate my theoretical argument. Having participatory budgeting experiment in Portugal as paradigmatic case of analysis, I will identify some elements present in the Portuguese case that corroborate our hypothesis that the future of democracy must rely in participatory mechanisms and practices. 

  1. Picture this!: using participatory photo mapping with Hispanic girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Campos, Daisy Y; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve physical activity behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of physical activity. The purpose of this article was to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving. PMID:25423243

  2. Somali Bantu refugees in southwest Idaho: assessment using participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Pamela J; Black, Mikal; Martz, Kim; Deckys, Cathy; Soelberg, Terri

    2010-01-01

    The Somali Bantu represent a subset of African refugees, many of whom are preliterate with no native written language. This population presents significant challenges for nurses and other healthcare providers. A community-based participatory research project using qualitative techniques to combine community and cultural assessment was conducted over 18 months. A thorough description of methodology and results are provided. The results of the assessment are discussed as well as implications for healthcare providers. The findings indicate that this is a vulnerable population, with limited resources placing them at high risk for health disparities. Further research should focus on obtaining actual health data. PMID:20460962

  3. Providing Market Information for Ethiopian Farmers: Extending Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne

    In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have often failed to provide useful information in an adequate form for farmers in remote areas. Participatory Design (PD) assumes to be effective approach to overcome these challenges. However, due to its origin in the western countries, the capability of users, motivation and desire to participate and availability of resources are often taken for granted. This work identifies challenges for applying PD in rural Ethiopia and proposes method for ‘Early-Stage’ of PD.

  4. Participatory Design in the Developing World : Issues and opportunities from case studies of adapting Nordic participatory approaches to a South African context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester

    In the field of participatory design originating in Scandinavia, where approaches are developed for actively engaging local stakeholders in change processes, a major part of the research has been confined to Western contexts. The need to study participatory design in broader settings outside Western organisations has been stressed in the research community over the last decade, but later research indicates that still relatively few studies are done in developing countries. Researchers recognise that participatory design approaches cannot simply be transferred to developing country settings as there are numerous challenges for enabling participation, e.g. power distance, cultural barriers, low educational levels and geographical distances. However, participatory design offers substantial opportunities for developing countries, regarding empowerment in local communities and democratisation of change processes. Arguably, the appropriation of participatory design approaches and methods to developing world settings is an important priority in research cooperation between Nordic and Southern African universities. This work presents issues and opportunities for introducing participatory design in a South African context, based on two case studies. In the first case, concepts for new information technology were developed for a small-scale wine farm in the Western Cape, engaging multiple stakeholders on the farm. In the second case, hyper-local storytelling distributed through Bluetooth technology was explored in a socially challenged suburb in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town. Issues on appropriation of strategies and methods for participation are discussed, and directions for further research in the field are identified.

  5. Studying the features of radionuclides entering depending on varietal tomato composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was evaluated the initial material of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in accordance with the degree of accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 as well as there were revealed the sources for selection breeding with the minimal accumulation of radionuclides. In course of the study there were presented the parameters of adaptive ability, ecological stability and radionuclide content in varieties (Dokhodnyj; Talalikhin; Fakel; F1 Sozvezdie) and parthenocarpic lines of tomato. Research results showed the substantial variability in accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 by various varieties and lines. Hybrid F1 Sozvesdie, Talalikhin variety and parthenocarpic lines 1 and 7 proved the ability to accumulate minimal amount of radionuclides. It was not proposed to cultivate at the contaminated areas the tomato variety Fakel. As a result of study there was created a hybrid F1 Sozvesdie. Its cultivation on the contaminated areas made it possible to obtain ecologically safe products

  6. Varietal differences in wheat yield and phosphorus use efficiency as influenced by method of phosphorus application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Wheat varieties respond differently to phosphorus fertilization. Method of P application may influence the degree of responsiveness. Three varieties of wheat viz. Punjab-96, Inqelab-91 and Pasban-90 were grown after applying Nitrophos (23:23 @ 0 or 44 kg P ha-1 by two methods, (i broadcast and incorporation at sowing and (ii fertigation at first irrigation. Grain yield and total P uptake data obtained after crop harvest showed that wheat varieties differed significantly in grain and straw yield, harvest index and 1000- grain weight. Application of P by either method increased grain and straw yield as well as total P uptake over control. Method x P interaction effect was also significant for yield, indicating higher yield response due to fertigation compared to broadcast method of P application. Where P was applied by fertigation grain yield, total P uptake, agronomic and P fertilizer efficiency were all higher in cv. Inqelab-91 compared to cv. Pasban- 90. Thus application of phosphatic fertilizer by fertigation along with selection of an appropriate variety may contribute to improve P fertilizer efficiency and increase wheat grain yield.

  7. Varietal screening of ozone sensitivity in Mediterranean durum wheat (Triticum durum, Desf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Robert; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Alonso, Rocìo; Bermejo, Victoria; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Faoro, Franco; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the ozone (O3) sensitivity of five cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum) grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) during the 2013 growing season. Two levels of ozone were applied during daylight hours: +50% and -50% of ambient ozone concentration respectively in O3-enriched OTC and charcoal-filtered OTC. Results suggest that the significant differences observed in agronomic parameters, were more cultivar-dependent rather than ozone-dependent. Two cultivars showed a significant reduction of aboveground biomass due to ozone (-19.7% and -25%), however only one of them showed also a significant reduction in grain yield (-16%). Stomatal conductance was significantly reduced by ozone fumigation up to -33% in the afternoon measuring cycle. No significant effects on chlorophyll fluorescence were found, nor correlation was observed between ozone-like symptoms severity (leaf chlorotic/necrotic spots) and yield reduction, suggesting that these parameters cannot be indicative of ozone sensitivity/tolerance. These results may be useful for the selection of durum wheat genotypes more adapted for the cultivation in geographical areas where tropospheric ozone is particularly high, but also for the future definition of consistent dose-response relationships to be used in the ozone risk assessment evaluation for the Mediterranean countries.

  8. Participatory ergonomics among female cashiers from a department store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, María Yanire León

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems. PMID:22317095

  9. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  10. Facilities as teaching tools: A transformative participatory professional development experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric A.

    Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become "sustainability natives." Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability-literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenological perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year long professional development experience - commencing with an intense, participatory two-day workshop -the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability. Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top-down and bottom-up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy-in, and excitement vis-a-vis sustainability. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K-12 sustainability coordinators ideally need administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor, or through work with student groups and projects.

  11. Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F

    2013-10-01

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672

  12. Empowering marginalized communities in water resources management: addressing inequitable practices in Participatory Model Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Cameron; Adamowski, Jan

    2015-04-15

    Within the field of water resource management, Group Model Building (GMB) is a growing method used to engage stakeholders in the development of models that describe environmental and socioeconomic systems to create and test policy alternatives. While there is significant focus on improving stakeholder engagement, there is a lack of studies specifically looking at the experiences of marginalized communities and the barriers that prevent their fuller participation in the decision-making process. This paper explores the common issues and presents recommended improved practices, based on anti-oppression, related to the stages of problem framing, stakeholder identification and selection, workshop preparation, and workshop facilitation. For problem defining and stakeholder selection, the major recommendations are to engage diverse stakeholder communities from the earliest stages and give them control over framing the project scope. With regards to planning the model building workshops, it is recommended that the facilitation team work closely with marginalized stakeholders to highlight and address barriers that would prevent their inclusion. With the actual facilitation of the workshops, it is best to employ activities that allow stakeholders to provide knowledge and input in mediums that are most comfortable to them; additionally, the facilitation team needs to be able to challenge problematic interpersonal interactions as they manifest within conversations. This article focuses on building comfortability with political language so that the systemic oppression in which existing participatory processes occur can be understood, thus allowing GMB practitioners to engage in social justice efforts. PMID:25697902

  13. Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. N. Felipone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

  14. Selection of native trees for intercropping with coffee in the Atlantic Rainforest biome

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, H. N.; Cardoso, I. M.; Fernandes, J. M.; Garcia, F. C. P.; Bonfim, V. R.; Santos, A. C.; Carvalho, A. F.; Mendonca, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in establishing agroforestry systems is ensuring that farmers are interested in the tree species, and are aware of how to adequately manage these species. This challenge was tackled in the Atlantic Rainforest biome (Brazil), where a participatory trial with agroforestry coffee systems was carried out, followed by a participatory systematisation of the farmers experiences. Our objective was to identify the main tree species used by farmers as well as their criteria for selecting or...

  15. Application of Participatory Approach in Community Forest Resource Management Based on a Case Study Performed in Fujian Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After China’s collective forest right system reform, cooperation organizations have played an important role in the development of community forestry. In order to analyze the demands and attitudes of stakeholders of community forests, a participatory approach which included brainstorming, material collection, PRA tools, semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys, was used in a forest management survey involving four village cases. According to the application of the participatory approach it can be seen that the different types of stakeholders had different demands and attitudes toward community forest management. Farmers were more focused on economic benefit while forestry bureaus were more concerned about attaining the maximum level of forestry farmers’ ecological, economic and social efficiency. Cooperative members had more positive attitudes than non-cooperative members. According to all stakeholders, the harvest quota control system is the most unreasonable policy. In addition, based on the results of the SWOT strategy analysis matrix for forest management policies and systems at the level of forestry farmers, four strategy selections are proposed.

  16. A Stepwise, Participatory Approach to Design and Implement Community Based Adaptation to Drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lasage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.

  17. Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Emnet for denne afhandling er design af engagerende interaktive miljøer, og afhandlingen er positioneret i krydsfeltet mellem participatory design, designteori og interaktionsdesign. Afhandlingens emne er blevet adresseret gennem et forskningsprogram vedrørende design af engagerende interaktive udstillingsrum på museer og oplevelsescentre. Afhandlingen består af syv forskningsartikler, sammenfattet i en generel oversigt, som sammenbinder argumenterne fra de inkluderede artikler og beskriver relateret arbejde og forskningsmetode. Bidraget afspejler et fokus på at forstå engagement i udstillingsrum og at forme designprocesser indenfor rammerne af ideen om engagerende interaktive miljøer. Den første del af bidraget relaterer sig til at konceptualisere aspekter af engagement i relation til interaktive miljøer. Begrebet participatory engagement præsenteres som et generelt perspektiv, der belyser hvordan individer og grupper investerer deres tid, evner og viden i interaktive miljøer. Indenfor dette overordnede perspektiv præsenteres means of engagement som de konkrete midler, der medierer engagement. Dette begreb rækker ud over individuelle teknologier og brugerflader og favner den mængde af elementer, der arrangeres gennem design, og som i sammenhæng medierer engagement. Gennem en diskussion af begrebet motivation argumenteres der for, at museer kan skabe engagement ved at mediere mellem de besøgendes hverdagspraksis og den faglige viden præsenteret på museet. Bidragets anden og største del beskæftiger sig med tilrettelæggelse af designundersøgelser. Denne del sammenfattes gennem begrebet fiktionsrum (fictional space), som er et perspektiv på skabelsen af designrum, hvori etablerede normer og konventioner ændres eller tilsidesættes indenfor participatory designundersøgelser. Motivationen for at skabe fiktionsrum i participatory design er at invitere deltagere i design til at gentænke eksisterende praksisser og forstille sig, hvordan deres praksis kunne være, hvis eksisterende konventioner blev ændret. Denne motivation gøres mere håndgribelig ved at relatere den til de designudfordringer, som museer står overfor. Der argumenteres for, at fiktionsrum skabes gennem games of make-believe, som er medieret af props, der bemyndiger forestillingsevnen og virker som både forankrende og transcenderende elementer. Begrebet om fiktionsrum udvikles med baggrund i designteori og udfoldes indenfor rammerne af participatory design. Fiktionsrum og de begreber, der præsenteres i relation til dette, er ikke metoder eller teknikker til at udføre designundersøgeler. Disse fordrer dog refleksion og handling i relation til især tre aspekter vedrørende designundersøgelser, der specifikt søger at ændre eller tilsidesætte etablerede konventioner. For det første belyser begrebet om fiktionsrum, hvordan designundersøgelser tilrettelægges, og specielt hvordan forskellige props bruges til både at forankre design aktiviteter i nuværende praksisser og til at transcendere disse praksisser. For det andet fordrer begrebet om fiktionsrum som et produkt games of make-believe refleksion over, hvordan specifikke designundersøgelser forløber, og hvordan deltagere ændrer og tilsidesætter elementer af etablerede praksisser. Dette giver mulighed for en mere nuanceret forståelse af, hvordan deltagere forstiller sig, at deres praksis kan ændres, iiiog hvilke aspekter der indeholder mest potentiale af modstand. For det tredje giver begrebet om fiktionsrum værktøjer, hvormed designere kan reflektere over, hvordan de ideer, scenarier eller modeller, der udvikles gennem specifikke designundersøgelser, er udtryk for deltagernes gentænkning af eksisterende praksisser.

  18. Play. Learn. Innovate : Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    „Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other people‘s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives – in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was – in order to understand why this was the case – I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking – the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students – we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis – I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations – complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; Mäyrä, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory – and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation. Further, I argue that this approach opens up promising way

  19. Starting with ourselves in deepening our understanding of generativity in participatory educational research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Linda, van Laren; Ronicka, Mudaly; Kathleen, Pithouse-Morgan; Shakila, Singh.

    Full Text Available Participatory educational research is generally characterised by a commitment to making a difference in the lives of those who participate in the research and more broadly, to promoting social transformation. This suggests a potentially fruitful synergy between participatory educational research and [...] the multidisciplinary body of academic work on generativity as a human capacity that has at its core a desire to contribute to the well-being of others. As a research team of teacher educators from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, we seek to add an alternative dimension to current debates on participatory educational research by focusing on understanding the 'how' and 'what' of generativity in a participatory research process. The research question we address is: How does/can engagement in participatory educational research facilitate generativity? While participatory research literature often concentrates on collaboration between researchers and 'researched' communities, we are taking a reflexive stance by exploring our own participation in our dual roles as university community members and as researchers studying our colleagues' experiences in relation to integration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related issues in university curricula. We describe how our use of the visual method of storyboarding facilitated insight into generativity in participatory educational research. Building on an earlier concept of generativity, we identify and discuss significant generativefeatures ofparticipation, playfulness, passion, and perspicacity in our research process.

  20. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements : The Strengths and Challenges of Participatory Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.

  1. Participatory research in psychology - A practical example in the field of drug counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Vandreier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article gives insights into the work of the self-help- and research-group of the "Projekt Selbstverständigung über Drogengebrauch" as an example of participatory research in psychology. In a first step the basics of the project will be discussed by distinguishing it from other approaches in drug research, positioning it within the field of participatory research and analyzing it in regard to its theoretical basics. In a second step the practical work of the project will be described to illustrate problems that emerged as well as first solutions that could be helpful for further development of participatory research.

  2. How does the context and design of participatory decision-making processes affect their outcomes? Evidence from sustainable land management in global drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and balancing power dynamics between participants; and the provision of information and decision-making power to all participants. Participatory processes initiated or facilitated by government bodies led to significantly less trust, information gain, learning, and flexible solutions. However, in these processes, decisions were more acceptable to and likely to be implemented by governments and by those who had to apply them on the ground. These findings provide a solid empirical basis for best practice in the design of participatory processes in SLM in a number of contexts internationally, which if followed, increase the likelihood of providing beneficial environmental and social outcomes for those involved.

  3. Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor descriptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determinadas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante.

  4. Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors / Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Miele; Luiz Antenor, Rizzon.

    1172-11-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determin [...] adas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor des [...] criptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.

  5. Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2011-09-01

    Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st century is occurring in the face of uncertainties where the "facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high and decisions urgent and where no single one of these dimensions can be managed in isolation from the rest." This article concludes, however, that uncertainty is not an accident of the scientific method, but its very substance. Anticipatory governance with participatory foresight offers a mechanism to respond to such inherent sociotechnical uncertainties in the emerging field of vaccinomics by making the coproduction of scientific knowledge by technology and the social systems explicit. Ultimately, this serves to integrate scientific and social knowledge thereby steering innovations to coproduce results and outputs that are socially robust and context sensitive. PMID:21848419

  6. Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira, figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral, existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente.During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit growers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine, fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

  7. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania are likely to be too small to satisfy current local wood demand.

  8. Participatory Democracy: Mechanism of Better Regulation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neliana Rodean

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the concept of participatory democracy in the European context. In the era of globalization, tools such as Internet filled the gap between civil society and political institutions. The new information and communication technologies contribute to the involvement of citizens in decision-making process. The democratic deficit is bridged through increasingly active participation of civil society at various levels of policy. Through e-democracy tools is realized a direct action of citizens, or even certain categories, which for various reasons do not have the possibility to be informed or have voice on political decisions. In addition, the European institutions, through mechanisms of “better regulation”, promote processes of simplification rules to find a remedy for an excessive law-making.

  9. Voice, Citizenship, and Civic Action : Challenges to Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the world has experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which claims for voice and citizenship through massive civic action have conquered center stage in the public debate. This resurgence has sparked a series of questions about how these new calls for social change and their principles and communicative practices are influencing and informing the way participatory communication is conceptualized and practiced by governments, civil society, or other social actors. What underlying notions of participation, civic action, and social change inform the agents of change, be they the new generation of social movements on the one hand, or the established and institutionalized field of communication for social change on the other? These are the questions that drive this chapter.

  10. HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROF.B.SUNDARARAMAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.

  11. Using Participatory Design in a Health Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Leonor; Saavedra, Vasco; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the experience of developing an interactive Health Information System (iHIS) currently under test in a hospital, which benefited from the practices of the User-Centred Design (UCD), in a Participatory Design (PD) approach. Techniques from the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and/or Usability Engineering (UE), combined with traditional Software Engineering (SE), allowed an effective and usable solution from the user's point of view. The good results usually achieved with this approach were confirmed. Despite these good results, we deem that if there is not some control of the procedure by the project manager, it may be difficult to end the requirement analysis, since requirement reformulation is fostered. PMID:22255544

  12. Towards a participatory approach to Bible translation (PABT)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.O., Chemorion.

    Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that the participation of the receptor community may enhance the community's ownership and acceptability of the translation. In spite of this acknowledgement, individuals and organisations engaged in mother tongue translations of the Bible often involve the members of th [...] e receptor community in secondary and non-technical aspects of the translation process. Crucial decisions regarding the nature of the translation are often made by the translation team without adequate input from the community. Part of the reason for non-involvement of the receptor communities in the technical aspects of Bible translation has been the lack of an adequate theoretical framework that explains how the community may fit in the translation process. On the basis of Christiane Nord's functionalist model of translation, this article proposes a "Participatory approach to Bible Translation (PABT)" as a strategy that can be applied to involve the receptor community in technical aspects of the translation.

  13. Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

  14. Use of participatory scenario modelling as platforms in stakeholder dialogues

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lotta, Andersson; Johanna Alkan, Olsson; Berit, Arheimer; Anna, Jonsson.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A participatory methodology, based on dialogues between stakeholders and experts has been developed and tested in the drainage area to Kaggebo Bay in the Baltic Sea. This study is focused on the EU Water Framework Directive, with emphasis on reduction of eutrophication. The drainage area is included [...] in the WFD administrative area of the Motala Strom River basin. A similar approach is now applied in a recently initiated project in the Thukela River basin, with focus on impacts of climate change on water resources. The methodology is based on the idea that a catchment model serves as a platform for the establishment of a common view of present conditions and the causes behind these conditions. In the following steps, this is followed by model-assisted agreement on environmental goals (i.e. what do we want the future to look like?) and local agreement on a remedy or mitigation plans in order to reduce environmental impact (e.g. eutrophication); alternatively to adapt to conditions that cannot be determined by local actions (e.g. climate change). By involving stakeholder groups in this model-supported stepwise process, it is ensured that all stakeholder groups involved have a high degree of confidence in the presented model results, and thereby enable various actors involved to share a common view, regarding both present conditions, goals and the way to reach these goals. Although this is a process that is time- (and cost-) consuming, it is hypothesised that the use of this methodology is two-pronged: it increases the willingness to carry out remedies or necessary adaptations to a changing environment, and it increases the level of understanding between the various groups and therefore ameliorates the potential for future conflicts. Compared to traditional use of model results in environmental decision-making, the experts' role is transformed from a one-way communication of final results to assistance in the various steps of the participatory process.

  15. Comprehensive Case Analysis on Participatory Approaches, from Nexus Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine the driving factors, evaluating if components of database are enough to present each process or not.

  16. Cooperative Learning: The Benefits of Participatory Examinations in Principles of Marketing Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Reginald A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes procedures for participatory examinations, a method for achieving student collaboration in marketing education. Suggests that the method teaches students group process, persuasion, teamwork, and other skills needed in the contemporary workplace. (SK)

  17. Participatory systems mapping for sustainable consumption: Discussion of a method promoting systemic insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together, these insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through structured discussion and thus bridge boundaries between different communities.

  18. Participatory systems mapping for sustainable consumption : Discussion of a method promoting systemic insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together, these insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through structured discussion and thus bridge boundaries between different communities.

  19. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.

  20. Develop a Participatory Model in Nutrition Education to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Ming Yan Chung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effect of nutrition education and the engagement of students, parents and teachers in addressing school-specific environmental influences in eating problem. Design: This study adopted the action research process of diagnosing, action planning, taking action, evaluating, and specifying learning. Each of obese and non-obese male and female students was randomly selected based on physical screening based on obesity criteria. Dietary intake records were taken over seven days as the pre-intervention period. These four students, one of each of their parents and the teacher from the primary school, were given 3 sessions of nutrition education. After the nutrition education, dietary intake records were taken over the subsequent 7 days as the post-intervention period. Lunch observation and lunch menu review were included to identify eating problem of primary school children in school level. Findings: Students were found to consume less whole grains and more food items belonged to the “limited” and “strongly discouraged” as set in government lunch guidelines. Students’ dietary intakes before and after the nutrition education were found improved in their energy intake (p = 0.012, total fat, saturated fat, calcium, sodium, and cholesterol. Conclusion: A participatory model in elementary nutrition education could be effective.

  1. Participatory Rural Appraisal of Basic Needs Deprivation among Rural Dwellers of Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequacy of environmental and infrastructural resources to satisfy basic needs results in deprivation among rural people which in most cases, rapid rural appraisal and other traditional survey methods rarely adequately capture. This paper employs therefore employs participatory rural appraisal (PRA techniques to analyse these phenomena in Borno state. The objectives are to determine the seasonality of basic needs deprivation, analyse the triggers of need deprivation, and, assess the coping strategies for deprivation. PRA techniques employed are Seasonal Calendar and Force Field Analysis and 300 systematically selected participants from 9 local government areas were the study frame. The findings are that basic need deprivation is an outcome of environmental scarcities, resource capture, and failure of socioeconomic infrastructure. Episodic drought, flood, and conflict over resources triggers loss of farm harvest and livestock hence food, income and other needs there from. The coping strategies include wild food foraging, migratory fishing and praying to God which lead to the conclusion that basic needs satisfaction among the studied rural dwellers in Borno state is below societal expectations. Recommendations for improvement were proffered.

  2. Participatory tools for technology assessment: experiences and challenges of various techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, an increased societal scepticism towards experts and technology development is observed. Thereby important societal decisions have been blocked or delayed and confidence in relevant decision-making processes as well as trust in the associated institutions have been lost. This holds not least for the selection and evaluation for repository sites in nuclear waste governance. Thus the participation of various stakeholder groups has received increased attention in scientific discourse on Technology Assessment. Various techniques and methods were developed which enable a scientific, interactive and communicative process to improve decision making and rebuild trust. In our paper we outline important requisites for the application of participatory approaches and criteria for the choice and evaluation of different techniques. We conclude with some important recommendations: (a) framing is more important than the choice of technique, (b) the representation of different groups is crucial, (c) the output is more than decision taking, (d) a good match of technique and context is necessary, (e) the combination of techniques and more intense methods is preferred, and (f) the process itself matters and demands active formation. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of Bayesian Networks in Participatory Water Resources Management, Upper Guadiana Basin, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    John Bromley; Pedro Martínez-Santos; Consuelo Varela-Ortega; África De la Hera; Gema Carmona; Pedro Zorrilla; Hans Jorgen. Henriksen

    2010-01-01

    Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual app...

  4. The deliberative turn in participation: the problem of inclusion and deliberative opportunities in participatory budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ganuza Ferna?ndez, Ernesto; France?s Garci?a, Francisco Jose?

    2012-01-01

    Participation has undergone a communicative shift, which has favoured the organization of new participatory processes based on classic principles of deliberation theory. These experiments go beyond traditional protest: they include a communicative element with the aim of defining a public politics, which places them alongside models of deliberative governance. The present work sets out the characteristics of these new instruments (participatory budgeting, PB) in order to find out which proble...

  5. Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, I. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production in the Netherlands. Participatory methods are used to facilitate the exchange of ideas, experiences and knowledge of all relevant stakeholders and to create a basis for implementation of the final...

  6. Gendered Risk Perceptions Associated with Human-Wildlife Conflict: Implications for Participatory Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Gore, Meredith L.; Kahler, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1) gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in a participatory conservation context, and (2) highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal c...

  7. Respondent-Driven Sampling in Participatory Research Contexts: Participant-Driven Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in participatory and community-based research. Participant-driven recruitment (PDR) retains all of the analytic capabilities of RDS while enhancing the role of respondents in framing research questions, instrument development, data interpretation, and other aspects of the research process. Merging the capabilities of RDS with participatory research methods, PDR creates new opportunities for engaging community members in resea...

  8. Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Neef

    2008-01-01

    Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD), while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two wate...

  9. Study on Factors Affecting Performance of Non-profit Organizations in the Participatory Working Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Haixia Zhang; Tianhui Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Under the background of many non-profit organizations to investigate a study via participatory working methohd,and taking anti-poverty practice of Sichuan rural development organization, a non-profit organization with nearly15-year-old history, as an example, main factors affecting the performance of their participatory workingmethods were analyzed by factor analysis method. The results showed that the participation of projectbeneficiary groups and types of projects as well as effective parti...

  10. Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project

    OpenAIRE

    Mba Okechukwu Agwu; Cletus Izunwanne Emeti

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be primaril...

  11. Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Yee Ming Chen ,; Bo-Yuan Wang

    2009-01-01

    The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-...

  12. ‘Who is Helsinki?’ Sex workers advise improving communication for good participatory practice in clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan

    2011-01-01

    After premature closures in 2004 of biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials involving sex workers in Africa and Asia, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC) undertook consultations to establish better participatory guidelines for such trials in order to address ethical concerns. This study investigated sex workers’ knowledge and beliefs about research ethics and good participatory practices (GPP) and the ...

  13. Integration of local participatory and regional planning for resources management using remote sensing and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sedogo, L. G.

    2002-01-01

    With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used in the planning process, efficient geographic information gathering and relevant spatial analytical tools necessary to support the negotiation among the stakeholders are lacking. Besides, methods a...

  14. Framing scale in participatory biodiversity management may contribute to more sustainable solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Juliette C.; Jordan, Andrew; Searle, Kate R.; Butler, Adam; Simmons, Peter; Watt, Allan D.

    2013-01-01

    There is general acceptance that biodiversity management should be adapted to ecological scale but only recently has the precise role of scale in participatory biodiversity governance begun to be explored. We investigated stakeholder perceptions in three case studies of biodiversity management planning to understand the effect of framing a management response according to the ecological and social scale of the problem on (i) participatory processes and (ii) their social and ecological outcome...

  15. Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Perez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.

  16. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller Jeffrey; Hermeston Wendy; Passey Megan; Fallon Tony; Muyambi Kuda

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partner...

  17. Participatory development activities at local level: case studies in villages of Central Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Pongquan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizations.The participatory development planning approach was first introduced in Thailand through her Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1977-1981) as a strategy to apply the bottom-...

  18. A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Meike Duespohl; Sina Frank; Petra Doell

    2012-01-01

    To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN) modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition,...

  19. Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    E. Richard Brown, PhD; Sue Holtby, MPH; Elaine Zahnd, PhD; George B. Abbott, MD, MPH

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease pr...

  20. A participatory assessment of post-fire management alternatives in eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Transformational socio-economic changes during the last decades of the 20th century led to the abandonment of mountainous areas in western Mediterranean countries (Puigdefábregas and Mendizábal, 1998). This process was accelerated in the Ayora Valley (inland Valencia province, E Spain) by a major forest fire in 1979. Restoration and management actions were implemented through the 1990's to promote the recovery of the area affected by this fire. In 2010 these past actions were assessed using an integrated and participatory evaluation protocol (IAPro). The selected actions were shrubland regenerated after the fire (no-action); pine plantation over the shrubland; pine forest regenerated after the fire (no-action); and thinning of densely regenerated pines. The assessment involved the identification and engagement of a comprehensive and representative set of local and regional stakeholders who provided a baseline assessment, identified and prioritized essential indicators, considered data collected against those indicators, and participated in re-assessment of actions after an outranking multi-criteria decision aiding integration (MCDA) conducted by the expert team (Roy and Bertier, 1973). This process facilitated a collaborative integration of biophysical indicators (i.e. carbon sequestration, water and soil conservation, soil quality, biodiversity, fire risk and forest health) and socio-economic indicators (i.e. productive, recreational and touristic, aesthetic, and cultural values, cost of the actions, and impact on family finances). It was completed with activities for exchanging experiences and sharing knowledge with the platform of stakeholders. Stakeholder platform suggested that fire risk was the most important indicator, followed by water conservation and soil conservation. Least important indicators were cost of actions, aesthetic value, and recreational and touristic value. Data collected on each action showed the thinned pine forest action with the lowest value on the fire risk criterion; shrubland had a fire risk three times higher, whereas pine plantation and dense pine forest showed a fire risk four times higher than thinned pine forest. Thinned pine forest showed the highest impact on family finances, as well as productive, cultural, recreational and touristic, and aesthetic values. The best value on forest health corresponded to shrubland, and the worst were the dense pine forest and thinned pine forest. Pine plantation showed the highest cost, whereas no-actions had not direct costs. The rest of indicators showed low or inexistent differences between actions. The indicator priorities combined with data collected through the MCDA integration showed that the thinning of densely regenerated pine forest action, outranked the other actions in most of the criteria. The second action was pine plantation, whereas shrubland and dense pine forest obtained the lowest assessment. As conclusion, the participatory methodology was fundamental in understanding the impact of perceptions and stakeholders' priorities in a usually very technical and non-participatory process. Similar methodologies could enhance knowledge exchange between scientists, managers and stakeholders, while improve society-science collaboration in land management and restoration research and practice. Acknowledgements Inhabitants and other people related to the Ayora Valley kindly collaborated with our work. Some collaborators helped us in both field work and meetings with stakeholders. This research has been supported by the projects PRACTICE (EU grant number 226818), RECARE (EU grant number 603498) and GRACCIE (Consolider program, Spanish Ministry of Education and Science grant number CSD2007-00067). The CEAM Foundation is supported by Generalitat Valenciana. References Puigdefábregas, J. and Mendizábal, T. 1998. Perspectives on desertification: Western Mediterranean. Journal of Arid Environments 39: 209-224. Roy, B. and Bertier, P. 1973. La méthode ELECTRE II - Une application au média-planning. In: M. Ross (editor) OR'72. North-Holland Publis

  1. Varietal differences of wheat for 13C-discrimination and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Final report for the period 1 January 1993 - 31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the varietal differences of wheat for shoot dry weight, 13C-discrimination, total N-yield and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Four wheat varieties were exposed to different watering regimes (i.e., W0 as normal irrigation of W1 as water stress) during the following growth periods: (i) from 3-leaf stage to third nod stage; (ii) from 3 nod stage to heading; and (iii) from heading to milk-dough stage. For drought recovery study, the experiment included another three water regime treatments induced by varying the irrigation of plants during the selected growth periods (i.e., W10, W100 and W010). The results indicated that water stress during the selected growth periods greatly decreased shoot dry weight, nabla value, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. The (i) and (ii) are considered critical growth periods as far as the above-mentioned parameters are considered. Expression of any tested parameter under water stress as percentage of that of the corresponding control indicated that Dalcahue, Sakha-69 and Bonadur were less sensitive to water stress than the other varieties at (i), (ii) and (iii) growth periods, respectively. On the other hand, Bonadur at (i) and (ii) growth periods and Sakha-69 at (iii) growth period were more sensitive than the other varieties. Exposing of wheat varieties to water stress during (i) and (ii) growth periods resulted in severe injury with regard to shoot dry weight, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Re-irrigation of the stressed wheat varieties, resulted in drought recovery with different magnitude depending on the variety and the growth period in which the plants were exposed to water stress. Generally, the results demonstrated that Bonadur has better capacity to recover from drought than the other varieties. Therefore, Bonadur may be considered a possible candidate for programs aimed at breeding wheat for drought recovery. (author). 34 refs, 10 tabs

  2. Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Speil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

  3. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

  4. Film production, social media marketing and participatory culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    The Danish youth film ‘Lev Stærkt’ (Live strong) is recently shot in Aarhus, and as part of the release and marketing plan, the producers incorporate social media showing behind the scenes video clip as a way to include and engage the film’s target groups a year before the planned release. Using Facebook and the mobile, photo-based app Instagram as the main platforms, the producers of the movie are following the users and followers online closely to understand but also stage and direct their expectations in the relation to the movie. As such, the marketing of the movie is representing a new tendency within film and TV industry, in which behind the scene clips and comments are used in advantage to promote the product, as well as using social media as the main marketing channel (Caldwell, 2008; Gray, 2010; Johnson, 2012). Social media marketing is in itself representing a new field within branding and marketing, and there is a boom of new handbook literature describing “Everything You Need to Know to Get Social Media Working in Your Business” (Wollan & Nick Zhou, 2010). Social media makes it easy to engage the consumers as strategic communicators, it is cheap and fast compared to print and electronic media, and it demonstrates that the film company are fashion-conscious when it comes to new media and marketing tools. The history of ‘participatory culture’ might be seen in the light of digital online media, in which the boarders – following Habermas concepts - between lifeworld, public sphere and market, respectively, are getting blurred. Social media marketing illustrates this mixed culture in an excellent way. This new media culture is challenging the very understanding of media democracy in itself, and has caused a committed academic debate, of both critical and more optimistic viewpoints (e.g. Couldry, Livingstone & Markham, 2007; Gauntlet, 2011). ‘Participatory culture’ might also been seen in the light of culture policy, in which the concept of ‘cultural democracy’ and cultural citizenship – an important issue within Scandinavian social democratic culture policy history – describes a model focus on how to include and empower the citizens’ diverse cultures (Skot-Hansen, 2002). By using the online marketing strategy of Danish youth film as an example, I will discuss the different cultural values that are at stake at the same time and critically discuss how social media marketing is challenging the very concept of ‘participatory cultural citizenship’ in itself. References: Caldwell, John Thornton (2008): Production culture - Critical Practice in Film and Television, Duke University Press: London, Durham. Couldry, N., Livingstone, S. & Markham, T. (2007): Media consumption and public engagement: beyond the presumption of attention, New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan. Gray, Jonathan (2010): Show sold separately, New York: New York University Press Gauntlett, David (2011): Making is connecting: the social meaning of creativity from DIY and knitting to YouTube and Web 2.0, Cambridge, UK, Malden, MA: Polity Press. Johnson, Catherine (2012): Branding television, London: Routledge. Skot-Hansen, Dorte (2002) ‘Danish cultural policy--from Monoculture towards Cultural Diversity’, in: International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 197 - 210 Wollan, Robert Smith, Nick Zhou, Catherine (2010): Social Media Management Handbook: Everything You Need to Know to Get Social Media Working in Your Business, Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA

  5. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and individual levels. Teacher qualitative interviews monitor the intervention implementation process. Discussion Participatory approaches that actively involve parents have the potential to promote PA in ways that might be better tailored to local needs and more sustainable. Our mixed methods approach to assess the intervention efficacy and implementation employing both quantitative and qualitative measures within a cluster-randomized controlled trial may serve as a framework for evaluating public health interventions in preschool settings. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov No: NCT00987532

  6. A Multi-Stage Method for Connecting Participatory Sensing and Noise Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyuan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  7. A multi-stage method for connecting participatory sensing and noise simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingyuan; Che, Weitao; Zhang, Qiuju; Luo, Qingli; Lin, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment), and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1) spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2) multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3) dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales. PMID:25621604

  8. Participatory ergonomics in redesigning a dyeing tub for fabric dyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimalam, P; Premalatha, M R; Padmini, D S; Ganguli, A K

    2012-09-01

    Objective: The 'saree' worn by women in India and many South Asian countries is dyed using a tub, usually in small scale units employing low capital and a small number of workers. While using these tubs, workers adopt awkward postures over long periods of time which results in severe discomfort in the neck, shoulders and lower extremities. The purpose of the study was to redesign the dyeing tub using a participatory approach and to study the impact of the newly designed tub on the reported body discomfort and rate of production. Methods: Redesigning of the dyeing tub was carried out using three parallel participative processes - (1) eliciting the views of workers who use the tub, (2) interacting with the proprietors of the small scale dyeing units (the employers) and the tub manufacturers, and (3) iterative prototype tub development based on inputs from the first two processes. These processes facilitated involvement of the stake-holders and the acceptance of change. The final prototype was tested by nine workers for a period of three months to evaluate the reduction in body discomfort and increase in rate of production (output). Results: Studies on the impact of the new tub showed a reduction in discomfort level from 'severe' to 'moderate', and a mean increase of 7.9% in the output, confirming the benefits of the participative approach to ergonomics intervention. The involvement, trust and credibility generated by the participative process facilitated the acceptance of the final design. PMID:23579375

  9. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  10. Participatory workspace design : A new approach for ergonomists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineersalike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants.

  11. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johansson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

  12. Place and Situated Deliberation in Participatory Planning – A Research Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemplary cases that explore this focus on place and situated deliberation to further motivate research in that direction. The first case concerns the different qualities of in-situ reflection and action on proposed changes to the cityscape in contrast to ex-situ reflection and action on those changes. The second case focuses on providing immersive information about citizens’ own living environment on the spot for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.

  13. Scientific bases for a participatory forest landscape management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Sorg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In Madagascar – a biodiversity hotspot of international importance – the villagers depend on the forest first for its soil as a reserve of arable land as well as a shelter and a pasture for the herds, and second for the production of timber, charcoal and other forest products. Most of the currently proposed conservation management systems for forests do not take into consideration villagers’ needs, in Madagascar too; indeed degradation and deforestation have continuously occurred in places where the forest is under great pressure. In targeting the improvement of the livelihood of local populations and the maintenance of “multifunctionality”, especially the ecological value of the forest, the present project aims at developing scientific criteria for a sustainable management of forest landscapes in western Madagascar at a regional scale. A detailed inventory of resources and a specific understanding of stakeholder requirements and strategies will allow drawing an accurate picture of the human-forest interface. A participatory approach paves the way for realistic management criteria that are really adequate to the ecological and social situations. The management criteria will provide a tool for further discussions on landscape management in central Menabe.

  14. Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for imFOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

  15. On Sensor Data Verification for Participatory Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mendez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of sensor data verification in Participatory Sensing (PS systems using an air quality/pollution monitoring application as a validation example. Data verification, in the context of PS, consists of the process of detecting and removing spatial outliers to properly reconstruct the variables of interest. We propose, implement, and test a hybrid neighborhood-aware algorithm for outlier detection that considers the uneven spatial density of the users, the number of malicious users, the level of conspiracy, and the lack of accuracy and malfunctioning sensors. The algorithm utilizes the Delaunay triangulation and Gaussian Mixture Models to build neighborhoods based on the spatial and non-spatial attributes of each location. This neighborhood definition allows us to demonstrate thatit is not necessary to apply accurate but computationally expensive estimators to the entire dataset to obtain good results, as equally accurate but computationally cheaper methods can also be applied to part of the data and obtain good results as well. Our experimental results show that our hybrid algorithm performs as good as the best estimator while reducing the execution time considerably.

  16. Sustainable E-Participation through participatory experiences in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Maier-Rabler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010 enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and educational characteristics as a prerequisite for e-participation and argues that social media literacy is indispensable for e-participation to be sustainable. Young people’s affinity spaces (Jenkins, et.al., 2006 can only lay down the foundations for social media literacy, but their further development depends on education. Political Education would be well advised to adapt innovative pedagogical approaches to the acquirement of new media literacy. This paper introduces an exemplary educational tool – predominately but not exclusively for political/civic education – namely the website PoliPedia.at. Teachers can use it to deliberately create a balanced space for collaboration between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives. PoliPedia – as a participative online tool – has the potential to facilitate participation experience in political/civic education and supports social media education. Thereby the embedding of technology in pedagogical and societal conceptualizations is crucial.

  17. Predictive, personalized, preventive, participatory (P4) cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Leroy; Friend, Stephen H

    2011-03-01

    Medicine will move from a reactive to a proactive discipline over the next decade--a discipline that is predictive, personalized, preventive and participatory (P4). P4 medicine will be fueled by systems approaches to disease, emerging technologies and analytical tools. There will be two major challenges to achieving P4 medicine--technical and societal barriers--and the societal barriers will prove the most challenging. How do we bring patients, physicians and members of the health-care community into alignment with the enormous opportunities of P4 medicine? In part, this will be done by the creation of new types of strategic partnerships--between patients, large clinical centers, consortia of clinical centers and patient-advocate groups. For some clinical trials it will necessary to recruit very large numbers of patients--and one powerful approach to this challenge is the crowd-sourced recruitment of patients by bringing large clinical centers together with patient-advocate groups. PMID:21364692

  18. Immanent Politics, Participatory Democracy, and the Pursuit of Eudaimonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Allan Plauché

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on the burgeoning tradition of Aristotelian liberalism. It identifies and critiques a fundamental inequality inherent in the nature of the state and, in particular, the liberal representative-democratic state: namely, an institutionalized inequality in authority. The analysis draws on and synthesizes disparate philosophical and political traditions: Aristotle’s virtue ethics and politics, Locke’s natural rights and idea of equality in authority in the state of nature (sans state of nature, the New Left’s conception of participatory democracy (particularly as described in a number of under-utilized essays by Murray Rothbard and Don Lavoie, and philosophical anarchism. The deleterious consequences of this fundamental institutionalized inequality are explored, including on social justice and economic progress, on individual autonomy, on direct and meaningful civic and political participation, and the creation and maintenance of other artificial inequalities as well as the exacerbation of natural inequalities (economic and others. In the process, the paper briefly sketches a neo-Aristotelian theory of virtue ethics and natural individual rights, for which the principle of equal and total liberty for all is of fundamental political importance. And, finally, a non-statist conception of politics is developed, with politics defined as discourse and deliberation between equals (in authority in joint pursuit of eudaimonia (flourishing, well-being.[Note: The following font file may be useful for viewing the Greek characters in the Word file above: SPIONIC_.TTF.

  19. Concordance: A Critical Participatory Alternative in Healthcare IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare sector is undergoing large changes in which technology is given a more active role in both in-clinic and out-of-clinic care. Authoritative healthcare models such as compliance and adherence which relies on asymmetric patient doctor relationships are being challenged as society, patient roles and care contexts transforms, for example when care activities move into non-clinical contexts. Concordance is an alternative model proposed by the medical field that favours an equal and collaborative patient-doctor relationship in the negotiation of care. Similarly, HCI researchers have applied diverse models of engagement in IT design ranging from authoritative models (e.g. perceiving people as human factors to design for) to more democratic design processes (e.g. Participatory Design). IT design has also been crafted as on-going processes that are integrated parts of everyday use. Based on the best practice of participation from the medical and the HCI fields, we identify critical alternatives for healthcare design. These alternatives highlight opportunities with ongoing design processes in which the design of care regimens and care IT are perceived as one process.

  20. El Niño platforms: participatory disaster response in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeroen; Oré, Maria Teresa

    2006-03-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to greater extremes (droughts and floods) in river regimes around the world. While the number of major calamities is predicted to rise, the efforts of the public sector, experts and local stakeholders are badly coordinated. Consequently, aid does not reach target groups, resulting in unnecessary losses. Hence, there is a need for more participatory and integrative approaches. To ensure a more concerted response to climate-induced disasters, stakeholders could coordinate and negotiate within Multi-Stakeholder Platforms. Such roundtables are increasingly being established for vision-building and integrated water resource management, but could be employed in disaster management as well. After discussing the advantages and disadvantages of participation, this article trace the rise of and the problems facing two 'El Niño' platforms: one in Ica, a city on the Peruvian coast that flooded unexpectedly in January 1998, and one in Ayacucho, which saw a climate change-induced drought around the same time. The issue of internal and external legitimacy receives particular emphasis. PMID:16512864

  1. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  2. Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modeling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, L. C.; Fleskens, L.; Reed, M. S.; de Vente, J.; Zengin, M.

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be recognised and considered in decision-making about SLM, whether it has been formally codified or not. The approach presented in this paper provided this opportunity and received positive feedback from stakeholders.

  3. Grasping social dynamics of participatory innovation : A case of playing a game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens

    2011-01-01

    The key element in participatory innovation is to understand innovation as a social problem solving process between different stakeholders. The social dynamics amongst stakeholders are fundamental to the participatory process and outcome, and it’s therefore beneficial for facilitators and stakeholders themselves to understand their relations and what it means to participate. We argue that we can grasp these social dynamics of participatory innovation through play. From a management perspective we study how playing games helps us to understand these dynamics, while from an interaction design perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co-opetition where individual and group goals are conflicting. Drawing on observations and video data of the game being played by the participants of the conference, we study how different group compositions deal with novelty. From here we explain how the process of play can help to grasp the social dynamics of participatory innovation, and outline design strategies to do this.

  4. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315

  5. Explore Locally, Excel Digitally: A Participatory Learning After-School Program for Enriching Citizenship On- and Offline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Laurel J.; Vartabedian, Vanessa; Literat, Ioana; Mehta, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a participatory culture pedagogy in the context of a pilot after-school program at LAUSD's Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools. Ethnographic fieldnotes, instructor and student reflections, photographs, video recordings, and student work illustrate the program's culture of participatory

  6. Outlining a selection procedure for Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from grape marc to improve fermentation process and distillate quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Barbara; Carlot, Milena; Fontana, Federico; Lombardi, Angiolella; Soligo, Stefano; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays grape marc represents one of the main by-product of winemaking. Many South Europe countries valorize this ligno-cellulosic waste through fermentation and distillation for industrial alcoholic beverage production. The storage of marcs is a crucial phase in the distillation process, due to the physicochemical transformations ascribed to microbial activity. Among the methods adopted by distillers to improve the quality of spirits, the use of selected yeasts has not been explored so far, therefore in this work we evaluated the selection criteria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for grape marc fermentation. The proposed selection procedure included three steps: characterization of phenotypical traits, evaluation of selected strains on pasteurised grape marc at lab-scale (100 g) and pilot-scale fermentation (350 kg). This selection process was applied on 104 strains isolated from grape marcs of different origins and technological treatment. Among physiological traits, ?-glucosidase activity level as quality trait seems to be only partially involved in increasing varietal flavour. More effective in describing yeast impact on distillate quality is the ratio higher alcohols/esters that indicates strain ability to increase positive flavours. Finally, evaluating grape marc as source of selected yeasts, industrial treatment rather than varietal origin seems to shape strain technological and quality traits. PMID:25475330

  7. Review. Supporting problem structuring with computer-based tools in participatory forest planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hujala, T.; Khadka, C.; Wolfslehner, B.; Vacik, H.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: This review presents the state-of-art of using computerized techniques for problem structuring (PS) in participatory forest planning. Frequency and modes of using different computerized tool types and their contribution for planning processes as well as critical observations are described, followed by recommendations on how to better integrate PS with the use of forest decision support systems. Area of study: The reviewed research cases are from Asia, Europe, North-America, Africa and Australia. Material and methods: Via Scopus search and screening of abstracts, 32 research articles from years 2002-2011 were selected for review. Explicit and implicit evidence of using computerized tools for PS was recorded and assessed with content-driven qualitative analysis. Main results: GIS and forest-specific simulation tools were the most prevalent software types whereas cognitive modelling software and spreadsheet and calculation tools were less frequently used, followed by multi-criteria and interactive tools. The typical use type was to provide outputs of simulation–optimization or spatial analysis to negotiation situations or to compile summaries or illustrations afterwards; using software during group negotiation to foster interaction was observed only in a few cases. Research highlights: Expertise in both decision support systems and group learning is needed to better integrate PS and computerized decision analysis. From the knowledge management perspective, it is recommended to consider how the results of PS —e.g. conceptual models— could be stored into a problem perception database, and how PS and decision making could be streamlined by retrievals from such systems. (Author)

  8. Appreciating Local People's Knowledge is the Entry Point to Participatory Forest Resources Management in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel S.S. Mahir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Like many other countries, the failure of state’s intervention to manoeuvre ‘good governance’ through the reservation procedures led to a situation where Sudanese forest resources became ‘common-pool resources’. Hence concerned institutions progressively believe that foresters must relinquish the 'policing position' and instead facilitate a concerted and collective action by all stakeholders to sustainably manage forest resources. The critical questions are, to what extent do rural people share the perception of the 'forest' with interveners? How does variation in perceptions influence their management strategies? Can local people's knowledge contribute to facilitation of participatory sustainable management of forest resources? This study is written on the basis of empirical data collected from various individuals, groups and institutions involved in forest resource management in the Sudan. Deploying a sampling strategy based on the 'purposive sampling' and 'theoretical saturation point' a total of 165 key informants were selected from three rural locations. The study opted for the case study as the main methodological approach. Nonetheless, for the development of the cases, a combination of methodological instruments such as literature and archive study, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, group discussions and participant observation, were used iteratively. Data collection and analysis were performed involving exploration of ideas with people. The findings of this study exemplified how the behaviour of rural communities as concerns the 'forest' has been oriented and guided by their perceptions and beliefs. A characteristic of forests/trees is that their social values are appreciated differently by various social actors at various locations in time and space. In addition to the fact that trees provide food, shade, fuel; they are useful in their spiritual dimensions as well. Local people’s knowledge and spirituality might provide a basis to facilitate ‘collective action’ to sustainably manage forest resources.

  9. Participatory planning and community development: an e-learning training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Caterina; Procentese, Fortuna; Baldi, Simona

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to provide guidelines for all community actors on the acquisition of participatory planning tools. There is a growing need for experts capable of participatory interventions to act as social catalysts to promote local well-being and empowerment. Thus, under an ecological approach, 21 young graduates from different fields (architecture, psychology, environmental planning), public administration officers and social organization managers, all residing in Southern Italy, were offered individual and group empowerment training modules through a multidisciplinary training experience with e-learning features. These consisted of 1,500 hours of didactic activities including online cooperative experiences and field interactions directed toward acquiring participatory planning and community mediation tools. Our experience indicates that it is possible to promote participation and acquire skills through online training. Online training has shown itself to be a useful and successful tool for promoting skills in the field of social planning. PMID:20391055

  10. The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Forchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

  11. Promises, Premises and Risks: Sharing Responsibilities, Working Up Trust and Sustaining Commitment in Participatory Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Hartswood, Mark

    2002-01-01

    While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope of what is achievable. In this paper, we report on our various experiences of ‘boundary crossing’ in four very different participatory design contexts. We argue that in each setting a key task consists of enlisting the effort, imagination, trust and commitment of users, and the sharing of risks and responsibilities. We compare and discuss the different strategies, methods we have devised to achieve this within the local politics of each setting.

  12. On the connection between sociological, artistic, and participatory practice in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Koch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Linking sociological, artistic, and participatory elements in research has far-reaching consequences for research practice on the whole. The artistic approach represents a difference to everyday and sociological manners of thinking and acting. This difference not only determines other questions and points of view, but also opens up special communication and reflection spaces in research fields. This, in turn, is of great value for both the participatory and the sociological approach. In this article I depict the relevance of the artistic approach for participatory practice in sociological research. My remarks are limited to the first phase of research. On the basis of a project example, I portray my own special research practice by reflecting on aspects of research design and aspects of communication among those involved.

  13. A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Duespohl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition, strengths and limitations of BNs are synthesized. We found that BNs were successfully applied for knowledge integration and identification of sustainable management strategies within participatory processes. Due to many favorable characteristics, BNs have the potential to become a core method of transdisciplinary knowledge integration in environmental management.

  14. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215

  15. How Participation Creates Citizens: Participatory Governance as Performative Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle Aarts

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation is a prominent feature of many decision-making and planning processes. Among its proclaimed benefits is its potential to strengthen public support and involvement. However, participation is also known for having unintended consequences which lead to failures in meeting its objectives. This article takes a critical perspective on participation by discussing how participation may influence the ways in which citizens can become involved. Participation unavoidably involves (1 restrictions about who should be involved and about the space for negotiation, (2 assumptions about what the issue at stake is, and (3 expectations about what the outcome of participation should be and how the participants are expected to behave. This is illustrated by a case study about the Dutch nature area, the Drentsche Aa. The case study demonstrates how the participatory process that took place and the restrictions, assumptions, and expectations that were involved resulted in six forms of citizen involvement, both intended and unintended, which ranged between creativity, passivity, and entrenchment. Based on these findings, the article argues that participation does not merely serve as a neutral place in which citizens are represented, but instead creates different categories of citizens. Recognizing this means reconceiving participation as performative practice. Such a perspective goes beyond overly optimistic views of participation as a technique whose application can be perfected, as well as pessimistic views of participation as repression or domination. Instead, it appreciates both intended and unintended forms of citizen involvement as meaningful and legitimate, and recognizes citizenship as being constituted in interaction in the context of participation.

  16. Participatory Gis: Experimentations for a 3d Social Virtual Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2013-08-01

    The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.

  17. Participatory knowledge-management design: A semiotic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation between experts from different (sub-)fields need to be situated and tailored to provide effective support even if the common aspects of the data need to be described by ontologies that are generic in respect to the sub-disciplines involved. To understand and approach this design problem, we apply a semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user's communication with herself, himself or other users of the software. Tailoring or “end-user development” – i.e. adapting the knowledge-management system to a specific (sub-)discipline, task or context – then refines both the message and adapts the structure of the interaction to the situated requirements. The essential idea of this paper is to define a new perspective for designing and developing interactive systems to support collaborative knowledge management. The key concept is to involve domain experts in participatory knowledge design for mapping and translating their professional models into the proper vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can be defined. Finally, the results of applying our approach to a real-world case in an archaeological context are presented.

  18. Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bots

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

  19. Validated modeling for German white wine varietal authentication based on headspace solid-phase microextraction online coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A E; Riedl, J; Esslinger, S; Roth, T; Glomb, M A; Fauhl-Hassek, C

    2014-07-16

    An untargeted analytical approach combined with chemometrics using the volatiles of German white wine was investigated regarding the usefulness for verifying botanical origin. A total of 198 wine samples of Riesling, Müller-Thurgau, Silvaner, Pinot Gris, and Pinot Blanc were examined applying headspace solid-phase microextraction online coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The resultant three-dimensional raw data were processed by available metabolomics software. After data treatment, a partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was validated. External samples were correctly classified for 97% Silvaner, 93% Riesling, 91% Pinot Gris/Blanc, and 80% Müller-Thurgau. This model was related to monoterpenoids, C13-norisoprenoids, and esters. Further, 100% prediction for a two-class model of Riesling versus Pinot Gris/Blanc was confirmed by 74 additional samples measured independently. Hence, the strategy applied was, in particular, reliable and relevant for white wine varietal classification. In addition, the superior classification performance of the Riesling class was revealed. PMID:25000414

  20. Nourishing a partnership to improve middle school lunch options: a community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health. PMID:25423246

  1. Cross-cultural considerations in the conduct of community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Stanek, Kari

    2007-01-01

    This article explores cross-cultural challenges that arise when university and community members collaborate in community-based participatory research. As part of a project for primary prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, researchers trained community leaders to jointly develop a research question and conduct a pilot qualitative study in a Puerto Rican community in Massachusetts. Different priorities of the community and university members about HIV as a research topic underscored the need to continuously reflect on developing a research question in community-based participatory research. Recognizing the cultural assumptions of both university and community members is an important component of capacity building among collaborative research teams. PMID:17149031

  2. Correction: Using participatory design to develop (public health decision support systems through GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs. Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data. Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different standard mapping file formats (e.g. ESRI, MapInfo, CSV. Discussion Based on the evaluation of Phase 1, the PD process has served both as a facilitator and a barrier. In terms of successes, the PD process identified two key components that are important to users: increased data/map sharing functionality and interoperability. Some of the challenges affected developers and users; both individually and as a collective. From a development perspective, this project experienced difficulties in obtaining personnel skilled in web application development and GIS. For users, some data sharing barriers are beyond what a technological tool can address (e.g. third party data. Lastly, the PD process occurs in real time; both a strength and a limitation. Programmatic changes at the provincial level and staff turnover at the organizational level made it difficult to maintain buy-in as participants changed over time. The impacts of these successes and challenges will be evaluated more concretely at the end of Phase 2. Conclusion PD approaches, by their very nature, encourage buy-in to the development process, better addresses user-needs, and creates a sense of user-investment and ownership.

  3. Role of Participatory Rural Appraisal in Community Development (A Case Study of Barani Area Development Project in Agriculture, Live Stock and Forestry Development in Kohat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out the role of participatory approach in community development. Barani Area Development Project is one of Govt: sponsored project, which was started in 2001. The aim of this project was to encourage community and ensure maximum participation to sustain the project in district kohat. Kalabat, Jangle Khail , Lachi ,Usterzo and Kachi were selected for this study. Proportion allocation method of sampling was used for the selection of respondents, 150 community members were selected out of 9000 population and 50 stockholders of Barani Project were selected out of 70 population for this study. The researcher used questionnaire for educated respondents and interview schedule for illiterate respondents. The study indicates that Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA is one of the most appropriate approaches for the identification of community problems and for understanding the socio-economic and cultural aspects of the community. The beneficiaries were well aware about participatory rural appraisal (PRA and its use because of the proper introduction and implementation in area by Barani Area Development Project (BADP. Due to PRA, the output of agriculture, livestock and forestry has risen, which has ultimately raised the socio-economic conditions of the community. The PRA training in agriculture is with special emphasis on land cultivation, preparations, fertilizer and pesticides usage has risen and helpful in producing more yields. In livestock sector they gave training on breed improvement in area and as a result livestock breed and milk products have improved in the area. In forestry sector they gave training on nursery raising and bee keeping etc to generate various ways for income. Thus through the PRA trainings and usage the community has a chance to earn more livelihoods and to satisfy their needs easily. Thus BADP used PRA approach in the area to empower the community through self-help and self-decision for participation in any developmental activities without any discrimination among the community members. The PRA tools used are helpful to the whole community, and they will easily identify their problems not only to agriculture sector but also in livestock and forestry sector. The community was satisfied from PRA role because they will ensure maximum participation through CBO/VO/WO etc. for the community development. The researcher recommended some suggestions to overcome the obstacles in front of PRA implementation and bringing Development in agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors through Barani Area Development Project.

  4. Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Research and Training; Pollard, Simon; Twigger-Ross, Clare [National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency.

  5. Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency

  6. Participatory appraisal of the impact of epizootic lymphangitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, C E; Zerfu, A; Pinchbeck, G P; Reed, K; Gebreab, F; Aklilu, N; Mideksa, K; Christley, R

    2015-07-01

    Epizootic lymphangitis (EZL) is reported to have a significant impact upon livelihoods within resource-poor settings. This study used a participatory approach to explore peoples' experiences of EZL and examine the perceived impact of disease, owner knowledge and understanding of EZL, lay management of disease and, attitudes and strategies towards disease prevention. Focus-group discussions were held with 358 cart-horse owners and drivers recruited from 7 towns attended by SPANA (Society for the protection of animals abroad) mobile veterinary clinics and 2 unexposed towns where no SPANA clinics were available. Focus group discussions explored four main research questions: (1) Is EZL recognised by animal owners, and is this considered an important disease in equids? (2) What factors do animal owners associate with the development of disease? (3) What happens to an animal with clinical disease and how does this impact upon the owner/community? (4) Are measures taken to reduce disease occurrence? These key areas were explored using photographs, disease ranking, matrices and open discussion. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The results are presented thematically and include: recognition and descriptions of EZL, treatment strategies used, disease priorities and ranking, impact of disease, disease transmission and attitudes and approaches to disease prevention. EZL was widely recognised and ranked highly as an important disease of equids. However, there was uncertainty around identifying early cases of EZL, and this could impact upon the timing of initiating treatment and separating potentially infectious animals. People had varying knowledge of effective methods for disease prevention and reported particular difficulties with isolating infected animals. The impact of EZL was multi-dimensional and encompassed effects upon the horse, the individual owner and the wider society. Working equids provide a vital utility and source of income to many people in resource-poor settings. Often, infection with EZL resulted in a reduction in working ability which had a direct impact upon the livelihoods of owners and their dependent family members. EZL also impacted upon the welfare of the horse as sick animals continued to be worked and, in advanced cases, horses were abandoned due to ineffective or unavailable treatment. This study conceptualises the importance of EZL due to the effects of the disease on the horse and its impact upon human livelihoods. Epizootic lymphangitis is a neglected disease that requires further investigation in order to develop practical and sustainable disease control strategies within endemic regions. PMID:25980831

  7. To protect or abandon: a participatory process on landslide risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolobig, A.; Bayer, J.; Cascini, L.; Ferlisi, S.

    2012-04-01

    With escalating costs of landslide risk mitigation and relief, a challenge for local authorities is to develop landslide risk mitigation measures that are viewed as efficient, feasible and fair by the many stakeholders involved. Innovative measures and the participation of stakeholders in the decision making process are essential elements in developing effective strategies to deal with the ever-changing spatial and temporal patterns of landslide risk. A stakeholder-led policy process, however, can face many social and economic challenges. One of the most difficult is deciding between costly protection measures or relocating homes. Particularly in areas with high population density, protection works are often not built because of economic/environmental constraints or private interests of the local residents. At the same time it not always possible to relocate households even if the costs are deemed less than protecting them. These issues turned out to be crucial in a recent participatory process for selecting risk mitigation measures in the town of Nocera Inferiore, Southern Italy, which experienced a landslide in 2005 causing three fatalities. The paper reports on this process which was structured in a series of meetings with a group of selected residents and several parallel activities open to the public. The preparatory work included semi-structured interviews carried out with key local stakeholders and a public survey eliciting residents' views on landslide risk mitigation. After describing the background of the landslide risk management problem in Nocera Inferiore, the paper focuses on three packages of risk mitigation measures (each of them not exceeding a total cost of 7 million Euro, namely the available funds) and the key trade-offs that emerged during the meetings with the residents. The participants reached a unanimous consensus on fundamental priorities, i.e. the improvement of the warning system, the implementation of an integrated system of monitoring and territorial survey and the stabilization of the open slopes with naturalistic engineering works. Much more debate was devoted to the relocation of residents from the most endangered areas and/or the need to build passive structural works, especially on private properties. Notwithstanding the difficulties in reaching a shared "compromise solution" for risk mitigation, the results demonstrate the value of citizen participation in landslide risk mitigation decisions and highlight the role that participation can play in risk management more generally.

  8. "Charlie: Please Respond!" Using a Participatory Methodology with Individuals on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea Georgia; Lewis, Ann; Robertson, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a participatory research approach used with 10 higher education students on the autism spectrum (mainly diagnosed with Asperger syndrome). The methodology sought to overcome barriers to participation. Participants' views were sought on the benefits and challenges related to their participation. Most participants opted for…

  9. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  10. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  11. Primary Schoolchildren's Experiences of Participatory Theatre in a Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzibazi, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for articulation of the theoretical framework underpinning performance as a learning medium in heritage sites and for an in-depth insight into the children's experiences therein. The aim of this paper is to explore some of the themes that emerged from researching participatory theatre in a historic house as experienced…

  12. The Participatory Design of a (Today and) Future Digital Entomology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Jew, Shalin

    2011-01-01

    This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…

  13. Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) as a Collaborative Evaluation Capacity Building Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) of measuring participants' reaction to the training. PATEM provides rich information; allows to document evaluation findings; becomes organic part of the training that helps participants process their experience individually and as a group; makes sense to participants; is an…

  14. Creative Art Therapy in a Community's Participatory Research and Social Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitan, Lynn; Litell, Mary; Torres, Anabel

    2011-01-01

    When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced…

  15. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  16. "Street Theatre for Edutainment": A Participatory Research with Youth in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capila, Anjali; Bhalla, Pragati

    2010-01-01

    Youth constitute an important section of our society. They are the biggest reservoir of human resources and are the future of our country. Their development has direct affect on the development of the nation. Street Theatre is not a moment's act. It is a participatory approach which deals with fictional narratives and thus used for communicating…

  17. Self-Regulation of a Chiropractic Association through Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…

  18. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment with High Schools for Obesity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…

  19. JAKFISH Policy Brief: coping with uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity in fisheries management through participatory knowledge development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastoors, M.A.; Ulrich, Clara

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of the scientific underpinning of European fisheries management is often challenged because of perceived exclusion of fishers knowledge and the lack of transparency in generating scientific advice. One of the attempts to address this lack of legitimacy has been through participatory knowledge development. In this paper, we will present the results of the JAKFISH project (Judgement and Knowledge in Fisheries Management involving Stakeholders) that focussed on the interplay between different actors in constructing the underpinning of policy decisions for sustainable fisheries. We tested participatory modelling as a tool to enhance mutual understanding and to increase legitimacy and found that it can be instrumental in developing a broader knowledge base for fisheries management and in building up trust between scientists and stakeholders. However, the participatory approach may not always work. Through social network analyses we found that the number of connections and the frequency of interactions between individuals in different groups (science, fisheries, eNGOs, policy) provides an important clue on the potential effectiveness of participatory approaches. We used three concepts to evaluate the role of scientific knowledge in policy making: salience, legitimacy and credibility. In situations with high stakes and high uncertainties, the evaluation of scientific analyses for policy decisions needs to involve a broader peer community consisting of scientists, policy-makers, NGOs and fisheries in order to increase legitimacy of results. When stakes are low and uncertainties are modest, the credibility of scientific results are sufficiently addressed through traditional scientific peer review

  20. For Greece, participatory budgeting may be a solution to the tension between austerity and democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Many commentators have become increasingly concerned that the imposition of harsh austerity measures in countries such as Greece have undermined democracy. Using evidence from Brazil and Germany, Marian Schreier argues that introducing participatory budgeting would be a way to increase the transparency of austerity and help to initiate a nation-wide conversation about Greece’s future.

  1. Learning How to Manage Bias: A Case Study of Youth Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…

  2. "Who Is Helsinki" Sex Workers Advise Improving Communication for Good Participatory Practice in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan

    2011-01-01

    After premature closures in 2004 of biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials involving sex workers in Africa and Asia, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC) undertook consultations to establish better participatory guidelines for such trials in order to address…

  3. A Case Study of Youth Participatory Evaluation in Co-Curricular Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Beth Lewis; Smith, Ross; Stevenson, Eleanor; Ryan, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of participatory evaluation through an exploratory single case study of the Evaluation Team of Books & Beyond, a co-curricular service-learning program of the Global Village Living-Learning Center at Indiana University. The paper, which is authored by three undergraduate members of the evaluation team and their…

  4. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

  5. Re-Presenting the "Forgotten Estate": Participatory Theatre, Place and Community Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan; Hall, Christine; Thomson, Pat; Barrett, Andy; Hanby, Julian

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the work undertaken in the first phase of a participatory theatre project which took place on a council housing estate in the Midlands of England, in which residents were invited to share their memories for a production which would present the history of the estate. This community is often characterised as deficient,…

  6. Open Mics and Open Minds: Spoken Word Poetry in African Diaspora Participatory Literacy Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Maisha T.

    2003-01-01

    An ethnographic study examined oral poetry venues in black communities in Oakland and Sacramento as African Diaspora participatory literacy communities. These literary centers in out-of-school contexts served as sites for the development of cultural identity and the practice of multiple literacies. (Contains 43 references.) (SK)

  7. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and balanced soil nutrient management are major foundations for sustainable food production, contribute to a sound management of natural resources and assist in controlling environmental degradation such ...

  8. Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Neef

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (recentralization of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.

  9. Mindanao Peasant Women: A Participatory Research Investigation of Their Realities and Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagaduan, Maureen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of participatory research to a study of rural Filipino women to identify living conditions and to raise consciousness. Conditions include (1) unemployment and underemployment, (2) limitations of homemaking and child rearing tasks, (3) nonrecognition of reproductive rights, and (4) discrimination in political life and…

  10. Making and Shaping Participatory Spaces: Resemiotization and Citizenship Agency in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, democratic consolidation involves not only building a new state, but also new interfaces between state and society. To strengthen the agency of citizens at these interfaces, recent approaches to development stress the notion of "participatory citizenship." The purpose of this article is to explore the links, rarely achieved in…

  11. Teaching Botanical Identification to Adults: Experiences of the UK Participatory Science Project "Open Air Laboratories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project "Open Air…

  12. Participatory Exploration of Digitalizing Cultural Content : Getting Married. Are We Ready?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a joint investigation of a Herero wedding ceremony as a sample of cultural content to be digitalized. We have through participatory exploration scrutinized embodied media bias and representation with Herero elders in Namibia. One finding is that this method has enabled the elders to be active agents in the digital portrayal and construction of their culture.

  13. The pragmatics of clinical hypermedia: experiences from 5 years of participatory design in the MEDEA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C; Svensson, B

    1995-02-01

    To explore a medical hypermedia design process where requirements engineering and participatory design are used in a naturalistic setting, 5 years of participatory action research (PAR) have been performed in the development of a hypermedia system to be used in primary care practice. In PAR, the participating organizations cooperate with the researchers in deciding and later evaluating organizational actions, and the results are concluded cooperatively. A new type of system emerged from the study, in that the resulting design has its focus on the management of large volumes of hypermedia material, the traceability of authority in the documents, and teamwork support. Regarding the participatory design process, it was found to be essential to deal with social and organizational issues in the design group and its surroundings--and not to cover these over. For instance, an agreement was reached with the managers responsible for health care in the county where the design process took place, whereby the design activity was also given priority at the highest local administrative level. Since health care is a practice organization, there is a potential market for similar systems if only ways of organizing design and marketing the products of participatory design are further developed. Modified versions of structured product specification methods could be a valuable complement. The conclusion of the study is that the development and spread of hypermedia systems in health care may require considerable changes in current design routines and organizations. PMID:7796585

  14. A Needs Assessment Informs Development of a Participatory Research Faculty Development Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsberg, Jon; Seller, Robbyn; Shea, Laura; Macaulay, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    University-based researchers are finding they need a new set of skills to collaborate meaningfully with non-academic research partners, and to compete for funding opportunities that require community and end-user partnerships. This article describes a needs assessment conducted to develop a participatory research faculty development workshop at…

  15. A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittra Rukijkanpanich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b work practice improvement, and c working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1 the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2 the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.

  16. Change at Big School and Little School: Institutionalization and Contestation in Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Kastanis, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) assumes a dialectic model of change where the tension between institutionalization and contestation practices leads to change in schools. This view openly contradicts the three dominating views of institutionalization in the educational change literature. Over the past 11 years, research has been conducted to…

  17. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  18. Changing Coverage of Domestic Violence Murders: A Longitudinal Experiment in Participatory Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Charlotte; Anastario, Mike; DaCunha, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Stressing relation-building and participatory communication approaches, the Rhode Island Coalition against Domestic Violence worked with journalists to develop a best practices handbook on news coverage of domestic violence murders. This study compares print coverage of domestic violence murders prehandbook (1996-1999) and posthandbook…

  19. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  20. Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Matin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s, and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.

  1. Harnessing the Power of Community-Based Participatory Research: Examining Knowledge, Action, and Consciousness in the PROUD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Daina; Marshall, Zack; Lazarus, Lisa; LeBlanc, Sean; Heighton, Tarah; Preater, Beverley; Tyndall, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to research that recognizes the specific knowledge and abilities that individuals from diverse backgrounds bring to the generation of new knowledge for the purpose of social action aimed at improving public health and health equity. In this article, the authors apply Gaventa and Cornwall's dimensions of participatory research to the analysis of 12 semistructured interviews with members of our Community Advisory Committee for the Participatory Research in Ottawa: Understanding Drugs (PROUD) study. This process-to-outcomes framework may help projects more systematically explore their experiences in relation to common CBPR principles and lead to greater conceptual clarity. PMID:25774651

  2. Varietal effects of eight paired lines of transgenic Bt maize and near-isogenic non-Bt maize on soil microbial and nematode community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Bryan S; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2007-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was undertaken to provide baseline data on the variation between conventional maize (Zea mays L.) varieties and genetically modified maize plants expressing the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Bt, Cry1Ab). The objective was to determine whether the variation in soil parameters under a range of conventional maize cultivars exceeded the differences between Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. Variations in plant growth parameters (shoot and root biomass, percentage carbon, percentage nitrogen), Bt protein concentration in shoots, roots and soil, soil nematode abundance and soil microbial community structure were determined. Eight paired varieties (i.e. varieties genetically modified to express Bt protein and their near-isogenic control varieties) were investigated, together with a Bt variety for which no near-isogenic control was available (NX3622, a combined transformant expressing both Bt and herbicide tolerance) and a conventional barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety which was included as a positive control. The only plant parameter which showed a difference between Bt varieties and near-isogenic counterparts was the shoot carbon to nitrogen ratio; this was observed for only two of the eight varieties, and so was not attributable to the Bt trait. There were no detectable differences in the concentration of Bt protein in plant or soil with any of the Bt-expressing varieties. There were significant differences in the abundance of soil nematodes, but this was not related to the Bt trait. Differences in previously published soil nematode studies under Bt maize were smaller than these varietal effects. Soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, was strongly affected by plant growth stage but not by the Bt trait. The experimental addition of purified Cry1Ab protein to soil confirmed that, at ecologically relevant concentrations, there were no measurable effects on microbial community structure.

  3. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology (MUPARMIBO), some particular bioenergy options were recommended for each study village in two districts. The participatory approach was extended to the selection of possible projects that villagers may implement using their own resources. Some of these projects include production and marketing of improved stoves, improved fish smoking and drying ovens, and planting of multi-purpose tree species. Where villagers keep cattle under the zero-grazing system and can afford initial costs, biogas plants were recommended. The need for information on available technologies, development of skills and financing mechanisms were seen as critical elements for the adoption of bioenergy options 56 refs, 12 figs, 7 tabs

  4. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

  5. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

  6. Participatory Decision Making, Patient Activation, Medication Adherence, and Intermediate Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes: A STARNet Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parchman, Michael L.; Zeber, John E.; Palmer, Raymond F.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Participatory decision making (PDM) is associated with improved diabetes control. We examine a causal model linking PDM to improved clinical outcomes that included patient activation and medication adherence.

  7. Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte

    For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating communities of practice, and in what way do they promote the negotiation of a shared understanding? •Which commonalities can be derived from the participatory design of a "third space" community among communities of practice through participation in the Danish seed industry? The work will be based on preliminary field research including qualitative semi-structured interviews staging the local concept to knowledge and innovation quantified by large-scale questionnaires. A random target group will work with imaging, tagging and categorising their personal experience and thoughts of knowledge and innovation through advanced online photo diaries. The outcomes will be presented in a 3-step workshop series with representatives from the involved communities of practice. A "future workshop" will focus on commonalities and contradictions between the involved domains and how they redefine shared knowledge from their previous experience. A second workshop will focus on hands-on user experience based on a prototype predesigned from the preliminary research findings. The final workshop will build up a common knowledge discourseamong its participants, and work towards an overall requirement specification for a preferred future knowledge innovation method in the Danish seed industry. The three workshops will be recorded by video and subsequently hermeneutically analysed to determine relevant boundary objects and commonalities between the participating communities of practice.

  8. Impacts of access and benefit sharing on livelihoods and forest : case of participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Nielsen, Oystein Juul

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of participatory forest management (PFM) may involve the exclusion of previous forest users from accessing forest resources. This is the case for PFM in the two Ethiopian pioneer sites, Dodola and Chilimo that represent two distinct PFM approaches in Ethiopia. This paper analyses how PFM, after controlling pre-PFM differences, affects members of forest user groups (FUGs) and non-members' total annual incomes, forest incomes, expenditures and livestock asset holdings. Income and asset data were collected from 635 randomly selected households. Data were analysed using propensity score matching models. Results show that in Dodola, where commercial timber harvest is allowed, the introduction of PFM means that FUGs have higher livestock assets and forest income than non-members. The average total income and the expenditure for members and nonmembers, however, were not significantly different. In Chilimo site, the result is the opposite —the introduction of PFM means that FUG members have lower total incomes and assets than non-members. Based on our findings we recommend that the PFM scaling up approaches in Ethiopia, which currently allow FUGs only subsistence use from forest resources, need to be revised.

  9. Participatory learning and knowledge assessment with a game-based method relying on student-generated questions

    CERN Document Server

    Abad, Enrique; Gil, Julia

    2015-01-01

    A game based on student-generated multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was used to promote participatory learning and as a knowledge assessment tool in the framework of an elementary course in Photonics. Under the instructor's guidance, students were asked to author MCQs, including both question stems and four possible answers (three distractors and one correct answer). They were told that good enough questions would enter a repository from which MCQs for the final exam could be drawn. The student-generated MCQs were then reviewed by the instructor, who discarded unsuitable questions and made amendments to ensure quality standards. The resulting repository (with the key to the correct answers) was made available to the students, whereupon a subset of questions were selected by the instructor to set the MCQ test for the final exam (consisting of a MCQ test based on student-generated questions and a problem-solving part set entirely by the instructor). The MCQ repository was large enough to ensure that rote learnin...

  10. Democratic Innovation Through Ideas? Participatory budgeting and frames of citizen participation in France, Germany and Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Ro?cke, Anja

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the processes of adaptation of participatory budget (PB) institutions to France, Germany, and Great Britain in relation to frames of citizen participation, for instance ‘participatory’ democracy or ‘community empowerment’. I define frames as relatively coherent but flexible idea combinations that contain cognitive and normative assumptions about the issue at stake (in the present case citizen participation). The process of PB, developed in Porto Alegre, Braz...

  11. Relating the spatial component and users interests to improve applications based on questions, petitions and participatory processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Albert Acedo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, participatory processes attending the need for real democracy and transparency in governments and collectives are more needed than ever. Immediate participation through channels like social networks enable people to give their opinion and become pro-active citizens, seeking applications to interact with each other. The application described in this dissertation is a hybrid channel of communication of questions, petitions and participatory processes based on Public Par...

  12. Process evaluation of a participatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen Maurice T; Proper Karin I; Anema Johannes R; Bongers Paulien M; van der Beek Allard J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Both low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE) is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is scarce. This study evaluates the process of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme, including the perceived implementation of the prioritised ergonomic measures. Meth...

  13. Understanding the role of local communities in forest concessions management:a participatory forest management initiative in South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nhial, Nhial Kun Gogok

    2012-01-01

    This research project is a Participatory Forest Management initiative aiming at understanding the role of local communities with emphasis on their participation in the management of forest concession projects. Its long-term goal is Participatory Forest Management practices for the need of sustainable forestry in South Sudan. The research project was integrated and implemented through South Sudan forest concession work to support the development of South Sudan forest concession guidelines and...

  14. Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

    2014-05-01

    The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction/Management (DRR and DRM). Participatory surveys (and participatory monitoring) elicit local people's knowledge about the specifics of the hazard concerning frequency, timing, warning signals, rates of flow, spatial extent, etc. And significantly, only this local knowledge from informants can reveal essential information about different vulnerabilities of people and places, and about any coping or adjustment mechanisms that local people have. The participatory methods employed in Mleta included historical discussions with key informants, village social transects, participatory mapping with children, semi-structured interviews with inhabitants, and VCA (Vulnerability & Capacity Analysis). The geolomorphological map produced on the base of the local geology has been realized with ArcGIS. This allowed the assessment of the areas at risk and the relative maps. We adapted and tested the software programme CyberTracker as a survey tool, a digital device method of field data collection. Google Earth, OpenStreetMap, Virtual Earth and Ilwis have been used for data processing.

  15. Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others and discovering shared interests, but not necessarily changing their own view, behaviour or institutional practice. We conclude the paper with a discussion of two learning aspects of the participatory modelling process for which conflicting results were obtained: the question of depth of model scrutiny and the question of trust in the model, in the modeller and between the participants. References Krueger, T, Inman, A, Chilvers, J. 2012. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling. Paper Number EGU2012-5958. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, April 22nd-27th: Vienna, Austria.

  16. Contrasting and not-so-contrasting perspectives between local stakeholders and scientists and across dryland sites in participatory assessment of land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Susana; Zucca, Claudio; Urghege, Anna M.; Ramón Vallejo, V.

    2015-04-01

    The participation of stakeholders and the integration of scientific and local knowledge in the assessment of environmental problems and potential solutions have been increasingly demanded by international institutions. Participatory assessment has the potential to engender social learning among all stakeholders, including scientists, which then has the potential to increase collaboration and the probability for adoption of good practices. Using PRACTICE participatory assessment tool, IAPro, a number of assessment criteria were identified, selected and weighted by local stakeholder platforms (SHPs) and scientists in 18 dryland sites distributed across 11 countries. These criteria were then applied to the assessment of a variety of local land management actions. In total, around 50 criteria were proposed by the SHPs, ranging from 6 to 14 per platform. The proposed criteria represented a wide variety of social, economic, cultural, and environmental aspects. Many of them were proposed by many of the SHPs, stressing their potential as universal assessment criteria across drylands. In most cases, these repeatedly proposed criteria were the same criteria proposed by the scientific panel. The relative importance given to the variety of criteria by each SHP was evenly distributed among the economic wealth criterion and each of the main categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, supporting & regulating, and cultural). In general, African and American sites where local people economies heavily rely on natural lands gave higher weights than European sites to "economic-wealth", "provision of goods", and "supporting and regulating services" criteria, and also to "socio-cultural services". All European SHPs selected and gave great importance to criteria that are related to security, such hydrogeological hazard, flood prevention, and fire risk. The participatory assessment process in IAPro facilitated social learning among the stakeholders, including scientists, and promoted knowledge exchange at multiple levels. The change between the initial and final perspectives on the assessment criteria and the quality of the management actions assessed was considered to be a metric of the learning gained through the IAPro process. A decrease in the variability of weights and rates given by the stakeholders to each criteria and management action reflects the consensus building process that takes place during the discussion sessions.

  17. The rearing progress and varietal characteristics in new cultivar red bunching onion [Allium fistulosum] 'Hitachi-benikko'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to raise a red bunching onion, a thick leaf sheath with stabilized coloring, breeding has been carried out since 1984. 'Hitachi-benikko' was developed in 1997.It was selected from soft X-ray irradiated seeds in 1996, between crossing of ('Chouetsu' x 'A3-middle') x 'Akasyonai-strain'. The color of the leaf sheath in 'Hitachi-benikko' is stabilizes deep and the leaf sheath of 'Hitachi-benikko' is thick, because it has fewer tillers than 'Benizome'. If 'Hitachi-benikko' is planted in autumn, the growth and development increases, and the quality of the leaf shealth is greater than planting in spring. Standard amount of applied fertilizer is the best because a 20% reduction in amount of application slightly decreases the growth and development of 'Hitachi-benikko'. If the spacing between plants is 15 cm or 20 cm, the growth and development increases, and the quality of the leaf shealth is greater than 5 cm or 10 cm in 'Hitachi-benikko'

  18. Towards tailor-made participation : How to involve different types of citizens in participatory planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Public participation has become an important element of governance in many Western European countries. However, among scholars and practitioners there is a recognition that participatory governance processes tend to produce systematic exclusions. Knowledge about 'who' participates and 'how' they participate can enhance our understanding of participatory processes. This paper presents some characterisations of citizens based on a review of the literature on participation. In addition, examples of how to tailor participation for different type of citizens are provided based on studies of urban regeneration programmes and local environmental initiatives in Denmark. The paper concludes that in order to broaden the inclusion of affected citizens, public authorities need to be tailor participation processes by applying distinct approaches to different types of citizens

  19. Participatory ergonomic intervention for prevention of low back pain: assembly line redesign case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain. PMID:22317739

  20. Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Ming Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-a-vis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

  1. Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yee Ming

    2009-01-01

    The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers' understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-avis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

  2. Toward an Architecture of Dissensus: Participatory Urbanism in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Boano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Adopting Rancière’s principles of equality, his concepts of aesthetics and le partage du sensible as an intellectual toolbox, this paper examines how practices of participation in informal settlement development might encourage one to think differently about the relationship between politics, design and the city – contributing thus to the debate about participatory urbanism.A critical reflection of the Thai programme Baan Mankong (secure housing and its regional counterpart Asian Coalition for Community Action (ACCA – an entity aimed at creating an alternative development process in which people that were previously ignored and marginalized are engaged at the centre of a process of transforming their lives, spaces and position in the city – sheds light on such relationship in order to promote a re-conceptualisation of the role of architecture and design in the process of socially just urban development, participatory urbanism and the struggle for democracy.

  3. Using Participatory Epidemiology Tools to Investigate Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP in Maasai Flocks, Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Senyael

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Participatory Epidemiology (PE was applied on the Maasai rangeland of northern Tanzania to understand pastoralist’s perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP. The study was conducted during the period of April 2008 and caprine disease event was directed during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. Participatory methods such as Focus Group Discussion (FGD, proportional piling and matrix scoring were used to characterize pastoralist perceived clinical signs and risk factors for CCPP. The estimated mean incidence and case mortality rate of CCPP was 31.6 and 61.4%, respectively. Matrix scoring showed moderate to good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs and risk factors. It was concluded that PE complimented with local knowledge could generally be used to generate disease information at low cost and therefore assist the design of feasible disease surveillance systems and control programmes at local and national level.

  4. Generative and Participatory Parametric Frameworks for Multi-player Design Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Generative design processes have been the focus of current architectural research and practice largely due to the phenomenon of emergence explored within self-organisation, generative grammars and evolutionary techniques.These techniques have been informing participatory urban design modalities, which are investigated in this paper by critically reviewing theories, practices, and (software applications that explore multi-player online urban games, with respect to not only their abilities to facilitate online trans-disciplinary expert collaboration and user participation but also to support implementation of democratic ideals in design practice.The assumption is that even if generative and participatory parametric frameworks for multi-player design games may not replace politics as a discipline concerned with the study of government and policies of government, they may reduce the bureaucratic apparatus supporting government by establishing a direct interface between experts such as politicians, urban planners, designers, and users.

  5. Economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics intervention in a textile plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; Natale, Julianne

    2013-05-01

    In this study we report on the economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process undertaken at a clothing manufacturer in Southwestern Ontario, Canada that employs approximately 300 workers. We undertake a cost-benefit analysis from the company perspective. Intervention costs amounted to $65,787 and intervention benefits $360,614 (2011 Canadian dollars). The net present value was $294,827, suggesting that the intervention was worth undertaking based on the costs and consequences over the measurement period spanning more than four years. Based on these costs and benefits, the benefit-to-cost ratio is 5.5. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that participatory ergonomics interventions can be cost beneficial from the company perspective. Even though the changes were typically low-cost and low-tech interventions implemented by the plant mechanics and maintenance personnel, benefits were realized on both the health and financial fronts. PMID:23237231

  6. Learning through Situated Innovation : Why the specific is crucial for Participatory Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show implications of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD from the specificities, in line with recent debate contributions.

  7. Organization of school work in focus: the limits of antidemocratic inheritance and potential of participatory processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vieira Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically, democratic and participatory processes in the Brazilian society, and specifically in school, have been permeated by intermittences, weaknesses and resistances caused by multiple determinations. The text focuses on aspects concerningthe organization of education work through two lines of analysis: the first angle refers to the social constructs of structural and organic nature linked to relations of power andanti-democratic practices of the society in general. The second angle reference to a kindof ethnographic research, conducted within a public school in the Minas Gerais state. We seek to grasp the challenges on building practices and strategies in support of the participatory processes of the school community in the pedagogic project design and in the operation of the school board. We propose, with these analyses, to contribute withreflections on the status of teachers, as a subject, in the school organization throughconnections with work activities related to their everyday practice.

  8. Team process in community-based participatory research on maternity care in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Chiang, Fidela; Hillard, Rebecca C; Hall, Priscilla; Heath, Annemarie

    2010-12-01

    A cross-cultural team consisting of US trained academic midwife researchers, Dominican nurses, and Dominican community leaders have partnered in this international nursing and midwifery community-based participatory research (CBPR) project in the Dominican Republic to understand the community experience with publicly funded maternity services. The purpose of the study was to understand community perceptions of maternity services. This article highlights the activities that the research team carried out during each phase of the research process, and how they established team identity, team trust, and team efficacy. This research has created a platform for new avenues for health providers and community to partner to improve maternal-newborn care. Community-based participatory research is one way forward to address the past and present inequities constitutive of global health disparities. PMID:21059148

  9. Communicative action: the Habermasian and Freirean dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, H.; Fourie, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995). What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communicati...

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Ismi Arif Ismail; Gede Pramudya Ananta; Zailina Hashim; Irwan Syah Mohd Yusoff; Baba Md. Deros; Shahriman Abu Bakar; Azmin Sham Rambely

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms? fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and cus...

  11. Participatory approach to data warehousing in health care: UGANDA’S Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Otine, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This licentiate thesis presents the use of participatory approach to developing a data warehouse for data mining in health care. Uganda is one of the countries that faced the largest brunt of the HIV/AIDS epidemic at its inception in the early 1980s with reports of close to a million deaths. Government and nongovernmental interventions over the years saw massive reductions in HIV prevalence rates over the years. This reduction in HIV prevalence rates led to great pra...

  12. A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seed system in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Akpo, E.; Vissoh, P. V.; Tossou, R. C.; Crane, T.; Kossou, D. K.; Richards, P.; Stomph, T. J.; Struik, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed system (OPSS) was conducted along a gradient of rainfall and distance to the oil palm research centre across the oil palm growing belt of Benin. The objective was to identify, jointly with key actors, the constraints in the OPSS and to assess the performance of the OPSS from a farmers’ perspective. The methodology included introductory community meetings, group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, field ...

  13. Schools of Democracy: How ordinary citizens become competent in participatory budgeting institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Talpin, Julien

    2007-01-01

    A widespread theme pervades both political theory and the social sciences, in which participation in certain types of democratic institutions could create a more competent, active and public-spirited citizenry. While the school of democracy hypothesis has seen a recent renewal, little empirical research has been carried out in order to evaluate it rigorously. I tried to answer this crucial democratic question by leading an ethnographic study in three cases of municipal participatory budgeting...

  14. WeDo: Exploring Participatory, End-To-End Collective Action

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haoqi; Monroy-Hernandez, Andes; Shaw, Aaron; Munson, Sean; Gerber, Liz; Hill, Benjamin Mako; Kinnaird, Peter; Farnham, Shelly; Minder, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Many celebrate the Internet's ability to connect individuals and facilitate collective action toward a common goal. While numerous systems have been designed to support particular aspects of collective action, few systems support participatory, end-to-end collective action in which a crowd or community identifies opportunities, formulates goals, brainstorms ideas, develops plans, mobilizes, and takes action. To explore the possibilities and barriers in supporting such intera...

  15. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...

  16. Participatory design of computer-supported organizational learning in health care: methods and experiences.

    OpenAIRE

    Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C.; Hallberg, N.; Eriksson, H.; Lindblom, P.; Hedblom, P.; Svensson, B.; Marmolin, H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines a Computer-Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) system for primary care and presents from its participatory design process time consumption, costs, and experiences. The system integrates a hypermedia environment, a computerized patient record, and an electronicmessage system. It is developed to coordinate organizational learning in primary care from micro to macro levels by connecting strategic planning to monitoring of patient routines. Summing up design experiences, critic...

  17. Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arabinda Brahma; Biswas, Mrinal K.; Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Sohini Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched i...

  18. Improving hazard communication through collaborative participatory workshops: challenges and opportunities experienced at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, S. M.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.; de Moor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Communication is key to disaster risk management before, during and after a hazardous event occurs. In this study we used a participatory design approach to increase disaster preparedness levels around Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in collaboration with local communities. We organised five participatory workshops in communities around Turrialba volcano, 2 in February 2014 and a further 3 in May 2014. A total of 101 people attended and participants included the general public, decision makers and relevant government employees. The main finding of the workshops was that people want more information, specifically regarding 1) the activity level at the volcano and 2) how to prepare. In addition, the source of information was identified as an important factor in communication, with credibility and integrity being key. This outcome highlights a communication gap between the communities at risk and the institutions monitoring the volcano, who publish their scientific results monthly. This strong and explicitly expressed desire for more information should be acknowledged and responded to. However, this gives rise to the challenge of how to communicate: how to change the delivery and/or content of the messages already disseminated for greater effectiveness. In our experience, participatory workshops provide a successful mechanism for effective communication. However, critically evaluating the workshops reveals a number of challenges and opportunities, with the former arising from human, cultural and resource factors, specifically the need to develop people's capacity to participate, whereas the latter is predominantly represented by participant empowerment. As disasters are mostly felt at individual, household and community levels, improving communication, not at but with these stakeholders, is an important component of a comprehensive disaster resilience strategy. This work provides an initial insight into the potential value of participatory design approaches for communication of hazard information.

  19. Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country: Improving Health through Water Quality Research and Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, C; DOYLE, J; Kindness, L.; Lefthand, M.J.; Bear Don't Walk, U.J.; Bends, A.; Broadaway, S. C.; Camper, A K; Fitch, R.; Ford, T E; Hamner, S.; Morrison, A.R.; Richards, C L; Young, S.L.; Eggers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water due to visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the Tribe and academic partners, resulting in genuine community based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about ...

  20. Using a Participatory Research Process to Address Disproportionate Hispanic Cancer Burden

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Pamela C.; Canedo, Juan R.; Reece, Michelle C.; Lira, Irma; Reyes, Francisco; Garcia, Erandi; Juarez, Paul; Williams, Elizabeth; Husaini, Baqar A.

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers great potential for increasing the impact of research on reducing cancer health disparities. This article reports how the Community Outreach Core (COC) of the Meharry-Vanderbilt-Tennessee State University (TSU) Cancer Partnership has collaborated with community partners to develop and implement CBPR. The COC, Progreso Community Center, and Nashville Latino Health Coalition jointly developed and conducted the 2007 Hispanic Health in Nashvill...

  1. Participatory resource monitoring as a means for promoting social change in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Rijsoort, J. G.; Jinfeng, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Recent international forest policies stimulate involvement of communities in forest management as a strategy to improve biodiversity conservation and the quality of local livelihoods. Increasingly, the role of local people in monitoring forest resources is also acknowledged. This paper presents a participatory resources monitoring (PRM) system developed and implemented by representatives of 12 villages, six each within and adjacent to two nature reserves in Yunnan, China. The short-term objec...

  2. Participatory Ecosystem Management Planning at Tuzla Lake (Turkey) Using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Filiz Dadaser; Ozesmi, Uygar; Akdogan, Asuman

    2005-01-01

    A participatory environmental management plan was prepared for Tuzla Lake, Turkey. Fuzzy cognitive mapping approach was used to obtain stakeholder views and desires. Cognitive maps were prepared with 44 stakeholders (villagers, local decisionmakers, government and non-government organization (NGO) officials). Graph theory indices, statistical methods and "What-if" simulations were used in the analysis. The most mentioned variables were livelihood, agriculture and animal husb...

  3. Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoulaye, T.; Amaza, Ps; Olanrewaju, As; Ellis-jones, J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operate...

  4. The value of cultural theory for participatory processes in natural resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogstra, M. A.; Permadi, D. B.; Yasmi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Participation is viewed as an important means for promoting the sustainable management of natural resources. However, participation is not always successful. Conflicting values and power inequalities are all factors that can severely undermine participatory processes. Where so far the main focus of research has been on power imbalances and conflicting interests, this article focuses on another source of conflict, i.e. differing views of reality and underlying cultural biases. Research states ...

  5. GIS for participatory land use planning in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Trung, N. H.; Le Quang Tri; Mensvoort, M. E. F.; Bregt, A. K.

    2004-01-01

    A participatory land use planning approach (PLUP) was carried out in two villages of the Mekong Delta coastal area. The PLUP was done twice (2002 and 2003). A geographic information system (GIS) was used for analyzing the land use change, the realization of the farmers’ preference, the preference change and the preference conflicts between groups of aquaculture and agriculture farmers. Results show that land use in the study area is very dynamic, farmers are flexible and there are differenc...

  6. Your Vision or My Model? Lessons from Participatory Land Use Scenario Development on a European Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkery, Axel; Ribeiro, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Participatory processes in scenario development have received increasing attention throughout the last years. Combining qualitative stakeholder and quantitative expert information (i.e. modelling) offers unique opportunities to mix good data, scientific rigour, imagination and expertise from different perspectives. However, this task is all but easy as it requires a careful balancing of approaches and an acceptance of different levels of knowledge and trust in different methods across disciplinary boundaries. In spite of a growing body of literature we are still in the early stages of learning how to deal effectively with participatory scenario development. In the PRELUDE project of the European Environment Agency a relatively far-reaching participatory approach to scenario development was applied: a group of stakeholders from across Europe was given full responsibility to develop long-term alternative land use scenarios in cooperation with experts and modellers. The scenarios have been used in a formal outreach process with key clients and stakeholders at the European and Member State level afterwards. The aim of this paper is to document the methods used, analyse their strengths and weaknesses and draw some general conclusions regarding participatory processes in scenario development. This paper argues that in future scenario development more attention needs to be paid to strengthen the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis. A set of compelling and coherent storylines can effectively trigger strategic conversations among policy-makers and key stakeholders about potential future developments and related response strategies. A weak integration with quantitative results can undermine this outcome, which is one of the ultimate objectives of any scenario exercise.

  7. Unintentional democratisation? The Argentinazo and the politics of participatory budgeting in Buenos Aires, 2001-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an account of the emergence of Participatory Budgeting (PB) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, based on information collected during six months of field research carried out in April-September 2003. The aim is to trace the conditions and context within which this was established. This is of particular interest in view of the fact that PB in Buenos Aires was implemented in the midst of the recent crisis known as the Argentinazo, which arguably constituted an unlikely moment for it...

  8. Teaching for Change through Youth Participatory Action Research and Engaged Ethnographic Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Cervinkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On the example of an ethnographic case study in global learning, the author describes praxis-based pedagogy grounded in youth participatory action research (YPA R and engaged ethnographic inquiry. She advocates praxis-based methodology as an effective way for teachers as educators to assume active public roles and help empower themselves and their students in the context of the disempowering effects of neoliberal cultural, political and economic processes.

  9. Exploring the challenges of implementing Participatory Action Research in the context of HIV and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, W. A.; Khalil, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR) has been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this ...

  10. Economic contribution of participatory agroforestry program to poverty alleviation: a case from Sal forests, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, K. K.; Hoogstra, M. A.; Ullah, M. O.; Sato, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the Forest Department of Bangladesh, a Participatory Agroforestry Program (PAP) was initiated at a denuded Sal forests area to protect the forest resources and to alleviate poverty amongst the local poor population. We explored whether the PAP reduced poverty and what factors might be responsible for poverty alleviation. We used three poverty measurement methods: the Head Count Index, the Poverty Gap Index and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index to determine the extent poverty reduction. We u...

  11. Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Piedad; Hough Richard L; Lebowitz Barry; Lindamer Laurie A; Aguirre Alfredo; Halpain Maureen C; Depp Colin; Jeste Dilip V

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implementation, a...

  12. Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Perez; Dominique Rollin; Albena Popova; Jones, Natalie A.; Matthew Hare; Peter Coad; Jean-Emmanuel Rougier; Nils Ferrand; Ribarova, Irina S.; Ian White; Daniell, Katherine A.; Stewart Burn

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecologica...

  13. Participatory Rural Appraisal of Basic Needs Deprivation among Rural Dwellers of Borno State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, R. O.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequacy of environmental and infrastructural resources to satisfy basic needs results in deprivation among rural people which in most cases, rapid rural appraisal and other traditional survey methods rarely adequately capture. This paper employs therefore employs participatory rural appraisal (PRA) techniques to analyse these phenomena in Borno state. The objectives are to determine the seasonality of basic needs deprivation, analyse the triggers of need deprivation, and, assess the coping...

  14. Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity mea...

  15. Morphological Characterization of the Cuban Creole Goat: Basis for Participatory Management of a Zoogenetic Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-najera, R. E.; Coutino-ruiz, R. R.; Medina-jonapa, F. J.; Ley-de Coss, A.; Pinto-ruiz, R.; Gomez-castro, H.; Fonseca-fuentes, N.; Guevara-hernandez, F.; La O-arias, M.; Espinosa-moreno, J. A.; Rodriguez-larramendi, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    This research provides an external morphological characterization of the population of Creole goats in the Cuban community, 26 de Julio, as an essential element for designing a strategy of participatory management for this animal. This goat was characterized using zoometry, morphology and phaneroptic aspects. From a morphometric point of view, researchers defined the population of Cuban Creole goats in the study community to be medium in size with medium proportions and harmonic proport...

  16. Improving Data Quality with an Accumulated Reputation Model in Participatory Sensing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiyun Yu; Rui Liu; Xingwei Wang; Jiannong Cao

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices brings forth a sensing paradigm, participatory sensing, to collect and interpret sensory information from the environment. Participants join in multifarious sensing tasks and share their data. The sensing result can be obtained in light of shared data. It is not uncommon that some corrupted data is provided by participants, which makes sensing result unreliable accordingly. To address this nontrivial issue, we proposed the accumulated reputation model (ARM) to i...

  17. IDR: a participatory methodology for interdisciplinary design in technology enhanced learning

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, Niall; Mor, Yishay

    2007-01-01

    One of the important themes that emerged from the CAL’07 conference was the failure of technology to bring about the expected disruptive effect to learning and teaching. We identify one of the causes as an inherent weakness in prevalent development methodologies. While the problem of designing technology for learning is irreducibly multi-dimensional, design processes often lack true interdisciplinarity. To address this problem we present IDR, a participatory methodology for interdisciplinar...

  18. Exploring the role of robots : Participatory performances to ground and inspire innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kilbourn, Kyle; Bay, Marie Brøndum

    2011-01-01

    In performing collaborative scenarios of potential ideas, relationships from the future are brought into play as both objects for critique and enhancement. We see that a design anthropology that supports, facilitates, and provokes through these types of participatory activities as an essential shift from anthropology “of” towards an anthropology “with” people as part of design processes, and as part of this transition relies on setting up a space for reflection of goals and interests ...

  19. Una experiencia de investigación participativa en Uruguay / An experience of participatory research in Uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Marta, Albicette-Bastreri; Marta, Chiappe-Hernández.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los enfoques participativos para el desarrollo y la investigación e innovación en el sector agrario han buscado respuestas adaptadas a las necesidades de los productores utilizando diferentes metodologías, entre las que se encuentra la investigación participativa (IP). Entre 2006 y 2009 tuvo lugar e [...] n Uruguay un proceso denominado Desarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones (DPI), llevado adelante por investigadores del Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA) y productores orgánicos hortícolas, focalizado en tecnología de abonos verdes; siendo el primer caso de IP iniciado y finalizado en el sector agrario uruguayo. En este ensayo se describe una investigación evaluativa del DPI a partir de entrevistas en profundidad a productores y técnicos participantes. Se analizan fortalezas y debilidades, aprendizajes y resultados del DPI, aportando sugerencias para un próximo ciclo o para su aplicación en otros procesos participativos. Como resultado del proceso fue posible introducir la metodología en INIA, progresar en su implementación, compartir saberes entre investigadores y productores y lograr innovación con la tecnología, permitiendo aprendizaje y apropiación social del conocimiento. Abstract in english Participatory approaches for development, and research and innovation in the agricultural sector have sought answers adapted to the needs of producers using different methodologies, among them participatory research (PR). Between 2006 and 2009, a process took place in Uruguay called Participatory In [...] novation Development (PID, Desarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones), carried out by researchers in the National Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute (Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, INIA) and organic vegetable producers, focused on green fertilizer technologies; this was the first case of PR that began and was finished in the Uruguay agrarian sector. In this essay, we describe the evaluative research of PID, contributing suggestions for the next cycle or to apply in other participatory processes. As a result of the process, it was possible to introduce the INIA methodology, make progress in its implementation, share knowledge between researchers and farmers, and achieve innovation with technology, allowing learning and social appropriation of the knowledge.

  20. Participatory Decision Making for Sanitation Improvements in Unplanned Urban Settlements in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, A.; Tukahirwa, J.; Oosterveer, P. J. M.; Mol, A. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Solving the problem of inadequate access to sanitation in unplanned settlements in East Africa needs to combine social and technical dimensions in such a manner that they fit the local context. The modernized mixtures approach offers an analytical framework for identifying such solutions, but this approach requires effective methods for participatory decision making. This article intends to contribute to filling this gap by identifying and further elaborating an appropriate multicriteria deci...

  1. Critical Participatory Looping: An Agencing Process for Mass Customization in Language Education

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Murphey; Joseph Falout

    2012-01-01

    Critical Participatory Looping (CPL) (cf. Falout and Murphey 2010; Murphey and Falout 2010) involves returning processed data from surveys or assignments back to students for further reflection and analysis in small groups. CPL affords dialogical interaction among class members (including the teacher), which can encourage them all as agents developing their own self-determination through action—otherwise known as agencing (cf. Murphey 2010, Nelson and Murphey, 2011). In this paper we first ...

  2. Designing Agent Behaviour in Agent-Based Simulation through participatory method

    OpenAIRE

    Taillandier, Patrick; Buard, Elodie

    2009-01-01

    Since the end of the eighties, agent-based simulation has demonstrated its usefulness for the modelling of complex systems. However, a difficulty raised by these simulations concerns the designing of agent behaviour. Indeed, most of time, it is difficult for experts to translate their knowledge in a formal way that can be directly used by a computer. In order to facilitate the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on a participatory method. In our approach, an expert dire...

  3. Improving Participatory Processes through Collective Simulation: Use of a Community of Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Dionnet; Katherine A. Daniell; Amar Imache; Yorck von Korff; Sami Bouarfa; Patrice Garin; Jean-Yves Jamin; Dominique Rollin; Jean-Emmanuel Rougier

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholder and public participation in natural resources management (NRM) is now widely accepted as necessary to achieve sustainable development outcomes. Yet, effective implementation of participatory processes necessitates well-calibrated methods and tools, as well as carefully honed facilitation skills that are difficult to gain without practice. Practitioners and academics leading these processes are thus encouraged to better reflect on, prepare, and justify their interventions, before s...

  4. How agency models inspire large scale participatory planning and its evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrand, N.; Hassenforder, E.; Ducrot, R.; Barreteau, O.; Abrami, G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe how three models, for sustainable change, human agency in collective resource management, and socio-environmental systems, have been used to design a protocol and the tools for a large scale (1500 participants, 35 villages) multi-level participatory process held in Africa for Integrated Natural Resource Management, through the European Project Afromaison. The process especially combines a common action model to support proposals by stakeholders, an integration matrix to build cohe...

  5. Participatory surveillance of livestock and poultry diseases in Agidi development area of Nasarawa state Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Haruna; Ardo Abdullahi; Samuel Pakbong; mohammed Ahmed Saulawa; Samuel Akawu Anzaku; pauline k Dachin; Lawal U Muhammad; Akawu Bala

    2012-01-01

    A participatory surveillance of livestock and poultry diseases was carried out in Agidi Development Area of Nasarawa State among 123 farmers, 29 of the respondent were female, while 94 were male. Open-ended interviews were utilized where necessary to clarify information that needed clarifications by the respondents; physical examination of the some affected animals and it surroundings were carried out during the surveillance. The following diseases were established in the study area: Peste de...

  6. Sequencing Participatory Action Research and i* Modeling Framework in Capturing Multiple Roles Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Siti Nurul Hayatie; Nordin, Ariza

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual framework for sequencing of Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology with the implementation of i* modeling framework in capturing multiple roles requirements. There are multiple roles involved in the development of information system, thus it involves with difference users requirements and preferences, context as well as the demands which become a challenge in development of system. This is due to these roles where information of th...

  7. Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zoellner Jamie; Hill Jennie L; Zynda Karen; Sample Alicia D; Yadrick Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim ...

  8. The design game in Participatory Design and design education : Chances, risks and side effects

    OpenAIRE

    To?rpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (ga...

  9. Is participatory social learning a performance driver for Chinese smallholder farmers?

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Huanxiu; Marchand, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to test the effect of smallholder farmers' participatory social learning on their gain of performance in a village of southwest China. By exploring a panel structure survey data collected in the village, we identify the social learning effect using a Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) model. Particularly, we calculate the technical efficiency and environmental efficiency from a SFA model and use them as dependent variables of the model. Moreover, we investigate the social learning o...

  10. MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN COMMUNITY TOURISM PARTICIPATORY PLANNING IN SAMUI ISLAND, THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Kannapa Pongponrat; Naphawan Jane Chantradoan

    2012-01-01

    Community participation as a strategy for local tourism development has become an important mechanism to promote sustainable tourism. This paper explores community participatory planning process in local tourism development on Samui Island, Thailand. Factors associated with participation of local people were examined in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation phases. Result showed social capital as a driver in various stages can be considered as crucial mechanism for th...

  11. Empowering Smallholder Women Farmers through Participatory Seed Potato Management: Lessons from Welmera District, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammed Oumer; Wudineh Getahun Tiruneh; Chilot Yirga Tizale

    2014-01-01

    Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG) can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholder f...

  12. Implementing participatory water management: recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter Bots; Sabine Moellenkamp; Daniell, Katherine A.; Yorck von Korff; Bijlsma, Rianne M.

    2012-01-01

    Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, a...

  13. Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Loewenson; Walter Flores; Abhay Shukla; Maija Kagis; Amuda Baba; Ashraf Ryklief; Clara Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay Kakde

    2011-01-01

    By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews ...

  14. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

    OpenAIRE

    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa; Smith Heather A; Tapp Hazel; Dulin Michael F; Furuseth Owen J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN) that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory r...

  15. Participatory Model Construction and Model Use in Natural Resource Management: a Framework for Reflection:

    OpenAIRE

    Bots, P. W. G.; Daalen, C. E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we propose a framework which can assist analysts in their reflection on the requirements for a participatory modelling exercise in natural resource management. Firstly, we distinguish different types of formal models which may be developed, ranging from models that focus on (bio)physical mechanisms to models which also include the actors involved in the utilisation of the resource and the social mechanisms that co-determine actor behaviour. Secondly, we consider what different...

  16. Participatory archive : towards decentralised curation, radical user orientation, and broader contextualisation of records management

    OpenAIRE

    Huvila, Isto

    2008-01-01

    The user perspective and user studies have received noticeably little practical attention in archives and archival science. The purpose of this article is to address the issues of communication and user participation in archival contexts. Two action research projects based digital archives are discussed. The insights gained during the research and development work are used to formulate a new approach to a participatory archive. In spite of the historical nature of the archives discussed, the ...

  17. Accounting for the Ecological Dimension in Participatory Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Indonesia and Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Laurent Pfund; Robin Bourgeois; Yves Laumonier

    2008-01-01

    The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory develo...

  18. Época de aplicación y toxicidad varietal del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar, en Veracruz, México / Application time and varietal toxicity of the herbicide amicarbazone in sugarcane in Veracruz, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.A., Esqueda-Esquivel; E., Rosales-Robles.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo primavera-verano 2005, se establecieron tres experimentos en Úrsulo Galván, Ver., México, con el objetivo de determinar la mejor época de aplicación del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar en condiciones de riego e identificar la susceptibilidad de las tres principales varie [...] dades cultivadas en el estado a este herbicida. En un experimento, se evaluó el control de malezas con amicarbazone a 0,7, 1,05 y 1,4 kg ha?1 aplicado en cuatro épocas: preemergencia antes del riego de germinación, preemergencia después del riego de germinación, postemergencia temprana y postemergencia tardía. En los otros experimentos, se evaluó la toxicidad de amicarbazone a 0, 0,7, 1,4 y 2,1 kg ha-1, aplicado en preemergencia y postemergencia en las variedades de caña de azúcar Mex 69-290, CP 72?2086 y Mex 79-431. El quelite rastrero (Amaranthus lividus) fue mejor controlado con aplicaciones postemergentes de amicarbazone, a partir de 0,7 kg ha-1. Por su parte, el control del zacate Guinea (Megathyrsus maximus) fue bajo en todas las épocas de aplicación. En aplicaciones preemergentes, el amicarbazone hasta 2,1 kg ha-1 fue altamente selectivo a todas las variedades evaluadas, mientras que, cuando fue aplicado en postemergencia, ocasionó ligera toxicidad a las tres variedades de caña de azúcar, la cual fue mayor conforme se incrementó la dosis. Sin embargo, los daños desaparecieron entre los 30 y 45 días después de la aplicación y no ocasionaron reducción permanente en la altura de las plantas. Abstract in english During the 2005 Spring-Summer growing cycle, three experiments were established in Ursulo Galvan, Ver., Mexico, to determine the best time of application of the herbicide amicarbazone in irrigated sugarcane, and the susceptibility of the three main varieties grown in this state to this herbicide. In [...] one experiment, weed control of amicarbazone at 0.7, 1.05 and 1.4 kg ha-1 applied at four stages (pre-emergence before germination irrigation, pre-emergence after germination irrigation, early post-emergence and late post-emergence) was evaluated. In the other experiments, the toxicity of amicarbazone at 0, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.1 kg ha-1 was evaluated when applied at pre-emergence and post-emergence on sugarcane varieties Mex 69-290, CP 72-2086 and 79 Mex-431. Amaranthus lividus was better controlled with post-emergence applications of amicarbazone, starting at 0.7 kg ha?1. Control of Guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) was low with amicarbazone at all stages. In pre-emergence applications, amicarbazone up to 2.1 kg ha-1 was highly selective to all varieties evaluated, whereas when applied in post-emergence, it caused slight toxicity to the three sugarcane varieties, increasing as the dose increased. However, the damages disappeared between 30 and 45 days after application, without causing a permanent reduction in plant height.

  19. Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense) / Teor de vitamina C em acessos de pimenta (Capsicum chinense) do grupo varietal Habanero

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Flávia P, Teodoro; Rosa de BN, Alves; Leandro B, Ribeiro; Karina, Reis; Francisco José B, Reifschneider; Maria Esther de N, Fonseca; Joseane P da, Silva; Tânia da S, Agostini-Costa.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense) ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética). O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acesso [...] s de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses resultados evidenciam a diversidade dessa coleção de C. chinense para os teores de vitamina C. Abstract in english Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers) accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found). The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers [...] of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.

  20. Beyond Dry Feet? Experiences from a Participatory Water-Management Planning Case in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greet Francois

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Participation of stakeholders in planning processes is increasingly seen as an essential element in adaptive and integrated water management and sometimes a policy requirement from higher-level governance bodies. Despite an extensive literature on the advantages and disadvantages of public participation and criteria for effective participation, not much is known about how water managers should proceed in a given context. Water-management agencies have to face the challenge of effectively involving stakeholders in developing their water-management plans and must design and implement a balanced process approach among the available time, finances, organization, and facilitation without compromising their authority. This article presents a participatory planning process designed and implemented at Water Board "Hoogheemraadschap De Stichtse Rijnlanden" (HDSR in the center of The Netherlands. For a period of 2 yrs, these three groups were involved in various ways, participating in different types of meetings and workshops, using a range of participatory tools and techniques. The process and results of the three groups were monitored and evaluated using a tailored evaluation strategy. This paper analyzes the way the design and implementation of the process is perceived by both the conveners and participants and suggests practical lessons for water managers. Based on our case, it is argued that a careful process design, a thorough and continuous stakeholder analysis, building reflective workshops within and after the process, and ensuring experienced and qualified process leaders can greatly enhance the adaptive capacity and successful outcome of the participatory planning process.

  1. Improving the coverage of the PMTCT programme through a participatory quality improvement intervention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Mickey

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite several years of implementation, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programmes in many resource poor settings are failing to reach the majority of HIV positive women. We report on a data driven participatory quality improvement intervention implemented in a high HIV prevalence district in South Africa. Methods A participatory quality improvement intervention was implemented consisting of an initial assessment undertaken by a team of district supervisors, workshops to assess results, identify weaknesses and set improvement targets and continuous monitoring to support changes. Results The assessment highlighted weaknesses in training and supervision. Routine data revealed poor coverage of all programme indicators except HIV testing. Monthly support to all facilities took place including an orientation to the PMTCT protocol, review of local data and identification of bottlenecks to optimal coverage using a continuous quality improvement approach. One year following the intervention large improvements in programme indicators were observed. Coverage of CD4 testing increased from 40 to 97%, uptake of maternal nevirapine from 57 to 96%, uptake of infant nevirapine from 15 to 68% and six week PCR testing from 24 to 68%. Conclusion It is estimated that these improvements in coverage could avert 580 new infant infections per year in this district. This relatively simple participatory assessment and intervention process has enabled programme managers to use a data driven approach to improve the coverage of this important programme.

  2. Evaluation of Bayesian Networks in Participatory Water Resources Management, Upper Guadiana Basin, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bromley

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is becoming increasingly important in water resources management. In participatory processes, stakeholders contribute by putting forward their own perspective, and they benefit by enhancing their understanding of the factors involved in decision making. A diversity of modeling tools can be used to facilitate participatory processes. Bayesian networks are well suited to this task for a variety of reasons, including their ability to structure discussions and visual appeal. This research focuses on developing and testing a set of evaluation criteria for public participation. The advantages and limitations of these criteria are discussed in the light of a specific participatory modeling initiative. Modeling work was conducted in the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain, where uncontrolled groundwater extraction is responsible for wetland degradation and conflicts between farmers, water authorities, and environmentalists. Finding adequate solutions to the problem is urgent because the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive requires all aquatic ecosystems to be in a “good ecological state” within a relatively short time frame. Stakeholder evaluation highlights the potential of Bayesian networks to support public participation processes.

  3. Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory action researchers in a teacher education programme

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omar, Esau.

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyse the potential that participatory action research holds for educating pre-service teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. I also describe the rationale for and process of engaging pre-service teachers in their teacher education programme. Involvin [...] g these candidate teachers in participatory action research (PAR) projects may provide opportunities for aspiring teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledge, examine their beliefs about teaching, and gain confidence in addressing social justice issues. More than merely exposing them to applying the technique of action research, the PAR project encouraged them to become more socially conscious, critical, imaginative and argumentative as teacher-researchers. In the project I used a participatory approach in action research to prepare the pre-service teachers to become emancipatory action researchers. Supporting and fostering inquiring practices is a strategy to help pre-service teachers move beyond just receiving hand-outs in a teacher education programme and beginning to focus on their work with learners and challenges in the real school environment.

  4. Participatory rural appraisal to investigate constraints in reporting cattle mortalities in the Odi district of North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Owen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mortalities in cattle can have severe financial implications for small scale and communal farmers in South Africa. They could also be a measurable indicator for surveillance of animal diseases, such as those listed by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE, or diseases included in the regulations of the South African Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984. In order to prevent further mortalities and for accurate surveillance and monitoring of diseases, it is important that farmers participate in the determination of causes of mortality in their cattle. This paper reports on constraints of the reporting diseases to the state veterinary services, the study area being Odi district, in the North West Province. The method that was followed was based on participatory rural appraisal. The selected cattle owners participated in every phase. They were the ones who first spoke to veterinary services about ways to decrease the diseases and mortalities of their cattle. A questionnaire to verify the facts complemented the survey. A total number of 60 farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages. One farmer withdrew, leaving 59 farmers. Most of the farmers in the study were men (n = 55. The area of study was communal and the farming system traditional and extensive. It was suspected that there was a communication problem and this was proven by the results of the research, as 23 farmers were not even aware that mortalities have to be reported by law. The real problem was that causes of death were not being diagnosed because farmers were not aware that a necropsy could give information on the causes of death. Farmers were keen to receive training in elementary necropsy techniques so as to be able to discuss the cause of death of cattle with the state veterinarian.

  5. Metodo y Proceso de la Investigacion Participativa en la Capacitacion Rural (The Method and Process of Participatory Research in Rural Leadership Training). Cuadernos del CREFAL 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schutter, Anton

    In participatory research, education and learner participation are directly connected. The document analyzes the role of a participatory research method in the basic education of rural adults. The different phases of the Participant Research method are presented, along with a profound analysis of both research and participation. The claim is that…

  6. Ethnographic Evidence of an Emerging Transnational Arts Practice?: Perspectives on U.K. and Mexican Participatory Artists’ Processes for Catalysing Change, and Facilitating Health and Flourishing

    OpenAIRE

    Raw, Anni

    2014-01-01

    This article reports new ethnographic research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City. Noting the value of an ethnographic approach, the study investigated whether commonalities discovered in practitioners’ approaches are significant enough to constitute a generalisable participatory arts methodology, transcending significant contextual differences, and recognisable across national boundaries. Shared characteristics emerged in practitioners’...

  7. Quality improvement and person-centredness: a participatory mixed methods study to develop the ‘always event’ concept for primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; McNab, Duncan; Ferguson, Julie; de Wet, Carl; Smith, Gregor; MacLeod, Marion; McKay, John; White, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To ascertain from patients what really matters to them on a personal level of such high importance that it should ‘always happen’ when they interact with healthcare professionals and staff groups. (2) To critically review existing criteria for selecting ‘always events’ (AEs) and generate a candidate list of AE examples based on the patient feedback data. Design Mixed methods study informed by participatory design principles. Subjects and setting Convenience samples of patients with a long-term clinical condition in Scottish general practices. Results 195 patients from 13 general practices were interviewed (n=65) or completed questionnaires (n=130). 4 themes of high importance to patients were identified from which examples of potential ‘AEs’ (n=8) were generated: (1) emotional support, respect and kindness (eg, “I want all practice team members to show genuine concern for me at all times”); (2) clinical care management (eg, “I want the correct treatment for my problem”); (3) communication and information (eg, “I want the clinician who sees me to know my medical history”) and (4) access to, and continuity of, healthcare (eg, “I want to arrange appointments around my family and work commitments”). Each ‘AE’ was linked to a system process or professional behaviour that could be measured to facilitate improvements in the quality of patient care. Conclusions This study is the first known attempt to develop the AE concept as a person-centred approach to quality improvement in primary care. Practice managers were able to collect data from patients on what they ‘always want’ in terms of expectations related to care quality from which a list of AE examples was generated that could potentially be used as patient-driven quality improvement (QI) measures. There is strong implementation potential in the Scottish health service. However, further evaluation of the utility of the method is also necessary. PMID:25922095

  8. The adaptation and implementation of a community-based participatory research curriculum to build tribal research capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Jacob, Tvli; Styne, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    We studied community-based participatory research in American Indian/Alaska Native communities. We have presented a case study describing a community-clinic-academic partnership with the goal of building tribal capacity and infrastructure to conduct health disparities research. The 2-year intensive training was guided by the framework of an evidence- and community-based participatory research curriculum, adapted and implemented with practice-based data collection activities and seminars to address issues specific to community-based participatory research with sovereign tribal nations. The initiative highlighted important challenges and opportunities in transdisciplinary partnerships; identified gaps in conducting health disparities research at the tribal, clinical, and university levels; and led to important policy change initiatives in all the partner settings. PMID:25905848

  9. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEME?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  10. Participatory control in chronic hospital-based hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemuro, M; Mohide, E A; Martin, L S; Beecroft, M L; Jakobson, S; Porterfield, P; Ollinger, D

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine chronic hospital-based hemodialysis patients' perceptions of control over selected aspects of hemodialysis care and to compare the patients' ratings with the global ratings of nurses caring for them. Two versions of a 14-item Hemodialysis Control Questionnaire (HCQ) were developed, one for patients (HCQ-P) and one for nurses (HCQ-N). Forty-seven patients and 32 nurses rated both perceived and desired control for each aspect of hemodialysis care on the HCQ. Reasons for their ratings were elicited and recorded. High test-retest reliability was established for both perceived and desired control on the HCQ-P and the desired control component of the HCQ-N. Patients rated their overall perceived and desired control as moderate, likewise the nurses' global score for desired control was rated as moderate. Item-by-item analysis revealed that nurses overestimated the patients' desired control over technical aspects of care but underestimated the patients' desire for more control over nontechnical aspects of care. The content analysis of the verbatim responses supported the quantitative findings. PMID:7872823

  11. Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Jardine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design. Community-based participatory research. Methods. Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and observations were assessed using “member checking,” whereby students, teachers and community partners could agree or disagree with the researcher's interpretation. The students and teachers were further asked informally to share their own reflections and observations on this process. Results and conclusions. Using youth to research other youth within a participatory research framework had many benefits for the quality of the research, the youth researchers and the community. The research was perceived by the researchers and participants to be more valid and credible. The approach was more appropriate for the students, and the youth researchers gained valuable research experience and a sense of ownership of both the research process and results. Viewing smoking through their children's eyes was seen by the community to be a powerful and effective means of creating awareness of the community environment. Limitations of the approach were residual response bias of participants, the short period of time to conduct the research and failure to fully explore student motivations to smoke or not to smoke. Ethical considerations included conducting research with minors, difficulties in obtaining written parental consent, decisions on cameras (disposable versus digital and representation of all participants in the final research product.

  12. Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caille

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993–2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e., through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC. After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also presented. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  13. Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, F.; Riera, J. L.; Rodríguez-Labajos, B.; Middelkoop, H.; Rosell-Melé, A.

    2007-11-01

    Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain), as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of narrative socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993-2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e. through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives) for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also discussed. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  14. Empowering Smallholder Women Farmers through Participatory Seed Potato Management: Lessons from Welmera District, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed Oumer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholder farmers using a case study from Ethiopia. Through the participatory intervention, women farmers have enhanced their skills and knowledge of improved agricultural technologies as well as their collective capacity (social capital in accessing input and output markets. As a result, the number of FRG members increased from 25 women farmers organized in one FRG in 2006 to 253 women farmers organized in 11 village-level Farmers Research Extension Groups (FREGs in 2013. The participatory intervention in the study area has improved women’s productivity of seed potatoes and marketing; enabled them to earn cash an average of Ethiopian Birr (ETB 11 000 per year only from the sale of seed potatoes; and this has created more options to improve the livelihoods of women farmers and their households by diversifying into higher-value farm and off-farm work. Consequently, women decision making in the household as well as in the community has been enhanced. Women farmers are now heard at national level for their innovative experiences and have become one of the national seed potato and knowledge sources. There is a need to replicate this model approach to enhance the productivity of smallholder women farmers and subsequently empower them to facilitate exit pathways out of poverty and ensure sustainable development.

  15. Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caille

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of narrative socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993–2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e. through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC. After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also discussed. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  16. Participatory design of computer-supported organizational learning in health care: methods and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C; Hallberg, N; Eriksson, H; Lindblom, P; Hedblom, P; Svensson, B; Marmolin, H

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines a Computer-Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) system for primary care and presents from its participatory design process time consumption, costs, and experiences. The system integrates a hypermedia environment, a computerized patient record, and an electronicmessage system. It is developed to coordinate organizational learning in primary care from micro to macro levels by connecting strategic planning to monitoring of patient routines. Summing up design experiences, critical issues for making CSCW systems support cost-effectiveness of health care are discussed. PMID:8563401

  17. Participating in the Geospatial Web: Collaborative Mapping, Social Networks and Participatory GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, L. Jesse; Bergeron, Susan J.; Harris, Trevor M.

    In 2005, Google, Microsoft and Yahoo! released free Web mapping applications that opened up digital mapping to mainstream Internet users. Importantly, these companies also released free APIs for their platforms, allowing users to geo-locate and map their own data. These initiatives have spurred the growth of the Geospatial Web and represent spatially aware online communities and new ways of enabling communities to share information from the bottom up. This chapter explores how the emerging Geospatial Web can meet some of the fundamental needs of Participatory GIS projects to incorporate local knowledge into GIS, as well as promote public access and collaborative mapping.

  18. Applying indigenous community-based participatory research principles to partnership development in health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Saha, Robin; Lachapelle, Paul; Jennings, Derek; Colclough, Yoshiko; Cooper, Clarice; Cummins, Crescentia; Eggers, Margaret J; Fourstar, Kris; Harris, Kari; Kuntz, Sandra W; Lafromboise, Victoria; Laveaux, Deborah; McDonald, Tracie; Bird, James Real; Rink, Elizabeth; Webster, Lennie

    2011-01-01

    This case study of community and university research partnerships utilizes previously developed principles for conducting research in the context of Native American communities to consider how partners understand and apply the principles in developing community-based participatory research partnerships to reduce health disparities. The 7 partnership projects are coordinated through a National Institutes of Health-funded center and involve a variety of tribal members, including both health care professionals and lay persons and native and nonnative university researchers. This article provides detailed examples of how these principles are applied to the projects and discusses the overarching and interrelated emergent themes of sharing power and building trust. PMID:21633218

  19. Engaging youth in bullying prevention through community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer E; Flaspohler, Paul D; Watts, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Few studies that engage youth in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focus on issues of safety/violence, include elementary school-aged youth, or quantitatively assess outcomes of the CBPR process. This article expands understanding of CBPR with youth by describing and evaluating the outcomes of a project that engaged fifth-grade students at 3 schools in bullying-focused CBPR. Results suggest that the project was associated with decreases in fear of bullying and increases in peer and teacher intervention to stop bullying. We conclude with implications for the engagement of elementary school-aged youth in CBPR to address bullying and other youth issues. PMID:25423250

  20. Critical Participatory Looping: An Agencing Process for Mass Customization in Language Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Murphey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical Participatory Looping (CPL (cf. Falout and Murphey 2010; Murphey and Falout 2010 involves returning processed data from surveys or assignments back to students for further reflection and analysis in small groups. CPL affords dialogical interaction among class members (including the teacher, which can encourage them all as agents developing their own self-determination through action—otherwise known as agencing (cf. Murphey 2010, Nelson and Murphey, 2011. In this paper we first describe the kinds of customization that invite agency, then for CPL provide three examples of teaching and researching with it, theorize on its processes and potential, and discuss its correlates with other domains and mass customization.

  1. Health 2050: The Realization of Personalized Medicine through Crowdsourcing, the Quantified Self, and the Participatory Biocitizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health and health care are moving towards the notion of personalized preventive health maintenance and away from an exclusive focus on the cure of disease. This is against the backdrop of contemporary public health challenges that include increasing costs, worsening outcomes, ‘diabesity’ epidemics, and anticipated physician shortages. Personalized preventive medicine could be critical to solving public health challenges at their causal root. This paper sets forth a vision and plan for the realization of preventive medicine by 2050 and examines efforts already underway such as participatory health initiatives, the era of big health data, and qualitative shifts in mindset.

  2. Participatory Design at the Museum - inquiring into children's everyday engagement in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    We address the challenge of creating intersections between children’s everyday engagement and museum exhibitions. Specifically, we propose an approach to participatory design inquiry where children’s everyday engagement is taken as the point of departure. We base our discussion on a design workshop – Gaming the Museum – where a primary school class was invited to participate in creating future exhibition spaces for a museum based on their everyday use of computer games and online communities. We reflect on the results of the workshop and discuss more broadly the qualities of design inquiries that use the everyday engagement of children as point of departure for designing interactive museum exhibitions.

  3. Service-Oriented Middleware for Large-Scale Mobile Participatory Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hachem, Sara; Pathak, Animesh; Issarny, Vale?rie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce MobIoT, a service-oriented middleware that enables large-scale mobile participatory sensing. Scalability is achieved by limiting the participation of redundant sensing devices. Precisely, MobIoT allows a new device to register its services only if it increases the sensing coverage of a physical attribute, along its expected path, for the set of registered devices. We present the design and implementation of MobIoT, which mobile devices use to determine their regist...

  4. New Media Literacy Education for Children in the Context of Participatory Culture: Deficiency and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang YIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of new media has given birth to the so-called participatory culture. However, as an active group, children are swept along in this trend and moreover, they are thrown to the edge of danger of over-entertainment and over-consumption. This paper sorts out and defines the meaning of new media literacy of children, suggesting that all manner of effort should be made to safeguard childhood in experiencing children new media with the objective of fostering proactive target audience and the kernel of reconstructing the subject of children.

  5. Improving health through community-based participatory action research. Giving immigrants and refugees a voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Allen, Michele; Pergament, Shannon L; Call, Kathleen; Adawe, Amira; de la Torre, Rosaura; Hang, Mikow; Jama, Fatima; Navas, Maria; Ortega, Luis; Vue, Pachia; Yang, Thomas Tou

    2010-04-01

    Community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) gives people a voice in identifying and solving the health problems affecting their communities. Researchers from the University of Minnesota, health care professionals from West Side Community Health Services, and members of the Somali, Latino, and Hmong communities in St. Paul are using CBPAR to identify and study health-related problems in those communities and design initiatives to solve them.This article describes CBPAR and four projects that are currently underway within West Side's SoLaHmo Partnership for Health and Wellness: Caafimad- Salud - Kev Nyob Zoo. PMID:20481170

  6. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space) and methodological considerations (e.g. the role of context and structure for different age groups, workshop formats, expenditure of time).

  7. Reception research 2.0 : A multidimensional model of participatory media culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    Some might argue that reception analysis is a remnant of the past in an age where “people formerly known as the audience” (Rosen, 2006) are producing and circulating content on a diversity of interactive and participatory media platforms. Far from being the case, reception research must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored as an empirical reality. Knowing about the meanings produced and circulated on social media can help us better understand the participatory media culture that has established itself over the past decade. To properly address the question of meaning, however, reception research needs to be adapted to the current media landscape. Taking my point of departure in the multi-dimensional model of reception developed by Kim Schrøder (2003, 2000), I suggest a revision of the model and its dimensions in light of notions such as produsage (Bruns, 2008), convergence (Jenkins, 2008), participation (Carpentier, 2011) and networked culture (Castells, 1996). The model suggested by Schrøder is itself an elaboration, establishing both continuity and critique with Hall’s original suggestion (1973/1980). In the same spirit, I wish to build on the multidimensional model for it offers a systematic approach to the complexity of sense-making processes surrounding media use. Yet I wish to develop the model for its potential to provide a portrait of the participatory media culture that stands in contrast to its understanding as exploitation of labor (Scholz, 2013) or as a business model (van Dicjk, 2013) disguised as false consciousness. The paper will revisit the five dimensions of the model (motivation, comprehension, discrimination, position, implementation) for their relevance and explanatory power in today’s media landscape, suggesting new interpretations and new formulations. A revision of reception research does not only concern the notion of reception itself, but also that of the text, which appears increasingly complex, multi-formed and integrated to the audience. The original dimensions of Schrøder’s model need to be looked at with reference to both reception and circulation (Jenkins et al., 2013), and to the network that binds participatory media culture. It appears that with media 2.0, phenomena which traditionally fell under the labels of interpretation or reception are increasingly taking part in the media text itself. As audiences become textual matters, they contribute to set a new agenda for media research.

  8. Participatory approaches to foresight and priority-setting in innovation networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brummer, Ville

    2010-01-01

    In innovation networks, participatory foresight activities can typically have several functions. They can be seen as a tool for supporting decision-making on science and technology (S&T) priorities, but they can also be expected to contribute to the structures of a network beyond the scope of decision making. Foresight activities are often limited by tight timeframes, budgets and they need to be synchronized with other S&T processes. In this setting there is a need for tools that reflect fore...

  9. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants considered that with flexibility of data collection to account for the preferences of Aboriginal members, then the method was appropriate in cross-cultural contexts for the difficult discussions that are needed to improve partnerships. Conclusion Critical reflection showed that the preconditions for difficult discussions are, first, that partners have the capacity to engage in such discussions, second, that partners assess whether the effort required for these discussions is balanced by the benefits they gain from the partnership, and, third, that “boundary spanning” staff can facilitate commitment to partnership goals.

  10. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  11. Contributions of participatory ergonomics to the improvement of safety culture in an industrial context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Carine

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ergonomic intervention conducted within a blast furnace plant. As part of its risk prevention program, the company decided to set up an action plan, in a participatory manner, by setting up working groups to solve health & safety issues. This field mission involved 230 employees, 80 of whom participated actively by being incorporated into working groups. After four months of intervention, a questionnaire survey has been conducted among employees to study the effects of participation on the safety climate. The results seem promising and show that the benefits of participation are numerous: a more positive safety climate associated to safer attitudes and behaviors. However, rather than just participation, it seems to be the employee involvement in the working groups and the satisfaction they derive from their participation that guarantee these positive results. Hence, participatory ergonomics seems to be an effective way to decrease the number of unsafe behaviors at work, provided that the type of participation has been previously well defined and organized according to the specific context of each organization. PMID:22317217

  12. A Framework for Organizing the Tools and Techniques of Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Elizabeth B.-N.; Brandt, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The field of Participatory Design (PD) has grown rapidly over the last 20 to 30 years. For more than two decades non-designers have been increasingly involved in various design activities through a large number of participatory design projects all over the world. The project aims in PD have developed from being mainly about ICT development to today include, for instance, space design, product development, industrial design, architecture, service- and transformation design. As every project is unique, it is necessary to decide which design approach(es), methods, tools and techniques to use in a specific project. Thus many practices for how to involve people in designing have been used and developed during the years. There is some confusion as to which tools and techniques to use, when, and for what purpose. Therefore we are proposing a framework to help organize the proliferation of tools, techniques and methods in hopes that the PD community will benefit by discussing relevant applications and identifying potential areas for further exploration.

  13. Improving Maternal and Child Healthcare Programme Using Community-Participatory Interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP. The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health.

  14. Evaluation of participatory training in managing mental health for supervisory employees in the financial industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Toru; Ogami, Ayumi; Muto, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Industry-specific primary prevention measures for promoting mental health of workers were undertaken in 2008 and 2009 as a result of participatory training involving 130 supervisory employees in workplaces of the financial industry. These measures included the following five points suggested to be effective in the industry: 1) proper opportunities for training and career building, 2) control of work time and improving work organization, 3) standardization of tasks, 4) job rotation for sharing work responsibilities, and 5) increasing communication and mutual support. A post-training follow-up survey revealed that participatory, action-oriented training facilitated sharing of feasible measures and mutual support, leading to the development of measures easily introduced and established at each workplace. We concluded that mutually supportive group work of teams composed of members who held similar duty positions and were engaged in similar operations, using the Mental Health Action Checklist as a guiding tool, was effective for realizing implementation of optimally practical and specific measures. PMID:25647945

  15. Orçamento Participativo e as novas dinâmicas políticas locais / Participatory budgeting and new local political dynamics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Andressa Martins de, Souza.

    Full Text Available O presente estudo argumenta que os desdobramentos das relações de conflito entre o Orçamento Participativo (OP) e o Executivo, o Legislativo e os partidos no âmbito do governo municipal, explicam em parte as variações do alcance dessa experiência participativa. Para isso, compara três experiências d [...] e OP desenvolvidas no interior do estado de São Paulo - Matão, Rio Claro e São Carlos - que se assemelham em vários aspectos, mas se distinguem por variações em suas trajetórias (contínua, descontínua e interrompida) nas últimas três gestões municipais. Em suma, conclui que os padrões das relações de conflito e cooperação entre os atores políticos locais estudados contribuem para os diferentes graus de abrangência do OP, bem como para o aparecimento de novos desenhos de políticas locais. Abstract in english The current study argues that the development of conflictiv relationships between Participatory Budgeting (PB), the Executive, the Legislative, and parties in the area of municipal government, in part explain the variations in reach of these participatory experiments. It compares three experiments i [...] n PB carried out in the interior of the state of São Paulo - Matão, Rio Claro, and São Carlos - that are similar in various ways, but which are distinguished by the variation in the trajectory of their PB programs (continuous, discontinuous, and broken) in the last three municipal administrations. In sum, it concludes that the patterns in conflictual relationships and cooperation between the studied local political actors contribute to the varying scope of PB, as to the emergence of new local political designs.

  16. Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Linda C, Theron.

    Full Text Available I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambiv [...] alence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

  17. Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008 in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ? 0.05 in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ? 0.05. It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.

  18. Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. ? Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. ? Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. ? A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. ? Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

  19. Grounding with the People: Participatory Policy Making in the Context of Constitution Review in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Kpessa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ghana has been experimenting with the participatory policy making approach that allows citizenry engagement in the formulation and implementation of public policies in recent times. In many ways the approach enhances the opportunity structures for consolidating the country’s democratic credentials by allowing citizens to share in the ownership of governance decisions. In this paper, we draw illustrations from the participatory strategies used by an adhoc body known as the Constitution Review Commission (CRC established to study and make recommendations for the amendment of Ghana’s 1992 Constitution. The paper shows that although the idea of citizenry participation has intrinsic nation-building value for which reason it can be instrumental in kneading multi-ethnic countries together, paradoxically, against the innovative and comprehensive strategies adopted by the CRC, the approach was hindered by a series of inherent challenges that serve to perpetuate existing socio-political inequalities by privileging educated, urban, and relatively organized Ghanaians over their underprivileged and traditionally marginalized counterparts, especially those in the rural areas.

  20. A realidade construída pela produção documental participativa / Reality constructed through participatory documental production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Moraes, Menezes.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma característica marcante das mídias eletrônicas na atualidade torna-se evidente pela celebração do potencial de participação da audiência, quando produtores profissionais, inclusive de suportes considerados tradicionais, desenham diferentes estratégias de engajamento do produtor amador. O conceit [...] o de participação nas narrativas audiovisuais pode ser pensado como um procedimento diferenciado de produção. Uma suposta coautoria seria um dos aspectos mais importantes na caracterização desse modo de criação e produção audiovisual. Como essa coautoria, caso exista, se configura nos discursos documentais participativos? Estas possíveis transformações na paisagem midiática nos fazem refletir sobre as facetas participativa e autoral das organizações contemporâneas da produção audiovisual. Abstract in english A striking characteristic of today's electronic media is their potential for audience participation when producers, including those from traditional mass media, devise different audience engagement strategies. In this context, the concept of participation in audiovisual narratives can be seen as a d [...] ifferentiated production procedure. A presumed co-authorship would be one of the most important aspects of this mode of audiovisual creation and production. However, if such co-authorship actually exists, how does it appear in participatory documental discourses? These possible changes in the media scene lead us to reflect upon the authorial and participatory aspects of today's audiovisual organizations.

  1. The COE-INES international symposium on 'participatory decision-making for final disposal site'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokyo Institute of Technology, in charge of the 21st century COE program to establish innovative nuclear energy systems for sustainable development of the world, organized the COE-INES international symposium on participatory decision-making for final disposal site on September 6, 2007. About 110 participants gathered to study how the final disposal site in Japan should be determined from an objective or neutral standpoint. The symposium consisted of three plenary lectures: (1) The French siting process for a high-level and intermediate-level long lived radioactive waste geological repository--a step-wise politically-driven approach taking stock of lessons learnt as on-going, (2) Participatory decision-making for final disposal---The viewpoint of a local elected representative, (3) The French and nuclear wastes, each given by French specialists (ANDRA and CNRS) followed by a panel discussion among the lecturers and Japanese representatives from various fields. The report includes all the lectures with diagrams and the records of questions and answers. (S. Ohno)

  2. Development of Nutrient Management Strategies for ASAL using Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P2O5 ha-1 and 60N + 60P2O5 ha-1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge ahodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions

  3. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators andessfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  4. Participatory Design to Enhance ICT Learning and Community Attachment: A Case Study in Rural Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.

  5. Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural transect, problem-tree analysis and focus-group discussion. The paper concludes by categorizing the barriers identified at different levels: micro (roughly the individual level at which the lack of knowledge and motivation are significant barriers), meso (roughly the school level at which the lack of teachers and computers are significant barriers) and macro (roughly the national level at which the lack of government planning and the lack of training of teachers are significant barriers). Finally, the paper also concludes that applied participatory learning and action-oriented techniques showed potential to provide researchers and local practitioners with situated insights that could not just have been lifted out of existing research literature.

  6. Using Scenario Visioning and Participatory System Dynamics Modeling to Investigate the Future: Lessons from Minnesota 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Draeger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Both scenario visioning and participatory system dynamics modeling emphasize the dynamic and uncontrollable nature of complex socio-ecological systems, and the significance of multiple feedback mechanisms. These two methodologies complement one another, but are rarely used together. We partnered with regional organizations in Minnesota to design a future visioning process that incorporated both scenarios and participatory system dynamics modeling. The three purposes of this exercise were: first, to assist regional leaders in making strategic decisions that would make their communities sustainable; second, to identify research gaps that could impede the ability of regional and state groups to plan for the future; and finally, to introduce more systems thinking into planning and policy-making around environmental issues. We found that scenarios and modeling complemented one another, and that both techniques allowed regional groups to focus on the sustainability of fundamental support systems (energy, food, and water supply. The process introduced some creative tensions between imaginative scenario visioning and quantitative system dynamics modeling, and between creating desired futures (a strong cultural norm and inhabiting the future (a premise of the Minnesota 2050 exercise. We suggest that these tensions can stimulate more agile, strategic thinking about the future.

  7. Reshaping conservation : the social dynamics of participatory monitoring in Tanzania's community-managed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a study of community-managed forest reserves in southern Tanzania, this article discusses how community members engage and shape inclusive protected area management practices to produce outcomes that were not intended by external implementers. The article shows how a participatory natural resource monitoring scheme operating in the area becomes part of the villagers' collective and individual efforts to assert their claims to territory and resources vis-a-vis the state, other communities, and other community members. By altering the monitoring procedures in subtle ways, community members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate theterrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management.

  8. Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda C Theron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

  9. El Fitomejoramiento Participativo y la selección participativa de variedades de arroz

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Irene, Moreno; H, Ríos; Violeta, Puldón.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El fitomejoramiento participativo (FP) es un enfoque relativamente nuevo para el desarrollo de germoplasma, que incluye el mejoramiento de plantas y la selección varietal participativa (SVP). El FP se inició en Cuba en el 2001 con el cultivo del arroz, basado en la SVP, que al principio tuvo un cará [...] cter centralizado pero posteriormente fue de forma descentralizada y participativa. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo mostrar las experiencias en el cultivo del arroz en el mundo, así como las de varias regiones de Cuba, donde las ferias de diversidad constituyeron la mejor forma de dar acceso rápido y eficiente a las variedades, con la participación de los productores de arroz no especializado. Abstract in english Participatory plant breeding (PPB) is a relatively new approach for germplasm development, which includes crop improvement and participatory varietal selection (PVS). In Cuba, PPB started on rice crop in 2001, based upon PVS that was centralized at the beginning; however, it was further participator [...] y and decentralized. This work study was aimed at presenting the experiences gathered on rice crop, not only in some regions of Cuba but also over the world. In our country, diversity fairs constituted the best form for providing a quick and efficient varietal entry through non-specialized rice growers.

  10. "It's a Bit like Flying": Developing Participatory Theatre with the Under-Twos--A Case Study of Oily Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a new venture by the children's theatre company Oily Cart to develop a participatory theatre piece for carers and their under-two-year-olds, entitled Clouds. Given what little is known about how to design and conduct arts events with this age phase, a case study offered the opportunity to identify features…

  11. Beyond School Spirit: The Effects of Youth-Led Participatory Action Research in Two Urban High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J.; Wright, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Prior research highlights the mismatch between adolescents' growing capacities for autonomy and the limited opportunities for influence in U.S. secondary schools. Youth-led participatory research (YPAR), an approach in which young people research and advocate for change on problems of concern to them, could increase students' autonomy in secondary…

  12. Video Games and Learning: Teaching and Participatory Culture in the Digital Age. Technology, Education--Connections (the TEC Series)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Can we learn socially and academically valuable concepts and skills from video games? How can we best teach the "gamer generation?" This accessible book describes how educators and curriculum designers can harness the participatory nature of digital media and play. The author presents a comprehensive model of games and learning that integrates…

  13. Participatory Pedagogy for Empowerment: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Teacher-Parents' Interactions in a Family Literacy Course in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Schmid, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This paper revisits and discusses some of Paulo Freire's theoretical tenets for participatory education suggested as part of a critical approach to the education of adults. Through data collected during a family literacy programme, the author analyses her discursive interactions as an adult education tutor with parents as learners. These discourse…

  14. Prospective and participatory integrated assessment of agricultural systems from farm to regional scales: Comparison of three modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Barbier, Jean-Marc; Wery, Jacques

    2013-11-15

    Evaluating the impacts of the development of alternative agricultural systems, such as organic or low-input cropping systems, in the context of an agricultural region requires the use of specific tools and methodologies. They should allow a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account the field, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multicriteria) and participatory assessment, abbreviated PIAAS (for Participatory Integrated Assessment of Agricultural System). In this paper, we compare the possible contribution to PIAAS of three modeling approaches i.e. Bio-Economic Modeling (BEM), Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and statistical Land-Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) models. After a presentation of each approach, we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and identify their possible complementarities for PIAAS. Statistical LUCC modeling is a suitable approach for multi-scale analysis of past changes and can be used to start discussion about the futures with stakeholders. BEM and ABM approaches have complementary features for scenarios assessment at different scales. While ABM has been widely used for participatory assessment, BEM has been rarely used satisfactorily in a participatory manner. On the basis of these results, we propose to combine these three approaches in a framework targeted to PIAAS. PMID:24013558

  15. Design Charrette as Methodology for Post-Disaster Participatory Reconstruction: Observations from a Case Study in Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been a growing body of literature on post-disaster participatory reconstruction, a shared understanding on a participatory approach is insufficient. A design charrette is a participatory planning that is particularly suitable for situations in which multidisciplinary professionals and non-professional stakeholders collaborate to accomplish target tasks in a short period of time. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of design charrette as a methodology in the context of post-disaster reconstruction in Japan. This will be achieved through a participatory observation on a design charrette in Minamisoma City, Japan, after the Fukushima accident. The charrette includes the participation of multiple stakeholders in intercultural, intergenerational and interdisciplinary exchanges. The contributions and constraints of the charrette are analyzed on the basis of the authors’ observation, and a strategy to improve post-disaster reconstruction charrette is thereby proposed. This study shows that the charrette is a useful method for communication and collaboration in the post-disaster context. Furthermore, it also demonstrates that assuring the participation of all key stakeholders, improving the training of participants and introducing resource analysis during the charrette’s preparatory stage are the essential conditions for the legitimacy and policy compliance of the final result.

  16. Participatory Action Research and the Reconstruction of Teachers' Practical Thinking: Lesson Studies and Core Reflection. An Experience in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angel I.; Soto, Encarnacion; Servan, M. Jose

    2010-01-01

    Following the thoughts and topics we have discussed and worked on for a very long time with Bridget Somekh, we would like to present the theoretical relationship between lesson studies, action research and practical knowledge in teacher education. Inspired by the pedagogical philosophy of lesson studies, participatory action research, and core…

  17. Sustainability, Participatory Culture, and the Performance of Democracy: Ascendant Sites of Theory and Practice in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandy, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Art education is a systemic and extensive network within which children, youth, and adults make and learn about material culture. This lecture considers three sites of theory and practice that I see as ascendant in circulating through this network. These sites are sustainability, participatory culture, and performing democracy. I argue that…

  18. Taking knowledge for health the extra mile: participatory evaluation of a mobile phone intervention for community health workers in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Natalie; Schiffer, Eva; Buxbaum, Ann; Mclean, Elizabeth; Perry, Cary; Sullivan, Tara M.

    2014-01-01

    A participatory evaluation process called Net-Map showed that providing community health workers (CHWs) with mobile phones and essential technical information changed CHWs, from passive recipients of information with little influence to active information agents who sought and provided information to improve health services.

  19. Warcraft and Civic Education: MMORPGs as Participatory Cultures and How Teachers Can Use Them to Improve Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kristal

    2010-01-01

    Online role-playing games such as World Of Warcraft represent new participatory cultures in which today's students engage every day. They are appealing to players largely because of the social aspects of game play. Some features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) can be incorporated into classroom culture to create more…

  20. Resistance through Re-Presenting Culture: Aboriginal Student Filmmakers and a Participatory Action Research Project on Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Ted; Conibear, Frank; Michel, Corrine; Lyall, John; Scott, Tish; Tanaka, Michele; Stewart, Suzanne; Riecken, Janet; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a participatory research project designed to promote student use of digital video to explore conceptions of health and wellness. We have viewed aspects of student resistance through the cultural perspectives that guide the Aboriginal education programs involved with the study. In presenting this piece, we have experimented…