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La selección participativa de variedades (SPV) en el cultivo del tomate/ Participatory varietal selection in tomato crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La participación de los productores en la selección de variedades de la especie Solanum lycopersicum L., adaptadas a las características agroecológicas de sus fincas, requiere que estos cuenten con herramientas metodológicas que les permitan realizar dichas tareas con eficiencia y calidad. Para dar respuesta a esa necesidad, se tomaron en cuenta los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en las áreas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), San Jo (more) sé de las Lajas, provincia La Habana, y el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones en Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT), provincia de Camagüey; también se trabajó en las fincas de los productores de la CCS ?Juan Benito Ruiz? en Batabanó. En el primer caso, se realizaron ensayos comparativos de rendimiento, tal y como está establecido por los métodos tradicionales de mejoramiento genético de las plantas, mientras que en el segundo, se celebraron ferias de agrobiodiversidad, una de las herramientas de los nuevos métodos de mejora que se conoce como fitomejoramiento participativo. Los resultados de los ensayos se compararon con los de las ferias, donde la variedad Mara y las líneas 1, 35 y 44 mostraron buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y estuvieron entre las más seleccionadas en la feria de agrobiodiversidad de La Habana; sin embargo, la línea 43 no presentó buen comportamiento en el ensayo comparativo y fue la que obtuvo mayor número de votos en la feria. Las variedades Lignon, Campbell-28 y Tropical C-28-V alcanzaron los mayores valores en el ensayo comparativo de Camagüey; no obstante, solo Lignon fue la más seleccionada en la feria, superada por la línea 38 e igualada por la 43 en el total de votos. Estos resultados demuestran que la selección definitiva de variedades de tomate deben hacerla los productores en sus propias fincas. Abstract in english Producers´ participation in the varietal selection of Solanum lycopersicon L. species, adapted to their farm agro-ecological characteristics, requires they should have available methodological tools to perform these tasks efficiently and qualitatively. To face this demand, results from research studies performed in the areas of INCA, San José de las Lajas, Havana province, and INIVIT, Camagüey province, must be taken into account, besides other works that were also car (more) ried out in «Juan Benito Ruiz» CCS, Batabanó. In the first case, comparative yield trials were conducted, as it was established by traditional plant breeding, whereas in the second one, some agro-biodiversity fairs were celebrated, as one of the tools from the new improvement methods known as participatory plant breeding. Trial results were compared with those from the fairs, in which Mara cv. and lines 1, 35 and 44 showed good performances in the comparative test and were among the most selected ones in the agro-biodiversity fair from Havana; however, line 43 did not show good performance in the comparative test, but it obtained the highest vote number in the fair. Lignon, Campbell-28, C-28 and Tropical-V varieties achieved the greatest values in the comparative test of Camaguey; nevertheless, just Lignon was the most selected one in the fair, surpassed by line 38 and equal to line 43 in the amount of votes. These results prove that final tomato varietal selection must be done by producers in their own farms.

Moya, C; Álvarez, Marta; de la Fe, C; Florido, Marilyn; Ponce, M; Plana, Dagmara; Dueñas, F; Rodríguez, J; Arzuaga, J; Hernández, J; Caballero, A

2010-03-01

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Farmers’ Participatory Varietal Selection in Groundnut: A Case Study from Tamilnadu, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven Virginia bunch groundnut genotypes viz., VG 9902, ICGV 86325, ICGV 96217, ICGV 97115, ICGV 87846,ICGV 98369 and ICGV 98370 were evaluated in nine villages as mother and baby trials with local check. A detailedscore chart was provided to farmers for ranking the genotypes. ICGV 87846 was significantly superior to all othergenotypes for all the traits. A little early and synchronous flowering habit of ICGV 87846 may be the reason toescape the early drought. The produce of all the genotypes were exposed to the local groundnut traders forevaluation. ICGV 87846 the was most preferred by them due to its superior pod and kernel traits. The basic seeds ofthe farmers’ and traders’ preferred genotype ICGV 87846 were provided to the farmers to motivate the informal seedproduction systems. Hence it is evident that in the participatory breeding, new genotypes reach the release phasemuch faster than in conventional breeding and are better suited to farmers needs.

P.Vindhiyavarman, N.Manivannan, S.N Nigam and V.Muralidharan

2010-01-01

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Participatory varietal selection and village seed banks for self-reliance: lessons learnt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Farmers have been collecting, selecting and saving the seeds of harvested crops for use as seed to meet their planting requirement in the following season. In the past four decades, the management of seed production and supply have undergone a drastic change. Hybrid technology has increased the productivity significantly, but at the same time, the farmers' dependence on external agencies has gone up. With the objective of ensuing the supply of quality seeds of improved/high yielding varieties, ICRISAT-led Watershed Consortium made an attempt to promote the concept of village seed banks. An in-depth study of the seed villages at the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Tata-ICRISAT sites of Vidisha and Guna Districs, Madhya Pradesh, documented successful community initiatives providing valuable insights into the concept. This paper elucidates case studies on the community initiatives for establishing and running seed banks through ADB-funded project in the Madhya Pradesh and documents the process of scaling up the same through APRLP-funded project in Andhra Pradesh.

Sreenath Dixit; SP Wani; Ch Ravinder Reddy; Somnath Roy; BVS Reddy; TK Sreedevi; AK Chourasia; P Pathak; M Rama Rao; A Ramakrishna

2006-01-01

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Rapid gains in yield and adoption of new maize varieties for complex hillside environments through farmer participation : I. Improving options through participatory varietal selection (PVS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Farmers in the middle hills of Nepal typically grow maize with few or no purchased inputs, inter-cropped with finger millet, and generally on land shaded by fodder trees. Over the last half a century there has only been negligible adoption of new maize varieties that have been centrally developed and then released for cultivation in this complex environment. Acquisition of local knowledge and participation of farmers in participatory varietal selection (PVS) and participatory plant breeding (PPB) enabled rapid identification and development of germplasm adapted to the farming system with significantly higher yield than extant varieties. Two unreleased open-pollinated varieties (Population-22 and BA-93-2126#2 and two released (Manakamana-1 and Arun-1), and four newly bred composite varieties by PPB, all with attributes conforming to farmers' articulated requirements, were evaluated in on-station and on-farm participatory trials that used a Mother and Baby design. Population-22, not previously released because it was later maturing than local varieties, was preferred by farmers over both local and released varieties. It had higher grain yield (21-52% more than local varieties) and several other traits that were compatible with the agricultural system of the middle hills, revealing that farmers were prepared to trade-off later maturity against other traits. This led to the release of Population-22 as Manakamana-3 in 2002. PPB involved mass selection by farmers from crossing various combinations of local and new white- and yellow-grained varieties. The variety most preferred by farmers, PM-7, was developed from crossing a new yellow-grained variety with local and new white-grained varieties and extracting a white-grained population from the segregating progeny after two generations. Overall, it was demonstrated that local knowledge acquisition and PVS led to farmers selecting a variety that had previously escaped identification, while through PPB farmers participated in developing new varieties with specific adaptation to the target area. Involving the client farmers in the breeding and selection process broke an impasse in finding new varieties that combined higher yield in marginal hill environments with the required compatibility with the farming system.

Tiwari TP; Virk DS; Sinclair FL

2009-03-01

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Genetic diversity of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in iron and zinc content as impacted by farmers' varietal selection in Northern India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From the last few years a debate has been continuing over the issue of malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries. The present article investigates the importance of participatory varietal selection in the development of a suitable cultivar of mungbean along with the nutritional content and the agronomic traits of the cultivars selected by farmers in participatory varietal selection. A combination of the conventional survey strategy, participatory varietal selection, molecular markers, and chemical analysis were used to carry out the study, and results revealed that the farmers have the capacity to utilize available genetic resources to manage disease, and they can identify the disease at early stages of plant development. The genetic diversity was studied using 23 inter-simple sequence repeat marker, which shows that the extent of genetic diversity ranges from 65% to 87%, while chemical analysis of selected mungbean cultivars shows a moderate amount of iron (3.9 mg/100 g) and zinc (2.5 mg/100 g).

Singh R; van Heusden AW; Kumar R; Visser RG; Yadav RC

2013-01-01

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A framework for the selection of participatory approaches for SEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is now adopted as a formal procedure in various organisations. Nevertheless, the question of how to choose the most suitable SEA participatory approach for a given situation is far from being resolved. To shed light on this question, we briefly describe several participatory approaches used in environmental management and decision-making. A framework for evaluating these approaches is then adapted to SEA and used to assess the approaches selected. We conclude that participatory approaches within the SEA implementation process need to be chosen more systematically and we put forward our framework as a way of doing so.

2005-01-01

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MULTI-STAKEHOLDER VARIETAL INNOVATION PLATFORMS. A SOCIOTECHNICAL PARTNERSHIP RESEARCH SCHEME ASSESSED IN BENIN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory plant breeding research may be hampered by the fact that results that have been obtained in very specific localized settings cannot be disseminated and scaled. Varietal innovation platforms aim to overcome this problem by ensuring that the viewpoints of people involved in assessments a...

Lançon, Jacques; Carette, Caroline; Lokossou, Bernardin; Tomekpé, Kodjo; Hocdé, Henri; Corbalan, Jean-Antoine; Heurtaux, Mathilde

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Effect of participatory programs similar to quality control circles on organizational productivity in selected multinational organizations in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study focuses attention on the multinational organization, an emerging phenomenon, in which people from different cultural backgrounds work together to produce a product or render a service. The purpose of this study is to enhance the available information about the potential for increasing productivity through the use of participatory programs, such as quality control circles, in multinational organizations, especially those operating in Saudi Arabia. The corporate population surveyed consists of ten organizations randomly selected out of the 100 Saudi Arabia based multinational organizations that are engaged in petrochemical operations. The total number of middle managers in the ten surveyed multinationals is 3400; the sample population is 340 (10%). Findings indicate that through the use of participatory decision-making programs similar to quality-control circles, it is possible to increase both employee interest in productivity and commitment to work. The findings also indicate that an increase in the level of participatory activity was associated with an increase in productivity for the surveyed multinationals. True and lasting productivity gains, however, can be realized only through the effective utilization of people and the system within which they operate. Finally, the respondents expressed an overwhelming support for participative management systems rather than autocratic management systems.

Elmuti, S.D.

1985-01-01

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Participatory Provocation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper I revisit the provotyping approach and apply it in a participatory innovation setting. Through a case study within the field of indoor climate I describe the implications for the approach when it becomes part of a participatory innovation process, next to the opportunities it creates.

Boer, Laurens

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Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory Research (PR) entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness), or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers). Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships. Methods We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research) and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods. Results The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs) were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies), comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist review methods. Discussion The systematic and stage-based procedure addressed challenges to PR assessment and generated our robust understanding of complex and heterogeneous PR practices. To date, realist reviews have focussed on evaluations of relatively uniform interventions. In contrast our PR search yielded a wide diversity of partnerships and research topics. We therefore developed tools to achieve conceptual clarity on the PR field, as a beneficial precursor to our theoretically-driven synthesis using realist methods. Findings from the ongoing review will be provided in forthcoming publications.

Jagosh Justin; Pluye Pierre; Macaulay Ann C; Salsberg Jon; Henderson Jim; Sirett Erin; Bush Paula L; Seller Robbyn; Wong Geoff; Greenhalgh Trish; Cargo Margaret; Herbert Carol P; Seifer Sarena D; Green Lawrence W

2011-01-01

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A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies.

Perni A; Martínez-Paz JM

2013-08-01

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A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies. PMID:23669576

Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

2013-05-10

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Participatory Privacy: Enabling Privacy in Participatory Sensing  

CERN Multimedia

Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...

De Cristofaro, Emiliano

2012-01-01

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Participatory telerobotics  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

2013-05-01

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Sustainable innovation backcasting and participatory decision making  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory intervention methods can be seen as tools to solve the problems that are the results of locked-in institutional practices. To repair such institutional problems, participatory tools have to address three sets of questions.First, who to select as a participant, and what is the function ...

Pesch, U.; Quist, J.N.

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Replacement adoption: a case of varietal substitution among farmers adopting Sawah rice production technology in Nigeria and Ghana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper examined the incidence of replacement adoption through varietal substitution among farmers adopting Sawah-ecotechnology rice production technology in Nigeria and Ghana. A simple random sampling was used to select 80 farmers in Nigeria and 70 farmers in Ghana. Data were collected in June 2010 with a structured questionnaire in villages where Sawah rice production technology had been introduced. In Nigeria, 30 % of the farmers practice varietal substitution with (more) the use of WITA 3, while in Ghana 40% practice varietal substitution using jasmine and sycamore. The results from the Probit model showed that significant variables include yield (t = 4.12) participation in on farm demonstration (t = 2.77) contact with Sawah agent (t = -1.93), varietal adaptability (t = -2.29), market price (t = 2.50), lodging proneness (t = 2.45), age (t = -3.35) and farming experience (t = 2.49) in Nigeria and Ghana. It therefore implies that the issues of varietal substitution must be viewed within the prevailing socio-economic and farming system milieu of farmers in order to enhance continuous adoption and sustained profit from Sawah technology

Oladele, I. O.; Wakatsuki, T.

2011-01-01

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Varietal Dynamics of Yield Stability in Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted on varietal dynamics of yield stability in wheat during November 1996. The results indicated that Variety Chenab-79 not only produced higher mean seed yield across the locations and the stable variety having 0.8 bi. Furthermore, a significant linear trend was found between the varieties yields environment mean yields of the stable varieties. The result showed that varieties Pirsabak-91, Pak-81 and Chenab-79 proved to be the stable cultivars while Sarhad-82 Koh-I-Noor-87 and Chenab-70 as unstable. The three un-stable varieties were very sensitive to changes in the environment resulting in great variation in yield. It was concluded that these varieties yielded low in some locations but with the improvement in environment provided higher yields.

Khair Muhammad Kakar; Sanaullah; Zainullah Kakar; M. Ikramullah Shawani

2003-01-01

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Minimalite des sous-varietes totalement geodesiques en geometrie finslerienne  

CERN Document Server

It is shown that if the Holmes-Thompson volume definition is used, totally geodesic submanifolds of a Finsler space are minimal. The analogous result for the Hausdorff measure is known to be false. ----- Nous montrons que les sous-varietes totalement geodesiques d'une variete de Finsler sont minimales pour le volume de Holmes-Thompson. Pour la mesure de Hausdorff, des contre-exemples a ce resultat sont connus.

Berck, G

2004-01-01

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What is participatory research?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research strategies which emphasize participation are increasingly used in health research. Breaking the linear mould of conventional research, participatory research focuses on a process of sequential reflection and action, carried out with and by local people rather than on them. Local knowledge and perspectives are not only acknowledged but form the basis for research and planning. Many of the methods used in participatory research are drawn from mainstream disciplines and conventional research itself involves varying degrees of participation. The key difference between participatory and conventional methodologies lies in the location of power in the research process. We review some of the participatory methodologies which are currently being popularized in health research, focusing on the issue of control over the research process. Participatory research raises personal, professional and political challenges which go beyond the bounds of the production of information. Problematizing "participation', we explore the challenges and dilemmas of participatory practice.

Cornwall A; Jewkes R

1995-12-01

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Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

Bennett, C.L.

1997-04-03

 
 
 
 
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Varietal Resistance of Cotton Against Earias spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were carried out on varietal resistance of cotton against Earias spp. during cropping season 1999. The seeds of 12 cotton varieties viz., Green Red Okra, Qalandri, Red Okra-VI, Red Okra (Insect Resistant), AENS-1/82 VIII, Red Okra, TH-228/87, AENS-10/87, TH-3/83, Reshmi, AEC-78 13/89 and TH-41/83 were sown on April 22, 1999 in a completely randomized design with strip cropping, each strip measuring 20 x 35 feet with nine rows of each variety. Observations on infestation of Earias spp. were started 67 days after sowing and continued till complete disappearance of pest from the crop. Observations were taken at random at weekly interval from 20 plants. The results revealed that there was no significant difference of infestation amongst cotton varieties under present investigation. The minimum and the maximum infestation of 1.79 and 2.38% was recorded on Red Okra-VI and Green Red Okra varieties of cotton, respectively. The results also indicated that there was no significant effect of minimum and maximum temperature on percent infestation of Earias spp., whereas relative humidity had a significant (P<0.05) effect on infestation.

G.H. Abro; T.S. Syed; Z.A. Dayo

2003-01-01

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Studies on varietal radiosensitivity and genetical effect in triticum aestivum L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Dormand seeds (with 13% water content) of 49 wheat varieties (T riticum aestivum L.) were irradiated with 60Co-? ray of various doses, and the varietal radiosensitivities and the genetical effects were studied in experimental plots and laboratories. Significant differences in radiosensitivity were found among the varieties used in present experiment. The varietal radiosensitivity of T riticum aestivum L. manifested a continuous variation, which accords approximately with the normal distribution, from the sensitive to the resistant to 60Co-? rays. 49 varieties utilized could be divided into five groups with different radiosensitivity to 60Co-? rays: higher resistent, resistant, intermediat respose, sensitive and higher sensitive. It was found that most of the mutant varieties improved by irradiation were more resistant to ? rays than the local varieties which were more resistant than recombination varieties bred by crossbreeding, that is radiation-induced mutant varieties 2 generation. The results showed that mutation frequencies, mutation spectra and variebilities of the quantative traits varied with varieties. Higher mutation frequencies, wider mutation spectra and greater variabilities were observed in the sensitive varieties than in the resistant ones, and it suggested that there is a greater potential for selecting mutants in M2 generation of more sensitive varieties

1987-01-01

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Participatory Communication : A Practical Guide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. At a time when institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, increasingly seek participatory approaches in their development initative, this guide provides perspectives, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society.

Tufte, Thomas

2009-01-01

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The participatory patient  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship between a patient¿s work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe patient work and non-work and thinking of what kind of working or non-working patients it implies.

Andersen, Tariq Osman

2013-01-01

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Seleção varietal de Phaseolus vulgaris quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino com base em variáveis de crescimento Selection of Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties for tolerance to salt stress based on growth variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar e selecionar variedades de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino e identificar, usando variedades de feijoeiro com diferentes graus de tolerância, variáveis que auxiliem na discriminagão de variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerância a esse tipo de estresse, independentemente do mecanismo apresentado pela planta. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetagão. Inicialmente foram avaliadas 48 variedades de P. vulgaris (alocadas nas subparcelas) em dois níveis de salinidade (distribuídos nas parcelas): solução nutritiva normal (SNN) a 0,81 dS m-1 e a teste (SNT) a 5,6 dS m-1, obtida pela adigão de NaCl no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetigões. A partir da massa seca da parte aérea calculou-se a relagão percentual de crescimento alcançada na SNT relativo à SNN das variedades, que variou de 138,7 a 54,1 %, discriminando-as de acordo com o critério de Scott-Knott em duas populagões: uma com 14 variedades mais "tolerantes" e outra com 34 variedades, onde ficaram agrupadas variedades "moderadamente tolerantes" e "sensíveis". Para identificar variáveis de crescimento que permitam selecionar feijoeiros quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino duas variedades tolerantes (Vermelho e CNF 5574), uma medianamente tolerante (FT 83-86) e uma sensível (LM 30074), classificadas no experimento anterior, foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com cinco níveis de salinidade (0,81; 2,7; 4,6; 6,5; e 8,4 dS m-1). Analisando-se a massa seca da raiz, do caule, do pecíolo, das folhas e da parte aérea, a área foliar e a área foliar específica, concluiu-se que a área foliar específica foi o índice que efetivamente mais contribuiu para a discriminação das variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerância à salinidade.This study aimed to evaluate and select varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for tolerance to salt stress and to identify, using bean varieties with different degrees of tolerance, variables to aid in the screening of salt-tolerant varieties, regardless of the mechanism used by the plant. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Initially, 48 P. vulgaris varieties were evaluated (allocated in subplots) at two salinity levels (distributed in the plots): normal nutrient solution (NNS) at 0.81 dS m-1 and test solution (TNS) at 5.6 dS m-1, which was obtained by adding NaCl in a randomized block design with four replications. The dry weight of aerial part was used to calculate the percentage of growth of the varieties achieved in TNS in relation to NNS, which ranged from 138.7 to 54.1%, discriminating them according to the Scott-Knott criterium in two populations: one with 14 more "tolerant" varieties and another with 34 varieties, which grouped "moderately tolerant" and "sensitive" varieties. To identify growth variables that allow selection of tolerant plants to salt stress, two tolerant (Vermelho and CNF 5574), a moderately tolerant (FT 83-86) and a sensitive (LM 30074) varieties, which were classified in a previous experiment, were grown in nutrient solutions with five levels of salinity (0.81, 2.7, 4.6, 6.5, and 8.4 dS m-1). Results of dry mass of root, stem, petiole, leaves and aerial part, leaf area and specific leaf area showed that the specific leaf area was the index that most effectively contributed to the discrimination of bean varieties for tolerance to salinity.

Cícero Antônio de Souza Araújo; Hugo Alberto Ruiz; José Cambraia; Júlio César Lima Neves; Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos Freire; Fernando José Freire

2010-01-01

26

Seleção varietal de Phaseolus vulgaris quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino com base em variáveis de crescimento/ Selection of Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties for tolerance to salt stress based on growth variables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar e selecionar variedades de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino e identificar, usando variedades de feijoeiro com diferentes graus de tolerância, variáveis que auxiliem na discriminagão de variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerância a esse tipo de estresse, independentemente do mecanismo apresentado pela planta. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetagão. Inicialmente foram avaliadas (more) 48 variedades de P. vulgaris (alocadas nas subparcelas) em dois níveis de salinidade (distribuídos nas parcelas): solução nutritiva normal (SNN) a 0,81 dS m-1 e a teste (SNT) a 5,6 dS m-1, obtida pela adigão de NaCl no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetigões. A partir da massa seca da parte aérea calculou-se a relagão percentual de crescimento alcançada na SNT relativo à SNN das variedades, que variou de 138,7 a 54,1 %, discriminando-as de acordo com o critério de Scott-Knott em duas populagões: uma com 14 variedades mais "tolerantes" e outra com 34 variedades, onde ficaram agrupadas variedades "moderadamente tolerantes" e "sensíveis". Para identificar variáveis de crescimento que permitam selecionar feijoeiros quanto à tolerância ao estresse salino duas variedades tolerantes (Vermelho e CNF 5574), uma medianamente tolerante (FT 83-86) e uma sensível (LM 30074), classificadas no experimento anterior, foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com cinco níveis de salinidade (0,81; 2,7; 4,6; 6,5; e 8,4 dS m-1). Analisando-se a massa seca da raiz, do caule, do pecíolo, das folhas e da parte aérea, a área foliar e a área foliar específica, concluiu-se que a área foliar específica foi o índice que efetivamente mais contribuiu para a discriminação das variedades de feijoeiro quanto à tolerância à salinidade. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate and select varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for tolerance to salt stress and to identify, using bean varieties with different degrees of tolerance, variables to aid in the screening of salt-tolerant varieties, regardless of the mechanism used by the plant. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Initially, 48 P. vulgaris varieties were evaluated (allocated in subplots) at two salinity levels (distributed in the plots): normal (more) nutrient solution (NNS) at 0.81 dS m-1 and test solution (TNS) at 5.6 dS m-1, which was obtained by adding NaCl in a randomized block design with four replications. The dry weight of aerial part was used to calculate the percentage of growth of the varieties achieved in TNS in relation to NNS, which ranged from 138.7 to 54.1%, discriminating them according to the Scott-Knott criterium in two populations: one with 14 more "tolerant" varieties and another with 34 varieties, which grouped "moderately tolerant" and "sensitive" varieties. To identify growth variables that allow selection of tolerant plants to salt stress, two tolerant (Vermelho and CNF 5574), a moderately tolerant (FT 83-86) and a sensitive (LM 30074) varieties, which were classified in a previous experiment, were grown in nutrient solutions with five levels of salinity (0.81, 2.7, 4.6, 6.5, and 8.4 dS m-1). Results of dry mass of root, stem, petiole, leaves and aerial part, leaf area and specific leaf area showed that the specific leaf area was the index that most effectively contributed to the discrimination of bean varieties for tolerance to salinity.

Araújo, Cícero Antônio de Souza; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto; Cambraia, José; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Freire, Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos; Freire, Fernando José

2010-02-01

27

Practicing Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of several core theoretical and practical aspects of participatory action research (PAR). An effort is made to define PAR and the types of work that fall under that rubric. Historical underpinnings, roles of the individuals involved, contexts, methods, and the challenges and benefits of this mode of inquiry are…

Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

2005-01-01

28

Participatory Innovation in SMEs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several case studies in literature and handbooks about participatory design (PD) suggest that the use of emerging methods to generate user information is common practice. However, these authors address practices in academia or in leading companies and not necessarily the practice of the majority of ...

Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine

29

Participatory Innovation in SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several case studies in literature and handbooks about participatory design (PD) suggest that the use of emerging methods to generate user information is common practice. However, these authors address practices in academia or in leading companies and not necessarily the practice of the majority of product development companies. The mentioned companies like for example Microsoft (Sanders, 2004) are in a privileged position, having the possibilities to spend time, manpower and budget on extensive user studies and explore participatory design projects. But how does the Small-to-Medium sized Enterprise (SME) fare in this respect? Some literature is known in this context, Heiskanen et al. (2007) provide many insights on working with SMEs, especially on technology oriented SMEs. De Lille et al. (2009) gives an overview of problems designers experience when conducting user studies. Asboe (2009) provides an anthropologists perspective on user studies within SMEs.

Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine

2010-01-01

30

Provotypes for Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about ‘users’ and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely to surface. Instead of the natural tendency to avoid these tensions, we demonstrate how tensions can be utilized by embodying them in provocative types (provotypes). Provotypes expose and embody tensions that surround a field of interest to support collaborative analysis and collaborative design explorations across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines for provotypes for participatory innovation.

Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared

31

Iterative participatory design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design.

Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

2010-01-01

32

Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design ...

Simonsen, Jesper

33

Induced mutations for varietal improvement in soybean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since soybean necrotic virus (SMV-N), which was identified as a strain of soybean mosaic virus (SMV), has severe effects on such leading varieties as Kwangkyo and Kangrim, mutation studies were aimed at obtaining mutants resistant to SMV-N, without causing drastic changes in other agronomic characters, from these varieties. Prior to mutation induction, inheritance of resistance was determined and it was found that resistance was conditioned by a single recessive gene. With this information, soybean seeds were irradiated with 15 and 25 kR of gamma rays. The mutants were screened for SMV-N resistance, both under natural infection pressure and artificial inoculation. Through the selections, five lines were selected as desirable mutants and, according to the objective of this study, these mutants were stocked in a gene pool. Meanwhile, another mutation was induced to obtain a small seeded mutant with higher yield potential from the exotic variety CB-27. Through the usual selections, one mutant was registered as a new leading variety for soybean sprouts and named Bangsa-kong. Apart from that, attempts were made to determine the mutation frequency and mutation sector in soybean. Plant height and the number of seeds in M1 plants were closely related to the mutation frequency of visible characters. The mutation sector of the irradiated seeds was not apparent in M2 plants regardless of radiation dose. It was found that all seeds harvested from SMV infected plants did not produce mottled seeds and all of the mottled seeds did not contain the virus. The soybean necrotic virus was not transmitted through the seeds of the variety Kwangkyo. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs.

1988-01-01

34

PARTICIPATORY DEPRESSION. A CAVEAT FOR PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH APPROACHES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory approaches have become de rigueur in research for development. A goal of many participatory projects is to generally empower beneficiaries, beyond the scope of the immediate project. The technical and organizational learning, the social contacts, and the prestige that result from parti...

Vaughan, Gregory; Lançon, Jacques

35

Fuzzy clustering analysis for the varietal radiosensitivity of triticum aestivum L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fussy clustering classification to the varietal radiosensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out. According to their response to the radiation of gamma rays, 49 wheat varieties were classified into five groups: higher resistant, resistant, intermediate response, sensitive, and higher sensitive. The research presents a new approach for the classification of the varietal radiosensitivity of a certain plant species, and the result was valuable for choosing the adequate irradiated materials and determining the optimal dosage so as to enhance the mutagenic efficiency in wheat radiation breeding. The reliability and advantage of the Fussy clustering classification for the plant varietal radiosensitivity were briefly discussed

1992-01-01

36

Complexity of indica-japonica varietal differentiation in Bangladesh rice landraces revealed by microsatellite markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To understand the genetic diversity and indica-japonica differentiation in Bangladesh rice varieties, a total of 151 accessions of rice varieties mostly Bangladesh traditional varieties including Aus, Boro, broadcast Aman, transplant Aman and Rayada varietal groups were genotyped using 47 rice nuclear SSRs. As a result, three distinct groups were detected by cluster analysis, corresponding to indica, Aus and japonica rice. Among deepwater rice varieties analyzed some having particular morphological features that mainly corresponded to the japonica varietal group. Some small seeded and aromatic varieties from Bangladesh also corresponded to the japonica varietal group. This research for the first time establishes that the japonica varietal group is a prominent component of traditional varieties in Bangladesh, particularly in deepwater areas.

Wang M; Zhu Z; Tan L; Liu F; Fu Y; Sun C; Cai H

2013-06-01

37

Fuzzy clustering analysis for the varietal radiosensitivity of triticum aestivum L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuzzy clustering classification to the varietal radiosensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out. According to their response to the radiation of gamma rays, 49 wheat varieties were classified into five groups: higher resistant, resistant,...

Z. Feng L. Wang

1992-01-01

38

Studies on Varietal Radiosensitivity and Genetic Effect in Triticum Aestivum L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dormant seeds (with 13% water content) of 49 wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) were irradiated with (60)Co- gamma ray of various doses, and the varietal radiosensitivities and the genetical effects were studied in experimental plots and laboratories....

Z. Feng L. Wang

1987-01-01

39

A risk-minimizing argument for traditional crop varietal diversity use to reduce pest and disease damage in agricultural ecosystems of Uganda  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much of the worlds’ annual harvest loss to pests and diseases occurs as a consequence of crops grown in monocultures, or cultivated varieties with uniform resistance. This uniform resistance is met by the continuing evolution of new races of pests and pathogens that are able to overcome resistance genes introduced by modern breeding, creating the phenomenon of boom and bust cycles. One of the few assets available to small-scale farmers in developing countries to reduce pests and diseases damage is their local crop varietal diversity, together with the knowledge to manage and deploy this diversity appropriately. Local crop varietal diversity of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was measured at the community and household levels within farmers’ fields in four agro-ecological areas of Uganda. Resistance of traditional and modern varieties of P. vulgaris to anthracnose, angular leaf spot, and bean fly and of traditional and modern varieties of Musa spp. to black sigatoka, banana weevils and nematodes was assessed from participatory diagnostics of farmer knowledge and cross-site on-farm and on-station trials. By performing cross-site on-farm experiments, it was possible to identify traditional varieties with higher resistance to pest and diseases when grown outside their home sites. Increased diversity of crop varieties, measured by number of varieties (richness) and their evenness of distribution, corresponded to a decrease in the average damage levels across sites and to a reduction of variance of disease damage. In sites with higher disease incidence, households with higher levels of diversity in their production systems had less damage to their standing crop in the field compared to sites with lower disease incidence. The results support what might be expected of a risk-minimizing strategy for use of diversity to reduce pest and disease damage.

Mulumba JW; Nankya R; Adokorach J; Kiwuka C; Fadda C; De Santis P; Jarvis DI

2012-08-01

40

Technology support for participatory budgeting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?

Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Varietal Differences in Lodging Resistance of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To identify resistant genotypes to lodging in African rice (Oryza glaberrima), 6 genotypes, three of which were selected by prescreening for the resistance and the remaining three were used in an interspecific breeding program at WARDA, were tested in terms of resistance to lodging. The trial was conducted in rainfed upland in 2005 and in irrigated lowland in 2006 and all genotypes showed higher yield and larger plant length in 2006 than in 2005. There was a clear varietal difference in lodging incidence of the O. glaberrima genotypes at maturity, which was ranged from 0.0 to 91.0% and from 68.6 to 99.7% in 2005 and 2006, respectively. In 2005, four O. glaberrima genotypes, TOG 7235, IRGC Accession Code 104038, CG 14 and CG 20, depicted the resistance at maturity since their lodging incidences were from 0.0 to 6.7%. With heavier panicles by higher yield and larger plant length in 2006, however, two of those four genotypes almost completely lodged at maturity. The remaining two genotypes, TOG 7235 and CG 14, showed moderately low lodging incidences of 74.1 and 68.6%, respectively. However, those rates are still very high as a commercial variety and further screening for lodging resistance is necessary.

K. Futakuchi; M. Fofana; M. Sie

2008-01-01

42

The development of varietal aroma from non-floral grapes by yeasts of different genera  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fraction of glycosidic precursors extracted from different non-floral grapes has been reconstituted with a synthetic must and the must has been fermented in duplicate by yeasts belonging to different genera previously selected by their high glycosidase activity (Saccharomyces cerivisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus; S. cerevisiae x S. bayanus, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Kloeckera apiculata, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Debaryomyces carsonii). Fermentation was allowed to take place for 3 weeks, but only was complete for Saccharomyces yeasts. The wines obtained were analyzed by sensory analysis and by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the sensory descriptors and the aroma composition. The results have shown that the yeast genus exerts a critical influence on the levels of most varietal aroma compounds, affecting to all families coming from precursors, including nor-isoprenoids, terpenols, benzenoids, volatile phenols, vanillins and lactones. Leaving aside ethylphenols and vinylphenols, most aroma compounds are produced at relatively low concentrations, but in numbers enough to likely cause a sensory effect.

Hernández-Orte P; Cersosimo M; Loscos N; Cacho J; Garcia-Moruno E; Ferreira V

2008-04-01

43

A SNP-based PCR–RFLP capillary electrophoresis analysis for the identification of the varietal origin of olive oils  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Authenticity and traceability of high quality monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is a major concern for markets and consumers. Although analytical chemistry techniques are widely used to satisfy these needs recently developed DNA-based methods can serve as complementary approaches. A SNP database comprising 10 Greek olive varieties was constructed and five SNPs, residing in restriction sites, were selected for the development of a PCR–RFLP capillary electrophoresis method to discriminate these varieties using leaf DNA as template. An identification key was constructed indicating that five SNPs were adequate to discriminate nine out of the 10 varieties. As a proof of principle the assay was applied on DNA extracted from five of their corresponding monovarietal olive oils. Three SNPs were able to identify the varietal origin of these olive oils confirming the validity of this approach.

Bazakos Christos; Dulger AyseOzgur; Uncu AliTevfik; Spaniolas Stelios; Spano Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis Panagiotis

2012-10-01

44

A SNP-based PCR-RFLP capillary electrophoresis analysis for the identification of the varietal origin of olive oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Authenticity and traceability of high quality monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is a major concern for markets and consumers. Although analytical chemistry techniques are widely used to satisfy these needs recently developed DNA-based methods can serve as complementary approaches. A SNP database comprising 10 Greek olive varieties was constructed and five SNPs, residing in restriction sites, were selected for the development of a PCR-RFLP capillary electrophoresis method to discriminate these varieties using leaf DNA as template. An identification key was constructed indicating that five SNPs were adequate to discriminate nine out of the 10 varieties. As a proof of principle the assay was applied on DNA extracted from five of their corresponding monovarietal olive oils. Three SNPs were able to identify the varietal origin of these olive oils confirming the validity of this approach. PMID:23442703

Bazakos, Christos; Dulger, Ayse Ozgur; Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Spaniolas, Stelios; Spano, Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

2012-04-18

45

A SNP-based PCR-RFLP capillary electrophoresis analysis for the identification of the varietal origin of olive oils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Authenticity and traceability of high quality monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is a major concern for markets and consumers. Although analytical chemistry techniques are widely used to satisfy these needs recently developed DNA-based methods can serve as complementary approaches. A SNP database comprising 10 Greek olive varieties was constructed and five SNPs, residing in restriction sites, were selected for the development of a PCR-RFLP capillary electrophoresis method to discriminate these varieties using leaf DNA as template. An identification key was constructed indicating that five SNPs were adequate to discriminate nine out of the 10 varieties. As a proof of principle the assay was applied on DNA extracted from five of their corresponding monovarietal olive oils. Three SNPs were able to identify the varietal origin of these olive oils confirming the validity of this approach.

Bazakos C; Dulger AO; Uncu AT; Spaniolas S; Spano T; Kalaitzis P

2012-10-01

46

Varietal Performance of Gram and Comparative Effectiveness of Three Insecticides Against Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hb.).  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research project was initiated to evaluate varietal resistance of gram against pod borer and to determine the comparative efficacy of three insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (Hb). Gram varieties Viz. NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91 and KARAK-1 were selected while three insecticides namely Thiodan 35 EC, Cymbush 10EC and Actelic 50 EC were applied. KARAK-1 variety of gram was found significantly least susceptible to the attack of gram pod borer, followed by NIFA-88, PAIDAR-91. All the tested insecticides significantly reduced the infestation of gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hb) as compared to control plots. Thiodan (Endosulfan) was found most effective than Actellic (Pirimiphos methyl) and Cymbush (Permethrin).

Said Mir Khan; Syed Faizullah

1999-01-01

47

Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

48

Participatory Innovation : A research agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must be ad...

Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

49

75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica...varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan to be imported into the United States...

2010-03-10

50

75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica...varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan into the United States is the same as...

2010-10-22

51

German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

|The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and…

Ulbrich, Christiane

2013-01-01

52

German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2…

Ulbrich, Christiane

2013-01-01

53

Classification of white varietal wines using chemical analysis and sensorial evaluations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ways of application of multivariate data analysis and ANOVA to classification of white varietal wines are here demonstrated. Wine classification was performed using the following classification criteria: winevariety, year of production, wine producer, and wine quality, as found by sensorial test...

Šnuderl, Katja; Mocak, Jan; Brodnjak-Von?ina, Darinka; Sedlá?kova, Bibiana

54

Population Dynamics of Cassava Green Mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acari: Tetranychidae) as Influenced by Varietal Resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The population dynamics of Mononychellus tanajoa as influenced by varietal resistance of cassava was determined over two cassava planting seasons (dry and wet season), using biweekly samples from 11 cassava genotypes in Ibadan, Nigeria. The population size of M. tanajoa and the dam...

E.N. Nukenine; A.T. Hassan; A.G.O. Dixon; C.N. Fokunang

55

Rekindling Values in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant that different approaches and conceptualization exist in this field today. We argue that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in PD. This requires focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

2010-01-01

56

Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector

Simonsen, Jesper

2010-01-01

57

Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the research method of participatory action research, first by examining the roots of this approach and then analysing the shift to using more participatory approaches than in former years. It begins by considering the reasoning and theoretical underpinning for adopting this approach and provides an overview of the steps to be…

Savin-Baden, Maggi; Wimpenny, Katherine

2007-01-01

58

Varietal characterization of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) by GC-MS analysis of hop cone extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An approach is described for use in the varietal characterization of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) varieties. The study focuses on commercial hop varieties and was timed to coincide with the 2008 commercial hop harvest in Tasmania, Australia. Analysis of hop extracts was performed using GC-MS. A 60 m capillary column was employed to increase efficiency to permit the use of a quadrupole mass spectrometer in place of a time of flight mass spectrometer that is more commonly used for this type of analysis. A set of characterization functions were derived from discriminant analysis which were highly suitable for varietal characterization of the eight commercial varieties included in the study, namely Willamette, Victoria, Pride of Ringwood, Cascade, Southern Hallertau, Millennium, Southern Saaz, and Super Pride.

Shellie RA; Poynter SD; Li J; Gathercole JL; Whittock SP; Koutoulis A

2009-11-01

59

Varietal and environmental influence on the yield and the end-use quality of sugar beet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental factor (location) influenced sugar beet root yield, which was higher by 20.6% on Belgrade location than on Pan?evo location. However, when compared the genotype effect, smaller environmental influence was found for root yield, which was not expected. The investigated factors (variety and location) equally contributed to the variation in root sugar content. Significantly higher varietal influence was observed for granulated sugar yield, which was also unexpected. .

Radivojevi? Stevan ?.; Došenovi? Irena S.

2006-01-01

60

Participatory forest management in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Common Property Resources (CPRs) such as village forests and pastures which were owned by the village communities and acted as buffers between communities and government forests, suffered heavily due mainly to their overuse and lack of management. With dwindling CPRs, the reserved and protected government forests came under heavy pressure. It was therefore, realized that these forests cannot be managed in isolation from the communities whose livelihoods are linked to their natural resources. Participatory Forest Management (PFM) envisages people involved in halting forest degradation. The vital objectives of rejuvenating degraded forest and alleviating poverty may be achieved by actively involving local people in planning and management of their forest resources. 2 refs

Sharma, R.A. [Office of the Principal Chief Conservation of Forests, Bhubaneswar (India)

1995-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Values-Led Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

2012-01-01

62

Using participatory approaches with older people in a residential home in Guyana: challenges and tensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory approaches are a popular and entrenched strategy in community development, yet a number of unresolved issues and tensions persist regarding the definition, rationales, outcomes and ethics of participation. Despite its popularity there are relatively few examples of participatory projects with older people or in institutional settings so their potential with this group is poorly understood. This case study presents some of the practical and ethical challenges that arose over the course of a participatory project that aimed to analyse and improve quality of life in a residential home for older people in Guyana. Through a qualitative process evaluation it examines the degree of participation achieved, the determinants of the participatory process, the benefits the approach brought and the ethical dilemmas encountered. Although the degree of participation achieved was limited, beneficial outcomes were observed, notably the selection of appropriate and desirable interventions and the effect on the residents themselves, who valued their part in the project. The participatory process was unpredictable and complex, however, and key determinants of it included the organizational dynamics of the home and the skills, actions and attitudes of the researcher. Adopting a participatory approach brought valuable benefits in a residential home, but others adopting the approach should ensure they critically consider at the outset the ethical and practical dilemmas the setting and approach may produce and have realistic expectations of participation. PMID:23143161

Hewitt, Gillian; Draper, Alizon K; Ismail, Suraiya

2013-03-01

63

Using participatory approaches with older people in a residential home in Guyana: challenges and tensions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory approaches are a popular and entrenched strategy in community development, yet a number of unresolved issues and tensions persist regarding the definition, rationales, outcomes and ethics of participation. Despite its popularity there are relatively few examples of participatory projects with older people or in institutional settings so their potential with this group is poorly understood. This case study presents some of the practical and ethical challenges that arose over the course of a participatory project that aimed to analyse and improve quality of life in a residential home for older people in Guyana. Through a qualitative process evaluation it examines the degree of participation achieved, the determinants of the participatory process, the benefits the approach brought and the ethical dilemmas encountered. Although the degree of participation achieved was limited, beneficial outcomes were observed, notably the selection of appropriate and desirable interventions and the effect on the residents themselves, who valued their part in the project. The participatory process was unpredictable and complex, however, and key determinants of it included the organizational dynamics of the home and the skills, actions and attitudes of the researcher. Adopting a participatory approach brought valuable benefits in a residential home, but others adopting the approach should ensure they critically consider at the outset the ethical and practical dilemmas the setting and approach may produce and have realistic expectations of participation.

Hewitt G; Draper AK; Ismail S

2013-03-01

64

Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. RESULTS: Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

Achtak H; Ater M; Oukabli A; Santoni S; Kjellberg F; Khadari B

2010-01-01

65

Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

Achtak Hafid; Ater Mohammed; Oukabli Ahmed; Santoni Sylvain; Kjellberg Finn; Khadari Bouchaib

2010-01-01

66

Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share local and personal data with others to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy is an important consideration, and lack of privacy could discourage widespread adoption of many exciting applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme for multidimensional data which uses negative surveys. Multidimensional data, such as vectors of attributes that include location and environment fields, pose a particular challenge for privacy protection and are common in participatory sensing applications. When reporting data in a negative survey, an individual participant randomly selects a value from the set complement of the sensed data value, once for each dimension, and returns the negative values to a central collection server. Using algorithms described in this paper, the server can reconstruct the probability density functions of the original distributions of sensed values, without knowing the participants actual data. As a consequence, complicated encryption and key management schemes are avoided, conserving energy. We study trade-offs between accuracy and privacy, and their relationships to the number of dimensions, categories, and participants. We introduce dimensional adjustment, a method that reduces the magnification of error associated with earlier work. Two simulation scenarios illustrate how the approach can protect the privacy of a participant's multidimensional data while allowing useful population information to be aggregated.

Groat, Michael [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Forrest, Stephanie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Horey, James L [ORNL; Edwards, Benjamin [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; He, Wenbo [University of Nebraska, Lincoln

2012-01-01

67

From Citizen Participation to Participatory Governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper identifies types of citizen participation in local government in Australia, in particular focusing on the past two decades when local government systems have been the focus of intense reform. The paper considers the extent to which contemporary views of participatory governance have taken root at local and sub-local levels and concludes that despite reforms intended to engage local citizens more in local government activity, citizen participation has yet to develop significantly into arrangements that reach the level of participatory governance. It also argues that for participatory governance to be further developed, leadership may often have to come from organisations outside institutional local government.

Chris Aulich

2009-01-01

68

COINCIDENCIA EN LA SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE TOMATE Y LA SELECCIÓN POR RENDIMIENTO EN UNA FERIA DE AGROBIODIVERSIDAD/ COINCIDENCE IN PARTICIPATORY VARIETY SELECTION OF TOMATO AND SELECTION IN A FAIR PERFORMANCE AGROBIODIVERSITY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se muestra la coincidencia en la selección de los productores en una feria de diversidad del cultivo del tomate y la selección practicada sobre la base del rendimiento real de cada una de las variedades expuestas en la feria. Para la realización del estudio, se sembró una parcela demostrativa con 11 variedades de tomate en áreas de la Cooperativa de Producción Agropecuaria (CPA) “17 de Mayo”, ubicada en el Valle de Caujerí, San Antonio d (more) el Sur, Guantánamo. Mayoritariamente las variedades sembradas se corresponden con las obtenidas a partir de los programas de mejoramiento genético ejecutados por diferentes instituciones científicas del país. Una vez que el cultivo arribó a la madurez fisiológica, se celebró la feria de diversidad, durante la cual cada productor pudo seleccionar libremente las variedades que consideraba más adecuadas a sus intereses y necesidades muy específicas. A lo largo del trabajo se presenta la comparación entre la selección realizada por los productores y el rendimiento para diferentes presiones de selección. Entre otros resultados, se pudo constatar la predilección de los productores por las variedades con altos rendimientos y su capacidad para seleccionarlas entre un conjunto más o menos amplio de variedades Abstract in english This research study shows the coincidence of growers´ selection in a tomato diversity fair with the one based on the actual yield of each of the varieties presented in it. To conduct the study, a demonstrative plot was seeded with 11 tomato varieties in the areas of “17 de Mayo” Agricultural Production Cooperative (CPA), located in Valle de Caujerí, San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo. Most of the varieties sown match with those obtained by the breeding program (more) s carried out at different scientific institutions of our country. Once the crop reached its physiological maturity, the diversity fair was celebrated, during which every grower could freely select the most adequate varieties according to their interests and specific needs. In the course of the experiment, there was a comparison between growers´ selection and yield for different selection pressures. Among other results, growers´ favorite high-yielding varieties became evident, besides showing their ability to select them within a rather large collection

de la Fe, C; Moya, C; Arzuaga, J; Fonseca, E

2010-06-01

69

Stakeholder Engagement Strategies for Participatory Mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory mapping is a general term used to define a growing toolbox of techniques that can help communities make land use decisions. These maps go beyond the physical features portrayed in traditional maps; nearly everything valued by the community c...

2009-01-01

70

SOCIALANALYSIS-PARTICIPATORY APPROACH: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The core aims of participatory development planning are to give people a say in the development decisions that may affect them and to ensure that development interventions are appropriate to the needs and preferences of the population that they are intended to benefit. Participatory development can be undertaken by government agencies or other development agencies and NGOs at the national, regional, municipal or community level.

V. V. KULKARNI

2013-01-01

71

Trocas gasosas em videira sob regime de estresse hídrico. II. fotorrespiração e comportamento varietal/ Gas exchanges in grapevines under water stress regime. II. photorespiration and varietal behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Analisou-se a fotorrespiração em folhas de videira (Vitis vinifera L.) submetidas a um regime de estresse hídrico, com o objetivo de caracterizar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares. Foram utilizadas plantas de dois anos, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto Fercal, plantadas em vasos plásticos e cultivadas em ambiente controlado. A fotorrespiração foi calculada a partir de medidas das trocas gasosas foliares. Os valores absolutos da fotorrespiração variaram pouc (more) o entre cultivares e nível de irrigação; já a eficiência da carboxilação e o ponto de compensação ao CO2 foram bastante afetados pelo estresse hídrico, o que revela diferentes níveis de sensibilidade varietal. Foi verificada a ocorrência de inibição não-estomática da fotossíntese, afetando diferencialmente as cultivares analisadas. Destacou-se, ainda, a maior adaptação da Chardonnay às condições de estresse hídrico, em oposição à grande sensibilidade da Sémillon e da Ugni blanc. Abstract in english The photorespiration in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves subjected to a water stress regime was analysed with the purpose of characterizing the behavior of different cultivars. Two-year old plants were used, grafted on Fercal, planted in plastic pots and cultivated in controlled environment. The photorespiration was calculated from leaf gas exchange measurements taken by means of a portable infrared CO2 analyser (LCA3-ADC), working in an open circuit. The absolute ph (more) otorespiration values varied little among cultivars and level of irrigation, whereas the carboxylation efficiency and the CO2 compensation point were highly affected by the water stress, thereby evidencing different varietal sensitivity levels. The occurrence of a nonstomatal inhibition of the photosynthesis was verified affecting in a specific way the cultivars analysed. The Chardonnay adapted itself better to the water stress conditions as opposed to the high sensitivity on the part of Sémillon and Ugni blanc.

Regina, Murillo de Albuquerque; Carbonneau, Alain

1999-01-01

72

Participatory Design in an Urban Context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The general theme is democratic urban innovation and participatory design processes. The project aims at examining and assessing the possibi-lities for increa-sing public participation and citizenship in the urban development. Furthermore, the project aims at strengthening the understanding of the conditions necessary for estab-lishing urban social networks, and different methodologies for doing so are examined. As part of this, a study is done on electronic democracy, i.e., different forms of information and communi-cation technologies (IT/ICT, Internet) that are actually and potentially applicable to innovative urban community development. The project combines theories of communication, dialogue and innovation with theories of systems, information, media and decision making. The project involves a comparative study of selected projects in the capital regions of Den-mark (Copenhagen) and Japan (Tokyo). Theoretical inspiration comes from, e.g., Richard Sennett, Raymond Williams, Iris Marion Young, Johan Asplund, Oskar Negt, Hannah Arendt, Carole Pateman, Donald Schön, and Peter Checkland.

GØtze, John

1997-01-01

73

Varietal Performance for Yield Potentials under Different Row Spacings of Nicotiana tabacum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the varietal cum row spacing effect on the productivity of tabacco varieties viz. R-5, R-9, bubaki, sindi achho, R-6 and R-swabi as main plot and row spacing i.e., 60 and 75 cm as sub plot at Tandojam. It was observed that there was a significant (P-1 at 60 and 75 cm row spacings, followed by R-swabi (888.88 kg ha-1) at both row spacing, this is due to the plant with thicker stem and broader leaves.

Saeed Ahmad Baloch; Zahoor Ahmad Soomro

2002-01-01

74

Sustainable Water Resource Management and Participatory System Dynamics. Case Study: Developing the Palouse Basin Participatory Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complexity of explaining highly scientific information and juggling a plethora of social values is leading agencies and communities such as those in the Palouse Basin to explore the use of participatory modeling processes using system dynamics. Participatory system dynamics as a methodology crea...

Allyson Beall; Fritz Fiedler; Jan Boll; Barbara Cosens

75

NUEVA ESCALA DE EVALUACIÓN DE LA RESISTENCIA VARIETAL FRENTE AL RAQUITISMO DE LOS RETOÑOS DE LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR EN CUBA/ NEW SCALE FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE VARIETAL RESISTANCE AGAINST RATOON STUNTING DISEASE IN SUGARCANE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La búsqueda de métodos eficaces para la evaluación de la resistencia varietal frente al raquitismo de los retoños de la caña de azúcar (RSD) constituye uno de los tópicos de mayor interés en la actualidad. Mediante el empleo de la técnica de tinción de haces funcionales (STM), se determinó la relación existente entre el porcentaje de haces funcionales y la reacción varietal. Se propone una escala de evaluación del comportamiento de variedades basada en la fu (more) ncionalidad de los haces del xilema que permite establecer diferencias entre las categorías (resistentes, intermedias y susceptibles). Se determinó la veracidad de la escala mediante un análisis de discriminante con 96.4% de buena clasificación. Esta escala constituye una herramienta de gran valor en la etapa de certificación de semilla dentro del programa de mejoramiento de la caña de azúcar. Abstract in english The search of effective methods for the evaluation of the varietal resistance to Ratoon Stunting Disease (RSD) in sugarcane is of major interest nowadays. Thus, there is a need of validated procedures of diagnostic and evaluation of the variety behavior. The relationship existent between the percentage of functional bundles and the varietal reaction was determined by the staining transpiration methods (STM). A statically proved evaluation scale of the variety behavior wit (more) h 96.4 percent of good classification was determined. It is a practical approach for this matter that can be helpful for the National Genetic Improvement Program.

Iglesia, Aleika; Peralta, Esther Lilia; Alvarez, Elba; Milián, J; Matos, Madyu

2007-04-01

76

Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries. PMID:16756940

Kogi, Kazutaka

2006-06-06

77

Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries.

Kogi K

2006-07-01

78

Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin/ Discriminação de vinhos tintos brasileiros de acordo com a região vitícola, varietal e vinícola  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho avaliou a composição físico-química de 171 vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados na safra de 2006, representados por 21 varietais. Os vinhos foram elaborados por 58 vinícolas localizadas em sete regiões vitícolas do País com latitudes variando de 9º a 31º Sul. A análise físico-química foi feita em 2006 e a discriminação entre as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos varietais e as vinícolas foi realizada através da análise de componentes principais (A (more) CP). Os principais resultados mostram que ao se considerar as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos elaborados em São Joaquim caracterizaram-se por valores mais elevados de A420, A520, A620, intensidade de cor, compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas e extrato seco, enquanto que os de Toledo apresentaram valores mais baixos dessas variáveis; os do Vale do São Francisco tiveram valores mais elevados de potássio, pH, densidade e acidez volátil; os da Serra do Nordeste A, maior acidez titulável; e os do Planalto Superior B, matiz mais elevado. No que se relaciona aos vinhos varietais, a ACP discriminou os vinhos feitos com as variedades Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera e Alfrocheiro. Com relação às vinícolas, vinte e duas delas foram discriminadas por apresentarem parâmetros mais elevados de determinadas variáveis, i.e., três delas por terem maior intensidade de cor; três, por seu matiz; oito, pelo teor de álcool; seis, por potássio, extrato seco, densidade e pH; e duas, pela acidez titulável. Abstract in english This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine analysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (P (more) CA). The main results show that wines from São Joaquim had higher values of A420, A520, A620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from Toledo had lower values of these variables; those from Vale do São Francisco had higher values of potassium, pH, density, and volatile acidity; from Serra do Nordeste A, they had higher titratable acidity; and from Planalto Superior B, higher hue. Regarding the varietal wines, PCA mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera, and Alfrocheiro. In relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and pH; and two by titratablel acidity.

Miele, Alberto; Rizzon, Luiz Antenor; Zanus, Mauro Celso

2010-03-01

79

Discrimination of Brazilian red wines according to the viticultural region, varietal, and winery origin Discriminação de vinhos tintos brasileiros de acordo com a região vitícola, varietal e vinícola  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine analysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA). The main results show that wines from São Joaquim had higher values of A420, A520, A620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from Toledo had lower values of these variables; those from Vale do São Francisco had higher values of potassium, pH, density, and volatile acidity; from Serra do Nordeste A, they had higher titratable acidity; and from Planalto Superior B, higher hue. Regarding the varietal wines, PCA mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera, and Alfrocheiro. In relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and pH; and two by titratablel acidity.O trabalho avaliou a composição físico-química de 171 vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados na safra de 2006, representados por 21 varietais. Os vinhos foram elaborados por 58 vinícolas localizadas em sete regiões vitícolas do País com latitudes variando de 9º a 31º Sul. A análise físico-química foi feita em 2006 e a discriminação entre as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos varietais e as vinícolas foi realizada através da análise de componentes principais (ACP). Os principais resultados mostram que ao se considerar as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos elaborados em São Joaquim caracterizaram-se por valores mais elevados de A420, A520, A620, intensidade de cor, compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas e extrato seco, enquanto que os de Toledo apresentaram valores mais baixos dessas variáveis; os do Vale do São Francisco tiveram valores mais elevados de potássio, pH, densidade e acidez volátil; os da Serra do Nordeste A, maior acidez titulável; e os do Planalto Superior B, matiz mais elevado. No que se relaciona aos vinhos varietais, a ACP discriminou os vinhos feitos com as variedades Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera e Alfrocheiro. Com relação às vinícolas, vinte e duas delas foram discriminadas por apresentarem parâmetros mais elevados de determinadas variáveis, i.e., três delas por terem maior intensidade de cor; três, por seu matiz; oito, pelo teor de álcool; seis, por potássio, extrato seco, densidade e pH; e duas, pela acidez titulável.

Alberto Miele; Luiz Antenor Rizzon; Mauro Celso Zanus

2010-01-01

80

Varietal identification of coffee seeds by RAPD technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed the identification of cultivars and/or lines of Coffea arabica of commercial interest, using PCR-RAPD markers. The DNA of ground seeds lots of 12 cultivars and/or lines were evaluated with five primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16, and OPX 09) were obtained from a selection of 56 primers. The electrophoretic profiles allowed distinction among eight cultivars and/or lines as well as heterogeneity between and within lots of IAPAR59.Classicamente, a identificação de cultivares do cafeeiro utiliza descritores morfológicos da semente e da planta em crescimento. O uso de marcadores moleculares, além de permitir uma identificação genética precisa, possibilita a caracterização dos genótipos com menor custo de mão-de-obra e de tempo, pois a descrição é realizada com pequenas quantidades de DNA genômico, extraído em qualquer etapa de crescimento da planta. Este estudo visou a identificação de cultivares/linhagens de Coffea arabica, de interesse comercial para o IAPAR, utilizando-se marcadores do tipo PCR-RAPD. O DNA de sementes moídas de 12 lotes de cultivares e/ou linhagens foi avaliado com cinco primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16 e OPX 09) obtidos de uma pré-seleção de 56 primers. Os perfis eletroforéticos mostraram diferenças entre oito cultivares/linhagens e uma baixa heterogeneidade foi detectada dentro de um lote de IAPAR59 e entre dois lotes deste mesmo cultivar.

Maria Lúcia Crochemore; Liliane Moreira Nunes; Giselly Aparecida Andrade; Hugo Bruno Correa Molinari; Maria Elizabeth Vasconcellos

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Varietal identification of coffee seeds by RAPD technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Classicamente, a identificação de cultivares do cafeeiro utiliza descritores morfológicos da semente e da planta em crescimento. O uso de marcadores moleculares, além de permitir uma identificação genética precisa, possibilita a caracterização dos genótipos com menor custo de mão-de-obra e de tempo, pois a descrição é realizada com pequenas quantidades de DNA genômico, extraído em qualquer etapa de crescimento da planta. Este estudo visou a identificação (more) de cultivares/linhagens de Coffea arabica, de interesse comercial para o IAPAR, utilizando-se marcadores do tipo PCR-RAPD. O DNA de sementes moídas de 12 lotes de cultivares e/ou linhagens foi avaliado com cinco primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16 e OPX 09) obtidos de uma pré-seleção de 56 primers. Os perfis eletroforéticos mostraram diferenças entre oito cultivares/linhagens e uma baixa heterogeneidade foi detectada dentro de um lote de IAPAR59 e entre dois lotes deste mesmo cultivar. Abstract in english This study aimed the identification of cultivars and/or lines of Coffea arabica of commercial interest, using PCR-RAPD markers. The DNA of ground seeds lots of 12 cultivars and/or lines were evaluated with five primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16, and OPX 09) were obtained from a selection of 56 primers. The electrophoretic profiles allowed distinction among eight cultivars and/or lines as well as heterogeneity between and within lots of IAPAR59.

Crochemore, Maria Lúcia; Nunes, Liliane Moreira; Andrade, Giselly Aparecida; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; Vasconcellos, Maria Elizabeth

2004-03-01

82

Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne

83

Validating a framework for participatory ergonomics (the PEF).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory ergonomics is reported in an increasing number of case studies, but there is little evidence of emerging supportive theory and relatively little generic advice or guidance. The paper describes an effort to provide clarity and organization to the field of participatory ergonomics. A framework has been developed to define a range of different participatory ergonomics initiatives, establishing a number of levels at which to operate. This participatory ergonomics framework (the PEF) was validated through retrospective description of seven independently conducted case studies and through peer evaluation. The exercise suggests that the PEF can be used as a first basis to produce practical guidance on participatory ergonomics programmes.

Haines H; Wilson JR; Vink P; Koningsveld E

2002-03-01

84

Mutation induction as a tool for varietal development in ornamental plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the current advancement in biotechnology has tremendously change the modern breeding approach, the induced mutation techniques is still very much in use as complementary tools. MINT experiences in using the techniques for varietal development in ornamental plants has helped to increase genetic variabilities in several ornamental plant species, produced twelve new mutant cultivars as well as developed efficient tissue culture system for six ornamental plant species as tool for in vitro mutagenesis procedures and micropropagation. The technology and expertise that have been established are ready for transfer to the horticulture industry. Sharing of capability and capacity between research institutions and private sector is one possible way by improving and maintaining long-term sustenance of the floriculture industry. (author)

2000-01-01

85

[First results of varietal comparison and nitrogen fertilization of rapeseed in Italy (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some experiments of varietal comparison of various cultivars of rapeseed were carried out, determining the productivity, the oil yield and the analytical characteristics of the oils. Moreover the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the seed production and on oil characteristics were tested. The achieved results have pointed out that, referring to the chosen environment, the cv. "Matador" and "Leonessa" show the highest seed and oil productions, whereas oils extracted from the cv. "Sinus", "Erusine" and "Sinera" contain the minor quantities of erucic acid. It seem that nitrogen fertilization exerts no appreciable influence on rapeseed oil composition. The possibility of the utilization of cv. with law content in erucic acid confirms the practical validity of the cultivation of rapeseed as on oil plant.

Benvenuti A; Lotti G; Izzo R; Vicentini G

1975-03-01

86

Direct Effects of Soybean Varietal Selection and Aphis Glycines-Resistant Soybeans on Natural Enemies  

Science.gov (United States)

The direct effects of three soybean base genetics, each represented by an Aphis glycines-resistant and susceptible variety, on the fitness and performance of two key predators (Orius insidiosus and Harmonia axyridis) were evaluated in the laboratory. Predators were reared from hatch through adulthoo...

87

Participatory Action Research: A View from Xerox.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Describes the Quality of Work Life (QWL) program at the North American Manufacturing Division of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. States that the story of QWL is a description of participatory action research. Notes that the process has become an integral and flexible approach to solving problems and…

Pace, Larry A.; Argona, Dominick R.

1989-01-01

88

PEPSI: Privacy-Enhanced Participatory Sensing Infrastructure.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory Sensing combines the ubiquity of mobile phones with sensing capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks. It targets pervasive collection of information, e.g., temperature, traffic conditions, or health-related data. As users produce measurements from their mobile devices, voluntary partic...

Cristofaro, Emiliano de; Soriente, Claudio

89

Participatory Planning in Municipal Development in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation offers a full understanding of the extent of participatory planning in Thai municipalities within the context of a highly centralized state and dominance of local business people in public decision determination. In this ‘alternative’ mode of planning, various interests groups dete...

Chaowarat, Pondej

90

Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.

Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke

2011-01-01

91

Participatory ergonomics in design processes: the role of boundary objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers' participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.

Broberg O; Andersen V; Seim R

2011-03-01

92

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene de Lange; Mart-Mari Geldenhuys

2012-01-01

93

Participatory ergonomics and new work: reducing neck complaints in assembling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A participatory ergonomics approach is used to create a new work environment, which is aimed at reducing neck complaints in a cell phone assembly. The participatory ergonomics program included an initiative, problem identification, a selection of solutions, an implementation and evaluation. Twenty-eight women, all operators on an assembly line of cell phone boards, voluntarily participated in the design and evaluation of a device before implementing the device to all 215 employees performing that job. Prior to and after the intervention, RULA, comfort experiences and interviews were used. After introducing an adjustable angled small counter, these measurements showed both posture and comfort improvements. 90% of the 215 workers preferred the new work station and the neck complaints were reduced in 75% of the group. It also showed that the initial prototype needed to be modified as to reduce its sharp edges/compression points for the forearm. This project shows the importance of iterative testing and that an initiative by workers enlarges the chance of successful implementation.

Miguez SA; Hallbeck MS; Vink P

2012-01-01

94

A Trust-based Recruitment Framework for Multi-hop Social Participatory Sensing  

CERN Multimedia

The idea of social participatory sensing provides a substrate to benefit from friendship relations in recruiting a critical mass of participants willing to attend in a sensing campaign. However, the selection of suitable participants who are trustable and provide high quality contributions is challenging. In this paper, we propose a recruitment framework for social participatory sensing. Our framework leverages multi-hop friendship relations to identify and select suitable and trustworthy participants among friends or friends of friends, and finds the most trustable paths to them. The framework also includes a suggestion component which provides a cluster of suggested friends along with the path to them, which can be further used for recruitment or friendship establishment. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed recruitment framework in terms of selecting a large number of well-suited participants and providing contributions with high overall trust, in comparison with one-hop recruitment ...

Amintoosi, Haleh

2013-01-01

95

Participatory scenario development for environmental management: A methodological framework illustrated with experience from the UK uplands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A methodological framework is proposed for participatory scenario development on the basis of evidence from the literature, and is tested and refined through the development of scenarios for the future of UK uplands. The paper uses a review of previous work to justify a framework based around the following steps: i) define context and establish whether there is a basis for stakeholder engagement in scenario development; ii) systematically identify and represent relevant stakeholders in the process; iii) define clear objectives for scenario development with stakeholders including spatial and temporal boundaries; iv) select relevant participatory methods for scenario development, during initial scenario construction, evaluation and to support decision-making based on scenarios; and v) integrate local and scientific knowledge throughout the process. The application of this framework in case study research suggests that participatory scenario development has the potential to: i) make scenarios more relevant to stakeholder needs and priorities; ii) extend the range of scenarios developed; iii) develop more detailed and precise scenarios through the integration of local and scientific knowledge; and iv) move beyond scenario development to facilitate adaptation to future change. It is argued that participatory scenario development can empower stakeholders and lead to more consistent and robust scenarios that can help people prepare more effectively for future change.

Reed MS; Kenter J; Bonn A; Broad K; Burt TP; Fazey IR; Fraser ED; Hubacek K; Nainggolan D; Quinn CH; Stringer LC; Ravera F

2013-10-01

96

Participatory scenario development for environmental management: A methodological framework illustrated with experience from the UK uplands.  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodological framework is proposed for participatory scenario development on the basis of evidence from the literature, and is tested and refined through the development of scenarios for the future of UK uplands. The paper uses a review of previous work to justify a framework based around the following steps: i) define context and establish whether there is a basis for stakeholder engagement in scenario development; ii) systematically identify and represent relevant stakeholders in the process; iii) define clear objectives for scenario development with stakeholders including spatial and temporal boundaries; iv) select relevant participatory methods for scenario development, during initial scenario construction, evaluation and to support decision-making based on scenarios; and v) integrate local and scientific knowledge throughout the process. The application of this framework in case study research suggests that participatory scenario development has the potential to: i) make scenarios more relevant to stakeholder needs and priorities; ii) extend the range of scenarios developed; iii) develop more detailed and precise scenarios through the integration of local and scientific knowledge; and iv) move beyond scenario development to facilitate adaptation to future change. It is argued that participatory scenario development can empower stakeholders and lead to more consistent and robust scenarios that can help people prepare more effectively for future change. PMID:23774752

Reed, M S; Kenter, J; Bonn, A; Broad, K; Burt, T P; Fazey, I R; Fraser, E D G; Hubacek, K; Nainggolan, D; Quinn, C H; Stringer, L C; Ravera, F

2013-06-15

97

Release and formation of varietal aroma compounds during alcoholic fermentation from nonfloral grape odorless flavor precursors fractions.  

Science.gov (United States)

An odorless flavor precursor fraction extracted from different nonfloral grape varietals has been added to a grape must and has been fermented by three different yeast strains. The wines obtained were analyzed by sensory descriptive analysis and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to determine more than 90 aroma chemicals. The addition of the precursor fraction brought about a significant increase of the wine floral notes, irrespective of the yeast used. The levels of 51 wine aroma chemicals were found to depend on the precursor fraction addition and, in most cases, also on the yeast strain. Only beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, and vinylphenols were produced at concentrations well above threshold. However, the concerted addition of groups of compounds has shown that lactones, cinnamates, vanillins, and terpenes are together active contributors to the floral note. Different observations suggest that the formation of varietal aroma is an integral part of yeast metabolism and not a simple hydrolytical process. PMID:17616208

Loscos, Natalia; Hernandez-Orte, Purificacion; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2007-07-07

98

Evaluation of a Participatory Resource Monitoring System for Nontimber Forest Products: the Case of Amla (Phyllanthus spp.) Fruit Harvest by Soligas in South India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995–2005) period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla) by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for participatory resource mapping, fruit productivity estimation, and promotion of improved harvest techniques. Major challenges involved ensuring adequate incentives for monitoring activities that lead to benefits only over the longer term, such as monitoring of extraction and regeneration rates. Maintaining long-term participation and interest in the latter requires ensuring resource tenure.

R. Siddappa Setty; Kamal Bawa; Tamara Ticktin; C. Made Gowda

2008-01-01

99

Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

100

Participatory planning intercultural: Reflections for social work  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the nineties, participatory planning has emerged as a linking strategy for various social, political, economic and cultural sectors that assessed it as a potential for building consensus in the making of local processes forsocial improvement. Similarly, it was legitimized as a setting for practice for professionals trained in the social sciences, mainly Social Work. This article, from a geopolitical and geo-cultural perspective, presents contextual elements that determined the configuration of participatory planning in Latin America. These elements shall be staged in order to redefine diversity and the intercultural perspective that has been linked to this mobilizing strategy, against the institutionalized discourse of development and for the emergence of crisis and ruptures with this social paradigm from other practices and worldviews of life in the territories.

Esperanza Gómez Hernández

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

A Framework for Clarifying Participation in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants' acceptance of participatory resear...

Barreteau, O.; Bots, P.; Daniell, K.

102

A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory resear...

Barreteau, O.; Bots, P.W.G.; Daniell, K.A.

103

A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory ...

Olivier Barreteau; Pieter W. G. Bots; Katherine A. Daniell

104

Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L.) from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual). Using data from this study and the literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual) and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio) varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2% per °C). The classification of varieties should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet IOOC requirements. The differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype produced by environmental interaction, and the negative effect of the high seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further research.La industria oleícola del noroeste de Argentina creció sustancialmente durante las últimas dos décadas para producir aceite de oliva virgen exportable. Para evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los principales aceites varietales, se analizaron 563 muestras de aceite de 17 variedades en la provincia de La Rioja durante 2005-2008. Las variedades se clasificaron de acuerdo a su contenido de ácido oleico en bajo (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual). Utilizando datos de este trabajo y de la literatura, los aceites de variedades de origen español (Arbequina y Picual) e italiano (Coratina y Frantoio) mostraron consistentemente menor contenido de ácido oleico cuando crecieron en el noroeste de Argentina versus el Mediterráneo. Para Arbequina, el contenido de oleico disminuyó con la temperatura durante la síntesis y acumulación lipídica (-2 % por °C). La clasificación varietal por acido oleico debe ser útil para seleccionar aceites para mezclas correctivas y variedades para futuras plantaciones que cumplan con la normativa del COI. Diferencias en los perfiles de ácidos grasos entre el noroeste de Argentina y el Mediterráneo indican una interacción genotipo x ambiente, y el efecto negativo de la alta temperatura media estacional durante la síntesis de lípidos requerirá mayor investigación.

Rondanini, D. P.; Castro, D. N.; Searles, P. S.; Rousseaux, M. C.

2011-01-01

105

A Participatory Perspective on Cross-Cultural Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Designers face a number of challenges in terms of when and how to design interactive systems with indigenous groups. Every layer of development faces obstacles from designing localized interfaces to facilitating prototype evaluations in the wild. This article argues for the importance of continuous user involvement and participatory design. This is highlighted through explaining ongoing research in the creation of a 3D visualization knowledge management system to support preservation of indigenous knowledge (IK) in Africa. Through the sharing of experiences from the field I underpin the importance of acknowledging users' expertise and knowledge about the design context. Through presentation of a selection of these challenges in localizing systems development I wish to raise awareness of an required sensitivity to cultural differences in IT.

Rodil, Kasper

2013-01-01

106

Enabling objects for participatory design of socio-technical systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to identify and explore the role of objects in participatory ergonomics design processes. The question in focus is: What characterizes objects in PE processes? First the concept of boundary objects is introduced as a starting point for investigating the role of objects. Second, findings of a search to identify objects in PE processes are reported. Third, objects fulfilling the requirements for boundary objects are placed in one of five categories. Fourth, empirical findings from two PE case studies in which objects played an important role are presented. Finally, based on a grounded theory approach, a characterization of objects in PE design processes is developed and a framework for how the use of objects in PE processes could be conceptualized is proposed. In conclusion, the concept of objects in PE processes is contextual, and the ergonomist or other design actor needs to actively consider their selection and the stage at which they are to be used.

Broberg, Ole

2011-01-01

107

Participatory action research: Involving students in parent education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity.

Fowler C; Wu C; Lam W

2013-07-01

108

Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

Ananda, Jayanath

2007-04-01

109

[Concept analysis of a participatory approach to occupational safety and health].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze a participatory approach to occupational safety and health, and to examine the possibility of applying the concept to the practice and research of occupational safety and health. METHODS: According to Rodger's method, descriptive data concerning antecedents, attributes and consequences were qualitatively analyzed. A total of 39 articles were selected for analysis. RESULTS: Attributes with a participatory approach were: "active involvement of both workers and employers", "focusing on action-oriented low-cost and multiple area improvements based on good practices", "the process of emphasis on consensus building", and "utilization of a local network". Antecedents of the participatory approach were classified as: "existing risks at the workplace", "difficulty of occupational safety and health activities", "characteristics of the workplace and workers", and "needs for the workplace". The derived consequences were: "promoting occupational safety and health activities", "emphasis of self-management", "creation of safety and healthy workplace", and "contributing to promotion of quality of life and productivity". CONCLUSIONS: A participatory approach in occupational safety and health is defined as, the process of emphasis on consensus building to promote occupational safety and health activities with emphasis on self-management, which focuses on action-oriented low-cost and multiple area improvements based on good practices with active involvement of both workers and employers through utilization of local networks. We recommend that the role of the occupational health professional be clarified and an evaluation framework be established for the participatory approach to promote occupational safety and health activities by involving both workers and employers.

Yoshikawa E

2013-01-01

110

Sustainable Water Resource Management and Participatory System Dynamics. Case Study: Developing the Palouse Basin Participatory Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complexity of explaining highly scientific information and juggling a plethora of social values is leading agencies and communities such as those in the Palouse Basin to explore the use of participatory modeling processes using system dynamics. Participatory system dynamics as a methodology creates a transparent nexus of science, policy options, social concerns and local knowledge that enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. The process of developing a systems model uses the tenets of scientific theory, hypothesis testing and clear statements of assumptions. A unique aspect of the Palouse basin project is the use of system dynamics to describe ground water dynamics in a sole source confined aquifer system. There are, as of yet, no standards for analyzing participatory modeling projects, therefore, we use case study analysis to describe the process, insights and qualitative measurements of success.

Allyson Beall; Fritz Fiedler; Jan Boll; Barbara Cosens

2011-01-01

111

Arsenic speciation analysis in mono-varietal wines by on-line ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A highly efficient separation and pre-concentration method for arsenic species determination, based on ionic liquid (IL) dispersive microextraction technique implemented in a flow analysis system, is proposed. Highly selective separation of arsenite species [As(III)] was achieved by chelation with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) followed by dispersion with 40 mg of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(8)mim][PF(6)]) IL. Analyte extraction, retention and separation of IL phase were achieved with a packed microcolumn and As(III) was determined in eluent solution by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Concentration of As(V) was deduced by the difference between total inorganic arsenic and As(III). Thus, determination of total arsenic was performed by previous degradation of organo-arsenic species, followed by a reduction. Under optimal conditions, As(III) extraction efficiency was 100% and a sensitivity enhancement factor of 46 was obtained with only 4.0 ml of sample The method was successfully applied for arsenic speciation studies in mono-varietal wines.

Escudero LB; Martinis EM; Olsina RA; Wuilloud RG

2013-05-01

112

Arsenic speciation analysis in mono-varietal wines by on-line ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly efficient separation and pre-concentration method for arsenic species determination, based on ionic liquid (IL) dispersive microextraction technique implemented in a flow analysis system, is proposed. Highly selective separation of arsenite species [As(III)] was achieved by chelation with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) followed by dispersion with 40 mg of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(8)mim][PF(6)]) IL. Analyte extraction, retention and separation of IL phase were achieved with a packed microcolumn and As(III) was determined in eluent solution by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Concentration of As(V) was deduced by the difference between total inorganic arsenic and As(III). Thus, determination of total arsenic was performed by previous degradation of organo-arsenic species, followed by a reduction. Under optimal conditions, As(III) extraction efficiency was 100% and a sensitivity enhancement factor of 46 was obtained with only 4.0 ml of sample The method was successfully applied for arsenic speciation studies in mono-varietal wines. PMID:23265515

Escudero, Leticia B; Martinis, Estefanía M; Olsina, Roberto A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

2012-11-08

113

Characterization of volatile compounds and olfactory profile of red minority varietal wines from La Rioja.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to study for the first time the volatile compounds and olfactory profile of La Rioja red wines made with the local varieties Vitis vinifera cv. Monastel and Maturana Tinta de Navarrete, using Tempranillo as a reference variety. The impact of vintage on these compounds was also evaluated, and chemometric techniques were applied to achieve a possible differentiation of the wines. RESULTS: A clear classification of wines according to grape variety and vintage was obtained. Volatile compounds that differentiated wines by grape variety were varietal aromas whereas vintage was mainly differentiated by compounds formed during the alcoholic fermentation and extracted from wood during the elaboration process in wooden barrels. Sensory analysis also allowed differentiation of wines by grape variety. Tempranillo wines were characterized by liquorice notes, whereas Maturana Tinta de Navarrete wines were the least fruity and showed herbaceous and pepper notes. The sensory profile of Monastel varied between vintages. CONCLUSION: These minor grape varieties could provide a good alternative to the most widespread variety in La Rioja: Tempranillo. The use of these varieties produced wines with their own personality and different aromatic profile from other wines on the market. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23640744

Martínez-Pinilla, Olga; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam

2013-05-01

114

Varietal tracing of virgin olive oils based on plastid DNA variation profiling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices.

Pérez-Jiménez M; Besnard G; Dorado G; Hernandez P

2013-01-01

115

Varietal Tracing of Virgin Olive Oils Based on Plastid DNA Variation Profiling  

Science.gov (United States)

Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices.

Perez-Jimenez, Marga; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

2013-01-01

116

Vari\\'et\\'es rationnellement connexes sur un corps alg\\'ebriquement clos  

CERN Document Server

These are lectures notes on rationally connected varieties, written for the "Etats de la Recherche" of the French Mathematical Society held in Strasbourg (May 2008). We focus on geometric aspects. These notes have been written in order that a wide audience can easily read them, except maybe the last section, a bit more technical, where we give the proof of Shokurov rational connectedness conjecture following Hacon and McKernan. ----- Ce sont les notes d'un mini-cours sur les vari\\'et\\'es rationnellement connexes, \\'ecrit pour les Etats de la Recherche de la Soci\\'et\\'e Math\\'ematique de France (Strasbourg, 2008). On met l'accent sur les aspects g\\'eom\\'etriques. Ce cours est r\\'edig\\'e dans l'espoir de s'adresser \\`a un public large, \\`a l'exception peut-\\^etre du \\S 7, o\\`u nous donnons les grandes lignes de la preuve de la conjecture de connexit\\'e rationnelle de Shokurov par Hacon et McKernan, plus technique et o\\`u les pr\\'erequis sont un peu plus importants.

Bonavero, L

2008-01-01

117

Analysis of carotenoids in grapes to predict norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wines from Apulia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine a correlation between carotenoid precursors in grapes and norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wine, carotenoids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS (ESI+) from four representative wine grape varieties of the Apulian region (Chardonnay, Merlot, Negroamaro, Primitivo) in two years of study (2006-2007), and C13-norisoprenoid aroma potential, DeltaC (microg/kg), was calculated from the difference of total carotenoid concentration between veraison and maturity. C13-norisoprenoids were analyzed by GC-MS in the obtained wines from 2006 and 2007 vintages. Higher DeltaC values, found in Chardonnay and Merlot grapes, corresponded to higher norisoprenoid contents in the respective wines, particularly characterized by highly flavorant compounds such as beta-damascenone and 3-oxo-alpha-ionol. A linear regression was determined that was significant at the 0.01% level (F=36.12, p=0.00096) with R=0.9261, between grape DeltaC values and total norisoprenoid contents in wine. These findings support the hypothesis that DeltaC could be a useful technological tool to predict norisoprenoid aroma of wine and, consequently, to identify grapes with higher aroma potential. PMID:20695424

Crupi, Pasquale; Coletta, Antonio; Antonacci, Donato

2010-09-01

118

Analysis of carotenoids in grapes to predict norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wines from Apulia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine a correlation between carotenoid precursors in grapes and norisoprenoid varietal aroma of wine, carotenoids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS (ESI+) from four representative wine grape varieties of the Apulian region (Chardonnay, Merlot, Negroamaro, Primitivo) in two years of study (2006-2007), and C13-norisoprenoid aroma potential, DeltaC (microg/kg), was calculated from the difference of total carotenoid concentration between veraison and maturity. C13-norisoprenoids were analyzed by GC-MS in the obtained wines from 2006 and 2007 vintages. Higher DeltaC values, found in Chardonnay and Merlot grapes, corresponded to higher norisoprenoid contents in the respective wines, particularly characterized by highly flavorant compounds such as beta-damascenone and 3-oxo-alpha-ionol. A linear regression was determined that was significant at the 0.01% level (F=36.12, p=0.00096) with R=0.9261, between grape DeltaC values and total norisoprenoid contents in wine. These findings support the hypothesis that DeltaC could be a useful technological tool to predict norisoprenoid aroma of wine and, consequently, to identify grapes with higher aroma potential.

Crupi P; Coletta A; Antonacci D

2010-09-01

119

Teachers' Stories: Expanding the Boundaries with the Participatory Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compiled by a group of teachers new to the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) field, this volume contains writing samples from teachers involved in the participatory approach to ESL classroom instruction. Introductory notes by Lee Hewitt cite the participatory approach as the most compelling method for teaching ESL adult learners. The "teaching…

Hewitt, Lee; And Others

120

SCIENTIFIC SAMPLING IN SMALL RURAL COMMUNITY PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To adapt and modify scientific sampling appropriately in a community participatory set ting. Background: Surveys may be used in community participatory research to assess the state of a community prior to intervention, readiness to participate in an intervention, and post intervention to ...

 
 
 
 
121

Reinvigorating Multicultural Education through Youth Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores youth participatory action research as a promising instructional practice with the potential to reverse the depoliticizing and "softening" of multicultural education. It demonstrates how, with its explicit commitment to action, youth participatory action research can help to improve the educational experiences and outcomes…

Irizarry, Jason G.

2009-01-01

122

A configurable architecture for e-participatory budgeting support  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory budgets are emerging as a paradigm for participation. However, there are many variants of such experiences suggesting a look of general methodology. Moreover there is a little use of ICT in this application context. We present a configurable architecture for e-participatory budget formation support.

Cesar Alfaro; Javier Gomez; Jose M. Lavin; Juan J. Molero

2010-01-01

123

The Importance of Describing Participatory Design in the Making  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is a call to describe Participatory Design (PD) projects in the making, i.e. to show how the heterogeneous elements in the field are gradually organised in a participatory manner as the projects progress. It is based on two arguments. The first is a negative argument. Very often, PD pro...

Martine, Thomas

124

Methodological Immaturity in Childhood Research?: Thinking through "Participatory Methods"  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the recent literature on social research with children advocates the use of participatory techniques. This article attempts to rethink such techniques in several ways. The authors argue that participatory approaches, in their insistence that children should take part in research, may in fact involve children in processes that aim to…

Gallacher, Lesley-Anne; Gallagher, Michael

2008-01-01

125

The Challenges of Participatory Research with "Tech-Savvy" Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on participatory research and how it can be understood and employed when researching children and youth. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretically and empirically grounded discussion of participatory research methodologies with respect to investigating the dynamic and evolving phenomenon of young people growing up in…

Mallan, Kerry Margaret; Singh, Parlo; Giardina, Natasha

2010-01-01

126

An Attractive Choice: Education Researchers' Use of Participatory Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory methodologies are often favoured in education research. This study aimed to determine collaborative partnership trends between education researchers and teachers in order to understand the use of participatory theory and practice in education studies. Seven symposium presentations by education scholars from various higher education…

Ebersohn, L.; Ferreira, R.; Beukes, J.

2012-01-01

127

Participatory Design at a Radio Station  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We address design of computer support for work and its coordination at the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. We propose design solutions based upon participatory design techniques and ethnographically inspired analysis within a full scale design project. The project exemplifies an ambitious, yet realistic, design practice, that provides a sound basis for organisational decision making and for technical and organizational development and implementation. We focus on cooperative aspects within and among the editorial units, and between editorial units and the editorial board. We discuss technical and organisational aspects of the design, seen in light of recent CSCW concepts, including coordination and computational coordination mechanisms, technologies of accountability, and workflow from within and without.

Kensing, Finn; Simonsen, Jesper

1998-01-01

128

AFLP analysis of genetic variation within the two economically important Anatolian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varietal groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Anatolian region of modern-day Turkey is believed to have played an important role in the history of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) domestication and spread. Despite this, the rich grape germplasm of this region is virtually uncharacterized genetically. In this study, the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP)-based genetic relations of the grapevine accessions belonging to the 2 economically important Anatolian table grape varietal groups known as V. vinifera 'Misket' (Muscat) and V. vinifera 'Parmak' were studied. Thirteen AFLP primer combinations used in the analyses revealed a total of 1495 (35.5% polymorphic) and 1567 (34.6% polymorphic) DNA fragments for the 'Misket' and 'Parmak' varietal groups, respectively. The unweighted pair-group method with arthimetic averaging (UPGMA) cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCA) conducted on polymorphic AFLP markers showed that both varietal groups contain a number of synonymous (similar genotypes known by different names) as well as homony mous (genetically different genotypes known by the same name) accessions. Our results also showed that 6 of the Anatolian 'Misket' genotypes were genetically very similar to V. vinifera 'Muscat of Alexandria', implying that these genotypes might have played some role in the formation of this universally known grape cultivar. Finally, the close genetic similarities found here between 'Muscat of Alexandria' and V. vinifera 'Muscat of Hamburg' support the recent suggestion that 'Muscat of Hamburg' probably originated from 'Muscat of Alexandria' through spontaneous hybridizations. Overall, the results of this study have implications for not only preservation and use of the Anatolian grape germplasm, but also better understanding of the historical role that this region has played during the domestication of grapes. PMID:16767171

Ergül, Ali; Kazan, Kemal; Aras, Sümer; Cevik, Volkan; Celik, Hasan; Söylemezo?lu, Gökhan

2006-05-01

129

Une caract\\'erisation diff\\'erentielle des faisceaux analytiques coh\\'erents sur une vari\\'et\\'e complexe  

CERN Document Server

Nous g\\'en\\'eralisons, dans le contexte des faisceaux, un r\\'esultat classique de Grothendieck concernant l'int\\'egrabilit\\'e des connexions de type $(0,1)$ sur un fibr\\'e vectoriel ${\\cal C}^{\\infty}$ au dessus d'une vari\\'et\\'e complexe. En introduisant la notion de faisceau $\\bar{\\partial}$-coh\\'erent, qui est une notion qui vit dans le contexte ${\\cal C}^{\\infty}$, nous montrons l'existence d'une \\'equivalence (exacte) entre la cat\\'egorie des faisceaux analytiques coh\\'erents et la cat\\'egorie des faisceaux $\\bar{\\partial}$-coh\\'erents.

Pali, N

2003-01-01

130

The field of Participatory Design : Issues and approaches in dynamic constellations of use, design and research.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this chapter, the field of Participatory Design is introduced, including the description of a number of its specific approaches. After an introduction in some of the issues in Participatory Design, approaches within the field of Participatory Design and relevant for the field of Participatory Design are outlined.

Törpel, Bettina

2007-01-01

131

Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

Bozalek, Vivienne

2011-01-01

132

Participatory Spatial Modeling and the Septic Dilemma  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Whereas point sources of nutrients are quite well known and controlled, there is growing concernabout non-point sources, especially those that are related to individual homeowners and citizens' practices. Theyseem to be the hardest to manage and reduce. On-site sewage disposal systems (OSDS) are among the majorcontributors to the nutrient pollution of surface and ground waters. In Calvert County, Maryland, up to 25% ofthe non point source nitrogen pollution originates from septic systems. A participatory landscape modelingapproach has been used to analyze and visualize the impact of septic systems on the water quality entering theestuary. The landscape model tracks the fate of nutrients released from septic tanks and other non-point sources.A series of stakeholder workshops have been arranged to demonstrate, using the model, how septic dischargescontribute to the water pollution in the estuary. Our results suggest that septic tanks are a less significantcontributor to surface water nitrogen pollution in the short-term than was previously assumed whereas fertilizerrunoff may be more important than previously thought. We are exploring how this participatory process can beused to influence decision-making and management policies in the County to reduce all sources of nitrogen tolocal waters.

Alexey Voinov; Erica J. Gaddis; Helena Vladich

133

Revisiting the issue of elite capture in participatory initiatives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on case studies of two communities implementing participatory forestry in Tanzania and India, we revisit the issue of elite capture of participatory initiatives. Our cases illustrate how initial elite capture of the participatory initiatives is circumvented over time through various forms of resistance orchestrated by initially disadvantaged groups. Based on the cases we argue that studies of elite capture should be based on in-depth and longitudinal empirical investigations that carefully characterize forms and outcomes of elite capture and consider both the changing dynamics of social settings and the perceptions held by the people under study.

Lund, Jens Friis; Saito, Moeko

2013-01-01

134

Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.

Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

2013-01-01

135

Distribution of varietal thiol precursors in the skin and the pulp of Melon B. and Sauvignon Blanc grapes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to examine varietal thiol precursors in both the skin and the pulp of grapes, two grape varieties, Melon B. and Sauvignon Blanc, were considered. We found that cysteinylated and glutathionylated precursors of 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-4-mercapto-2-pentanone were preferentially in skin. In the Sauvignon Blanc variety, precursors were detected both in the skin and the pulp, while in Melon B., only S-3-(1-hexanol)glutathione was detected in pulp, any other precursors being exclusively found in skin. During an industrial pressing cycle, extraction of thiol precursors was enhanced at the end of the cycle (highest pressures), thus producing more varietal thiols in the resulting wines. Cold prefermentation skin contact did not influence the concentration of the measured precursors in Sauvignon Blanc must. Nevertheless, the release of thiol in resulting wines increased significantly between 1 and 7days of cold prefermentation skin contact. This increase could be due to the formation of other thiol precursors, such as S-3-(1-hexanal)glutathione or S-3-(1-hexanal)cysteine, during prefermentative operations.

Roland Aurélie; Schneider Rémi; Charrier Frédéric; Cavelier Florine; Rossignol Michel; Razungles Alain

2011-03-01

136

FLAVONOL PROFILES FOR VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CARMÉNÈRE AND MERLOT WINES PRODUCED IN CHILE: HPLC AND CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Wine differentiation is an important issue for the Chilean winemaking industry, especially for the Carménère variety, which was rediscovered in this country around 20 years ago. Authentication parameters are required for this wine due to its frequent confusion with Merlot. The concentration of anthocyanins, shikimic acid, and the principal flavonols found in wine allowed some varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines. Myricetin and quercetin are the (more) most concentrated flavonols in wine in which they are present in free and conjugated forms. These compounds are responsible for important wine antioxidant properties. In the present work, using only the concentrations of free and conjugated quercetin and myricetin, differentiation between Carménère and Merlot varieties was better achieved. Flavonol profiles of wine produced in Chile were studied with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. An overview of the concentration range of flavonols present in 248 Chilean red wines is presented, finding that the mean concentration of the sum of total myricetin and total quercetin were higher in Carménère (81.5 mgL-1) and Merlot (78.9 mgL¹) than in Cabernet Sauvignon (53.9 mgL¹) wines. These mean levels were higher than the majority of the concentrations reported in the literature. The chemometric analysis shows that the ratio of total quercetin/total myricetin combined with the concentration of free myricetin allowed the varietal differentiation between Carménère and Merlot wines.

VERGARA, C; VON BAER, D; MARDONES, C; GUTIÉRREZ, L; HERMOSÍN-GUTIÉRREZ, I; CASTILLO-MUÑOZ, N

2011-12-01

137

ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

Brîndu?a-Antonela SBÎRCEA; Nicoleta IANOVICI

2011-01-01

138

Scandinavian Participatory Design : Dialogic curation with Teenagers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

2012-01-01

139

A Concept for Testing Decision Support Tools in Participatory Processes Applied to the ToSIA Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ToSIA (Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment) offers a transparent and consistent methodological framework to assess impacts of changes (technological, policy, management, etc.) in the forest-based sector. This tool is able to facilitate the decision making process within and between diverse groups of stakeholders (e.g., forest managers and policymakers) as it provides a neutral, transparent and data-driven platform for stakeholder interaction and communication. To test these capabilities of ToSIA, a practical approach to test if a decision support system is suitable for participatory processes was developed based on a set of evaluation criteria for participatory processes. ToSIA’s performance was assessed and discussed in different categories against a selection of criteria for successful participatory processes: six criteria were fulfilled by ToSIA, in nine, ToSIA is potentially helpful, in two, criteria ToSIA has no influence, and for three criteria, no experiences exist until now. As a result, ToSIA’s conceptual suitability as a participatory decision support system was confirmed for two interlinked roles: as a decision support system to assess alternative scenarios, and as a communication platform for stakeholder interaction.

Diana Tuomasjukka; Marcus Lindner; David Edwards

2013-01-01

140

Participatory Action Research for Dealing with Disasters on Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much disaster research has a basis in non-island case studies, although mono-disciplinary disaster-related research across past decades has often used case studies of individual islands. Both sets of work contribute to contemporary ‘participatory action research’ which investigates ways of dealing with disasters on islands. This paper asks what might be gained through combining disaster research, island studies, and participatory action research. What value does island studies bring to participatory action research for dealing with disasters? Through a critical (not comprehensive) overview of participatory action research for dealing with disasters on islands, three main lessons emerge. First, the island context matters to a certain degree for disaster-related research and action. Second, islandness has much more to offer disaster-related research than is currently appreciated. Third, more studies are needed linking theory to evidence found on the ground on islanders’ terms. Limitations of the analyses here and future research directions are provided.

Ilan Kelman; James Lewis; JC Gaillard; Jessica Mercer

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Environmental governance: Participatory, multi-level - and effective?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current international and European Union environmental policies increasingly promote collaborative and participatory decision-making on appropriate and multiple governance levels as a means to attain more sustainable policies and a more effective and lasting policy implementation. The entailed shift...

Newig, Jens; Fritsch, Oliver

142

The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

2005-01-01

143

Participatory development and implementation of a community research workshop: Experiences from a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership  

Science.gov (United States)

While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...

144

[A participatory ergonomics program in a chemical company].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a participatory ergonomics program that started in April 2010 in a chemical company located in the autonomous region of Valencia, Spain. The program was introduced in the company, the intervention level was agreed (two working lines, 24 workers) and a working group was established (Ergo Group, including managers, technicians and safety representatives in the company) with the aim of leading the intervention. A questionnaire was applied to collect information on ergonomic injuries and exposures in workers at the selected working lines. This information was analyzed by the Ergo Group and was later discussed at prevention circles with the direct participation of affected workers. When the present article was being drafted, 16 improvements to working conditions had already been proposed. Some of these improvements had been implemented and, in the opinion of some of the participants, were effective. To develop this kind of program, which could benefit a substantial number of workers in Spain, a firm commitment to prevention by companies is required.

García AM; Sevilla MJ; Gadea R; Casañ C

2012-07-01

145

Effect of a Participatory Intervention to Reduce the Number of Unnecessary Cesarean Sections Performed in Shahrekord of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research the role of participatory people in decreasing cesarean frequency has been investigated. For this purpose 171 pregnant women randomly selected from all pregnant women in Shahrekord. A participator team including housewives, teachers, sales, health communicators` physicians, midwifes and nurses were responsible for educating the selected women about the indication of cesarean section and benefits of vaginal birth. The contexts of the educated women were evaluated by a questionnaire from before and after education. In this research about 70% of the women were satisfied with the education program. Also frequency of cesarean which were 63% before intervention and after education decreased to 51% as a result of the education. The result of this study indicated that in health subjects such a cesarean which is related to society and human culture, participatory interventions can yield satisfactory results.

Forouzan Ganji; Hossein Yusefi; Azar Baradaran

2006-01-01

146

Identifying superior wheat cultivars in participatory research on resource poor farms  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Improving livelihood of resource poor farmers is an important goal of wheat research in developing countries. Although remarkable success has been achieved to date in developing widely adapted wheat cultivars, many resource poor farmers in marginal areas in developing world have not benefited. Participatory research could greatly enhance identifying cultivars according to the choice of the poor farmers. This study was conducted to examine how farmers' selection criteria could assist breeders in identifying superior wheat cultivars, and determine if a new statistical analysis tool, GGE biplot, could be effectively used in selection of improved cultivar based on quantitative (grain yield) and qualitative data (farmers' preference score). The field experiments were conducted in 3 years (2003-2005) in three mid-hill districts in the central Nepal involving resource poor wheat farmers. Sixteen wheat genotypes, including a long-term and a current commercial cultivar, were used in the study. Data were collected on agronomic traits considered important by the participating farmers. These included days to heading and maturity, plant height, effective tiller number, spike length, kernel per spike, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield. Farmers also qualitatively scored each genotype for multiple traits based on their preference. In general, the farmers used the same traits in selecting a superior cultivar that are used by breeders. However, relative importance of different traits differed, not necessarily following in line with the breeder preference. The cultivar superiority based on quantitative agronomic data (breeders' criteria) and qualitative preference scores (farmers' criteria) often showed synergies, however, there were differences as well. This indicates farmers' ability to choose superior cultivars based on qualitative observation compared to tedious quantitative data recording in the on-station testing. In the first year, a greater number of farmers selected improved check as a better choice than recent advanced breeding lines. In the 2nd and 3rd years, the farmers preferred genotypes other than the checks. This underlines the importance of testing of advanced materials in farmers' fields in multiple years. Principal component analysis using GGE-biplot was useful in identifying superior genotypes based on both quantitative and qualitative data recorded across environments. This approach could be useful in analyzing data from participatory agricultural research conducted under highly diverse farmers' field conditions where it is easier to record observations on qualitative than quantitative scale. This technique can also be extended to on-farm participatory testing of other technologies. The findings bear implications for a broad range of participatory research and technology evaluation and verification.

Thapa DB; Sharma RC; Mudwari A; Ortiz-Ferrara G; Sharma S; Basnet RK; Witcombe JR; Virk DS; Joshi KD

2009-06-01

147

Varietes de descente, gerbes et obstruction de Brauer-Manin (Descent varieties, gerbes and Brauer-Manin obstruction)  

CERN Multimedia

Nous montrons comment associer \\`a une gerbe d\\'efinie sur un corps de nombres une obstruction de Brauer-Manin mesurant, comme dans le cas des vari\\'et\\'es, le d\\'efaut d'existence d'une section globale. Ceci nous conduit \\`a une g\\'en\\'eralisation de la dualit\\'e de Tate-Poitou au cas non-ab\\'elien. We find a way to associate to a gerbe defined over a number field a Brauer-Manin obstruction, which measures, as for varieties, the defect to the existence of a global section. This leads us to a generalization of Tate-Poitou duality in the non-abelian case.

Douai, J C; Zahnd, S; Douai, Jean-Claude; Emsalem, Michel; Zahnd, Stephane

2003-01-01

148

Rural Development Practice in Nigeria: How Participatory and What Challenges?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory rural development has evolved in the past 60 years as a development process and discourse that should encapsulate a wide range of views, voices and stakeholder contributions. How has this approach been followed in Nigeria?s rural development practice? This paper reviews the practices and challenges of participatory rural development in Nigeria from a historical perspective emphasizing on the colonial system and post-colonial military and civilian governance. The paper observes that participatory development has not been practiced in the real sense of the concept in rural development in Nigeria. While highly centralized and top-down exploitative rural development practice dominated the colonial system up to the period of post-independence military dictatorship, not much significant difference have been observed within the current civilian democratic experiment. The paper argues that while long years of military rule in Nigeria have made it impossible for the development of effective institutional arrangements that could sustain true participatory democratic culture, a lack of citizens? capacity to participate in development intended for their benefit has posed the greatest challenge in achieving sustainable participatory rural development.

Nseabasi S. Akpan

2012-01-01

149

POST-EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION: TOWARDS A MUCH MORE PARTICIPATORY PLANNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the devastating Great Wenchuan Earthquake occured in May 2008, China responded rapidly to mitigate the losses caused. Post-earthquake reconstruction planning plays a crucial role to the future development of earthquake struck areas. The post-earthquake reconstruction planning work has demonstrated to be an immediate action and tends to be a much more open and participatory. Since the influence of long term planned economy in the past and its centralised administration system, planning in China is comparatively information-close to ordinary people. However, the post-earthquake reconstruction planning turns to be a much wider participatory and more open than before, though it is still immature and there still many obstacles need to be overcome. This paper firstly introduces the Great Wenchuan Earthquake and the quick response of reconstruction planning in China. It depicts the intensive work of the reconstruction planning. Then it reviews the concept of participatory planning and the history of participatory planning in China. Thirdly, it identifies three new trends that a more participatory planning has showed in the reconstruction planning. Lastly, this paper points out some problems still exist in the reconstruction planning.

Sheng YING

2009-01-01

150

Integrating Participatory Action Research and GIS Education: Negotiating Methodologies, Politics and Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…

Elwood, Sarah

2009-01-01

151

Making Games after School: Participatory Game Design in Non-Formal Learning Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory design principles were used with primarily African-American and Latino children in the Washington, DC area in the development of sports-themed digital game prototypes in an after-school program. The three stages in participatory design are the discovery stage, the evaluative stage, and prototyping. Within the participatory design…

Clark, Kevin; Brandt, Jami; Hopkins, Rhonda; Wilhelm, Jason

2009-01-01

152

Office ergonomics education: a comparison of traditional and participatory methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health and safety literature stresses the value of programs aimed at preventing musculoskeletal injuries. The concepts of empowerment learning are often recommended as guidelines for worker education yet these approaches are largely untested. The present study compares the traditional approach involving lecture and discussion with a participatory method. A sample of 102 participants employed at a centralized reservation facility was used. Participants were randomly assigned to either the traditional education group or the participatory education group. Data collection utilized surveys completed by study participants and observational checklists completed by a trained observer. Data were collected prior to intervention and at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Results of data analysis provide no evidence that participatory methods are more effective than traditional methods in encouraging workers to position their work equipment correctly or to maintain good working postures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:12454450

Bohr, Paula C

2002-01-01

153

Office ergonomics education: a comparison of traditional and participatory methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health and safety literature stresses the value of programs aimed at preventing musculoskeletal injuries. The concepts of empowerment learning are often recommended as guidelines for worker education yet these approaches are largely untested. The present study compares the traditional approach involving lecture and discussion with a participatory method. A sample of 102 participants employed at a centralized reservation facility was used. Participants were randomly assigned to either the traditional education group or the participatory education group. Data collection utilized surveys completed by study participants and observational checklists completed by a trained observer. Data were collected prior to intervention and at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Results of data analysis provide no evidence that participatory methods are more effective than traditional methods in encouraging workers to position their work equipment correctly or to maintain good working postures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries.

Bohr PC

2002-01-01

154

Empowerment and regulation : Dilemmas in participatory fisheries science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.

Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

2012-01-01

155

Grassroots ergonomics: initiating an ergonomics program utilizing participatory techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The introduction of ergonomics programs throughout the world requires an easy to understand and inexpensive process. Participatory ergonomic intervention techniques have proven to be beneficial in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. The participatory approach to ergonomics has also been found to be a useful application within industrialized (developed) countries and industrially developing countries (IDCs). Grassroots Ergonomics principles utilize expertise within a workforce that focuses on participatory ergonomics interpretations of quantitative and qualitative risk and exposure assessment information that in turn results in a peer-developed ergonomics training. Regardless of the intricacy of the exposure assessment tools, workers should fully assist in gathering and analyzing data, then in identifying and implementing solutions. A coordinated and multidisciplinary application of this approach within IDCs would succeed in the creation and sharing of job-specific ergonomics training information for high physical exposure professions, such as agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, and small-scale enterprises, to initiate ergonomics programs regionally.

Zalk DM

2001-06-01

156

Participatory Design of Websites with Web Design Workshops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries we have included users in technology development with great success. "Participatory design" entails collaboration among designers, developers, and users from the earliest stages of conception through to implementation of websites and other technology. Using participatory methods, a project to redesign the library website began with workshops to identify user needs and preferences. The results of these workshops led to the identification of key tasks for the main page. They also generated a hierarchy of tasks for sub-pages and rich information about how students and faculty members use current websites in their work. In our article, we explain our reasons for running participatory design workshops, describe our methods, review participants and recruitment, and summarize key findings. We also include information about our local implementation and general conclusions about the value of design workshops for website design and development.

Nancy Fried Foster; Nora Dimmock; Alison Bersani

2008-01-01

157

Participatory Workflow Analysis: Unveling Scientific Research Processes with Physical Scientists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are working with physical scientists from a diversity of domains to design and develop problem-solving environments for scientific research. This paper describes our current efforts in conducting domain analysis with different classes of physical scientists. We have employed a method we call participatory workflow analysis, which allows scientists to easily construct, evolve, and decompose workflow diagrams. Using this analysis approach, the scientists have been able to elucidate and document their various research and problem-solving functions and processes. The motivation of this paper is to share our general experiences and findings from our application of participatory workflow analysis with physical scientists. We will describe the participatory workflow analysis approach, show examples from its usage, and present some of our findings from the analysis.

Chin, George; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Myers, James D.; Gracio, Deborah K.

2002-06-01

158

Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease prevention, and other health issues in California. The survey is used for policy and program development, advocacy, and research. Methods The development of the California Health Interview Survey involves more than 145 people from more than 60 state and local policymaking bodies, public health agencies, advocacy groups, research organizations, and health care organizations. They participate as volunteers in an advisory board, on technical advisory committees, and in work groups that interact with California Health Interview Survey research staff in an accountable advisory process that shapes survey topics, measures, and sample design and determines languages selected for translation. Survey results and data are provided to the communities involved in the survey. Results California Health Interview Survey data have been widely used by local, state, and national public health leaders, policymakers, advocates, and researchers to improve access to health insurance and health care services and to develop and target prevention programs for obesity and chronic illnesses. Conclusion The California Health Interview Survey participatory research model has been an effective approach to planning and implementing a health survey and should be considered by developers of other large health surveys.

E. Richard Brown, PhD; Sue Holtby, MPH; Elaine Zahnd, PhD; George B. Abbott, MD, MPH

2005-01-01

159

Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be primarily responsible for managing and controlling them. The core aspect of the study is the use of cross-sectional survey research design in generating the required primary data. The place of study is the bonny NLNG construction project while the duration of study is between March, 2012 and February, 2013. A sample of 396 (35 supervisors, 98 foremen and 263 workmen) respondents determined at 5% level of significance for sample error, using Yamane’s formula, was selected from a population of 40,568 employees using stratified random sampling method for the purpose of questionnaire administration. The results indicated that reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is to a large extent dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the Bonny NLNG construction project as buttressed by the 82% and 81% large extent response rate respectively. It therefore recommends among others: regular site safety audits to identify/eliminate sub-causes of accident, regular staff training to improve their hazard identification skills, formation of health and safety committee to identify/eliminate potential hazards at the task level and making hazard identification/reporting everyone’s responsibility.

Mba Okechukwu Agwu; Cletus Izunwanne Emeti

2013-01-01

160

Perfil sensorial de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros através de análise descritiva quantitativa Sensory profile of brazilian varietal white wines by quantitative descriptive analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling) foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ). Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, materiais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado.Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay) were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and differences among the wine samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeters non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The collected data were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed a great difference within the sensory profile of Riesling and Gewürztraminer wines, whereas Chardonnay wines showed a lesser variation. PCA separated samples into two groups: a first group formed by wines higher in sweetness and fruitty flavor and aroma; and a second group of wines higher in sourness, adstringency, bitterness, alcoholic and fermented flavors.

Jorge Herman BEHRENS; Maria Aparecida Azevedo P. da SILVA

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection

2001-01-01

162

PARTICIPATORY SOIL IMPROVEMENT: A CUBAN CASE STUDY IN FERTILITY MANAGEMENT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La degradación mundial de la calidad del suelo y el agotamiento de las reservas de fertilizantes hechos a base de petróleo amenazan la seguridad alimentaria global. A pesar de que la investigación científica ha desarrollado soluciones técnicas para el mejoramiento del suelo con bajos insumos, los agricultores que producen a pequeña escala no adoptan dichas prácticas frecuentemente. Con la meta de aumentar la implementación de prácticas que mejoran el suelo, un es (more) tudio de caso en la comunidad de San Andrés, Cuba, probó una metodología participativa para explorar el conocimiento local, identificar las tecnológicas que podían satisfacer las necesidades de la comunidad, e impulsar la innovación campesina con las tecnologías seleccionadas. A través de una investigación cualitativa, el estudio exploró el corpus, la praxis, y el kosmos que la comunidad tiene para conceptualizar, manejar y tomar decisiones sobre sus suelos. El análisis de etnopedología indicó que aunque los productores reconocen que la calidad de sus suelos está empeorando y que comparten una meta general sobre el mejoramiento de sus tierras a largo plazo, las estrategias existentes del manejo de la fertilidad son inadecuadas para satisfacer la demanda de los cultivos. Los resultados sugieren que la introducción de nuevas tecnologías a la comunidad podría acelerar la formación de una praxis más adecuada. Para satisfacer las necesidades de manejo de nutrientes, se seleccionaron abonos verdes y compost como las tecnologías más adecuadas para los sistemas de producción existentes. Es por ello que la “feria de fertilidad del suelo” reunió a investigadores y miembros de la comunidad, para experimentar con diferentes tipos de abonos verdes y compost, así como evaluar su comportamiento en contextos locales. El trabajo considera que la feria es una puerta de entrada al manejo sostenible del suelo por medio de la innovación campesina. Para guiar el futuro diseño del mejoramiento participativo del suelo, el trabajo expone las lecciones aprendidas de una experiencia que integró la etnopedología y las ferias del suelo. Abstract in english The degrading quality of soils worldwide and an uncertain supply of petroleum-based fertilizers are a threat to global food security. Although research has developed low-input technical solutions to improve soil resource, such technologies are rarely adopted by small farmers in the global south. With the goal of increasing farmer adoption of soil building practices, a case study in the community of San Andrés, Cuba, tested a participatory methodology to explore local kno (more) wledge, identify research technologies to meet community needs, and catalyze farmer innovation on the selected technologies. Through qualitative research, the study explored the corpus, praxis, and kosmos that the community held to conceptualize, manage, and make decisions about their soils. Analysis of ethnopedology indicated that although individuals recognized the degrading quality of their soils, and shared a wider goal of long-term land improvement, existing nutrient management strategies were inadequate to satisfy crop needs. Results suggested that introducing new technologies to the community could accelerate the formation of a more appropriate praxis. To satisfy nutrient management needs, green manures, and compost were identified as the technologies best suited to existing production systems. Then, a “soil fertility fair” joined researchers and community members, to experiment with green manures and compost, and evaluate the types most feasible to local conditions. The paper considers the fair as a gateway to sustainable soil management through farmer innovation. To help guide the future design of participatory soil improvement, the paper expounds lessons learned from the research experience with ethnopedology and soil fairs

Kissing, Lisa; Pimentel, A; Valido, María

2009-06-01

163

Requirements for Participatory Framework on Governmental Policy Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.

Birut? PITR?NAIT?; Birut? MIKULSKIEN?

2012-01-01

164

The implied producer investigating an emergent typology in participatory culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Whereas many good things can be said about the ability of digital media to facilitate the public access to cultural material, there has been no significant development in the theoretical understanding of ubiquitous digital media's potential for participatory culture -- and what human typologies emerges from this reconfiguration? The small Swedish Biennale, Electrohype run an impressively straight line of investigations into the participatory spaces of art -- thereby also facilitating the dissemination of the, at that time, almost unnoticed field of media art. It appears, from the Electrohype Biennales, that we are not 'just' dealing with a 'new' genre or style within the art category; on the other hand we are not dealing with a pure commercial culture either (the abstract notion of 'the user' has its limits); what is becoming evident is that the 'implicit' roles of the participatory 'actors' in culture and art are being transformed. This paper investigates this emergent 'persona' in the post-digital participatory culture, and names it 'the implicit producer'.

SØndergaard, Morten

2012-01-01

165

China Earthquake Relief: Participatory Action Work with Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…

Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux

2011-01-01

166

Participatory Evaluation of an Educational Game for Social Skills Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…

Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

2013-01-01

167

Participatory Evaluation with Youth Leads to Community Action Project  

Science.gov (United States)

4-H has long emphasized the importance of civic engagement and community service for positive youth development. One pathway to this ideal is youth action research and evaluation. This article demonstrates how participatory youth research and evaluation can lead to the successful implementation of community action projects. It describes the…

Ashton, Carolyn; Arnold, Mary E.; Wells, Elissa E.

2010-01-01

168

Participatory Evaluation: Factors to Consider when Involving Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a critical perspective on the increasing involvement of young people in participatory evaluation as well as identifies the factors to consider when designing a youth-led evaluation project. Through this avenue, young people will increase their participation in organizational development and community change. Youth-led…

Fox, Janet; Cater, Melissa

2011-01-01

169

Maculate Conceptions: Power, Process, and Creativity in Participatory Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Justifiably concerned about power dynamics between researchers and participants in participatory research, much of the literature proposes guidelines for including participant voices at every step of the research process. We find these guidelines insufficient for dealing with constraints set up by the social organizational structures in which…

Lyon, Alexandra; Bell, Michael; Croll, Nora Swan; Jackson, Randall; Gratton, Claudio

2010-01-01

170

The Implementation of Participatory Democracy in French Communes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the article is to analyze how participatory democracy has been implemented in French communes. The question of neighbourhood democracy is a norm of political speech as local representatives need to legitimize their role in public space by getting closer to their electors. Does the imp...

Premat, Christophe

171

Enabling objects for participatory design of socio-technical systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to identify and explore the role of objects in participatory ergonomics design processes. The question in focus is: What characterizes objects in PE processes? First the concept of boundary objects is introduced as a starting point for investigating the role of objects. Seco...

Broberg, Ole

172

Participatory Evaluation: Implications for Improving Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the participatory approach used by a group of academic support staff in evaluating an academic professional development resource designed to support e-learning and teaching. The resource, titled Designing Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches (DELTA), showcases examples of electronic learning and teaching approaches…

Benson, Robyn; Samarawickrema, Gayani; O'Connell, Margaret

2009-01-01

173

Participatory Culture at the Echo Park Film Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Echo Park Film Center, a Los Angeles nonprofit media education organization, teaches underprivileged youth how to comprehend and make media in order to empower them to speak and be heard. Due to the organization's nonmainstream media courses and its connection to its community, the Center is able to create a participatory and socially…

Rosales, Jennifer Ann

2013-01-01

174

Actionable Ethnography in Participatory Innovation: A Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate ...

Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens; Buur, Jacob

175

4Sensing - decentralized processing for participatory sensing data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trabalho apresentado no âmbito do Mestrado em Engenharia Informática, como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática. , Participatory sensing is a new application paradigm, stemming from both technical and social drives, which is currently gaining momentum as a researc...

Ferreira, Heitor José Simões Baptista

176

Participatory Design of Websites with Web Design Workshops  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries we have included users in technology development with great success. "Participatory design" entails collaboration among designers, developers, and users from the earliest stages of conception through to implementation of websites and other tech...

Nancy Fried Foster; Nora Dimmock; Alison Bersani

177

Tackling perinatal loss, a participatory action research approach: research protocol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: ? The aim of this study was to promote changes to improve the care provided to parents who have experienced a perinatal loss through participatory action research. BACKGROUND: ? The birth of a child is a joyful event for most families, however, unfortunately some pregnancies end in loss. Perinatal loss creates a heavy emotional impact not only on parents but also on health professionals, where in most cases there is an evident lack of skills, strategies and resources to cope with these kinds of situations. DESIGN: ? Participatory action research is the methodology proposed to achieve the purpose of this study. METHODS: ? Participatory action research consists of five stages: outreach and awareness, induction, interaction, implementation and systematization. The working group will include professionals from the Mother and Child Unit for patients at a tertiary level public hospital in Spain. The duration of the study will be 3?years since the approval of the protocol in January 2011. The qualitative techniques used will include group dynamics such as the SWOT analysis the nominal group technique, focus groups and brainstorming, among others that will be recorded and transcribed, generating reports throughout the evolution of the group sessions and about the consensus reached. Content analysis will be conducted on the field diaries kept by the participants and researchers. This project has been funded by the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health. DISCUSSION: ? Participatory action research is a methodological strategy that allows changes in clinical practice to conduct a comprehensive transformative action in the care process for perinatal loss.

Pastor-Montero SM; Romero-Sánchez JM; Paramio-Cuevas JC; Hueso-Montoro C; Paloma-Castro O; Lillo-Crespo M; Castro-Yuste C; Toledano-Losa AC; Carnicer-Fuentes C; Ortegón-Gallego JA; Frandsen AJ

2012-11-01

178

The value and limitations of Participatory Action Research methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory Action Research (PAR) was used to trial engagement tools. The method ensured the trials addressed specific in situ water planning issues. PAR directed the research towards policy and stakeholder relevant outcomes. In contested political contexts, PAR requires expert-level skills in facilitation.

Mackenzie, John; Tan, Poh-Ling; Hoverman, Suzanne; Baldwin, Claudia

2012-12-01

179

A Participatory Action Research Approach To Evaluating Inclusive School Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…

Dymond, Stacy K.

2001-01-01

180

¡Hazlo bien! A participatory needs assessment and recommendations for health promotion in growing Latino communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate the health needs of a rapidly growing Latino community and understand priorities for developing culturally sensitive health promotion strategies. APPROACH: A participatory research approach was selected to understand health challenges and opportunities for health engagement in the community. SETTING: Norwood, Ohio, a small community in southwest Ohio. PARTICIPANTS: Latino adults living, working, or accessing services in Norwood. METHOD: Trained community researchers collected survey data from 198 participants at multiple community "points of contact" and door-to-door in more isolated neighborhoods. Survey data were aggregated using descriptive statistics. Two focus groups were conducted with 25 community members, transcribed, and analyzed using principles of thematic analysis. Participants' health concerns, health behaviors, and access to/experiences with health care were assessed. RESULTS: Findings indicated significant health concerns, including overweight (43.2%) and obesity (28.6%), mental health challenges (anxiety 15.7%; depression 15.0%), and oral health concerns (23.0%). In addition, community members described barriers to accessing health care and strategies for preventing health problems and promoting positive health. Participants also discussed perceived discrimination and the need to address isolation within their community. CONCLUSION: Methods and findings from the ¡Hazlo Bien! participatory needs assessment are likely to be useful to those designing health promotion programs in quickly growing Latino communities where there are limited health services and few existing social support networks.

Valenzuela JM; McDowell T; Cencula L; Hoyt L; Mitchell MJ

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Community-Based Participatory Research: How Do Academicians Rate Success in Iran?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR) is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the com­munity. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs). We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sec­tional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1) were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory re­search. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such pro­jects, namely community and stakeholders.

H Malekafzali; A Forouzan; M Baradaran Eftekhari; M Azizabadi Farahani; HR Khoddami Vishteh

2009-01-01

182

Participatory probabilistic assessment of the risk to human health associated with cryptosporidiosis from urban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We carried out a participatory risk assessment to estimate the risk (negative consequences and their likelihood) from zoonotic Cryptosporidium originating in dairy farms in urban Dagoretti, Nairobi to dairy farm households and their neighbours. We selected 20 households at high risk for Cryptosporidium from a larger sample of 300 dairy households in Dagoretti based on risk factors present. We then conducted a participatory mapping of the flow of the hazard from its origin (cattle) to human potential victims. This showed three main exposure pathways (food and water borne, occupational and recreational). This was used to develop a fault tree model which we parameterised using information from the study and literature. A stochastic simulation was used to estimate the probability of exposure to zoonotic cryptosporidiosis originating from urban dairying. Around 6 % of environmental samples were positive for Cryptosporidium. Probability of exposure to Cryptosporidium from dairy cattle ranged from 0.0055 for people with clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in non-dairy households to 0.0102 for children under 5 years from dairy households. Most of the estimated health burden was born by children. Although dairy cattle are the source of Cryptosporidium, the model suggests consumption of vegetables is a greater source of risk than consumption of milk. In conclusion, by combining participatory methods with quantitative microbial risk assessment, we were able to rapidly, and with appropriate 'imprecision', investigate health risk to communities from Cryptosporidium and identify the most vulnerable groups and the most risky practices.

Grace D; Monda J; Karanja N; Randolph TF; Kang'ethe EK

2012-09-01

183

Characteristics of Virgin Olive Oils from the Olive Zone of Extremadura (Spain), and an Approximation to their Varietal Origin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the differences in the characteristics that typify virgin olive oils produced in three representative zones of Extremadura: Sierra Norte of Ca?ceres, Serena-Siberia, and Tierra de Barros. A total of 156 samples from those three zones were assayed for fatty acids, triglycerides, sterols, and erythrodiol + uvaol. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the mean values of the parameters corresponding to the three zones. These profiles were then used to classify the varietal origin of the oils using the discriminant functions that had previously been defined by the authors for these parameters. This classification, together with the production data, confirmed the use of the different varieties of olives in the study zones. The results showed Manzanilla Caceren?a to be the most used variety in the Sierra Norte of Ca?ceres zone, Cornezuelo and Verdial de Badajoz with a slight presence of Picual in the Serena-Siberia zone, and Carrasquen?a and Morisca in Tierra de Barros.

Casas JacintoSa?nchez; De Miguel Gordillo C; Osorio Bueno E; Mari?n Expo?sito J; Mendoza MFuentes; Hierro TArdila; Gonza?lez LGallardo; Marti?nez Cano M

2009-10-01

184

PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT OF FORAGE GRASS CULTIVARS  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled natural selection is an important component of forage grass breeding programs. The Peter Pitts farm provided a source of festulolium germplasm that had undergone several years of natural selection. Typically, that would be the full extent of any collaboration between a forage producer an...

185

Participatory tools working with crops, varieties and seeds. A guide for professionals applying participatory approaches in agrobiodiversity management, crop improvement and seed sector development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in fi...

Boef, W.S., de; Thijssen, M.H.

186

The impact of participatory research on urban teens: an experimental evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although there is much practice of community-based participatory research in economically-developing countries and increasingly in North America, there has been little systematic assessment of empowerment effects. Youth-led participatory research holds particular promise for fostering positive development and civic participation among economically disadvantaged urban youth. The present investigation uses a clustered-randomized, within-school experimental design to test the effects of youth-led participatory research on the psychological empowerment of 401 students attending urban public schools. We find that attending a participatory research elective class during the school day was associated with increases in sociopolitical skills, motivation to influence their schools and communities, and participatory behavior. We found no significant effects for perceived control at school. The implications for participatory research and related youth development interventions are discussed.

Ozer EJ; Douglas L

2013-03-01

187

Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds? : From Think Aloud to Participatory Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention. However, it is expensive, obtrusive and produces huge amount of data. Besides, eye-tracking do not give access to user's mind. Capturing interface/cursor tracking may be cost effective. It is easy to install, data collection is automatic and unobtrusive and replaying the captured recording to the user and probing about her actions and thoughts open for participatory analysis. Keywords usability test, cost effective, unobtrusive, TA, eye and cursor tracking, user experience, participatory analysis

Nielsen, Janni

2004-01-01

188

Universal product design involving elderly users: a participatory design model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies have shown that people prefer to age in their familiar environments, thus guiding designers to provide a safe and functionally appropriate environment for ageing people, regardless of their physical conditions or limitations. Therefore, a participatory design model is proposed where human beings can improve their quality of life by promoting independence, as well as safety, useability and attractiveness of the residence. Brainstorming, scenario building, unstructured interviews, sketching and videotaping are used as techniques in the participatory design sessions. Quality deployment matrices are employed to find the relationships between the elderly user's requirements and design specifications. A case study was devised to apply and test the conceptual model phase of the proposed model.

Demirbilek O; Demirkan H

2004-07-01

189

Universal product design involving elderly users: a participatory design model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have shown that people prefer to age in their familiar environments, thus guiding designers to provide a safe and functionally appropriate environment for ageing people, regardless of their physical conditions or limitations. Therefore, a participatory design model is proposed where human beings can improve their quality of life by promoting independence, as well as safety, useability and attractiveness of the residence. Brainstorming, scenario building, unstructured interviews, sketching and videotaping are used as techniques in the participatory design sessions. Quality deployment matrices are employed to find the relationships between the elderly user's requirements and design specifications. A case study was devised to apply and test the conceptual model phase of the proposed model. PMID:15159201

Demirbilek, Oya; Demirkan, Halime

2004-07-01

190

Values-led Participatory Design - Mediating the Emergence of Values  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can potentially

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah

2012-01-01

191

Community-based participatory evaluation: the healthy start approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of community-based participatory research has gained momentum as a viable approach to academic and community engagement for research over the past 20 years. This article discusses an approach for extending the process with an emphasis on evaluation of a community partnership-driven initiative and thus advances the concept of conducting community-based participatory evaluation (CBPE) through a model used by the Healthy Start project of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., in Augusta, Georgia. Application of the CBPE approach advances the importance of bilateral engagements with consumers and academic evaluators. The CBPE model shows promise as a reliable and credible evaluation approach for community-level assessment of health promotion programs.

Braithwaite RL; McKenzie RD; Pruitt V; Holden KB; Aaron K; Hollimon C

2013-03-01

192

Participatory ergonomics for psychological factors evaluation in work system design.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is a well recognized understanding that workers whose voice needs to be heard should be actively encouraged as full participants and involved in the early design stages of new ergonomic work system which encompass the development and implementation of new tools, workplaces, technologies or organizations. This paper presents a novel participatory strategy to evaluate three key psychological factors which are respectively mental fatigue, spiritual stress, and emotional satisfaction in work system design based on a modified version of Participatory Ergonomics (PE). In specific, it integrates a PE technique with a formulation view by combining the parallel development of PE strategies, frameworks and functions throughout the coverage of the entire work system design process, so as to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative analysis of psychological factors which can cause adverse or advantageous effects on worker's physiological and behavioral performance.

Wang L; Lau HY

2012-01-01

193

Evaluation of a participatory ergonomic intervention process in kitchen work.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated a participatory ergonomic intervention process applied in 59 municipal kitchens. In groups of three to five kitchens, the workers participated in eight workshops, and generated and evaluated solutions to optimize musculoskeletal load in their work. An ergonomist initiated and supported the process. By the end, 402 changes were implemented. Evaluative data were collected using research diaries, questionnaires, and focus group interviews. The intervention model proved feasible and the participatory approach was mostly experienced as motivating. The workers' knowledge and awareness of ergonomics increased, which improved their ability to tackle ergonomic problems by themselves. The changes in ergonomics were perceived to decrease physical load and improve musculoskeletal health. As hindering factors for implementation, lack of time and motivation, and insufficient financial resources were mentioned. In addition, the workers expressed a wish for more support from the management, technical staff, and ergonomists.

Pehkonen I; Takala EP; Ketola R; Viikari-Juntura E; Leino-Arjas P; Hopsu L; Virtanen T; Haukka E; Holtari-Leino M; Nykyri E; Riihimäki H

2009-01-01

194

[Participatory development of indicators for assessing mental health].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The specialized literature frequently cites the inclusion of different interest groups in evaluative research, referred to generically as "participatory evaluation". However, there is a lack of an empirical basis for discussion on ways to operate and (especially) qualify such participation. This article discusses the participatory development of mental health indicators for use in the Centers for Psychosocial Care (CAPS) in Brazil. The process included participation by 58 health workers and managers from 26 CAPS through regular meetings over a year. The meetings were intermediated by a course on mental health evaluation and workshops in subgroups, supported by facilitators throughout the year. The creation of spaces for the qualification of their participation, through the course and other collective activities, proved effective for guaranteeing participation at various levels in the process (such as definition of issues, pre-test indicators, and data analysis) as well as for stimulating ownership of the final product by the participants.

Furtado JP; Onocko-Campos RT; Moreira MI; Trapé TL

2013-01-01

195

The design game in Participatory Design and design education : Chances, risks and side effects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used in a way that will be labeled as »interested«, rather than in a way labeled as »taking for granted«. It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction.

Törpel, Bettina

2006-01-01

196

Women's experiences in a community-based participatory research randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating community-based participatory research (CBPR) into traditional study designs can enhance outcomes in studies with disadvantaged groups. Little is known, however, about study participants' experiences with these approaches, the underlying processes involved in creating more positive outcomes, and whether undesirable effects on study outcomes occur simultaneously. We conducted focus group interviews with 31 disadvantaged women who participated in a CBPR-driven randomized controlled trial (RCT) both to explore their study experiences and to obtain their interpretations of select study findings. Using dimensional analysis, we found the tailored health questionnaire, treatment by study staff members, and RCT participants' understandings of and responses to randomization were salient to what women described as transformative experiences that occurred over the course of the RCT. These findings have implications for understanding how CBPR and non-CBPR aspects of interventions and study designs have the potential to affect both process and endpoint study outcomes. PMID:23567297

Kneipp, Shawn M; Lutz, Barbara J; Levonian, Catherine; Cook, Christa; Hamilton, Jill B; Roberson, Dawne

2013-04-08

197

Women's experiences in a community-based participatory research randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integrating community-based participatory research (CBPR) into traditional study designs can enhance outcomes in studies with disadvantaged groups. Little is known, however, about study participants' experiences with these approaches, the underlying processes involved in creating more positive outcomes, and whether undesirable effects on study outcomes occur simultaneously. We conducted focus group interviews with 31 disadvantaged women who participated in a CBPR-driven randomized controlled trial (RCT) both to explore their study experiences and to obtain their interpretations of select study findings. Using dimensional analysis, we found the tailored health questionnaire, treatment by study staff members, and RCT participants' understandings of and responses to randomization were salient to what women described as transformative experiences that occurred over the course of the RCT. These findings have implications for understanding how CBPR and non-CBPR aspects of interventions and study designs have the potential to affect both process and endpoint study outcomes.

Kneipp SM; Lutz BJ; Levonian C; Cook C; Hamilton JB; Roberson D

2013-06-01

198

Participatory budgeting like new element in regional and public economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory Budgeting (ve zkratce PB; p?eklad do ?eštiny: správa v?cí ve?ejných v rukou ve?ejnosti) je nástroj, který umož?uje realizovat dv? základní výzvy: kontinuitu v demokracii a rozvoj aktivního podílu ob?an? na správ? v?cí ve?ejných. Protože se jedná o pokra?ující proces, ob?ané mají regulé...

Stejskal, Jan

199

Stakeholder involvement in stages of a participatory process illustrated in interior design cases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a previous study (Vink et al., 2008) an overview was made of the involvement of different stakeholders in a participatory design process. In this paper this overview was used to describe four participatory design cases focused on improvising productivity, health, and comfort by interior design. It appeared that this overview is useful to describe the involvement in participatory interior design projects. However, it can only serve as an initial benchmark as much is dependent on the specific case at hand.

Vink, Peter Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering

2008-01-01

200

Cohomologie non ramifi\\'ee en degr\\'e trois d'une vari\\'et\\'e de Severi-Brauer  

CERN Document Server

Soit K le corps des fractions d'une surface projective et lisse, g\\'eom\\'etriquement int\\`egre, d\\'efinie sur un corps fini F. Soit C/K une conique. Parimala et Suresh ont montr\\'e que le groupe de cohomologie non ramifi\\'ee en degr\\'e trois de K(C) \\`a coefficients de torsion est nul. Dans cette note on \\'etend leur r\\'esultat aux vari\\'et\\'es de Severi-Brauer associ\\'ees \\`a une alg\\`ebre centrale simple dont d'indice l est premier et diff\\'erent de char F.

Pirutka, Alena

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Community Capacity Assessment in Preventing Substance Abuse: A Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to address health issues. Few evidence exist to indicate how builds the capacity of communities to function as health promoter and what resources are required to promote successful efforts. This article presents the result of a capacity assessment for preventing drug abuse through CBPR, which working with rather than in communities, to strengthen a community's problem-solving capacity. For exploring the perception of stakeholders, a dynamic model of the dimensions of community and partnership capacity served as the theoretical framework. Methods: In this descriptive research, stakeholder analysis helps us to identify appropriate of stakeholders (Key stakeholders). Data were collected using a topic guide concerned with capacity for preventing drug abuse. Interviews were audiotape and transcribed. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: CBPR has been undertaken to involve local people in making decisions about the kind of change they want in their community and the allocation of resources to reduce substance abuse. We identified key stakeholders and examining their interests, resources and constraints of different stakeholders. Conclusion: The current study has shown the benefits of community-based participatory approach in assessing capacity. Through CBPR process people who affected by Drug issue engaged in analysis of their own situation and helps identity innovative solutions for their complex problem. This participatory approach to a capacity assessment resulted in a synergistic effort that provided a more accurate picture of community issues and concerns.

KH Shahandeh; R Majdzadeh; E Jamshidi; N Loori

2012-01-01

202

Embedded, Participatory Research: Creating a Grounded Theory with Teenagers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solutions for other librarians while furthering a theoretical research agenda.Methods – This example of embedded, participatory techniques used grounded theory methods based on the experiences of teens who participated in art programs at a public library. Fourteen teens participated in interviews, and six of them assisted in coding,analyzing, and abstracting the data, and validating the resulting theory.Results – Employing the teenagers within the research team resulted in a teen-validated theory. The embedded techniques of the practitioner-researcher resulted in a theory that can be applied to practice.Conclusions – This research framework develops the body of literature based on real world contexts and supports hands-on practitioners. It also provides evidence-based theory for funding agencies and assessment. In addition, practitioner-based research that incorporates teens as research partners activates teens’ voices. It gives them a venue to speak for themselves with support from an interested and often advocacy-minded adult.

Shannon Crawford Barniskis

2013-01-01

203

Criticism and Self-criticism: participatory evaluation in rural schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper approaches some possibilities implementation of participatory evaluation,which is seen as an important dimension of the accomplished pedagogical work inrural schools organized according to politician-pedagogical principles of the movementof landless rural workers. Among the authors who base this study are Freitas (1995),Perrenoud (1986) and Pistrak (2002). The research of participant nature, whose maininstrument was the comment had with central objective to analyze where measuredcritical and the self-criticism as a proposition of participatory evaluation, reflected in thedaily life of rural schools. The results of the research show the value of systematicevaluation in the context of these schools. It was possible to see that a transformativeand emancipatory education can not do without the critical and participatory evaluation,which includes students and educators as subjects of the process of teaching andlearning. Although it is a practice complex and sometimes conflicting, participatoryevalution is essential tool for collective reflection and systematization of educationalactivities and actions triggered in school, so as to strengthen the educational project ofthe rural social movements

Ilma Ferreira Machado

2010-01-01

204

Varietal improvement of Brassica species through introduction, hybridization and mutation breeding techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Germplasm of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea was collected from various parts of Bangladesh and evaluated for yield, oil content etc. prior to the breeding programme. Seeds of the B. campestris variety YS-52, possessing good agronomic characteristics, were treated with mutagens (gamma rays and sodium azide) to widen the genetic variation. Mutants were selected for higher yield and resistance against Alternaria brassicae. The two mutant lines BINA 1 and BINA 2 were selected exceeding the parent variety considerably in yield and disease resistance. They are candidates for recommended varieties. Brassica juncea variety RCM 625 was treated with gamma rays and EMS. Four higher yielding and earlier maturing mutants are being evaluated further. 6 tabs

1988-01-01

205

The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins) human consumption and large-scale cultivation.

Muzquiz M.; Burbano C.; Ayet G.; Pedrosa M.M.; Cuadrado C.

1999-01-01

206

Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection.

Sheng, Grant; Yam, Kevin; Hassas, Aranak [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies

2001-07-01

207

Can participatory ergonomics become 'the way we do things in this firm' - the Scandinavian approach to participatory ergonomics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way changes are made in firms have only had limited attention. In the Scandinavian countries legislation has, through mandatory joint working environment committees, tried to establish an organizational unit promoting direct participation. Several studies have showed that the intentions of the legislators are not automatically fulfilled, and they have reviled preconditions for more successful achievement. This opens for many supplementary regulatory strategies to improve activities in firms, but one has been in focus: establishing formalized management systems within occupational health and safety. This strategy may be contrary to the general intentions in the laws. Some of the conditions which must be taken into consideration are discussed.

Jensen, Per Langaa

1997-01-01

208

The Effect of Participatory Education on Attitude of School Personnel Towards HIV/AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School personnel`s knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS have a great role in students` knowledge of and attitude to this infection. Studies in Iran show that students and teachers have not adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS .The aim of this study is to assess the effect of participatory education on attitudes of personnel of schools toward HIV/AIDS. One hundred and fourteen school personnel were selected randomly to participate in an interventional study. The participants took part in a three-day workshop on HIV/AIDS prevention program in schools. The workshop content included the principles of HIV/AIDS and procedures for its control and prevention; the methods used were group discussion and group work for presentation of a HIV/AIDS prevention programme at schools through a logical framework method. A questionnaire was given to the participants to evaluate their knowledge of and attitude toward HIV/AIDS before and after the interventions. The mean age of participants was 40.87 (SD = 6.58). There was no significant relationship between gender/official post/length of service and attitude before or after the workshop. There was a significant change in personnel`s attitude to HIV/AIDS after the workshop. There was a significant correlation between the increase of personnel�s knowledge of and attitude to HIV/AIDS after the workshop introducing methods such as participatory education and asking participants to suggest a program for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in their fields are useful for increasing knowledge and changing their attitude toward HIV/AIDS.

M. Alizadeh; S. Zarrintan; R. Vahidi

2007-01-01

209

Microsatellite polymorphism in wheat from Brazilian cultivars; inter- and intra-varietal studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eleven samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum) from different Brazilian cultivars and six American varieties were compared for polymorphism, using primers for nine different STR loci. STR analysis of DNA from single grains of the Brazilian varieties showed that for most loci there was very little intra-cultivar polymorphism. The polymorphic variation observed for Brazilian cultivars was similar to that seen in the American varieties. For the Brazilian cultivars PCR analysis could be performed on only one half of a grain. The American samples required more seeds for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of five amplified microsatellites selected at random from the Brazilian samples were also determined and compared to those of the Chinese Spring variety. Although generally the dinucleotide sequence repeat was preserved for most loci, there were significant differences in sequences interspersed within the repeat domain. This result suggested that it may be possible to unequivocally identify the geographical origin of the cultivar by inspection of the DNA sequences of the repeat region.

Vitor Lopes de Abreu Lima; Homiko Abreu Seki; Franklin David Rumjanek

2003-01-01

210

From Voice to Knowledge: Participatory Action Research, Inclusive Debate and Feminism  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the relations between participatory action research and feminist research, through an examination of the metaphor of "voice" and its possible replacement with the idea of "knowledge." The article describes in detail a participatory action research project undertaken in Israel, which was aimed at forging an inclusive debate…

Krumer-Nevo, Michal

2009-01-01

211

Grasping social dynamics of participatory innovation : A case of playing a game  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The key element in participatory innovation is to understand innovation as a social problem solving process between different stakeholders. The social dynamics amongst stakeholders are fundamental to the participatory process and outcome, and it’s therefore beneficial for facilitators and stakeholde...

Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens

212

Paradox Lost and Paradox Regained: Comments on Chouinard's "The Case for Participatory Evaluation..."  

Science.gov (United States)

Jill Chouinard, in her article "The Case for Participatory Evaluation in an Era of Accountability" (this issue, p. 237), may be re-iterating what has often been claimed and arguably is infused already in much of our theory and practice: the value of participatory approaches in some, perhaps many situations. She summarizes these claims eloquently…

Datta, Lois-ellin

2013-01-01

213

The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

2008-01-01

214

Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR) as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing ...

Tara Ford; Stacy Rasmus; James Allen

215

Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian…

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Manson, Spero M.

2011-01-01

216

Forms and Functions of Participatory Evaluation in International Development: A Review of the Empirical and Theoretical Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Since the late 1970s participatory approaches have been widely promoted to evaluate international development programs. However, there is no universal agreement of what is meant by participatory evaluation. For some evaluators, participatory evaluations involve the extensive participation of all stakeholder groups (from donor to…

Cullen, Anne; Coryn, Chris L. S.

2011-01-01

217

Participatory assessment of the Toliara Bay reef fishery, southwest Madagascar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to ensure the sustainable management of reef fisheries, it is necessary to obtain data about the effects of these fisheries on both fish resources and the ecosystems that sustain them. Ecosystem-based surveys provide this information, but are difficult to implement because of technical, financial and human resources requirements. In this regard participatory assessment methods have the potential to increase the amount of data collected at low cost, while taking advantage of local traditional ecological knowledge. In order to investigate the reef fishery of Toliara Bay, southwest Madagascar, we used participatory fish survey and interview data collected on site. These methods included: (i) monitoring of catch landings during six months by wholesale fish merchants, (ii) household surveys of fishing catch and effort and fish consumption conducted by school children, and (iii) semi-structured interviews of reef users. One thousand five hundred and eighty six fishing trips were sampled between September 2006 and February 2007, 326 households were surveyed by trained school children in January 2007, and 70 reef users were interviewed in July/August 2006. Data collected by participants have been compiled and compared to reference values when available, allowing an assessment of the sustainability of the reef fishery. The results of this study confirm the unsustainable nature of resource exploitation and underline the need for rapid management responses in order to reverse this trend. It also highlights the great potential of participatory assessment methods for gathering large amounts of relevant information on the status and evolution of the ecosystem upon which the fishery depends, while promoting education and awareness about the protection and sustainable use of natural resources.

Ambroise Brenier; Jocelyne Ferraris; Jamal Mahafina

2011-01-01

218

"Bounded" empowerment: analyzing tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research in urban public schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This multi-method study examines tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research (YPAR) in urban high schools among 15 semester-cohorts. Student participants in the present study were 77 ethnically diverse youth from four high schools in a major metropolitan school district. Data were gathered using systematic classroom observations, interviews with teachers and students involved in the projects, and participant observation. The two most commonly-constrained phases of the YPAR project were issue selection and action steps. A central tension in the issue selection phase for projects enacted across multiple semester cohorts was the tension between original inquiry and "traction:" Sticking with the same topic enabled sustained building of strategic alliances and expertise for making change, but limited the incoming cohort's power to define the problem to be addressed. In further analyses, we identified processes that promoted student power despite continuity-related constraints-teachers' framing and buy-in strategies, "micro-power" compensation, and alignment of students' interests with the prior cohort-as well as constraints in other phases of the projects. This study's findings regarding the promotion of youth power in the face of constraints advance the integration of theory and practice in youth-led research and have implications for participatory research more broadly.

Ozer EJ; Newlan S; Douglas L; Hubbard E

2013-09-01

219

"Bounded" empowerment: analyzing tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research in urban public schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

This multi-method study examines tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research (YPAR) in urban high schools among 15 semester-cohorts. Student participants in the present study were 77 ethnically diverse youth from four high schools in a major metropolitan school district. Data were gathered using systematic classroom observations, interviews with teachers and students involved in the projects, and participant observation. The two most commonly-constrained phases of the YPAR project were issue selection and action steps. A central tension in the issue selection phase for projects enacted across multiple semester cohorts was the tension between original inquiry and "traction:" Sticking with the same topic enabled sustained building of strategic alliances and expertise for making change, but limited the incoming cohort's power to define the problem to be addressed. In further analyses, we identified processes that promoted student power despite continuity-related constraints-teachers' framing and buy-in strategies, "micro-power" compensation, and alignment of students' interests with the prior cohort-as well as constraints in other phases of the projects. This study's findings regarding the promotion of youth power in the face of constraints advance the integration of theory and practice in youth-led research and have implications for participatory research more broadly. PMID:23444005

Ozer, Emily J; Newlan, Sami; Douglas, Laura; Hubbard, Elizabeth

2013-09-01

220

Peoples' institutions for forest and fuel-wood development: a report on participatory fuel-wood evaluations in India and Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project on Participatory Evaluation of Fuelwood Programs in selected regions of India and Thailand represents a profound departure from traditional evaluation approaches. Instead of engaging experts who are external to the rural settings, farm families, and other village residents are involved as evaluators themselves. From this experience, it would seem appropriate for development planners to modify their approach so that future problem identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation are participatory in nature. Methods for strengthening and adapting existing local institutions for this purpose are identified. The findings also indicate the necessity of modifying current policies and laws on land use in light of the influence of tenurial arrangements, as reported by farmers and other community members, on their decisions and behavior relative to soil, water, and forest conservation and management.

Morse, R.; Tingsabadh, C.; Vergara, N.; Vidyarthi, V.

1987-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Changing Minds A Guide to Facilitated Participatory Planning  

CERN Document Server

This book draws on the work of thinkers and doers throughout the world who have grappled with the challenge of planning complex institutions, especially health systems and development projects. Their problem: Conventional planning methods often do not work. The solution: Involve all the key stakeholders in making the plan. The challenge: Devise a planning system that the principals and stakeholders can trust, and that is inclusive, balanced, and dynamic. Facilitated participatory planning (or FPP) is a new way of planning for a world that is complex, competitive, and fast-changing; a world whe

Dodge, Cole P

2011-01-01

222

Design of Institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to formulate policy and institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak management. This research was conducted in District Solok and District Tanah Datar, West Sumatera Province. This study object is focused in Lake Singkarak area. The results of research are: (1) interest and influence of stakeholders are varied based on institution, need, region, utility orientation, (2) policy alternatives for lake Singkarak management are firstly co-management and secondly lake management by multi stakeholder and (3) all stakeholders in the institution for lake management have to participate beginning from institutional building, policy decision making process, policy implementation, control and evaluation.

Genius Umar

2011-01-01

223

Participatory pattern workshops: a methodology for open learning design inquiry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their colleagues have facilitated many workshops in which participants shared experiences, captured these as design narratives, extracting design patterns, and applied them to novel teaching challenges represented as design scenarios. This paper presents the core elements of the methodology that emerged from these workshops: the Participatory Patterns Workshops (PPW) methodology.

Yishay Mor; Steven Warburton; Niall Winters

2012-01-01

224

Special issue: three models of community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative process between community-based organizations and academic investigators. It has the potential to make research more responsive to existing needs and to enhance a community's ability to address important health issues. But CBPR is often unfamiliar territory to academic investigators and community organizations alike. We interviewed CBPR investigators at Penn and community leaders to ascertain best practices in CBPR and to compare academic and community perspectives. A number of models of community-academic partnerships emerged, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The perspectives of the investigators sometimes matched those of the community leaders, but diverged in important ways.

Weiner J; McDonald JA

2013-04-01

225

Applying Participatory Methods to Address Motivational Aspects in Informal Workplace  

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Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.

Teresa Holocher; Barbara Kieslinger; Claudia Magdalena Fabian

2011-01-01

226

A hierarchical participatory methodology for tactical decision-making based on a decision-analytic model for balancing timber stock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A methodology is presented which solves local management problems by combining a timber procurement model with decision analysis and heuristic optimization. A hierarchical participatory method resolves the difficulties of the timber-flow model based on dynamics and system balance theories applying to the tactical management process of policy selection. The methodology was developed for team group decision-making on the assumptions of bounded rationality, imperfect mill service information and lagged inventory adjustment. The experiments analyze the logistics of timber-flow changes. Although the most important objective of the tactical policy of an organization has been to satisfy the timber demand of the mills at minimum cost, the work group in this study was also able to decide utilizing the criteria of the mill service: (1) local managers responsible for transportation preferred a larger roadside inventory stock; and (2) a manager responsible for supervision of logistics preferred a higher level of aggregate inventory turnaround. In the first participatory stage of the method, the criteria for aspiration levels, which determined the group managers' goal as a combined aspiration point, were described. In the second stage, to avoid problems, participatory inventory models and a decision boundary were used in the management process. In this tradeoff analysis, heuristics provided equal hierarchical consideration and commensurate goals. Since the experiments showed that consideration of local managers' needs in predicting feasible buffer stocks may reduce possible conflicts in decision-making, the applied theories and the methodology of this study were useful in establishing balanced policies for tactical management situations.

Palander, T. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry

1999-07-01

227

Assessing Participatory and Dialogue Approaches. Deliverable 15  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of work carried out ARGONA project. The main objective has been to gain some appreciation of the success, or otherwise, of several public involvement approaches associated with radioactive waste disposal facility siting in general and of various involvement activities and techniques in particular, especially any that appear to be novel in their content and/or application. The main focus of the analysis has been to examine three case studies. Firstly the use of stakeholder panels as part of the consultation about the BPEO (Best Practicable Environmental Option) study for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at Britain's former centre for fast reactor research and development at Dounreay in northern Scotland; secondly, the series of subsequent 'drop-in' meetings held to communicate information about the development of the agreed solution for these wastes (namely a near-surface disposal facility); thirdly, work carried out by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez (NRI) in the Czech Republic, as part of ARGONA WP5.1, involving a series of stakeholder meetings to examine radioactive waste management in the context of plans for the management of spent fuel. In order to evaluate the success or usefulness of the approaches, techniques and meetings involved, we have developed a participation process 'Evaluation Matrix'. This has involved the use of criteria against which particular approaches and activities may be judged. In order to develop these we have adapted criteria developed as part of the RISCOM II project and developed a parallel set of descriptions to enable us to examine each activity through the 'lens' of an appropriate Evaluation Matrix. We have then conducted an evaluation using these 'ARGONA criteria' for the three separate case studies. It is recognised that the literature currently fails to offer a methodology for comparing approaches and allowing selection of appropriate techniques for use in particular circumstances. The methodology adopted here has shown that it is however possible to map approaches and techniques against RISCOM-type criteria using a range of information, including feedback forms, questionnaires and interviews. This can inform about how particular approaches are perceived by both sides and assist in development of more suitable methods for the future. Evaluation of the different activities and techniques employed in the three case studies has allowed insight into several common factors, such as timing, purpose of the involvement, scale of the involvement, and development of suitable discussion arenas. We consider that this work makes a contribution to responding to the absence of a comparison methodology by proposing the development of a 'knowledge base' as a basis for reporting participation studies in a manner that would facilitate comparisons and selection of methods appropriate to particular issues. We consider that the resulting knowledge base should be developed in the form of a library of relevant approaches (techniques, meeting types etc) that can be 'indexed' in terms of what the desired end result might be (a requirement for advice; development of societal consensus; provision of clarity regarding a contentious issue etc) and cross referenced as to their suitability at different stages of an involvement process. The intention would then be that a 'customer' agency could consult the knowledge base and identify possible approaches and techniques that would be suitable for use (and adaptation) in the particular situation and at the relevant process stage in question. The approach could be developed more widely to include a large number of processes and a large number of 'requirement criteria' as components in the knowledge base. It should be emphasised, however, that such an approach should be used for communication about what it means to use certain processes, and not as a calculation tool to decide on which method to use in a simple objective manner

2009-01-01

228

Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor descriptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determinadas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante.

Alberto Miele; Luiz Antenor Rizzon

2011-01-01

229

Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors/ Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determinadas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estr (more) uturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equilíbrio, qualidade, harmonia, persistência, corpo, frutado, especiaria e carvalho, e, os outros dois, pelos descritores vegetal, carvalho e salgado; o CP 2 discriminou os vinhos Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon e Arinarnoa, tendo sido o Pinot Noir caracterizado por seu sabor floral; o CP 3 discriminou o vinho Malbec, que teve descritores florais e frutados fracos. Os demais vinhos varietais não apresentaram efeito discriminatório importante. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor descriptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The PCA showe (more) d that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.

Miele, Alberto; Rizzon, Luiz Antenor

2011-12-01

230

Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo/ Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo) e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 1 (more) 2 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira), figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral), existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente. Abstract in english During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo) , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit growers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut (more) species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine), fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

Barbosa, Wilson; Pommer, Celso Valdevino; Ribeiro, Mariângela Drugovick; Veiga, Renato Ferraz de Arruda; Costa, Antonio Alberto

2003-08-01

231

Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo) e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira), figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral), existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente.During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo) , the locals and cultivated areas, the plant quantities and main species of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil. Fruit growers from all regions of the State were consulted about commercial cultivars used. The data showed 6 botanical families, 11 genus and 12 main temperate fruit and one nut species: rustic grape, fine grape, peach (and nectarine), fig, persimmon, macadamia nut, apple, japanese plum, European pear, Asiatic pear, loquat, kiwi and quince trees. The grapes are planted on 51% of the total area occupied by temperate fruits and nuts, 11,9 thousand ha. A total of 9,510 of temperate fruit growers were recorded in 65% of all the municipality of the State. Only the grape and pear showed more than one botanical species commercially cultivated. Fifty three principal cultivars were detected in commercial cultivation, most of them in peach trees. Considering the twelve main species, the fruit harvest occurs during all months of the year. It was recorded new important fruit crop niches at Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos and Jaú regions, respectively, with emphasis to fine grapes, asiatic pears, adapted peaches and macadamia nuts.

Wilson Barbosa; Celso Valdevino Pommer; Mariângela Drugovick Ribeiro; Renato Ferraz de Arruda Veiga; Antonio Alberto Costa

2003-01-01

232

Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning. PMID:23438266

Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C

2013-02-25

233

Participatory ergonomics among female cashiers from a department store.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems.

Cristancho MY

2012-01-01

234

Process and implementation of participatory ergonomic interventions: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory ergonomic (PE) interventions may vary in implementation. A systematic review was done to determine the evidence regarding context, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of participatory ergonomic interventions in workplaces. In total, 17 electronic databases were searched. Data on PE process and implementation were extracted from documents meeting content and quality criteria and synthesised. The search yielded 2151 references. Of these, 190 documents were relevant and 52 met content and quality criteria. Different ergonomic teams were described in the documents as were the type, duration and content of ergonomic training. PE interventions tended to focus on physical and work process changes and report positive impacts. Resources, programme support, ergonomic training, organisational training and communication were the most often noted facilitators or barriers. Successful PE interventions require the right people to be involved, appropriate ergonomic training and clear responsibilities. Addressing key facilitators and barriers such as programme support, resources, and communication is paramount. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: A recent systematic review has suggested that PE has some effect on reducing symptoms, lost days of work and claims. Systematic reviews of effectiveness provide practitioners with the desire to implement but do not provide clear information about how. This article reviews the literature on process and implementation of PE.

van Eerd D; Cole D; Irvin E; Mahood Q; Keown K; Theberge N; Village J; St Vincent M; Cullen K

2010-10-01

235

Participatory ergonomics: development of an employee assessment questionnaire.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite being essential to the success of participatory ergonomics (PEs) programs, there are currently no known quantitative measures that capture the employees' perspective of PE program effectiveness. The present study addresses this need through the development of the Employee Perceptions of Participatory Ergonomics Questionnaire (EPPEQ). The questionnaire is designed to assess five key components that are based on a review of the available literature: Employee Involvement, Knowledge Base, Managerial Support, Employee Support, and Strain related to ergonomic changes. In Phase 1, a sample of employees and ergonomists working at a manufacturing plant was used to develop and test an initial set of items. In Phase 2, data was collected from a nation-wide sample of employees representing a wide range of jobs and organizations to cross-validate the results from Phase 1. Phase 2 results indicate that the five EPPEQ subscales demonstrate sound convergent validity and are also correlated with traditional indicators of PE program success. Implications and uses of the EPPEQ are discussed.

Matthews RA; Gallus JA; Henning RA

2011-01-01

236

A participatory process for designing cooking energy programmes with women  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Women in rural areas of India play an important role in household energy management. Programmes designed to help them administer these needs more effectively by providing alternative, sustainable energy solutions, however, have met with limited success. Women's roles and energy needs are rarely a main focus of rural energy programmes and there are few mechanisms for creating a more meaningful role for them throughout the programme lifecycle. This paper presents the results of a joint Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), India and University of Waterloo (UW), Canada project, which aimed to develop a participatory rural energy planning methodology that defines and creates a space for women in the rural energy development process. The paper begins with a brief background on the rural energy scenario in India, the official responses and programme performances. We discuss the role of women in household energy management with respect to gender variations in roles and decision-making and the failure to recognise these differences in policy formulation. Within this context, we present a participatory process for designing household energy programmes with rural women. A case study drawn from work in rural Haryana, India illustrates the method. This methodology fills an existing need for tools and approaches within the rural energy sector to provide concrete ways to include women as full partners in the development process. (author)

Malhotra, P. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India). Rural Energy Group; Neudoerffer, R.C. [University of Guelph, ON (Canada). Rural Studies; Dutta, S.

2004-02-01

237

Participatory design in the development of the wheelchair convoy system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In long-term care environments, residents who have severe mobility deficits are typically transported by having another person push the individual in a manual wheelchair. This practice is inefficient and encourages staff to hurry to complete the process, thereby setting the stage for unsafe practices. Furthermore, the time involved in assembling multiple individuals with disabilities often deters their participation in group activities. METHODS: The Wheelchair Convoy System (WCS) is being developed to allow a single caregiver to move multiple individuals without removing them from their wheelchairs. The WCS will consist of a processor, and a flexible cord linking each wheelchair to the wheelchair in front of it. A Participatory Design approach - in which several iterations of design, fabrication and evaluation are used to elicit feedback from users - was used. RESULTS: An iterative cycle of development and evaluation was followed through five prototypes of the device. The third and fourth prototypes were evaluated in unmanned field trials at J. Iverson Riddle Development Center. The prototypes were used to form a convoy of three wheelchairs that successfully completed a series of navigation tasks. CONCLUSION: A Participatory Design approach to the project allowed the design of the WCS to quickly evolve towards a viable solution. The design that emerged by the end of the fifth development cycle bore little resemblance to the initial design, but successfully met the project's design criteria. Additional development and testing is planned to further refine the system.

Sharma V; Simpson RC; LoPresti EF; Mostowy C; Olson J; Puhlman J; Hayashi S; Cooper RA; Konarski E; Kerley B

2008-01-01

238

Play. Learn. Innovate : Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other people‘s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives – in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was – in order to understand why this was the case – I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking – the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students – we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis – I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations – complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; Mäyrä, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory – and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation. Further, I argue that this approach opens up promising way

Sproedt, Henrik

2012-01-01

239

Potential of combining neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with varietal resistance for the management of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy of different rates (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/5 g seed) of application of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil (NSO) was assessed on four cowpea varieties (Kanannado, IT89KD-391, Borno brown and IT89KD-374) with differing susceptibilities to Callosobruchus maculatus. The different rates of NSO significantly interacted with cowpea varietal resistance and reduced oviposition and percentage adult emergence of C. maculatus. The interaction of the strategies also significantly reduced percentage of cowpea seeds infested by C. maculatus. Treatment of seeds with NSO at the rates of 50 mg/5 g and 75 or 100 mg/5 g reduced seed damage from over 25% in controls to less than 10% and less than 5%, respectively, in all varieties.

Lale NE; Mustapha A

2000-07-01

240

Varietal differences for cadmium-induced seedling mortality, foliar toxicity symptoms, plant growth, proline and nitrate reductase activity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cadmium is a highly toxic, metallic soil contaminant, having no metabolic use, which adversely affects the plantgrowth especially at early stages and has resulted in the loss of crop productivity. The objective of this study wasto find varietal differences in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for seedling survival, growth, foliar toxicity symptomsi.e. leaf chlorosis and leaf necrosis, proline and nitrate reductase activity of six cultivars namely ICC 1069, ICC12422, ICC7589, ICC 4969, ICC 4835 and ICC 4958. The pots arranged in glass house, were supplied with 0,25, 50 and 100 mg Cd kg -1 soil in the form of cadmium chloride and assessed for the mentioned characteristicson 30 and 60 days after each treatment. With substantial varietal difference, applied Cd enhanced the seedlingmortality more notably at higher levels. Leaves of all the varieties showed increased signs of chlorosis andnecrosis, stunting of shoot and reduction of dry matter and leaf area per pot. Drawing parallels between varioussymptomatic and growth attributes revealed that Cd-sensitivity of chickpea in survival and growth of plants wasclosely related to enhanced chlorosis and necrosis of leaves, reduced number and area of leaves per pot.Changes have occurred in the physiological and biochemical activities which are observed even at low Cd levels(25 mg Cd kg-1). Cd has imposed drastic decrease in nitrate reductase whereas Cd treated plant tissues showedan increase in proline. This study concludes that cadmium stress causes reduction in physiological andbiochemical activities which ultimately affects plant survival and inhibits growth. This intensity of damage wasproportionate with the concentration of the metal. Values for the observed parameters increased as the growth ofseedling progressed on 30 and 60 days of sampling.

S. Faizan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Mental health consumers and providers dialogue in an institutional setting: a participatory approach to promoting recovery-oriented care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This brief report presents the preliminary findings of a participatory project, to answer a question raised by stakeholders in mental health services: How can providers and patients create a process for knowledge exchange to support recovery-oriented care? METHOD: Participatory action research (PAR) and narrative phenomenological methodology guided the selection of methods, which consisted of an iterative process between telling stories and dialoguing about personal values related to recovery. The sample consisted of three occupational therapists, a psychiatrist, an academic-clinician, and five consumers of mental health services who were involved in each stage of the research, including design, interpretation, dissemination, and implementation. RESULTS: Significant interpersonal and intrapersonal tensions were named, and conditions for a more sustainable process of knowledge exchange were explored. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The project revealed both the challenges with situating research within an institution (hierarchy of knowledge, power, and vulnerability) and face-to-face dialogue, as well as positive changes in professional attitudes and consumer empowerment, as providers and patients came to understand what was at stake for each other. The project underscored the need for provider-consumer dialogue as a process to explore tensions and values in promoting recovery-oriented care.

Schwartz R; Estein O; Komaroff J; Lamb J; Myers M; Stewart J; Vacaflor L; Park M

2013-06-01

242

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Gutberlet J; Baeder AM; Pontuschka NN; Felipone SM; Dos Santos TL

2013-01-01

243

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Jutta Gutberlet; Angela M. Baeder; Nídia N. Pontuschka; Sonia M. N. Felipone; Tereza L. F. dos Santos

2013-01-01

244

Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Gutberlet J; Baeder AM; Pontuschka NN; Felipone SM; Dos Santos TL

2013-01-01

245

[Participatory planning in health organizations: the case of the Bonsucesso General Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents the experience with participatory planning in the Bonsucesso General Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2003 to 2004. The participatory and communicative characteristics and the resulting institutional format are identified for guaranteeing the implementation of collective decisions from the planning workshops. The limits of implementation in participatory planning and management proposals are argued from the perspective of change and power relations in these institutions. The results support the notion that projects involving changes in hospitals and failing to take into account the different internal rationalities and power relations end up having reduced potential for implementation.

Lima Jde C; Faveret AC; Grabois V

2006-03-01

246

Participatory dreaming: a unitary appreciative inquiry into healing with women abused as children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unitary appreciative inquiry was used to explore healing in the lives of 11 women abused as children using a model of participatory dreaming. Aesthetics, imagery, and journaling were used in a participatory design aimed at the appreciation of healing in the lives of the participants as it related to the abuse. Using Cowling's theory of unitary healing, research and practice were combined within a unitary-transformative framework. Participatory dreaming was useful in illuminating the life patterning in the lives of the women and promoted the development of new knowledge and skills that led to change and transformation, both individually and collectively.

Repede E

2011-07-01

247

Participatory dreaming: a unitary appreciative inquiry into healing with women abused as children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unitary appreciative inquiry was used to explore healing in the lives of 11 women abused as children using a model of participatory dreaming. Aesthetics, imagery, and journaling were used in a participatory design aimed at the appreciation of healing in the lives of the participants as it related to the abuse. Using Cowling's theory of unitary healing, research and practice were combined within a unitary-transformative framework. Participatory dreaming was useful in illuminating the life patterning in the lives of the women and promoted the development of new knowledge and skills that led to change and transformation, both individually and collectively. PMID:21677559

Repede, Elizabeth

248

The utility of concept mapping for actualizing participatory research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concept Mapping (CM) is a methodology designed for researching group processes;one its main features is the participatory nature of the technique and its use in new contexts, using methods rooted in traditional applied research. A strong feature of CM is the inclusion of different groups of people interested inreaching meanings and consensus to generate commitment oriented to the development of the communities involved. Another strength, is the overcoming of the shortcomings of ethnographic techniques, because it includes all groups of interest (stakeholders) to combine knowledge, actions and change. Its use (CM)requires to develop of multilevel relationships among the groups, and the valuing of different perspectives, as well as the balancing of the researcher´s approach and that of the participants, using robust models and analytics that yield objective data.

Scott R. Rosas

2012-01-01

249

Vocational rehabilitation: facilitating evidence based practice through participatory action research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Improving vocational rehabilitation in line with the current evidence base is an area of considerable interest. Aims To describe the strategies used by a multidisciplinary team in the initial stages of a participatory action research (PAR) approach to improving a vocational rehabilitation service. METHOD: A literature review and PAR process were completed. One hundred and fifteen participants engaged in multifaceted data collection and analysis, building consensus around key principles for a new vocational rehabilitation service. RESULTS: A synthesis of our literature review and PAR process was developed into a set of principles for practice which we plan to implement across the service. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed methodologies in interdisciplinary collaborations spanning statutory and non-statutory services. We have developed a set of principles for practice and detailed plans for implementation are being drawn up to inform provision in the future.

Maciver D; Prior S; Forsyth K; Walsh M; Meiklejohn A; Irvine L; Pentland D

2013-04-01

250

Urban Forestry Research Needs: A Participatory Assessment Process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New research initiatives focusing on urban ecology and natural resources are underway. Such programs coincide with increased local government action in urban forest planning and management, activities that are enhanced by scientific knowledge. This project used a participatory stakeholder process to explore and understand urban forestry research and technology transfer needs in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The approach can be readily used for any geographic region or metropolitan area. A two-phase, abbreviated Delphi process was conducted, inviting input from urban forestry professionals, academics, and agency-based managers. Research issues were identified and prioritized within three themes: urban forest resource, resource management, and community framework. The results serve as a stakeholder relevant research framework to guide science proposals for funding initiatives at regional and national levels. Notable is major support by respondents for a better understanding of the transactional dynamics of human systems and urban natural resources.

Wolf KathleenL; Kruger LindaE

2010-01-01

251

Participatory Methods in Health Research with elderly People  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Institut für Gerontologische Forschung e.V. investigated the "Primary Prevention Effects of the Märkisches Viertel Network" in Berlin in a research project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The study integrates various participatory methods to investigate the health promotion effects of the volunteer Märkisches Viertel Network, an organisation that brings together different local actors working to assist and encourage older people to live independent lives. In this project participation was realised in two different levels: Firstly, in the cooperation between the team of investigators and the network, secondly, in the handling with the target group of (socially disadvantaged) elderly people. The experiences in both processes will be explained and critically discussed after a brief overview about the project.

Kerstin Kammerer; Josefine Heusinger

2011-01-01

252

Participatory Democracy: Mechanism of Better Regulation in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the concept of participatory democracy in the European context. In the era of globalization, tools such as Internet filled the gap between civil society and political institutions. The new information and communication technologies contribute to the involvement of citizens in decision-making process. The democratic deficit is bridged through increasingly active participation of civil society at various levels of policy. Through e-democracy tools is realized a direct action of citizens, or even certain categories, which for various reasons do not have the possibility to be informed or have voice on political decisions. In addition, the European institutions, through mechanisms of “better regulation”, promote processes of simplification rules to find a remedy for an excessive law-making.

Neliana Rodean

2011-01-01

253

Participatory rural energy planning in India - a policy context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problems of fuel insufficiency, over exploitation of biomass resources and poor reliability and quality of energy services available to the rural masses of India continues despite numerous initiatives by the government. These initiatives have largely been in the form of national level rural and renewable energy programmes aimed at improving people's quality of life and reducing the existing pressure on the natural resource base. The programmes have met with limited success on account of several reasons. One of these is the absence of a mechanism for ensuring the genuine participation of the local inhabitants. With this weakness in mind, the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) and the University of Waterloo (UW) undertook a joint research project (1994-1997), aimed at developing participatory planning and intervention design methodologies and tools to facilitate public participation and feature a meaningful role for women in rural energy planning. This paper presents the policy implications and recommendations of the work. (Author)

Neudoerffer, R. Cynthia [Guelph Univ., School of Rural Planning and Development, Guelph, ON (Canada); Malhotra, Preeti [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India); Ramana, P. Venkata [Winrock International, New Delhi (India)

2001-04-01

254

Local renewable energy planning: a participatory multi-criteria approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources today can provide a promising alternative to conventional power generation, provided some economic, institutional, social and technical barriers could be overcome, and the appropriate planning instruments for their deployment are developed. In Greece, contemporary practice seems inadequate to address the multiple character of renewables and the need to 'open up' the decision-making process to actively include all stakeholders. A number of case studies has been examined in order to formulate a new regulatory framework. The results suggested that participatory multi-criteria decision aiding techniques can capture renewable energy and local stakeholders values as reflected in the weights and criteria. A new framework is established and proposed as a complement to current practice. (author)

Heracles Polatidis; Dias Haralambopoulos [University of the Aegean Mytilene (Greece). Dept. of Environmental Studies

2004-11-15

255

Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC) Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH; Jo Anne Grunbaum, EdD; Barbara Sajor Gray, MIA; Adele Franks, MD; Eduardo Simoes, MD, MS, MPH

2007-01-01

256

HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer) to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.

PROF.B.SUNDARARAMAN; Dr.KL.MUTHURAMU

2013-01-01

257

Developing, testing, and sustaining rehabilitation interventions via participatory action research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few published intervention studies in the rehabilitation literature have included consumers in the research process other than as study participants. This lack of consumer involvement in intervention research may contribute to the challenges encountered developing, translating, disseminating, and sustaining evidence-based rehabilitation interventions in clinical practice. The overall objective of this article is to promote the integration of participatory action research (PAR) into rehabilitation intervention research as a mechanism for addressing these gaps. First, we outline essential components of a PAR model across 5 key phases of intervention research, specifically: agenda setting, methods, implementation, diffusion/dissemination, and sustainability. Second, we describe the use of PAR in rehabilitation intervention research within each of these phases by reviewing relevant literature and by providing an illustrative research example from a randomized controlled trial that integrated PAR throughout the research process. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of 5 specific recommendations for promoting the integration of PAR into rehabilitation intervention research.

Ehde DM; Wegener ST; Williams RM; Ephraim PL; Stevenson JE; Isenberg PJ; MacKenzie EJ

2013-01-01

258

Varietal differences of wheat for 13C-discrimination and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Final report for the period 1 January 1993 - 31 December 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the varietal differences of wheat for shoot dry weight, 13C-discrimination, total N-yield and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Four wheat varieties were exposed to different watering regimes (i.e., W0 as normal irrigation of W1 as water stress) during the following growth periods: (i) from 3-leaf stage to third nod stage; (ii) from 3 nod stage to heading; and (iii) from heading to milk-dough stage. For drought recovery study, the experiment included another three water regime treatments induced by varying the irrigation of plants during the selected growth periods (i.e., W10, W100 and W010). The results indicated that water stress during the selected growth periods greatly decreased shoot dry weight, nabla value, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. The (i) and (ii) are considered critical growth periods as far as the above-mentioned parameters are considered. Expression of any tested parameter under water stress as percentage of that of the corresponding control indicated that Dalcahue, Sakha-69 and Bonadur were less sensitive to water stress than the other varieties at (i), (ii) and (iii) growth periods, respectively. On the other hand, Bonadur at (i) and (ii) growth periods and Sakha-69 at (iii) growth period were more sensitive than the other varieties. Exposing of wheat varieties to water stress during (i) and (ii) growth periods resulted in severe injury with regard to shoot dry weight, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Re-irrigation of the stressed wheat varieties, resulted in drought recovery with different magnitude depending on the variety and the growth period in which the plants were exposed to water stress. Generally, the results demonstrated that Bonadur has better capacity to recover from drought than the other varieties. Therefore, Bonadur may be considered a possible candidate for programs aimed at breeding wheat for drought recovery. (author). 34 refs, 10 tabs.

1993-01-01

259

Beyond the “I“: Framing a model of participatory ethical decision-making for international engineering communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article reports on findings of an ethics education unit in a cross-institutional partnership—an American university and an Indian university—that uses noncooperative gaming theory to extend ethics education to take on a global, group/systems perspective. Authors assert that a role of engineering communication at the global level is to position stakeholders to see ethical decision-making as participatory. The authors also comment on four deliberative challenges that students face as they assume participatory roles in ethical decision-making: (1) anticipating and imagining cultural interaction; (2) coordinating the group decision processes primarily through quantitative means of persuasion; (3) cultivating trust; and (4) coping with the challenges of articulating fairness. To address the communication challenges related to fostering participatory ethical decision-making, the authors conclude by opening a conversation about potential avenues for pursuing participatory ethical decision-making in international engineering contexts.

Mark A. Hannah; Andrew Berardy; Susan G. Spierre; Thomas P. Seager

2013-01-01

260

Cooperative Learning: The Benefits of Participatory Examinations in Principles of Marketing Classes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes procedures for participatory examinations, a method for achieving student collaboration in marketing education. Suggests that the method teaches students group process, persuasion, teamwork, and other skills needed in the contemporary workplace. (SK)

Graham, Reginald A.; And Others

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

'Now we call it research': participatory health research involving marginalized women who use drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces. PMID:21059151

Salmon, Amy; Browne, Annette J; Pederson, Ann

2010-12-01

262

'Now we call it research': participatory health research involving marginalized women who use drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces.

Salmon A; Browne AJ; Pederson A

2010-12-01

263

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that drove the networking process. The paper discusses cycles of the participatory process undertaken for the EE networking in Mafeteng schools, including identification of problems, problem solving, and reflective workshop and study tour. Finally the paper outlines issues that emerged in participatory EE networking, which include school governance, teachers’ existing knowledge, and communication, decision-making and power relations.

Constance BITSO

2006-01-01

264

Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1) that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2) that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.

Katherine A. Daniell; Ian White; Nils Ferrand; Irina S. Ribarova; Peter Coad; Jean-Emmanuel Rougier; Matthew Hare; Natalie A. Jones; Albena Popova; Dominique Rollin; Pascal Perez; Stewart Burn

2010-01-01

265

Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1) the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2) the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3) the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

Sabine Moellenkamp; Machiel Lamers; Christian Huesmann; Sophie Rotter; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Karina Speil; Wiebke Pohl

2010-01-01

266

Participation by different stakeholders in participatory evaluation of health promotion: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory evaluation has been increasingly used in health promotion (HP) and various forms of participatory evaluation have been put into practice. Simultaneously, the concept of participation has become more important for evaluation research in general, which is equally diverse and the subject of various discourses. This study addresses the issue of how the concept of participation has been established in HP evaluation practice. An analytical framework was developed, which served as a basis for a literature review, but can also be used as a general framework for analyzing and planning the scope of participation by various stakeholders within different phases of participatory evaluation. Three dimensions of participation, which refer to decision making (decision power, deliberation) and action processes are distinguished. The results show that only a few articles discussed participatory evaluation processes and participatory (evaluation) research was largely put forth by participatory (action) research in communities. The articles analyzed referred mostly to three stakeholder groups - evaluators, program staff and beneficiaries - and to participation processes in the initial evaluation phases. The application of the framework revealed that decision power seems to be held predominantly by program staff, evaluators seem to be more involved in action processes and beneficiaries in deliberation processes. PMID:23732440

Nitsch, Martina; Waldherr, Karin; Denk, Enrica; Griebler, Ursula; Marent, Benjamin; Forster, Rudolf

2013-05-09

267

[Participatory ergonomics: a model for the prevention of occupational musculoskeletal disorders].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory ergonomics is an intervention strategy acting on physical load exposures occurring in occupational settings, scarcely known in Spain but with a number of experiences and evidences coming from other countries. There are several reasons justifying the interest of this approach. First, participatory ergonomics focuses on one of the categories of occupational exposures with the largest impact on workers' health in a majority of countries all over the world, in terms of incidence, prevalence and disability. Secondly, basic principle in participatory ergonomics is empowerment of workers for them to participate identifying risks and injuries caused by physical exposures at work as well as proposing and evaluating proper control measures for each situation. Thirdly, it allows dealing and solving a number of problems without the use of complex technical protocols. From a public health perspective, participatory ergonomics is a largely tried model of community empowerment for the control of (occupational) factors affecting health and wellbeing. In this paper we revise some basic principles of participatory ergonomics, we comment on the keys leading to success or failing of the interventions and we present some main results coming from participatory ergonomics experiences developed for a long time in countries such as Canada, United Kingdom, Netherlands or Finland.

García AM; Gadea R; Sevilla MJ; Genís S; Ronda E

2009-07-01

268

Participation by different stakeholders in participatory evaluation of health promotion: a literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory evaluation has been increasingly used in health promotion (HP) and various forms of participatory evaluation have been put into practice. Simultaneously, the concept of participation has become more important for evaluation research in general, which is equally diverse and the subject of various discourses. This study addresses the issue of how the concept of participation has been established in HP evaluation practice. An analytical framework was developed, which served as a basis for a literature review, but can also be used as a general framework for analyzing and planning the scope of participation by various stakeholders within different phases of participatory evaluation. Three dimensions of participation, which refer to decision making (decision power, deliberation) and action processes are distinguished. The results show that only a few articles discussed participatory evaluation processes and participatory (evaluation) research was largely put forth by participatory (action) research in communities. The articles analyzed referred mostly to three stakeholder groups - evaluators, program staff and beneficiaries - and to participation processes in the initial evaluation phases. The application of the framework revealed that decision power seems to be held predominantly by program staff, evaluators seem to be more involved in action processes and beneficiaries in deliberation processes.

Nitsch M; Waldherr K; Denk E; Griebler U; Marent B; Forster R

2013-10-01

269

Community-based participatory research: its role in future cancer research and public health practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009-2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research.

Simonds VW; Wallerstein N; Duran B; Villegas M

2013-01-01

270

Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC). The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy) or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.

Ahari Saeid; Habibzadeh Shahram; Yousefi Moharram; Amani Firouz; Abdi Reza

2012-01-01

271

The PhOCoe Model--ergonomic pattern mapping in participatory design processes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discipline and practice of human factors and ergonomics is quite rich in terms of the availability of analysis, development and evaluation tools and methods for its various processes. However, we lack effective instruments to either map or regulate comprehensively and effectively, cognitive and organizational related impacts, especially the environmental ones. Moreover, when ergonomic transformations through design - such as a new workstation design or even an entire new facility - is at play, ergonomics professionals tend to stay at bay, relying solely on design professionals and engineers. There is vast empirical evidence showing that participation of ergonomists as project facilitators, may contribute to an effective professional synergy amongst the various stakeholders in a multidisciplinary venue. When that happens, everyone wins - users and designers alike -because eventual conflicts, raised up in the midst of options selection, are dissipated in exchange for more convergent design alternatives. This paper presents a method for participatory design, in which users are encouraged to actively participate in the whole design process by sharing their real work activities with the design team. The negotiated results inferred from the ergonomic action and translated into a new design, are then compiled into a "Ergonomic Pattern Manual". This handbook of ergonomics-oriented design guidelines contains essential guidelines to be consulted in recurrent design project situations in which similar patterns might be used. The main drive is simple: nobody knows better than workers themselves what an adequate workplace design solution (equipment, workstation, office layout) should be.

Silva e Santos M

2012-01-01

272

Participatory tools for technology assessment: experiences and challenges of various techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, an increased societal scepticism towards experts and technology development is observed. Thereby important societal decisions have been blocked or delayed and confidence in relevant decision-making processes as well as trust in the associated institutions have been lost. This holds not least for the selection and evaluation for repository sites in nuclear waste governance. Thus the participation of various stakeholder groups has received increased attention in scientific discourse on Technology Assessment. Various techniques and methods were developed which enable a scientific, interactive and communicative process to improve decision making and rebuild trust. In our paper we outline important requisites for the application of participatory approaches and criteria for the choice and evaluation of different techniques. We conclude with some important recommendations: (a) framing is more important than the choice of technique, (b) the representation of different groups is crucial, (c) the output is more than decision taking, (d) a good match of technique and context is necessary, (e) the combination of techniques and more intense methods is preferred, and (f) the process itself matters and demands active formation. (orig.)

2005-01-01

273

Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

Vaughn NA; Jacoby SF; Williams T; Guerra T; Thomas NA; Richmond TS

2013-03-01

274

Hydraulic connection of grape berries to the vine: varietal differences in water conductance into and out of berries, and potential for backflow  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Weight loss in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz berries occurs in the later stages of ripening from 90-100 days after anthesis (DAA). This rarely occurs in varieties such as Chardonnay and Thompson seedless. Flow rates of water under a constant pressure into berries on detached bunches of these varieties are similar until 90-100 DAA. Shiraz berries then maintain constant flow rates until harvest maturity, and Chardonnay inflow tapers to almost zero. Thompson seedless maintains high xylem inflows. Hydraulic conductance for flow in and out of individual Shiraz and Chardonnay berries was measured using a root pressure probe. From 105 DAA, during berry weight loss in Shiraz, there were significant varietal differences in xylem hydraulic conductance. Both varieties showed flow rectification such that conductance for inflow was higher than conductance for outflow. For flow into the berry, Chardonnay had 14% of the conductance of Shiraz. For flow out of the berry Chardonnay was 4% of the conductance of Shiraz. From conductance measurements for outflow from the berry and stem water potential measurements, it was calculated that Shiraz could loose ~7% of berry volume per day, consistent with rates of berry weight loss. A functional pathway for backflow from the berries to the vine via the xylem was visualised with Lucifer Yellow CH loaded at the cut stylar end of berries on potted vines. Transport of the dye out of the berry xylem ceased before 97 DAA in Chardonnay, but was still transported into the torus and pedicel xylem of Shiraz at 118 DAA. Xylem backflow could be responsible for a portion of the post-veraison weight loss in Shiraz berries. These data provide evidence of varietal differences in hydraulic connection of berries to the vine that we relate to cell vitality in the mesocarp. The key determinates of berry water relations appear to be maintenance or otherwise of semi permeable membranes in the mesocarp cells and control of flow to the xylem to give variable hydraulic connection back to the vine.

Tilbrook Joanne; Tyerman StephenD

2009-01-01

275

Does Participatory Planning Foster the Transformation Toward More Adaptive Social-Ecological Systems?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for social-ecological systems to become more adaptive is widely acknowledged. Social effects generated by participatory planning have been claimed to contribute to this transformation, but little empirical evidence is available that backs up or opposes this notion. We aimed to offer some insights regarding questions as to which social effects are formed in participatory planning processes and at what costs, and to then discuss their contribution to the transformation toward more adaptive social-ecological systems based on empirical evidence. Consequently, we investigated the social effects of participatory planning processes, including the social learning processes leading to them. We conducted semistructured interviews with members of advisory groups involved in river engineering projects in Switzerland. Our results indicate that participatory planning processes can somewhat contribute to maintaining and spreading knowledge and social capital among individuals in a planning group, and this may help them collectively deal with new and complex challenges. However, it is costly in terms of time and patience to build up ecological knowledge, communicative capacities, and trust, with the latter also eroding over time. Overall, we conclude that the contribution of participatory planning via positive social outcomes to the transformation toward adaptive capacity social-ecological systems is smaller than optimists might hope. However, other forms of planning very likely result in no social effects or even the destruction of social capital. Participatory planning, in contrast, can offer the conditions for relational and cognitive learning contributing to the maintenance of social and political capital. Based on our results, we suggest shifting resources from technical to communicative aspects of planning processes and implementations. We recommend that project leaders provide stakeholders with firsthand information about projects, explain rationales and data behind decisions, and clearly communicate that stakeholders do not have decision making competence to support participants in finding their roles in similar participatory planning settings.

Susanne Menzel; Matthias Buchecker

2013-01-01

276

¡Los Filtros Luchan! A Case Study of Lawyering and Participatory Democracy: Participatory Lobbying as a Strategy for Working with Marginalized Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This thesis examines the participatory lobbying of Puerto Rican Statute #232 of August of 2004, which was a joint endeavor by members of low-income communities, headed by members of the Los Filtros community, and the community development section of the University of Puerto Rico's School of Law Legal Aid Clinic. The case study seeks to bring to the forefront the voices of the members of the Los Filtros community who participated in the lobbying of the bill regarding their perceptions about the process and its relationship to law, politics and democracy. It highlights the unexplored potential of participatory lobbying as a strategy to open spaces of participatory democracy.Participatory lobbying can be a valuable strategy for lawyers working with marginalized communities. This type of lobbying can claim an important place as a strategy within what have been called "law and organizing" approaches to lawyering, which focus on promoting empowerment of marginalized groups. It differs from more traditional public interest lobbying since, in this alternative type of lobbying, members of marginalized communities are the driving force in the process and lawyers serve a supporting role. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1997412

Myrta Morales-Cruz

2012-01-01

277

¡Los Filtros Luchan! A Case Study of Lawyering and Participatory Democracy: Participatory Lobbying as a Strategy for Working with Marginalized Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis examines the participatory lobbying of Puerto Rican Statute #232 of August of 2004, which was a joint endeavor by members of low-income communities, headed by members of the Los Filtros community, and the community development section of the University of Puerto Rico's School of Law L...

Myrta Morales-Cruz

278

Virtues in participatory design: cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed. PMID:22806218

Steen, Marc

2012-07-18

279

Participatory epidemiology to assess sarcoptic mange in serow of Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We used participatory epidemiology (PE) in remote areas to understand the observed distribution and prevalence of infestation by sarcoptic mange mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) on wild Formosan serow (Capricornis swinhoei) in Taiwan. A semistructured interview protocol was used for 37 interviews during June-December 2008. Serow with skin lesions consistent with sarcoptic mange were reported within a latitudinal range of approximately 24°00'N to 22°40'N on the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. The observed prevalence was 40-80% in seven of the 19 interview districts. Clinical signs were observed mainly on serow at elevations >1,000 m and most commonly winter (December-February). Sarcoptes scabiei has been observed in the infestation area for at least 80 yr. No other wildlife species with similar skin lesions were reported except wild boar. Sarcoptic mange mites on Taiwan serow might prefer a low-temperature environment, but other factors such as physiologic differences among serow populations might be involved in the determination of the northern boundary of the enzootic range. The use of PE to collect enzootic information on sarcoptic mange in wild serow was effective and rapid.

Chen CC; Pei KJ; Lai YC; Mortenson JA

2012-10-01

280

Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

Martin Johansson; Per Linde

2005-01-01

282

Scientific bases for a participatory forest landscape management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Madagascar – a biodiversity hotspot of international importance – the villagers depend on the forest first for its soil as a reserve of arable land as well as a shelter and a pasture for the herds, and second for the production of timber, charcoal and other forest products. Most of the currently proposed conservation management systems for forests do not take into consideration villagers’ needs, in Madagascar too; indeed degradation and deforestation have continuously occurred in places where the forest is under great pressure. In targeting the improvement of the livelihood of local populations and the maintenance of “multifunctionality”, especially the ecological value of the forest, the present project aims at developing scientific criteria for a sustainable management of forest landscapes in western Madagascar at a regional scale. A detailed inventory of resources and a specific understanding of stakeholder requirements and strategies will allow drawing an accurate picture of the human-forest interface. A participatory approach paves the way for realistic management criteria that are really adequate to the ecological and social situations. The management criteria will provide a tool for further discussions on landscape management in central Menabe.

Clémence Dirac; Lanto Andriambelo; Jean-Pierre Sorg

2006-01-01

283

Participatory workspace design : A new approach for ergonomists?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineersalike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants.

Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

2010-01-01

284

Place and Situated Deliberation in Participatory Planning – A Research Proposal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemplary cases that explore this focus on place and situated deliberation to further motivate research in that direction. The first case concerns the different qualities of in-situ reflection and action on proposed changes to the cityscape in contrast to ex-situ reflection and action on those changes. The second case focuses on providing immersive information about citizens’ own living environment on the spot for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.

Korn, Matthias

2011-01-01

285

Virtues in participatory design: cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed.

Steen M

2013-09-01

286

Computer Support for Participatory Designing -- A Pilot Study  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present study was to analyze whether and how students working in the collaborative learningenvironment (Future Learning Environment, FLE2) were able to share their design process with the intended user ofthe product. We organized a collaborative design course in which six teams of first-year university-level textilestudents (N=24) solved an authentic and complex design task -- designing bags of EuroCSCL conference -- with thehelp of FLE2-environment. The design course was based on the idea of participatory design process. The methodsof social network analysis were applied to study interaction between the students, teacher and the users in the FLE2database. A more detailed qualitative content analysis was carried out by analyzing the design thinking, designactivities, and interaction between the students' and teacher's and the users' statements posted to the FLE2 databaseby two of the design teams. The results indicated that in the more successful group, there was more active dialoguebetween students and expert users (i.e., avid conference-goers). In the case of this team, the expert user took a role ofco-designer by participating in the design process through evaluating ideas produced by students. In the case of theless successful team, the teachers and users took the role of organizing students' process of working with FLE2 andtheir collaborative designing. This group did not deliberately test their ideas with the expert user.

Pirita Seitamaa-hakkarainen; Henna Lahti; Marjut Iivonen; Kai Hakkarainen

287

Participatory ergonomics in redesigning a dyeing tub for fabric dyers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: The 'saree' worn by women in India and many South Asian countries is dyed using a tub, usually in small scale units employing low capital and a small number of workers. While using these tubs, workers adopt awkward postures over long periods of time which results in severe discomfort in the neck, shoulders and lower extremities. The purpose of the study was to redesign the dyeing tub using a participatory approach and to study the impact of the newly designed tub on the reported body discomfort and rate of production. Methods: Redesigning of the dyeing tub was carried out using three parallel participative processes - (1) eliciting the views of workers who use the tub, (2) interacting with the proprietors of the small scale dyeing units (the employers) and the tub manufacturers, and (3) iterative prototype tub development based on inputs from the first two processes. These processes facilitated involvement of the stake-holders and the acceptance of change. The final prototype was tested by nine workers for a period of three months to evaluate the reduction in body discomfort and increase in rate of production (output). Results: Studies on the impact of the new tub showed a reduction in discomfort level from 'severe' to 'moderate', and a mean increase of 7.9% in the output, confirming the benefits of the participative approach to ergonomics intervention. The involvement, trust and credibility generated by the participative process facilitated the acceptance of the final design.

Parimalam P; Premalatha MR; Padmini DS; Ganguli AK

2012-09-01

288

Participatory ergonomics in redesigning a dyeing tub for fabric dyers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The 'saree' worn by women in India and many South Asian countries is dyed using a tub, usually in small scale units employing low capital and a small number of workers. While using these tubs, workers adopt awkward postures over long periods of time which results in severe discomfort in the neck, shoulders and lower extremities. The purpose of the study was to redesign the dyeing tub using a participatory approach and to study the impact of the newly designed tub on the reported body discomfort and rate of production. METHODS: Redesigning of the dyeing tub was carried out using three parallel participative processes--(1) eliciting the views of workers who use the tub, (2) interacting with the proprietors of the small scale dyeing units (the employers) and the tub manufacturers, and (3) iterative prototype tub development based on inputs from the first two processes. These processes facilitated involvement of the stake-holders and the acceptance of change. The final prototype was tested by nine workers for a period of three months to evaluate the reduction in body discomfort and increase in rate of production (output). RESULTS: Studies on the impact of the new tub showed a reduction in discomfort level from 'severe' to 'moderate', and a mean increase of 7.9% in the output, confirming the benefits of the participative approach to ergonomics intervention. The involvement, trust and credibility generated by the participative process facilitated the acceptance of the final design.

Parimalam P; Premalatha MR; Padmini DS; Ganguli AK

2012-01-01

289

Sustainable E-Participation through participatory experiences in education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010) enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and educational characteristics as a prerequisite for e-participation and argues that social media literacy is indispensable for e-participation to be sustainable. Young people’s affinity spaces (Jenkins, et.al., 2006) can only lay down the foundations for social media literacy, but their further development depends on education. Political Education would be well advised to adapt innovative pedagogical approaches to the acquirement of new media literacy. This paper introduces an exemplary educational tool – predominately but not exclusively for political/civic education – namely the website PoliPedia.at. Teachers can use it to deliberately create a balanced space for collaboration between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives. PoliPedia – as a participative online tool – has the potential to facilitate participation experience in political/civic education and supports social media education. Thereby the embedding of technology in pedagogical and societal conceptualizations is crucial.

Ursula Maier-Rabler; Stefan Huber

2010-01-01

290

Making Governance More Participatory at the Local Level in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yearning for good governance in Africa and Nigeria, in particular, has remained a pressing and topical issue. Indeed, governance and development issues are on the front burner in democratizing societies like Nigeria. The crisis of development has been described as a ‘crisis of governance’ by the World Bank (2003). This crisis of governance has adversely affected the quality and quantity of public utilities provided at the local level. Development strategies of government at the federal, state and local levels have not actively enlisted the participation of Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) in local governance despite their obvious activities and contributions to development in their communities. The bureaucratic institutions of State Administration have become so centralized with the CBOs largely relegated and made irrelevant. It is believed that if the self-governing capacity of CBOs is harnessed, supported and reinforced by governance structures, socio-economic development will be positively affected and possibly lead to its sustainability. It is against this backdrop that this paper examined the essence of CBOs participation in governance for facilitating and fast-tracking socio-economic development and ensuring accountability and responsiveness among government functionaries. The paper also presented the necessary conditions that must be met for CBOs involvement in governance as well as the expected gains of participatory governance. The paper concluded that participation of CBOs in governance could lead to effective representation and empowerment which would, in turn, enhance democratic dividends at the grassrootsl, especially in the local communities.

Femi Popoola

2013-01-01

291

Immanent Politics, Participatory Democracy, and the Pursuit of Eudaimonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper builds on the burgeoning tradition of Aristotelian liberalism. It identifies and critiques a fundamental inequality inherent in the nature of the state and, in particular, the liberal representative-democratic state: namely, an institutionalized inequality in authority. The analysis draws on and synthesizes disparate philosophical and political traditions: Aristotle’s virtue ethics and politics, Locke’s natural rights and idea of equality in authority in the state of nature (sans state of nature), the New Left’s conception of participatory democracy (particularly as described in a number of under-utilized essays by Murray Rothbard and Don Lavoie), and philosophical anarchism. The deleterious consequences of this fundamental institutionalized inequality are explored, including on social justice and economic progress, on individual autonomy, on direct and meaningful civic and political participation, and the creation and maintenance of other artificial inequalities as well as the exacerbation of natural inequalities (economic and others). In the process, the paper briefly sketches a neo-Aristotelian theory of virtue ethics and natural individual rights, for which the principle of equal and total liberty for all is of fundamental political importance. And, finally, a non-statist conception of politics is developed, with politics defined as discourse and deliberation between equals (in authority) in joint pursuit of eudaimonia (flourishing, well-being).[Note: The following font file may be useful for viewing the Greek characters in the Word file above: SPIONIC_.TTF.

Geoffrey Allan Plauché

2011-01-01

292

[Participatory design guide for mental health promotion in prisons].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJETIVE: The main aim was to describe the issues and the participatory process required to design a Guide to promotemental health in prison through group activities. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We reviewed the bibliography, the mental health policies, the workshops about healthy mental habits, and a video about protection and risk factors. We identified the stakeholders and sought their points of view about the topics included in the Guide. We decided on the contents of the Guide and the incorporation of the health assets model and the perspectives provided by gender and cultural diversity. After the initial design of the modules and sessions, we started a pilot in the Prison of Valencia and the Prison of Zaragoza with women and men from different cultures, incorporating the suggested improvements, unifying contents and the discursive style. RESULTS: The guide is formed by: a preface, introduction, description, modules, sessions and evaluation. It has 6 modules and 19 sessions on: health and motivation; self-esteem; health and emotions; more assets to improve health: relax, positive thinking, keeping calm, communication and problem resolution; progress is possible: resiliency and starring in my own change. Each session consists of: activities (objectives, material, allocated time and development), theoretical material and tabbed sheets for activities. The guide is available in print and online versions. CONCLUSIONS: A guide has been elaborated with involved stakeholders and the opinion of the prison population.

Bustamante Navarro R; Paredes-Carbonell JJ; Aviñó Juan-Ulpiano D; González Rubio J; Pitarch Monzó C; Martínez Martínez L; Arroyo-Cobo JM

2013-01-01

293

On participatory design of home-based healthcare  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory design (PD) activities in private homes challenge how we relate to the PD process, compared to PD in professional settings. Grounded in a project related to chronic dizziness among older people, we identified four challenges when performing PD with ill, weak users in their private homes. The challenges are (1) designing for, and negotiating knowledge about, the home, (2) ill, weak users and their participation in PD, (3) divergent interests of participants and (4) usable and sustainable post-project solutions. These challenges have to be carefully addressed, and we use them to reflect upon differences between a home-based PD process with non-workers, such as ours, and work-place projects, such as Utopia. Through this reflection, the paper contributes to a more general discussion on PD in non-work settings with weak users. Indeed, differences do exist between traditional PD projects in work settings, such as Utopia, and home-based PD with weak users especially in relation to knowledge about settings and how to reconcile differences in interests. The home as a place for (technology-assisted) treatment and PD must be carefully analyzed. Diverse interests and roles as well as possibilities for post-project solutions should be negotiated among all stakeholders.

Grönvall, Erik; Kyng, Morten

2013-01-01

294

Study of intra-varietal genetic variability in grapevine cultivars by PCR-derived molecular markers and correlations with the geographic origins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genetic grapevine intravarietal variability will be analyzed by PCR-derived marker systems. In particular, the object of the investigation will be the clonal variations of Malvasia nera di Brindisi/Lecce, Negroamaro and Primitivo, also known as Zinfandel, which are three grapevine varieties cultivated in Apulia region (Italy). In order to assess varietal identity of the samples, 132 DNA tests were performed by amplifying 16 SSR loci. The study of the intravarietal variability was performed using AFLPs, SAMPLs, ISSRs, and M-AFLPs. The application of the above-mentioned techniques allowed both to discriminate all genotypes of the three cultivars and to distinguish the accessions of each cultivar sampled from different geographic cultivation areas. Furthermore, the study of biotypes cultivated in different geographical environments of Salento (i.e., Apulia region) allowed important correlations between molecular marker variability and phenotypic traits. These results are suggesting both to focus our attention on the effects of the environment on the genotype and to consider, as a practical consequence, the importance of preserving autochthon grapevine biotypes found in different areas to truly preserve the richness of the germplasm. Thus, more accurate DNA studies give new information that can be extremely useful to the vine nurseries for the correct choice (i.e., supported by more accurate intravarietal variability analysis) of the grape multiplication materials.

Meneghetti S; Costacurta A; Morreale G; Calò A

2012-01-01

295

Study of intra-varietal genetic variability in grapevine cultivars by PCR-derived molecular markers and correlations with the geographic origins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic grapevine intravarietal variability will be analyzed by PCR-derived marker systems. In particular, the object of the investigation will be the clonal variations of Malvasia nera di Brindisi/Lecce, Negroamaro and Primitivo, also known as Zinfandel, which are three grapevine varieties cultivated in Apulia region (Italy). In order to assess varietal identity of the samples, 132 DNA tests were performed by amplifying 16 SSR loci. The study of the intravarietal variability was performed using AFLPs, SAMPLs, ISSRs, and M-AFLPs. The application of the above-mentioned techniques allowed both to discriminate all genotypes of the three cultivars and to distinguish the accessions of each cultivar sampled from different geographic cultivation areas. Furthermore, the study of biotypes cultivated in different geographical environments of Salento (i.e., Apulia region) allowed important correlations between molecular marker variability and phenotypic traits. These results are suggesting both to focus our attention on the effects of the environment on the genotype and to consider, as a practical consequence, the importance of preserving autochthon grapevine biotypes found in different areas to truly preserve the richness of the germplasm. Thus, more accurate DNA studies give new information that can be extremely useful to the vine nurseries for the correct choice (i.e., supported by more accurate intravarietal variability analysis) of the grape multiplication materials. PMID:21479693

Meneghetti, Stefano; Costacurta, Angelo; Morreale, Giacomo; Calò, Antonio

2012-01-01

296

Suites de m\\'etriques extraites du flot de Ricci sur les vari\\'et\\'es asph\\'eriques de dimension 3  

CERN Multimedia

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: We give a sufficient condition for a closed, orientable, aspherical 3-manifold to contain an incompressible torus or to be Seifert fibered. This condition involves sequences of riemannian manifolds with various properties, in particular there is local control on the curvature and the thick part is asymptotically hyperbolic. The existence of such sequences is guaranteed by Perelman's construction of Ricci flow with surgery. Our result provides an alternative argument for the last step in Perelman's proof of the geometrization conjecture in the aspherical case. RESUM\\'E: Nous donnons une condition suffisante pour qu'une vari\\'et\\'e de dimension 3 ferm\\'ee, orientable et asph\\'erique contienne un tore incompressible ou soit fibr\\'ee de Seifert. Cette condition porte sur l'existence d'une suite de m\\'etriques riemanniennes ayant diverses propri\\'et\\'es, en particulier la courbure est localement contr\\^ol\\'ee et la partie \\'epaisse est asymptotiquement hyperbolique. L'existence d'une telle suite ...

Bessières, Laurent; Boileau, Michel; Maillot, Sylvain; Porti, Joan

2007-01-01

297

Varietal Differences in the Flavonol Content of Mulberry (Morus spp.) Leaves and Genetic Analysis of Quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) for Component Breeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The varietal differences in the flavonol glycosides rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol 3-(6-rhamnosylglucoside), quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside), astragalin, quercetin 3-(6-acetylglucoside) and kaempferol 3-(6-malonylglucoside) contained in mulberry leaves were elucidated. This information was used for breeding mulberry cultivars with a high concentration of functional components. The flavonol content, composition and proportion in leaves varied widely. 'Kobuchizawa 1' had the highest level of total flavonols (1819 mg/100 g dry weight), five times higher than that of 'Mikurasima 15' (393 mg/100 g dry weight). Quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) was the most abundant flavonol, although it was not found in all cultivars. Quercetin 3-(6-acetylglucoside) was only found in 'Keguwa'. From the quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) content in crossbred offspring, malonyltransferase, an enzyme involved in quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) synthesis, was acquired according to Mendelian inheritance. An offspring with a higher quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) level than both parents was obtained from the crossing. This suggested that crossbreeding was effective for acquiring cultivars with a higher content of quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside).

Sugiyama M; Katsube T; Koyama A; Itamura H

2013-08-01

298

Grasping social dynamics of participatory innovation : A case of playing a game  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The key element in participatory innovation is to understand innovation as a social problem solving process between different stakeholders. The social dynamics amongst stakeholders are fundamental to the participatory process and outcome, and it’s therefore beneficial for facilitators and stakeholders themselves to understand their relations and what it means to participate. We argue that we can grasp these social dynamics of participatory innovation through play. From a management perspective we study how playing games helps us to understand these dynamics, while from an interaction design perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co-opetition where individual and group goals are conflicting. Drawing on observations and video data of the game being played by the participants of the conference, we study how different group compositions deal with novelty. From here we explain how the process of play can help to grasp the social dynamics of participatory innovation, and outline design strategies to do this.

Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens

2011-01-01

299

From patient to participant: enhancing the validity and ethics of cancer research through participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory health research involves a wide spectrum of participation from the population of study. We describe the participatory research processes of a large mixed method study on the psychosocial impact of dragon boating in individuals with breast cancer. In particular, we discuss the involvement of a Community Advisory Group (consisting of five breast cancer patients/survivors) in the development of the research study, data collection and analysis, and dissemination of the study results. We also outline the elements of a research workshop, in which 13 breast cancer patients/survivors were involved in the development of a provincial survey for the study. The purpose of this article is to share our experience of engaging cancer patients/survivors in a participatory research study. We discuss the value-based elements of participatory research (power sharing, voice and respect, reciprocity, and mutual benefit), and provide a case-based example of how these participatory elements were employed to potentially increase the validity of the survey instrument, to enhance the ethics of working with a cancer population, and ultimately contributed to a high survey response rate.

Chiu CG; Mitchell TL; Fitch MI

2013-06-01

300

From patient to participant: enhancing the validity and ethics of cancer research through participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory health research involves a wide spectrum of participation from the population of study. We describe the participatory research processes of a large mixed method study on the psychosocial impact of dragon boating in individuals with breast cancer. In particular, we discuss the involvement of a Community Advisory Group (consisting of five breast cancer patients/survivors) in the development of the research study, data collection and analysis, and dissemination of the study results. We also outline the elements of a research workshop, in which 13 breast cancer patients/survivors were involved in the development of a provincial survey for the study. The purpose of this article is to share our experience of engaging cancer patients/survivors in a participatory research study. We discuss the value-based elements of participatory research (power sharing, voice and respect, reciprocity, and mutual benefit), and provide a case-based example of how these participatory elements were employed to potentially increase the validity of the survey instrument, to enhance the ethics of working with a cancer population, and ultimately contributed to a high survey response rate. PMID:23605172

Chiu, Connie G; Mitchell, Terry L; Fitch, Margaret I

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE IN THE PUBLIC HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS OF THE SCANDINAVIAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diminished trust of citizens in the public sector, the increased complexity of policy issues and the reforms in accordance with the new public management principles generate the need of focusing more extensively on participatory governance. Participatory governance can be defined as the genuine engagement of citizens and other organizations in the formulation of policies and strategies, in the decision-making process from the public sector and in the implementation of the decisions. The present paper's objectives are to define the concept of participatory governance, to argue in favor of implementing it in the public sector and to find to what extent public healthcare institutions from Scandinavian and Baltic countries publish information on participatory governance and how they perceive community engagement. The research findings are that the information on participatory governance disclosed on the websites of relevant institutions from within the Scandinavian and Baltic public healthcare systems is scarce. The countries with the greatest concern for community engagement are Denmark and Sweden. It is argued that there should be a shift in focus within the public sector in general and within the healthcare system in particular, so that citizens are genuinely involved in the relevant processes and their satisfaction is indeed at an adequate level.

Stefanescu Aurelia; Mocanu Mihaela; Turlea Eugeniu

2011-01-01

302

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modeling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be recognised and considered in decision-making about SLM, whether it has been formally codified or not. The approach presented in this paper provided this opportunity and received positive feedback from stakeholders.

Stringer LC; Fleskens L; Reed MS; de Vente J; Zengin M

2013-07-01

303

New Challenges for Participation in Participatory Design in Family, Clinical and Other Asymmetrical, Non-work Settings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory design (PD) has taken as its ideal that designers and users should engage in an equal language game. When we apply PD in contexts where some of the users involved are weak, ill, or have impairments, this assumed equality can no longer be an ideal. The workshop explores new ideals for participatory design in non-work settings with highly heterogeneous user constellations.

Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Hedvall, Per-Oluf

2009-01-01

304

Photovoice as Participatory Action Research Tool for Engaging People with Intellectual Disabilities in Research and Program Development  

Science.gov (United States)

People with intellectual disabilities have few opportunities to actively participate in research affecting programs and policies. Employment of participatory action research has been recommended. Although use of this approach with people who have intellectual disabilities is growing, articles on specific participatory research methods are rare.…

Jurkowski, Janine M.

2008-01-01

305

A Case Study of a Community-Based Participatory Evaluation Research (CBPER) Project: Reflections on Promising Practices and Shortcomings  

Science.gov (United States)

This instrumental case study documents a community-based participatory evaluation research (CBPER) project that involved a community partner, two graduate students, a faculty member, and an external funder. It highlights the fact that a participatory evaluation model is a viable way to conduct community-based research (CBR) when a community…

Puma, Jini; Bennett, Laurie; Cutforth, Nick; Tombari, Chris; Stein, Paul

2009-01-01

306

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In (more) so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

Loewenson, Rene; Flores, Walter; Shukla, Abhay; Kagis, Maija; Baba, Amuda; Ryklief, Ashraf; Mbwili-Muleya, Clara; Kakde, Dhananjay

2011-07-01

307

A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN) modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition, strengths and limitations of BNs are synthesized. We found that BNs were successfully applied for knowledge integration and identification of sustainable management strategies within participatory processes. Due to many favorable characteristics, BNs have the potential to become a core method of transdisciplinary knowledge integration in environmental management.

Meike Duespohl; Sina Frank; Petra Doell

2012-01-01

308

Participatory Theater, Is It Really? A Critical Examination of Practices in Timor-Leste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dance, music, and oral narratives are an important and vibrant part of cultural practice and heritage in Timor-Leste. But while Timorese people have used such creative methods and processes during rituals, celebrations, and their fight for independence, today arts and artistic expression become an increasingly popular strategy in development cooperation. Especially diff erent forms of so-called participatory theater with origins in development cooperation, arts, and social movements, present themselves as innovative, participatory, and well applicable in terms of capacity building and stimulating positive social transformation. Based on the author’s experience and observations, this article critically examines the alliance between various stakeholders in Timor-Leste engaging with the fact that the current scene of participatory theater can hardly be seen as an independent grassroots or even social movement, rather than an initiated top-down process by donors with specific agendas.

Julia Scharinger

2013-01-01

309

Implementation of a participatory ergonomics program in the rehabilitation of workers suffering from subacute back pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes a participatory ergonomics program aimed at early return to regular work of workers suffering from subacute occupational back pain and assesses the perceptions of the participants on the implementation of ergonomic solutions in the workplace. The participatory ergonomics program was used in the rehabilitation of workers suffering from subacute back pain for more than 6 weeks, a program that was associated with an increased rate of return to work. The perceptions of the participatory ergonomics participants were assessed 6 months after completion of the ergonomic intervention through a questionnaire sent to employer representatives, union representatives and injured workers of participating workplaces. About half of the ergonomic solutions were implemented according to the perception of the participants, with a substantial agreement between respondents.

Loisel P; Gosselin L; Durand P; Lemaire J; Poitras S; Abenhaim L

2001-02-01

310

Using process evaluation to determine effectiveness of participatory ergonomics training interventions in construction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The construction industry continues to experience high rates of musculoskeletal injuries despite the widespread promotion of ergonomic solutions. Participatory ergonomics (PE) has been suggested as one approach to engage workers and employers for reducing physical exposures from work tasks but a systematic review of participatory ergonomics programs showed inconclusive results.. A process evaluation is used to monitor and document the implementation of a program and can aid in understanding the relationship between the program elements and the program outcomes. The purpose of this project is to describe a proposed process evaluation for use in a participatory ergonomic training program in construction workers and to evaluate its utility in a demonstration project among floor layers.

Dale AM; Jaegers L; Buchholz B; Welch L; Evanoff BA

2012-01-01

311

A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory research community. We also assume that the diversity of participatory forms of research is rarely considered by potential participants when they make their decisions about whether or not to participate in a proposed process. We specifically address how to avoid stakeholders’ reluctance to be involved in participatory research projects based on disillusion with past experiences. We argue that the disappointment experienced by stakeholders and other participants (i.e., researchers and policy makers) can be avoided by being upfront and precise about how “participation” will be implemented, and what kind of involvement is expected from participants. Such a collective effort from the research community can also clarify the variety of possible implementations for potential participants. Building on earlier efforts to characterize and categorize the diversity of participatory research approaches, we develop a conceptual analytic procedural framework to make participants’ roles explicit in the implementation of different participatory research processes. This framework consists of three facets: (1) the flows of information among participants and the control over these flows for each step in a process, i.e., who will be expected to produce information, who will use this information, and who will receive the results; (2) the timing of the involvement of participants in the different steps of the research process, and the framing power that is associated with each process step; and (3) the organization of communication among participants for each information flow, i.e., in what configuration (bilaterally or as a group, mediated or face to face) the interactions among researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers will take place. This framework can accommodate a wide variety of research methods, and highlights exactly how participants are involved in research processes. We are prescriptive in dealing with the need to be procedurally explicit when engaging in participatory research. We anticipate that using this framework will lead to more thoughtful acceptances or refusals to participate in proposed research processes. Our framework is based on various experiences with participatory research. It is intended to be used from the very beginning of a participatory research process as a conceptual guide for researchers. We suggest a protocol to transform it into more practical guidelines for communicating about upcoming participatory research processes. The leader of such processes should propose at each key stage an explicit, yet adaptive, plan for the following stages. This plan should also specify in what ways participants will be involved, and how the plan itself can be questioned and revised.

Olivier Barreteau; Pieter W. G. Bots; Katherine A. Daniell

2010-01-01

312

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

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Full Text Available By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

Rene Loewenson; Walter Flores; Abhay Shukla; Maija Kagis; Amuda Baba; Ashraf Ryklief; Clara Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay Kakde

2011-01-01

313

Participatory planning and community development: an e-learning training program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main goal of this article is to provide guidelines for all community actors on the acquisition of participatory planning tools. There is a growing need for experts capable of participatory interventions to act as social catalysts to promote local well-being and empowerment. Thus, under an ecological approach, 21 young graduates from different fields (architecture, psychology, environmental planning), public administration officers and social organization managers, all residing in Southern Italy, were offered individual and group empowerment training modules through a multidisciplinary training experience with e-learning features. These consisted of 1,500 hours of didactic activities including online cooperative experiences and field interactions directed toward acquiring participatory planning and community mediation tools. Our experience indicates that it is possible to promote participation and acquire skills through online training. Online training has shown itself to be a useful and successful tool for promoting skills in the field of social planning.

Arcidiacono C; Procentese F; Baldi S

2010-01-01

314

Translating community-based participatory research principles into practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although academics are trained in research methods, few receive formal training in strategies for implementing equitable community engaged research. Academics and their community partners can benefit from such direction and assistance as they establish and maintain community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Research partners from the University of Pittsburgh, the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, and the House of Ruth Maryland, one of the nation's leading domestic violence centers serving Baltimore and the surrounding areas, joined together to design, implement, and evaluate a series of activities to increase local CPBR capacity. OBJECTIVES: This article provides an overview of process and findings from two CBPR workshops jointly held for academic and community members and explores specific suggestions from the workshop participants about how to put the CBPR principles into practice to promote community engaged research to address intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: Twenty-four academic and community partners with experience addressing IPV participated in the two workshops. Facilitators led discussions based on the core CPBR principles. Participants were asked to interpret those principles, identify actions that could help to put the principles into practice, and discuss challenges related to CBPR approaches for IPV research. Observational notes and transcripts of the discussions and workshop evaluations are summarized. RESULTS: The CBPR principles were interpreted and revised through consensus into common language that reflected the group discussion of the core CBPR principles. Workshop participants provided a range of actions for putting the principles into practice and identified the need for sensitivity in relation to IPV research. A majority of participants felt that the workshop generated novel ideas about how they could use CPBR in their own work. CONCLUSIONS: Translating CBPR principles into common, action-oriented language is a useful first step when building a new academic-community research partnership.

Burke JG; Hess S; Hoffmann K; Guizzetti L; Loy E; Gielen A; Bailey M; Walnoha A; Barbee G; Yonas M

2013-01-01

315

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1) What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2) How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3) How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

Yorck von Korff; Katherine A. Daniell; Sabine Moellenkamp; Pieter Bots; Rianne M. Bijlsma

2012-01-01

316

Improving Participatory Processes through Collective Simulation: Use of a Community of Practice  

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Full Text Available Stakeholder and public participation in natural resources management (NRM) is now widely accepted as necessary to achieve sustainable development outcomes. Yet, effective implementation of participatory processes necessitates well-calibrated methods and tools, as well as carefully honed facilitation skills that are difficult to gain without practice. Practitioners and academics leading these processes are thus encouraged to better reflect on, prepare, and justify their interventions, before starting to work in the field with stakeholders. Our paper shows how a Simulation Community of Practice (SCoP) was set up to support improved participatory practice. The specificity of this community is that its members not only discuss planned participatory interventions, but also simulate these processes by adopting roles of future participants, and by working through the different steps of the workshop that will be later implemented in the field. The evaluation of our approach shows that individual and social learning of participants in the SCoP is developed, leading mainly to improved facilitator skills and to calibration of the participatory methods and tools being tested. A space is also provided for deepening reflection on the purposes of the participatory process and the values that guide these interventions. Our experience could provide a model for others around the world to set up their own SCoP to support participatory NRM practice. Further improvements to our SCoP and new ones could be made by enhancing the feedback mechanisms between the field sites and the community, in order to encourage more cumulative learning and to reinforce the members' interest, maintaining their involvement in the community over time.

Mathieu Dionnet; Katherine A. Daniell; Amar Imache; Yorck von Korff; Sami Bouarfa; Patrice Garin; Jean-Yves Jamin; Dominique Rollin; Jean-Emmanuel Rougier

2013-01-01

317

Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management.

Trimble M; Berkes F

2013-10-01

318

Participatory research towards co-management: Lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. PMID:23860379

Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

2013-07-13

319

Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (P<0.05) with livestock species and nature of causative agent. Out of the 36 diseases mentioned by farmers, 50%, 22.2%, 19.4%, 5.5% and 2.8% were diseases of cattle, sheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years.

Chatikobo P; Choga T; Ncube C; Mutambara J

2013-05-01

320

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

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Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.

André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.

André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios

2011-01-01

322

Cross-cultural considerations in the conduct of community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores cross-cultural challenges that arise when university and community members collaborate in community-based participatory research. As part of a project for primary prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, researchers trained community leaders to jointly develop a research question and conduct a pilot qualitative study in a Puerto Rican community in Massachusetts. Different priorities of the community and university members about HIV as a research topic underscored the need to continuously reflect on developing a research question in community-based participatory research. Recognizing the cultural assumptions of both university and community members is an important component of capacity building among collaborative research teams.

Foster J; Stanek K

2007-01-01

323

Participatory grading in a blended course on 'Multimodal Interface and Systems'  

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Full Text Available As part of a project aiming to demonstrate feasibility and meaningfulness of on-line and blended P3BL (Problem, Process & Project Based) design educational processes (Interaction Design, Design or the Experience, etc.), in this paper we present and discuss a participatory-grading procedure that has been designed to assess the intermediate tests of a course on 'Multimodal Interface and Systems'. The results, characterized by lights and shadows, provide useful guidance for the future to achieve a participatory monitoring of the full educational experience.

Carlo Giovannella; Andrea Camusi

2012-01-01

324

Varietal effects of eight paired lines of transgenic Bt maize and near-isogenic non-Bt maize on soil microbial and nematode community structure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A glasshouse experiment was undertaken to provide baseline data on the variation between conventional maize (Zea mays L.) varieties and genetically modified maize plants expressing the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Bt, Cry1Ab). The objective was to determine whether the variation in soil parameters under a range of conventional maize cultivars exceeded the differences between Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. Variations in plant growth parameters (shoot and root biomass, percentage carbon, percentage nitrogen), Bt protein concentration in shoots, roots and soil, soil nematode abundance and soil microbial community structure were determined. Eight paired varieties (i.e. varieties genetically modified to express Bt protein and their near-isogenic control varieties) were investigated, together with a Bt variety for which no near-isogenic control was available (NX3622, a combined transformant expressing both Bt and herbicide tolerance) and a conventional barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety which was included as a positive control. The only plant parameter which showed a difference between Bt varieties and near-isogenic counterparts was the shoot carbon to nitrogen ratio; this was observed for only two of the eight varieties, and so was not attributable to the Bt trait. There were no detectable differences in the concentration of Bt protein in plant or soil with any of the Bt-expressing varieties. There were significant differences in the abundance of soil nematodes, but this was not related to the Bt trait. Differences in previously published soil nematode studies under Bt maize were smaller than these varietal effects. Soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, was strongly affected by plant growth stage but not by the Bt trait. The experimental addition of purified Cry1Ab protein to soil confirmed that, at ecologically relevant concentrations, there were no measurable effects on microbial community structure.

Griffiths, Bryan S; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

2007-01-01

325

Evaluation of the effectiveness of deworming and participatory hygiene education strategy in controlling anemia among children aged 6-15 years in Gadagau community, Giwa LGA, Kaduna, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background : Anemia is one of the most common and most serious health disorders worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about 40% of the total world?s population (more than 2 billion individuals) suffer from anemia. In developing countries, the prevalence rate of anemia is about 20% in school-aged children. More than 10 million African children are thought to be anemic (Hb Objective : The study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of deworming and participatory hygiene education strategy in controlling anemia among children aged 6-15 years in the Gadagau community, north-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional descriptive study of 306 children aged 6-15 years selected from two rural communities (Gadagau, which was the study group and Karau-Karau, which was the control group) in the Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna State Nigeria using a multistage sampling technique. The studies involved parasitological examination and anemia evaluation before and at 3 months after the children were dewormed. Results : Only 301 children (150 children in study group and 151 children in control group) were studied. The results showed that those who were dewormed and had participatory hygiene education lectures (study group) had significantly higher mean hemoglobin, from an initial 10.4 g/dl to a post-intervention of 12.4 g/dl (paired t-test = 13.96; P = 0.00). Also, there was a rise in the mean hemoglobin of the control group, but not as much as in the study group, from an initial mean hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl to a post-intervention of 11.2 g/dl (paired t-test = 2.89; P = 0.004). Comparing the study and the control groups, those who were dewormed and also had participatory hygiene education lectures (study group) had a significantly higher reduction in the level of children who had ova of intestinal helminthes present in their stool than those in the control group (? 2 = 31.61; df = 1, P = 0.00). Conclusion : This study therefore concludes that including participatory hygiene education to deworming programmes will greatly improve the hemoglobin level of children in areas where there is a high prevalence of hookworm infections, especially as a short-term preventive measure for anemia in children.

Sufiyan M; Sabitu K; Mande A

2011-01-01

326

Correction: Using participatory design to develop (public) health decision support systems through GIS  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public) health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD) process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team) in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs). Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP) that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data). Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different standard mapping file formats (e.g. ESRI, MapInfo, CSV). Discussion Based on the evaluation of Phase 1, the PD process has served both as a facilitator and a barrier. In terms of successes, the PD process identified two key components that are important to users: increased data/map sharing functionality and interoperability. Some of the challenges affected developers and users; both individually and as a collective. From a development perspective, this project experienced difficulties in obtaining personnel skilled in web application development and GIS. For users, some data sharing barriers are beyond what a technological tool can address (e.g. third party data). Lastly, the PD process occurs in real time; both a strength and a limitation. Programmatic changes at the provincial level and staff turnover at the organizational level made it difficult to maintain buy-in as participants changed over time. The impacts of these successes and challenges will be evaluated more concretely at the end of Phase 2. Conclusion PD approaches, by their very nature, encourage buy-in to the development process, better addresses user-needs, and creates a sense of user-investment and ownership.

Driedger S Michelle; Kothari Anita; Morrison Jason; Sawada Michael; Crighton Eric J; Graham Ian D

2007-01-01

327

Crowdsourcing participatory evaluation of medical pictograms using Amazon Mechanical Turk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Consumer and patient participation proved to be an effective approach for medical pictogram design, but it can be costly and time-consuming. We proposed and evaluated an inexpensive approach that crowdsourced the pictogram evaluation task to Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) workers, who are usually referred to as the "turkers". OBJECTIVE: To answer two research questions: (1) Is the turkers' collective effort effective for identifying design problems in medical pictograms? and (2) Do the turkers' demographic characteristics affect their performance in medical pictogram comprehension? METHODS: We designed a Web-based survey (open-ended tests) to ask 100 US turkers to type in their guesses of the meaning of 20 US pharmacopeial pictograms. Two judges independently coded the turkers' guesses into four categories: correct, partially correct, wrong, and completely wrong. The comprehensibility of a pictogram was measured by the percentage of correct guesses, with each partially correct guess counted as 0.5 correct. We then conducted a content analysis on the turkers' interpretations to identify misunderstandings and assess whether the misunderstandings were common. We also conducted a statistical analysis to examine the relationship between turkers' demographic characteristics and their pictogram comprehension performance. RESULTS: The survey was completed within 3 days of our posting the task to the MTurk, and the collected data are publicly available in the multimedia appendix for download. The comprehensibility for the 20 tested pictograms ranged from 45% to 98%, with an average of 72.5%. The comprehensibility scores of 10 pictograms were strongly correlated to the scores of the same pictograms reported in another study that used oral response-based open-ended testing with local people. The turkers' misinterpretations shared common errors that exposed design problems in the pictograms. Participant performance was positively correlated with their educational level. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed that crowdsourcing can be used as an effective and inexpensive approach for participatory evaluation of medical pictograms. Through Web-based open-ended testing, the crowd can effectively identify problems in pictogram designs. The results also confirmed that education has a significant effect on the comprehension of medical pictograms. Since low-literate people are underrepresented in the turker population, further investigation is needed to examine to what extent turkers' misunderstandings overlap with those elicited from low-literate people.

Yu B; Willis M; Sun P; Wang J

2013-01-01

328

Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision-makers need to work alongside other stakeholders to establish at what stages, and in what ways involvement can be meaningfully incorporated. Future outputs from this work will help establish the practical applicability of these mechanisms for the Environment Agency.

Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Research and Training; Pollard, Simon; Twigger-Ross, Clare [National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, London (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

329

Roles of Participatory Action-oriented Programs in Promoting Safety and Health at Work.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reflecting the current international trends toward proactive risk assessment and control at work with practical procedures, participatory action-oriented approaches are gaining importance in various sectors. The roles of these approaches in promoting the safety and health at work are discussed based on their recent experiences in preventing work-related risks and improving the quality of work life, particularly in small-scale workplaces. The emphasis placed on the primary prevention at the initiative of workers and managers is commonly notable. Participatory steps, built on local good practices, can lead to many workplace improvements when the focus is on locally feasible low-cost options in multiple aspects. The design and use of locally adjusted action toolkits play a key role in facilitating these improvements in each local situation. The effectiveness of participatory approaches relying on these toolkits is demonstrated by their spread to many sectors and by various intervention studies. In the local context, networks of trainers are essential in sustaining the improvement activities. With the adequate support of networks of trainers trained in the use of these toolkits, participatory approaches will continue to be the key factor for proactive risk management in various work settings. PMID:23019528

Kazutaka, Kogi

2012-08-30

330

Roles of Participatory Action-oriented Programs in Promoting Safety and Health at Work.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reflecting the current international trends toward proactive risk assessment and control at work with practical procedures, participatory action-oriented approaches are gaining importance in various sectors. The roles of these approaches in promoting the safety and health at work are discussed based on their recent experiences in preventing work-related risks and improving the quality of work life, particularly in small-scale workplaces. The emphasis placed on the primary prevention at the initiative of workers and managers is commonly notable. Participatory steps, built on local good practices, can lead to many workplace improvements when the focus is on locally feasible low-cost options in multiple aspects. The design and use of locally adjusted action toolkits play a key role in facilitating these improvements in each local situation. The effectiveness of participatory approaches relying on these toolkits is demonstrated by their spread to many sectors and by various intervention studies. In the local context, networks of trainers are essential in sustaining the improvement activities. With the adequate support of networks of trainers trained in the use of these toolkits, participatory approaches will continue to be the key factor for proactive risk management in various work settings.

Kazutaka K

2012-09-01

331

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

|A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

332

Using Scenario Visioning and Participatory System Dynamics Modeling to Investigate the Future: Lessons from Minnesota 2050  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Both scenario visioning and participatory system dynamics modeling emphasize the dynamic and uncontrollable nature of complex socio-ecological systems, and the significance of multiple feedback mechanisms. These two methodologies complement one another, but are rarely used together. We partnered wit...

Laura K. Schmitt Olabisi; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Kris A. Johnson; Peter B. Reich; Brian Stenquist; Kathryn J. Draeger

333

Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD), while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (re)centralization of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet) gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.

Andreas Neef

2008-01-01

334

Mutual Support: A Model of Participatory Support by and for People with Learning Difficulties  

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|Mutual Support, a model of peer support by and for people with learning difficulties, was constructed through a participatory research process. The research focussed on individual narratives from people with learning difficulties. These narratives were then brought together to form a collective model of support. This paper outlines the detailed…

Keyes, Sarah E.; Brandon, Toby

2012-01-01

335

Effectiveness of participatory training on improving occupational health in small and medium enterprises in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Participatory training on occupational health is widely used in the world. Evaluations of local experiences are necessary to its successful performance. OBJECTIVES: The project evaluated the effectiveness of participatory training on occupational health improvement in small and medium enterprises of China, and explored local practice experiences. METHODS: Participatory training was provided to 525 welding workers from 25 small and medium enterprises in ship building and machinery manufacturing industries. This training consisted of interactive learning, worksite assessment and group discussion on laws/regulations, safety of machine operation, prevention of slips and trips, fire/explosion prevention, ergonomics, and recognition and prevention of other workplace hazards. Workers completed knowledge, attitude, and practice and worksite assessment questionnaires before and 3 months after intervention. RESULTS: Knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were significantly increased through the training. An inventory of workplace safety modifications was proposed by participants and many were fixed by workers and employers. Health management and personal protective equipment provision/use were most often improved, but improvements in engineering control and health-related accommodations remained unsatisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: Workers could recognize and fix workplace hazards after the participatory training. More efficient measures in China are to be explored to improve implementing solutions, especially on preventive engineering and human ergonomics.

Fu C; Zhu M; Yu TS; He Y

2013-04-01

336

Advances in participatory occupational health aimed at good practices in small enterprises and the informal sector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory programmes for occupational risk reduction are gaining importance particularly in small workplaces in both industrially developing and developed countries. To discuss the types of effective support, participatory steps commonly seen in our "work improvement-Asia" network are reviewed. The review covered training programmes for small enterprises, farmers, home workers and trade union members. Participatory steps commonly focusing on low-cost good practices locally achieved have led to concrete improvements in multiple technical areas including materials handling, workstation ergonomics, physical environment and work organization. These steps take advantage of positive features of small workplaces in two distinct ways. First, local key persons are ready to accept local good practices conveyed through personal, informal approaches. Second, workers and farmers are capable of understanding technical problems affecting routine work and taking flexible actions leading to solving them. This process is facilitated by the use of locally adjusted training tools such as local good examples, action checklists and group work methods. It is suggested that participatory occupational health programmes can work in small workplaces when they utilize low-cost good practices in a flexible manner. Networking of these positive experiences is essential.

Kogi K

2006-01-01

337

Advances in participatory occupational health aimed at good practices in small enterprises and the informal sector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory programmes for occupational risk reduction are gaining importance particularly in small workplaces in both industrially developing and developed countries. To discuss the types of effective support, participatory steps commonly seen in our "work improvement-Asia" network are reviewed. The review covered training programmes for small enterprises, farmers, home workers and trade union members. Participatory steps commonly focusing on low-cost good practices locally achieved have led to concrete improvements in multiple technical areas including materials handling, workstation ergonomics, physical environment and work organization. These steps take advantage of positive features of small workplaces in two distinct ways. First, local key persons are ready to accept local good practices conveyed through personal, informal approaches. Second, workers and farmers are capable of understanding technical problems affecting routine work and taking flexible actions leading to solving them. This process is facilitated by the use of locally adjusted training tools such as local good examples, action checklists and group work methods. It is suggested that participatory occupational health programmes can work in small workplaces when they utilize low-cost good practices in a flexible manner. Networking of these positive experiences is essential. PMID:16610530

Kogi, Kazutaka

2006-01-01

338

A Community-Based Approach to Health Literacy Using Participatory Research  

Science.gov (United States)

|Literacy is considered one of the most important determinants of health among Canadians (Ronson & Rootman, 2004). Engaging communities in identifying the critical connections between literacy and health is an important aspect of addressing health literacy. This article describes how participatory research, undertaken through a…

Gillis, Doris E.

2004-01-01

339

Participatory ergonomics: co-developing interventions to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal symptoms in business drivers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The participatory process within four case study organisations with a target population of high mileage business drivers is described. The aim was to work with drivers and their managers to co-develop intervention activities to raise awareness of musculoskeletal health in drivers, including use of the car as a mobile office and manual handling from the car. Train-the-trainer sessions were delivered in each organisation, along with the co-production of training materials. The effectiveness of these activities were evaluated using three sources of data: post-intervention questionnaires, interviews with organisation 'champions' and observations from the research team's diaries. The approach raised management awareness of the risks to drivers and was successful in affecting change, and as such, participatory research should consider the early stages of a project as part of any intervention activities. The research team also reflect on conducting applied longitudinal research in the field. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Raising awareness of the risks of musculoskeletal disorders in drivers who work from their vehicle is important. This paper reflects on research in the field and provides guidance on the participatory process and evaluating intervention activities. The participatory process was successful in affecting change at management level.

Gyi D; Sang K; Haslam C

2013-01-01

340

Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process.

Leykum Luci K; Pugh Jacqueline A; Lanham Holly J; Harmon Joel; McDaniel Reuben R

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations.

Lillehagen I; Vøllestad N; Heggen K; Engebretsen E

2013-01-01

342

A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b) work practice improvement, and c) working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1) the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2) the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.

Aniruth Manothum; Jittra Rukijkanpanich

2010-01-01

343

A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers, a) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b) work practice improvement, and c) working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1) the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2) the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (P less than 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives. ?

Manothum A; Rukijkanpanich J

2010-06-01

344

Co-engineering participatory modelling processes for water planning and management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Broad-scale multi-stakeholder decision-aiding processes for complex water planning and management issues are typically organised or "co-engineered" by several agencies or actors. These participatory processes are therefore co-initiated, co-designed and co-implemented by a number of people. It is pos...

Daniell, K.A.

345

Participatory research from the angle of empowerment-theory: Some critical reflections  

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Full Text Available This article focuses on the relation of research and praxis. In applying a community psychology perspective, the author tries to analyze contradictions in the participatory praxis of organizations and research projects. He argues for a combined approach which includes empowerment and participation. Two empirical examples shed light on the author's theoretical explications.

Olaf Neumann

2011-01-01

346

Methodological challenges for the large N study of local participatory experiences. Combining methods and databases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article we analyse the effects of different data collection strategies in the study of local participatory experiences in a region of Spain (Andalusia). We examine the divergences and similarities between the data collected using different methods, as well as the implications for the reliabi...

Galais, Carolina; Font, Joan; Alarcón, Pau; Sesma, Dolores

347

Participatory research for adaptive water management in a transition country. A case study from Uzbekistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches...

Hirsch, D.; Abrami, G.; Giordano, R.; Liersch, S.; Matin, N.; Schlüter, M.

348

Contextual factors affecting task distribution in two participatory ergonomic interventions: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides an analysis of the evolution of the division of labour in participatory ergonomics (PE) programmes in two worksites. The analysis is based on interviews and field observations in the worksites. In both settings there was meaningful participation by both worker and management members of ergonomic change teams (ECTs) in the hazard assessment and solution identification stages, but as the teams moved to the implementation stage, worker representatives were marginalised and the participatory nature of the programmes was severely curtailed. The removal of workers from the process was the outcome of the interplay among the type of activities pursued in the implementation stage, the skills and knowledge required to carry out those activities, and workers' limited influence in the organisational hierarchies. Findings highlight the salience of the social context in which participatory programmes are located and the importance of examining participatory programmes as they evolve over time. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article contributes to a growing literature on the process and implementation of PE programmes. The article's focus on social and organisational factors that affect the division of labour and attention to the evolution of involvement over time extend current understandings of participation in ergonomics programmes.

Dixon SM; Theberge N

2011-11-01

349

The intersection of people, technology and local space. PPGIS and Web in practice for participatory planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies , This study concerns about the contributions of Web 2.0 tools to Public Participation Geographic Information System (PPGIS) and of PPGIS to participatory planning. Web 2.0 to...

Bugs, Geisa Tamara

350

Evaluation of a workshop to improve community involvement in community-based participatory research efforts  

Science.gov (United States)

Community based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that has gained attention in health and public health research. Community members and researchers partnering in a CBPR project recognized the need for community education about the research process and research eth...

351

Strategies for Engagement: Knowledge Building and Intellectual Engagement in Participatory Learning Environments  

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Intellectual engagement is an absorbing, creatively energized focus resulting in a deep personal commitment to exploration, investigation, problem-solving and inquiry over a sustained period of time. In this article, the authors argue that participatory learning environments with a focus on knowledge building offer clear learning benefits to…

Jacobsen, Michele; Lock, Jennifer; Friesen, Sharon

2013-01-01

352

LINKING SERVICE AND NUTRITION RESEARCH: AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  

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Purpose: This paper outlines how community service activities can evolve as a mechanism to identify and initiate community-based participatory research projects in diet/healthy eating. Background: The Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) is sponsored by the United States Departm...

353

PARTICIPATORY MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF THE RICE SEED SYSTEM IN NORTHEAST THAILAND  

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The Thai rice seed system is undergoing an important reform. In this context, we organised a series of participatory modelling sessions with stakeholders to elicitate farmers' needs and decision making processes concerning rice varieties and seeds supply in Ubon Ratchathani province. A conceptual mo...

Abrami, Géraldine; Vejpas, Chirawat; Bousquet, François; Trebuil, Guy

354

Participatory democracy at the regional scale in Europe : size vs. politics ?  

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The settlement of tools and devices of participatory democracy at the regional level in Europe, for few years, has been the occasion to wonder about the “scale” issue in the modern democracy. Indeed, in the specific case of French regions, the problem of a too larger scale, which could be argue agai...

Gourgues, Guillaume

355

Re-Presenting the "Forgotten Estate": Participatory Theatre, Place and Community Identity  

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In this article, we discuss the work undertaken in the first phase of a participatory theatre project which took place on a council housing estate in the Midlands of England, in which residents were invited to share their memories for a production which would present the history of the estate. This community is often characterised as deficient,…

Jones, Susan; Hall, Christine; Thomson, Pat; Barrett, Andy; Hanby, Julian

2013-01-01

356

Participatory research: opportunities and challenges for research with women in South Africa  

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The basic underlying principles of participatory research have long been found to be useful and meaningful for conducting women oriented research. In South Africa, with its history of inequality on both the gender and the political front, the conspicuous scarcity of programmes utilizing participator...

Penzhorn, Cecilia

357

Community participatory physical activity intervention targets children at high risk for obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

This community participatory research evaluated the feasibility of a summer soccer and nutrition education program to increase physical activity (PA) in rural Mississippi Delta children at high risk of obesity and previously not exposed to soccer. Children aged 4-12 were recruited through school and...

358

Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations.

Lillehagen, Ida; V?llestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

2013-01-01

359

An Approach to Participatory Instructional Design in Secondary Education: An Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Teachers have limited insight in students' perspectives on education, although these perspectives influence quality of learning. As students' and teachers' perspectives differ considerably, there is a need for teachers to learn more about students' experiences and ideas about education. Participatory design might be a good strategy for…

Konings, Karen D.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2010-01-01

360

Effects-Driven IT Development : A Strategy for Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation  

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We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design and organizational...

Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

 
 
 
 
361

Doing Student Voice Work in Higher Education: An Exploration of the Value of Participatory Methods  

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This paper will review the existing student voice work in higher education and critique its current weaknesses, particularly in relation to conceptualisations of and commitments to participation, transformation and empowerment. It will be argued that the employment of participatory methods in higher education student voice work offers a way to…

Seale, Jane

2010-01-01

362

Power, Ethics, and the IRB: Dissonance over Human Participant Review of Participatory Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research operates in a complex, dynamic social milieu and seeks to share the power inherent in knowledge generation with community partners. Institutional review boards (IRBs), however, typically operate from a framework that assumes asymmetrical power relations, hierarchically structured. This article argues that these differing…

Boser, Susan

2007-01-01

363

Power, Agency and Participatory Agendas: A Critical Exploration of Young People's Engagement in Participative Qualitative Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article critically explores data generated within a participatory research project with young people in the care of a local authority, the (Extra)ordinary Lives project. The project involved ethnographic multi-media data generation methods used in groups and individually with eight participants (aged 10-20) over a school year and encouraged…

Holland, Sally; Renold, Emma; Ross, Nicola J.; Hillman, Alexandra

2010-01-01

364

Effects of a Long-Term Participatory Action Research Project on Science Teachers' Professional Development  

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This paper describes the potential of long-term co-operation between science educators and science teachers concerning the teachers' continuous professional development, based on Participatory Action Research in science education. The discussion is based on a six-year case study observing a group of about ten German chemistry teachers by chemistry…

Eilks, Ingo; Markic, Silvija

2011-01-01

365

Making and Shaping Participatory Spaces: Resemiotization and Citizenship Agency in South Africa  

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In South Africa, democratic consolidation involves not only building a new state, but also new interfaces between state and society. To strengthen the agency of citizens at these interfaces, recent approaches to development stress the notion of "participatory citizenship." The purpose of this article is to explore the links, rarely achieved in…

Kerfoot, Caroline

2011-01-01

366

Research for Change versus Research as Change: Lessons from a "Mujerista" Participatory Research Team  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I aim to further the discussion of engaged research in anthropology and education by examining the unique changes promoted by participatory research in contrast to policy-oriented activist research models. Drawing on my work with Latina immigrant mothers in a school reform movement, I argue for a Latina feminist view of…

Dyrness, Andrea

2008-01-01

367

Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

2013-01-01

368

Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands  

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The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production...

Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, I.J.M., de

369

Participation and Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Environmental Education Processes: For What Are People Empowered?  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory action research (PAR) derived from anti-colonial struggles in the third world in the 1960s. Traditionally it has been a method of the margins because of its commitment to linking social justice to research. Because of its counter-hegemonic tendency it has had great appeal among environmental educators advocating a socially critical…

Le Grange, Lesley

2009-01-01

370

Between Citizenship and Clientship: The Politics of participatory governance in Malawi.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the twenty years since the post-Cold War wave of democratisation spread across Africa, experiments in participatory governance have revealed fundamental contradictions between their normative bases and their practical application on the ground. Responding to calls for a greater focus on ‘the pol...

Gaynor, Niamh

371

JAKFISH Policy Brief: coping with uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity in fisheries management through participatory knowledge development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The legitimacy of the scientific underpinning of European fisheries management is often challenged because of perceived exclusion of fishers knowledge and the lack of transparency in generating scientific advice. One of the attempts to address this lack of legitimacy has been through participatory knowledge development. In this paper, we will present the results of the JAKFISH project (Judgement and Knowledge in Fisheries Management involving Stakeholders) that focussed on the interplay between different actors in constructing the underpinning of policy decisions for sustainable fisheries. We tested participatory modelling as a tool to enhance mutual understanding and to increase legitimacy and found that it can be instrumental in developing a broader knowledge base for fisheries management and in building up trust between scientists and stakeholders. However, the participatory approach may not always work. Through social network analyses we found that the number of connections and the frequency of interactions between individuals in different groups (science, fisheries, eNGOs, policy) provides an important clue on the potential effectiveness of participatory approaches. We used three concepts to evaluate the role of scientific knowledge in policy making: salience, legitimacy and credibility. In situations with high stakes and high uncertainties, the evaluation of scientific analyses for policy decisions needs to involve a broader peer community consisting of scientists, policy-makers, NGOs and fisheries in order to increase legitimacy of results. When stakes are low and uncertainties are modest, the credibility of scientific results are sufficiently addressed through traditional scientific peer review

Pastoors, M.A.; Ulrich, Clara

2012-01-01

372

Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. DISCUSSION: We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. SUMMARY: The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process.

Leykum LK; Pugh JA; Lanham HJ; Harmon J; McDaniel RR Jr

2009-01-01

373

Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i) the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii) their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii) their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1) the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2) in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well), four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s), and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.

Darya Hirsch; Geraldine Abrami; Raffaele Giordano; Stefan Liersch; Nilufar Matin; Maja Schlüter

2010-01-01

374

Role of Participatory Rural Appraisal in Community Development (A Case Study of Barani Area Development Project in Agriculture, Live Stock and Forestry Development in Kohat)  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out the role of participatory approach in community development. Barani Area Development Project is one of Govt: sponsored project, which was started in 2001. The aim of this project was to encourage community and ensure maximum participation to sustain the project in district kohat. Kalabat, Jangle Khail , Lachi ,Usterzo and Kachi were selected for this study. Proportion allocation method of sampling was used for the selection of respondents, 150 community members were selected out of 9000 population and 50 stockholders of Barani Project were selected out of 70 population for this study. The researcher used questionnaire for educated respondents and interview schedule for illiterate respondents. The study indicates that Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is one of the most appropriate approaches for the identification of community problems and for understanding the socio-economic and cultural aspects of the community. The beneficiaries were well aware about participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and its use because of the proper introduction and implementation in area by Barani Area Development Project (BADP). Due to PRA, the output of agriculture, livestock and forestry has risen, which has ultimately raised the socio-economic conditions of the community. The PRA training in agriculture is with special emphasis on land cultivation, preparations, fertilizer and pesticides usage has risen and helpful in producing more yields. In livestock sector they gave training on breed improvement in area and as a result livestock breed and milk products have improved in the area. In forestry sector they gave training on nursery raising and bee keeping etc to generate various ways for income. Thus through the PRA trainings and usage the community has a chance to earn more livelihoods and to satisfy their needs easily. Thus BADP used PRA approach in the area to empower the community through self-help and self-decision for participation in any developmental activities without any discrimination among the community members. The PRA tools used are helpful to the whole community, and they will easily identify their problems not only to agriculture sector but also in livestock and forestry sector. The community was satisfied from PRA role because they will ensure maximum participation through CBO/VO/WO etc. for the community development. The researcher recommended some suggestions to overcome the obstacles in front of PRA implementation and bringing Development in agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors through Barani Area Development Project.

Anwar Alam; Sabir Ihsan

2012-01-01

375

Community-based participatory research: a collaborative study to measure capabilities towards recovery in mental health community organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this article is to offer a theoretical review on community based research, namely about collaborative processes and qualitative participatory methodologies, and to present an application of this framework to the research design. Method: It is provided a review on community-based research methodology, university-community partnerships, and is described the qualitative participatory methodology used in one collaborative study. Conclusion: following the partnership guidelines for collaborative community-university research, we highlight the participatory and qualitative process that intended to develop a measure of user’s capability gains fostered by mental health community based organizations.

José Ornelas; Rita Aguiar; Beatrice Sacchetto; Maria F. Jorge-Monteiro

376

Asociación entre las características varietales y el daño ocasionado por el taladrador de la caña de azúcar, en el estado Portuguesa, Venezuela/ Association between varietal traits and damage caused by the sugarcane stemborer in portuguesa state, venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El taladrador de la caña de azúcar, Sacharum spp., (Diatraea spp.) es el insecto plaga de mayor importancia en el cultivo en Venezuela, después de la candelilla. El programa de mejoramiento de la caña de azúcar del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, INIA incluye la determinación de la incidencia de esta plaga sobre los cultivares durante las etapa final del proceso de selección mediante la determinación del porcentaje de entrenudos perforados (Índi (more) ce de infestación, I.I.) y porcentaje de entrenudos con galerías (Índice de intensidad de infestación, I.I.I.). Sin embargo, es necesario evaluar la efectividad y confianza de estos dos parámetros como indicadores de la resistencia al taladrador. Con la finalidad de identificar otras características varietales relacionadas con la resistencia a Diatraea spp., y evaluar la eficacia de los índices actual-mente usados, se efectuó un análisis de correlación para los datos de 12 años de pruebas finales en el estado Portu­guesa, Venezuela. Los datos analizados revelan ausencia de correlación entre el contenido de fibra del tallo, peso de tallo y número de tallos y los índices I.I. e I.I.I. indicando la falta de asociación entre estas variables y la resistencia a Diatraea. Sin embargo, se detectó una correlación negativa entre I.I.I y diámetro (-0,105 P>0,0016). Se encontró un grado de asociación significativa entre el daño y la reducción del pol y la pureza del jugo. Las correlaciones altas y posi­tivas entre I.I. y I.I.I. (0,892 P>0, 0001) indican una alta asociación entre ambas lo que apunta a la fiabilidad de los mismos. Se amerita caracterizar el banco de germoplasma del INIA para evitar el uso de padres susceptibles. Abstract in english The sugarcane borer (Diatraea spp.) is the second major pest in Venezuela right after the sugarcane froghopper (Aeneolamia varia). The Venezuelan sugar cane program includes screening experimental clones at the final stages during the regional trials when percentage of exited internodes and percentage of bored internodes are recorded at harvest during three crops. However, concerns have been raised over effectiveness and confidence of these two traits in assessing the res (more) istance to the borer. In order to identify varietal traits related to reaction of attacks by sugar cane borer and evaluate efficiency of currently used infestation index a correlation analysis for the data recorded in 12 years of sugar cane regional trials in Portuguesa State, Venezuela was conducted. The data analyzed revealed very low correlation between juice fiber content, stalk weight and stalk number and percentage of bored internodes (I.I.I.) and percentage of exited internodes (I.I.) indicating the useless of this traits in constructing a selection index for identifying resistant clones in a population. Also, no relationship between fiber content with resistance to Diatraea spp. can be confirmed from these results. However, a low but significant negative correlation was found between stalk diameter and I.I.I. (-0.105 P>0.0016). Diatraea damage showed a negative and significant degree of correlation with reduction of sugar content and juice and quality. High and positive correlations between I.I.I. and I.I. (0,892 P>0, 0001) may indicate the reliability of their use. Screening the gene bank in order to avoid the use of susceptible parents is a must.

Ramón M, Miguel C; Mauriello M, Fernando; Graterol, Yvan; Giraldo- Vanegas, Humberto; Mendoza, Cristóbal; Pérez P, Margely M; Izarraga T, Rosa M

2008-06-01

377

Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation principles in radiation protection. Insight was also gained in what information should be collected or subject studied for emergency management. It was proved to be essential that information is in the proper form for decision-making. Therefore, methods and models to assess realistically the radiological and cost implications of different countermeasures need to be further developed. In the consequent assessments, it is necessary to take production, economic, demographic and geographical information into account. Also, the feasibility and constraints of protective actions, such as logistics, require further investigation. For example, there seems to exist no plans in the EU or Nordic countries to dispose radioactive waste that may result from decontamination. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop for tackling a decision problem that concerns many different key players. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in planning actions in advance. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although its suitability was not rated as highly as for planning. The suitability of the approach in the early phase of an accident was rated the lowest. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises in order to revise emergency plans or identify issues that need to be resolved. The pros and cons of the facilitated workshop method can be compared with the conventional approaches. The general goal in all methods is that key players would be better prepared for an accident situation. All participatory methods, when practiced in advance, also create a network of key players. Facilitated workshops provide the participants with an forum for structured dialogue to discuss openly the values behind the decision. Stakeholder network can evaluate and augment generic countermeasures but all the possible and feasible protective actions cannot be justified and optimised in depth. The ranking of protective actions depends on weigh

2004-01-01

378

Some considerations on the attractiveness of participatory processes for researchers from natural science  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a newly developed model can actually be tested in a stakeholder process. Therefore the gap between stakeholders and modelers persists or is even growing. A main reason for this probably lies in the way that the work of scientists (modelers) is evaluated. What counts is the number of journal articles produced, while applicability or societal impact is still not a measure of scientific success. A good journal article on a model requires an exemplary validation but only very rarely would a reviewer ask if a model was accepted by stakeholders. So why should a scientist go through a tedious stakeholder process? The stakeholder process might be a requirement of the research grant, but whether this is taken seriously, can be questioned, as long as stakeholder dialogues do not lead to quantifiable scientific success. In particular for researchers in early career stages who undergo typical, publication-based evaluation processes, participatory research is hardly beneficial. The discussion in this contribution is based on three pillars: (i) a comprehensive evaluation of the literature published on participatory modeling and scenario development, (ii) a case study involving the development of an integrated model for water and land use management including an intensive stakeholder process and (iii) unstructured, personal communication - with mainly young scientists - about the attractiveness of multidisciplinary, applied research.

Barthel, Roland

2013-04-01

379

La evaluación de los mecanismos de participación ciudadana a través de sus rendimientos Evaluation of participatory mechanisms through its performances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan algunas reflexiones y un esquema básico para afrontar la evaluación de experiencias participativas, tomando como patrón de comparación el «género». Se analizan así los rendimientos brutos y netos de la participación de las mujeres en los presupuestos participativos en la ciudad de Sevilla a través de la comparación de sus once distritos. Los resultados muestran cierta variabilidad entre cada distrito, pudiendo definirse diferentes contextos participativos según el tipo de rendimiento.In this paper we present some reflections and a basic framework to analyze gender participation in participatory mechanisms. This framework is applied to evaluate the participatory budget’s performances in Sevilla from a gendered perspective and by comparing its 11 districts. The results show that there is variability across the districts in the city and that the participatory budget’s performances are important if the various participatory contexts are to be defined.

María Jesús Rodríguez García; Cristina Mateos Mora; Clemente J. Navarro

2012-01-01

380

Evaluation of participatory mechanisms through its performances La evaluación de los mecanismos de participación ciudadana a través de sus rendimientos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present some reflections and a basic framework to analyze gender participation in participatory mechanisms. This framework is applied to evaluate the participatory budget’s performances in Sevilla from a gendered perspective and by comparing its 11 districts. The results show that there is variability across the districts in the city and that the participatory budget’s performances are important if the various participatory contexts are to be defined.En este trabajo se presentan algunas reflexiones y un esquema básico para afrontar la evaluación de experiencias participativas, tomando como patrón de comparación el «género». Se analizan así los rendimientos brutos y netos de la participación de las mujeres en los presupuestos participativos en la ciudad de Sevilla a través de la comparación de sus once distritos. Los resultados muestran cierta variabilidad entre cada distrito, pudiendo definirse diferentes contextos participativos según el tipo de rendimiento.

María Jesús Rodríguez García; Cristina Mateos Mora; Clemente J. Navarro

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The Main Advantages of Community Based Participatory Health Programs: An Experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 

Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article prese...

Monir Baradarn Eftekhari; Katayoun Falahat; Masoumeh Dejman; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Hossein Malek Afzali; Noot Heydari

382

Época de aplicación y toxicidad varietal del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar, en Veracruz, México/ Application time and varietal toxicity of the herbicide amicarbazone in sugarcane in Veracruz, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Durante el ciclo primavera-verano 2005, se establecieron tres experimentos en Úrsulo Galván, Ver., México, con el objetivo de determinar la mejor época de aplicación del herbicida amicarbazone en la caña de azúcar en condiciones de riego e identificar la susceptibilidad de las tres principales variedades cultivadas en el estado a este herbicida. En un experimento, se evaluó el control de malezas con amicarbazone a 0,7, 1,05 y 1,4 kg ha?1 aplicado en cuatro ? (more) ?pocas: preemergencia antes del riego de germinación, preemergencia después del riego de germinación, postemergencia temprana y postemergencia tardía. En los otros experimentos, se evaluó la toxicidad de amicarbazone a 0, 0,7, 1,4 y 2,1 kg ha-1, aplicado en preemergencia y postemergencia en las variedades de caña de azúcar Mex 69-290, CP 72?2086 y Mex 79-431. El quelite rastrero (Amaranthus lividus) fue mejor controlado con aplicaciones postemergentes de amicarbazone, a partir de 0,7 kg ha-1. Por su parte, el control del zacate Guinea (Megathyrsus maximus) fue bajo en todas las épocas de aplicación. En aplicaciones preemergentes, el amicarbazone hasta 2,1 kg ha-1 fue altamente selectivo a todas las variedades evaluadas, mientras que, cuando fue aplicado en postemergencia, ocasionó ligera toxicidad a las tres variedades de caña de azúcar, la cual fue mayor conforme se incrementó la dosis. Sin embargo, los daños desaparecieron entre los 30 y 45 días después de la aplicación y no ocasionaron reducción permanente en la altura de las plantas. Abstract in english During the 2005 Spring-Summer growing cycle, three experiments were established in Ursulo Galvan, Ver., Mexico, to determine the best time of application of the herbicide amicarbazone in irrigated sugarcane, and the susceptibility of the three main varieties grown in this state to this herbicide. In one experiment, weed control of amicarbazone at 0.7, 1.05 and 1.4 kg ha-1 applied at four stages (pre-emergence before germination irrigation, pre-emergence after germination (more) irrigation, early post-emergence and late post-emergence) was evaluated. In the other experiments, the toxicity of amicarbazone at 0, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.1 kg ha-1 was evaluated when applied at pre-emergence and post-emergence on sugarcane varieties Mex 69-290, CP 72-2086 and 79 Mex-431. Amaranthus lividus was better controlled with post-emergence applications of amicarbazone, starting at 0.7 kg ha?1. Control of Guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) was low with amicarbazone at all stages. In pre-emergence applications, amicarbazone up to 2.1 kg ha-1 was highly selective to all varieties evaluated, whereas when applied in post-emergence, it caused slight toxicity to the three sugarcane varieties, increasing as the dose increased. However, the damages disappeared between 30 and 45 days after application, without causing a permanent reduction in plant height.

Esqueda-Esquivel, V.A.; Rosales-Robles, E.

2013-09-01

383

Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense)/ Teor de vitamina C em acessos de pimenta (Capsicum chinense) do grupo varietal Habanero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense) ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética). O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acessos de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com (more) TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses resultados evidenciam a diversidade dessa coleção de C. chinense para os teores de vitamina C. Abstract in english Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers) accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found). The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl- (more) phosphine hydrocloride) and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.

Teodoro, Ana Flávia P; Alves, Rosa de BN; Ribeiro, Leandro B; Reis, Karina; Reifschneider, Francisco José B; Fonseca, Maria Esther de N; Silva, Joseane P da; Agostini-Costa, Tânia da S

2013-03-01

384

Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense) Teor de vitamina C em acessos de pimenta (Capsicum chinense) do grupo varietal Habanero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers) accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found). The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense) ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética). O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acessos de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride) e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses resultados evidenciam a diversidade dessa coleção de C. chinense para os teores de vitamina C.

Ana Flávia P Teodoro; Rosa de BN Alves; Leandro B Ribeiro; Karina Reis; Francisco José B Reifschneider; Maria Esther de N Fonseca; Joseane P da Silva; Tânia da S Agostini-Costa

2013-01-01

385

El Fitomejoramiento Participativo y la selección participativa de variedades de arroz  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El fitomejoramiento participativo (FP) es un enfoque relativamente nuevo para el desarrollo de germoplasma, que incluye el mejoramiento de plantas y la selección varietal participativa (SVP). El FP se inició en Cuba en el 2001 con el cultivo del arroz, basado en la SVP, que al principio tuvo un carácter centralizado pero posteriormente fue de forma descentralizada y participativa. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo mostrar las experiencias en el cultivo del arroz e (more) n el mundo, así como las de varias regiones de Cuba, donde las ferias de diversidad constituyeron la mejor forma de dar acceso rápido y eficiente a las variedades, con la participación de los productores de arroz no especializado. Abstract in english Participatory plant breeding (PPB) is a relatively new approach for germplasm development, which includes crop improvement and participatory varietal selection (PVS). In Cuba, PPB started on rice crop in 2001, based upon PVS that was centralized at the beginning; however, it was further participatory and decentralized. This work study was aimed at presenting the experiences gathered on rice crop, not only in some regions of Cuba but also over the world. In our country, di (more) versity fairs constituted the best form for providing a quick and efficient varietal entry through non-specialized rice growers.

Moreno, Irene; Ríos, H; Puldón, Violeta

2009-06-01

386

Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology (MUPARMIBO), some particular bioenergy options were recommended for each study village in two districts. The participatory approach was extended to the selection of possible projects that villagers may implement using their own resources. Some of these projects include production and marketing of improved stoves, improved fish smoking and drying ovens, and planting of multi-purpose tree species. Where villagers keep cattle under the zero-grazing system and can afford initial costs, biogas plants were recommended. The need for information on available technologies, development of skills and financing mechanisms were seen as critical elements for the adoption of bioenergy options 56 refs, 12 figs, 7 tabs

Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

1998-12-31

387

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN) that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) within a practice-based research network (PBRN) to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB), and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Dulin Michael F; Tapp Hazel; Smith Heather A; Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa; Furuseth Owen J

2011-01-01

388

Integrating Geo-information Models with Participatory Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords: Land use analysis, GIS, remote sensing, yield gaps, regression modeis, crop management improvement, crop selection, conservation, multiple goal optimisation model, stakeholder communication matrix, fuzzy modelling, soft systems methodologyRemotely-sensed data coupled with...

Nidumolu, U.B.

389

Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating communities of practice, and in what way do they promote the negotiation of a shared understanding? •Which commonalities can be derived from the participatory design of a "third space" community among communities of practice through participation in the Danish seed industry? The work will be based on preliminary field research including qualitative semi-structured interviews staging the local concept to knowledge and innovation quantified by large-scale questionnaires. A random target group will work with imaging, tagging and categorising their personal experience and thoughts of knowledge and innovation through advanced online photo diaries. The outcomes will be presented in a 3-step workshop series with representatives from the involved communities of practice. A "future workshop" will focus on commonalities and contradictions between the involved domains and how they redefine shared knowledge from their previous experience. A second workshop will focus on hands-on user experience based on a prototype predesigned from the preliminary research findings. The final workshop will build up a common knowledge discourseamong its participants, and work towards an overall requirement specification for a preferred future knowledge innovation method in the Danish seed industry. The three workshops will be recorded by video and subsequently hermeneutically analysed to determine relevant boundary objects and commonalities between the participating communities of practice.

Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte

390

Farmer-participatory integrated watershed management: Adarsha watershed, Kothapally India - an innovative and upscalable approach: case 7  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds.).which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change in ecoregional research. The integrated farmer-participatory watershed management process involves: agro-ecological zoning, farming systems research, systems analysis to select best-bet options, upscaling research results, identification of products with competitive advantage for iocal and regional markets, and the design and implementation of a science-based action plan. The plan includes technical assistance, supervised credit, strengthening communal cohesion through women's and farmers' groups, increasing marketing opportunities by concentrating the supply in quantity and quality, quality control of the products, product development to add value, and market studies for the products developed. The impact on the production systems is briefly described.

SP Wani; HP Singh; TK Sreedevi; P Pathak; TJ Rego; B Shiferaw; SR Iyer

2006-01-01

391

Innovating Science Teaching by Participatory Action Research – Reflections from an Interdisciplinary Project of Curriculum Innovation on Teaching about Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics). The teaching itself explicitly aimed at general educational objectives, i.e., fostering students’ communication and evaluation abilities as essential components for preparing young people for active participation in society. Participatory Action Research has been used as a collaborative strategy of cyclical curriculum innovation and research. Using past experiences and selected results from accompanying research, this project and its methodology will be reflected upon from the viewpoint of the chemistry group taking part in the project. Core issues reflected upon include how the project contributed to the creation of feasible curriculum materials, how it led to innovative structures in practice, and whether it supported experienced teachers’ ongoing professional development. General considerations for the process of curriculum innovation will also be derived.

Timo Feierabend; Ingo Eilks

2011-01-01

392

Participatory evaluation of Tephrosia species and provenances for soil fertility improvement and other uses using farmer criteria in eastern Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In eastern Zambia, farmers prefer direct seeded improved fallow species like Tephrosia vogelii to other species because of the reduced labour requirement for establishment. Since relying on two locally available provenances of T. vogelii could become ecologically unsustainable, due to pest and disease outbreaks, a wider range of usable direct seeded Tephrosia provenance material is desirable. A farmer participatory evaluation of Tephrosia candida provenances for their effectiveness as improved fallows and provision of const