WorldWideScience

Sample records for participatory varietal selection

  1. Gender relations as a basis for varietal selection in production spaces in Yucatán, México

    D.G. Lope-Alzina

    2004-01-01

    This masters thesis studies gendered relations and their effect on decision making practices regarding in situ conservation in the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico. Varietal selection for in situ conservation is found to be contingent on a number of factors, including: environmental and ecoological factors, gendered decision making in spaces of production (women's homegardens versus men's fields), and gendered preferences in decision making for household consumption and local marketing of agricult...

  2. Application of Participatory Method to Selection of Project Demonstration Area

    2011-01-01

    The Sino-Japan cooperation project of "Vegetation Rehabilitation Demonstration and Planning in Sandstorm Jeopardized Area around Beijing" introduced participatory method to select the project area. Through investigating the socioeconomic indicators of 9 villages in Beijing and Hebei Province as well as the farmers’ willingness to participate in forestry operation activities, the vegetation restoration demonstration areas were selected, including Hantai Village, Baicaowa Village and Xiabachi Village, respect...

  3. Effectiveness of participatory breeding and variety selection for sorghum technology adoption in Zambia

    Lloyd Mbulwe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Participatory breeding and variety selection has been proposed as an effective way of disseminating improved technologies to farmers for social-economic benefits. As a result the Sorghum and Millets Improvement Programme (SMIP, of the Zambia Agriculture Research Institution (ZARI, in collaboration with the farming systems scientists at Mansa Research Station, in Luapula Province tested the effectiveness of this methodology. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated based on the number of farmers rating new improved agriculture technologies favourably and willing to adopt the improved technologies after being exposed to participatory breeding. An on-farm participatory sorghum variety demonstration trial was conducted during the 2011/2012 rainy season in Zambia, Milenge district, of the Luapula province. The trial consisted of 12 improved sorghum germplasm lines of which six were hybrids and six were varieties developed by SMIP. The germplasm was evaluated by the farmers, extension and research staff on farm. The germplasm was evaluated for its value for cultivation and use. The methodology that was used is called participatory breeding which is part of the broader concept of participatory rural extension and the Innovative Platform for Technology Adoption (IPTA advocated by the Forum for Agriculture Research in Africa. The results of the methodology indicated that this methodology is effective if farmers are committed and good agriculture policies are in place. When farmers feel part of the developmental process, it is easier for them to adopt improved technologies.

  4. Participatory Selection of Tree Species for Agroforestry on Sloping Land in North Korea

    Jun He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The action research project reported in this article used a participatory approach to select trees for sloping-land agroforestry as a key strategy for forest ecosystem restoration and local livelihood development. It was the first such project in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea to use a participatory approach, empowering local user groups to develop their preferences for agroforestry species. Local knowledge of the multiple functions of agroforestry species ensured that the tree selection criteria included the value of timber, fruit, fodder, oil, medicines, fuelwood, and erosion control. Involving 67 farmers from 3 counties, this participatory selection process resulted in Prunus armeniaca, Castanea crenata, and Ziziphus jujuba being selected as the top 3 species for the development of sloping-land agroforestry in North Hwanghae Province. These trees embody what the region’s farmers value most: erosion control, production of fruit, and economic value. The participatory approach in agroforestry could help to meet both local needs for food security and the national objective of environmental conservation and has great potential for wide adaptation in North Korea and beyond.

  5. Effectiveness of participatory breeding and variety selection for sorghum technology adoption in Zambia

    Lloyd Mbulwe; Mwila Lwaile; Medson Chisi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory breeding and variety selection has been proposed as an effective way of disseminating improved technologies to farmers for social-economic benefits. As a result the Sorghum and Millets Improvement Programme (SMIP), of the Zambia Agriculture Research Institution (ZARI), in collaboration with the farming systems scientists at Mansa Research Station, in Luapula Province tested the effectiveness of this methodology. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated based on the number ...

  6. Four challenges in selecting and implementing methods to monitor and evaluate participatory processes: Example from the Rwenzori region, Uganda.

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Ducrot, Raphaëlle; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Anne Daniell, Katherine; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-09-15

    Participatory approaches are now increasingly recognized and used as an essential element of policies and programs, especially in regards to natural resource management (NRM). Most practitioners, decision-makers and researchers having adopted participatory approaches also acknowledge the need to monitor and evaluate such approaches in order to audit their effectiveness, support decision-making or improve learning. Many manuals and frameworks exist on how to carry out monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for participatory processes. However, few provide guidelines on the selection and implementation of M&E methods, an aspect which is also often obscure in published studies, at the expense of the transparency, reliability and validity of the study. In this paper, we argue that the selection and implementation of M&E methods are particularly strategic when monitoring and evaluating a participatory process. We demonstrate that evaluators of participatory processes have to tackle a quadruple challenge when selecting and implementing methods: using mixed-methods, both qualitative and quantitative; assessing the participatory process, its outcomes, and its context; taking into account both the theory and participants' views; and being both rigorous and adaptive. The M&E of a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori Region, Uganda, is used as an example to show how these challenges unfold on the ground and how they can be tackled. Based on this example, we conclude by providing tools and strategies that can be used by evaluators to ensure that they make utile, feasible, coherent, transparent and adaptive methodological choices when monitoring and evaluating participatory processes for NRM. PMID:27288554

  7. AFLP-ANALYSIS OF VARIETAL POLYMORPHYSM IN Capsicum annuum L.

    Snigir’, E.; Pyshnaya, O.; Kochieva, E; Ryzhova, N.

    2013-01-01

    AFLP-system of multipoint marking was used for estimation of genetic diversity in 45 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. As a result, it was selected 8 primer combinations, which were the most informative for marking of paprika genome. Due to these primers the authors obtained the specific DNA-spectrums for each variety. In total, 956 polymorphous AFLP-fragments were detected, of which 182 fragments characterize the individual varietal genotypes. The calculated coefficients of intervarietal genet...

  8. Participatory Communication

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical...... experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  9. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  10. Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review

    Greenhalgh Trish

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory Research (PR entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness, or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers. Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships. Methods We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods. Results The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies, comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist

  11. Participatory Budgeting

    Innovation for Development and South-South Cooperation, IDEASS

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the principles underlying participatory budgeting. It analyzes the merits and demerits of participatory budgeting practices around the world with a view to guiding policy makers and practitioners on improving such practices in the interest of inclusive governance. This publication includes five regional surveys, and seven country case studies can be found ...

  12. Structures de contact sur les vari\\'et\\'es toriques

    Stéphane, Druel

    1998-01-01

    Nous montrons que les seules vari\\'et\\'es toriques munies d'une structure de contact sont, \\`a isomorphisme pr\\`es, les espaces projectifs complexes et les vari\\'et\\'es $\\mathbb{P}_{\\mathbb{P}^{1}\\times\\cdots\\times\\mathbb{P}^{1}} (\\mathcal{T}_{\\mathbb{P}^{1}\\times\\cdots\\times\\mathbb{P}^{1}})$.

  13. Participatory Design

    Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed...... focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter...... engagement. The structure of the book is described, individual chapters introduced and further relevant publications listed. Essentially this chapter introduces, motivates, and grounds the book and the chapters that follow. It provides basic definitions of the core concepts of Participatory Design and...

  14. Participatory Privacy: Enabling Privacy in Participatory Sensing

    De Cristofaro, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...

  15. Participatory Innovation

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must...... be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation....

  16. Participatory hierarchies

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can...

  17. Participatory development

    Mohan, Giles

    2001-01-01

    Over the past twenty years a wide range of organisations, with very different ideological agendas, has started involving local people in their own development (Peet and Watts, 1996). This chapter begins by looking at different definitions of participatory development and goes onto examine through what sorts of organisations it is achieved. As there are a myriad possible approaches I have included case studies which demonstrate different facets of participation. This brings us onto a critique ...

  18. Participatory telerobotics

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  19. Participatory Innovation

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant...... approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to the development of what we have termed ‘Participatory Innovation’. Based on this we will list...... the challenges such an approach sets to innovation management, and discuss research directions we see as fundamental to the development of the field of user-driven innovation. Udgivelsesdato: September...

  20. Non-Participatory Intervention in a Traditional Participatory Organization

    Jønsson, Thomas; Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate employee attitudes to non-participatory (topdown) changes in an organizational environment that has hitherto been participatory.Until now, research has traditionally investigated the effects of increased organizational influence on employee attitudes...... and behaviour. This study takes the opposite approach by looking at a decrease in influence. The study was undertaken in a production company with 480 employees. The work was organized in production lines and semi-autonomous working groups. Data was compiled via interviews with selected employees from three...... kinds of production areas: Areas that had implemented 1) all of the  planned changes; 2) some of the changes; or 3) only a few of the changes. The results show that the employees’ reactions to the non-participatory change process addressed the decrease of influence and the consequences thereof; i...

  1. 27 CFR 4.28 - Type designations of varietal significance.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type designations of varietal significance. 4.28 Section 4.28 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of...

  2. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type) labeling. 4.23 Section 4.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine §...

  3. Use of Multispectral Imaging in Varietal Identification of Tomato

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Multispectral imaging is an emerging non-destructive technology. In this work its potential for varietal discrimination and identification of tomato cultivars of Nepal was investigated. Two sample sets were used for the study, one with two parents and their crosses and other with eleven...

  4. Varietal differences of quinoa's tolerance to saline conditions

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Shabala, Sergey; Andersen, Mathias Neumann;

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to assess varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity and to investigate physiological mechanisms conferring these differences. Methods Production of biomass in fourteen varieties grown under saline conditions was analysed in a pot experiment. For two contrasting...

  5. Varietéen på Frederikstorv

    Knudsen, Knud

    The book tells the story of the music hall, The Varieté, in Aalborg from the time of its establishment to the present day, focusing primarily on the years from 1898 to the early 1970s. An effort has been made to contribute both to local history and to the history of popular entertainment....

  6. Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists

    Bennett, C.L.

    1997-04-03

    This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

  7. Varietal flavour compounds of four grape varieties producing Madeira wines

    Câmara, J. S.; Herbert, Paulo; Marques, J C; Alves, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Boal, Malvasia, Sercial and Verdelho are the main white grape varieties used in Madeira wine production. To estimate the free fraction of varietal aroma compounds of these varieties, 39 samples of musts were analysed to determine their content of monoterpenols and C13 norisoprenoids (terpenoids), using dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The r-values for linearity studies of the analytical method used, varied between 0.977 (nerolido...

  8. The participatory patient

    Andersen, Tariq Osman

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship...

  9. Participatory IT-support

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents...

  10. Developing a partcipatory approach to seed production and varietal selection

    Jones, H.; Clarke, S M; Haigh, Z; Hinchsliffe, K; Wolfe, M.S; Thomas, J.; Gibbon, D.; Harris, F.; Lyon, F

    2006-01-01

    The performance of UK winter wheat varieties was tested under organic conditions involving farmer participation. Three breadmaking varieties (Hereward, Solstice and Xi19) and their mixture (1:1:1) were grown at 19 UK farms in 2003/04 and 2004/05. The variability of productivity on organic farms was illustrated with more variation among farm sites than among varieties. Seed health was generally high over all sites. Although the trials were successful, more time was needed at project initiation...

  11. Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project

    Chovanova Hana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed

  12. Quantitative inheritance for fruit traits in inter varietal crosses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Deepak Arora, Salesh Kumar Jindal and T. R. Ghai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene effects for important fruit traits of four inter-varietal crosses of okra were estimated by partitioning the means and variances of means of sixbasic generations from each cross into their genetic components to assess the gene action governing the inheritance of fruit yield and earlinessrelated traits in spring and rainy season. The additive, dominance and digenic non-allelic gene interactions were observed to govern most of thefruit traits. The non-additive gene effects were more pronounced than additive ones for most of the traits in both the environments. The evidenceof duplicate type of epistasis has been obtained for all the characters in different crosses in both the seasons. Thus for developing high yieldingokra cultivars, recurrent selection in biparental progenies would help in exploiting the duplicate type of non-allelic interactions and allowrecombination and concentration of genes having cumulative effects in population.

  13. The field of Participatory Design

    Törpel, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, the field of Participatory Design is introduced, including the description of a number of its specific approaches. After an introduction in some of the issues in Participatory Design, approaches within the field of Participatory Design and relevant for the field of Participatory ...

  14. Participatory design based research

    Dau, Susanne; Falk, Lars; Jensen, Louise Bach

    2014-01-01

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  15. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is...... essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in...

  16. Varietal intensities and similarities of the worldÂ’s wine regions

    Kym Anderson

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines empirically two distinguishing aspects of the world‘s wine regions: their degree of specialization in certain varieties, as measured by a varietal intensity index; and their similarity with the varietal mix of other regions, as measured by a varietal-based regional similarity index. Twelve of the most important wine-producing countries, that together account for all but one-eighth of the world‘s winegrapes, are included in the analysis. The data refer to circa 2000 (or 1...

  17. Fuzzy clustering analysis for the varietal radiosensitivity of triticum aestivum L

    Fussy clustering classification to the varietal radiosensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out. According to their response to the radiation of gamma rays, 49 wheat varieties were classified into five groups: higher resistant, resistant, intermediate response, sensitive, and higher sensitive. The research presents a new approach for the classification of the varietal radiosensitivity of a certain plant species, and the result was valuable for choosing the adequate irradiated materials and determining the optimal dosage so as to enhance the mutagenic efficiency in wheat radiation breeding. The reliability and advantage of the Fussy clustering classification for the plant varietal radiosensitivity were briefly discussed

  18. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social...

  19. Testing a participatory integrated assessment(PIA) approach to select climate change adaptation actions to enhance wetland sustainability: The case of Poyang Lake region in China

    HUANG; Li; YIN; Yongyuan; DU; De-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of mainstreaming climate adaptation strategies or policies into natural resource management plans has been recognized by the UNFCCC.The IPCC AR5 report suggests a growing demand for research to provide information for a deeper and more useful understanding of climate adaptation options,and indicates a lack of effective methods to meet this increasing demand of policymakers.In this respect,a participatory integrated assessment(PIA) approach is presented in this paper to provide an effective means to mainstream wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development strategies,and thus to reduce climate vulnerability and to enhance rural community livelihood.The PIA approach includes a series of research activities required to assess climate impacts on wetland ecosystems,and to prioritize adaptation responses.A range of adaptation options that address key aspects of the wetland ecosystem resilience and concerns are evaluated against community based on sustainable development indicators.The PIA approach is able to identify desirable adaptation options which can then be implemented to improve wetland ecosystem health and to enhance regional sustainable development in a changing climate.For illustration purpose,the PIA was applied in a case study in Poyang Lake(PYL) region,a critical wetland and water ecosystem in central China with important international biodiversity linkages,and a locale for key policy experiments with ecosystem rehabilitation.The PIA was used to facilitate the integration of wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development actions with multi-stakeholders participation.In particular,the case shows how the PIA can be designed and implemented to select effective and practical climate change adaptation options to enhance ecosystem services management and to reduce resource use conflicts and rural poverty.Worked in partnership with multi-stakeholders and assisted with a multi-criteria decision making tool

  20. Health Participatory Sensing Networks

    Andrew Clarke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of participatory sensing in relation to the capture of health-related data is rapidly becoming a possibility due to the widespread consumer adoption of emerging mobile computing technologies and sensing platforms. This has the potential to revolutionize data collection for population health, aspects of epidemiology, and health-related e-Science applications and as we will describe, provide new public health intervention capabilities, with the classifications and capabilities of such participatory sensing platforms only just beginning to be explored. Such a development will have important benefits for access to near real-time, large-scale, up to population-scale data collection. However, there are also numerous issues to be addressed first: provision of stringent anonymity and privacy within these methodologies, user interface issues, and the related issue of how to incentivize participants and address barriers/concerns over participation. To provide a step towards describing these aspects, in this paper we present a first classification of health participatory sensing models, a novel contribution to the literature, and provide a conceptual reference architecture for health participatory sensing networks (HPSNs and user interaction example case study.

  1. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...

  2. Kenya : Participatory Poverty Assessment

    World Bank

    1996-01-01

    A Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) was undertaken by the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Kenya to complement previous statistical studies of poverty in Kenya. While the PPA confirmed many findings of the Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS), it also revealed significant new data concerning poverty, female-headed households, access by the poor to water, education and hea...

  3. Queering Participatory Design Research

    McWilliams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…

  4. Evaluation of the biophysical limitations on photosynthesis of four varietals of Brassica rapa

    Pleban, J. R.; Mackay, D. S.; Aston, T.; Ewers, B.; Weinig, C.

    2014-12-01

    performance in the genotypes assessed based on DIC. By identifying how varietals differ in their biophysical limitations on photosynthesis genotype selection can be informed for agricultural goals. Further work aims at applying this approach to a fifth limiting factor on photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance.

  5. PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP

    Mirela PUSCASU; Radu SILAGHI

    2013-01-01

    Participatory management and leadership can enhance an organization's effectiveness and capacity by the fact that the only asset a manager has are the people. If people show loyalty, and are willing to work at full capacity and to make extra efforts, if they trust their leaders and feel safe, then the results and efficiency will be increased. The more one can delegate the decision-making and responsibilities, the more loyalty and trust one will have from the employees.

  6. PARTAGE DES CONNAISSANCES ENTRE AGRICULTEURS ET CHERCHEURS POUR CREER DES INNOVATIONS VARIETALES. LEÇONS DES PROGRAMMES DE SELECTION PARTICIPATIVE DU SORGHO CONDUITS DANS LA REGION NORD DU NICARAGUA

    Trouche, Gilles; Aguirre Acuña, Silvio; Castro Briones, Blanca; Gómez, Orlando; Guillén, Hugo Francisco; Paz, Lino; Hocdé, Henri

    2010-01-01

    Sharing knowledge between farmers and scientists for creating varietal innovations: lessons from participatory sorghum breeding programs managed in the northern region of Nicaragua. The experience of research projects conducted between scientists and farmers show that the confrontation of knowledge and perspectives becomes truly effective when it is based on long term and a cross analysis of the practices of stakeholders to pursuing a common goal. Participatory Plant Breeding lends itself par...

  7. Participatory Demand-supply Systems

    Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which

  8. Provotypes for Participatory Innovation

    Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared

    2012-01-01

    across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines for......Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about ‘users’ and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely to...

  9. Iterative participatory design

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record...... system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design....

  10. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    2010-03-10

    ... Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under... of M. domestica apples from Japan to be imported into the United States while continuing to...

  11. Phenotypic structures and breeding value of open-pollinated corn varietal hybrids

    The growing interest in using open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) and varietal hybrids (OPVhs) of corn (Zea mays L.) especially in breeding programs for organic and low-input farming reflects the value of large plasticity levels available in their plant, ear, and kernel traits. We estimated and partiti...

  12. Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation

    Sproedt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    , relating, cognitive social capital and the justification of knowledge are described as different but interdependent dimensions of transforming knowledge across boundaries in participatory innovation. A multi-level concept of social dynamics of participatory innovation is proposed, and a model that...... perspective on innovation. Then, a similar development in the field of knowledge and knowing is presented, where the perspective changes from a divisional systemthinking towards a more relational view of complementing combinations of knowledge and knowing, recognizing the challenge of boundaries. Further...... approaches towards grasping the social dynamics of participatory innovation....

  13. Gender and Innovation in Agriculture: A Case Study of Farmers’ Varietal Preference of Drought Tolerant Maize in Southern Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria

    O.E. Ayinde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA. The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their gender based preference for Drought Tolerant maize variety and elucidated the reasons for preference. Three-stage stratified sampling technique was used. Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from a total of 48 farmers. Descriptive, Ranking and LSD were used to analyse the data collected. The result of the analysis showed that majority of the male and female farmers have primary education and are youths. The result of varietal preference differs between genders in some locations Male farmers identified big cobs with full grains, big seed, and multiple cobs as the main reasons for their preference while female farmers identified yellow colour of seed, nutrient fortified seed and big cobs with full grains as the main reasons for their preference. It is therefore recommended that effort should be made to involve male and female farmers in the varietal selection procedure as to facilitate easy adoption of hybrid maize. The women are more concerned with the food security of their family and hence are important segment in maize innovation that improve the food security of farming households and policies should not exclude female farmers.

  14. Participatory methods in pediatric participatory research: a systematic review.

    Haijes, Hanneke A; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2016-05-01

    Meaningful child participation in medical research is seen as important. In order to facilitate further development of participatory research, we performed a systematic literature study to describe and assess the available knowledge on participatory methods in pediatric research. A search was executed in five databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane. After careful screening of relevant papers, finally 24 documents were included in our analysis. Literature on participatory methods in pediatric research appears generally to be descriptive, whereby high-quality evidence is lacking. Overall, five groups of participatory methods for children could be distinguished: observational, verbal, written, visual, and active methods. The choice for one of these methods should be based on the child's age, on social and demographic characteristics, and on the research objectives. To date, these methods are still solely used for obtaining data, yet they are suitable for conducting meaningful participation. This may result in a successful partnership between children and researchers. Researchers conducting participatory research with children can use this systematic review in order to weigh the current knowledge about the participatory methods presented. PMID:26720607

  15. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...... this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory......, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different e...

  16. A Guide to Participatory Budgeting

    Wampler, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Participatory Budgeting (PB) programs are innovative policymaking processes. Citizens are directly involved in making policy decisions. Forums are held throughout the year so that citizens have the opportunity to allocate resources, prioritize broad social policies, and monitor public spending.

  17. Communities and Participatory Forest Management

    Kanowski, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Forest management which is more inclusive of the interests of local people has been one of the central foci of forestry globally for the past 25 years. Countries in which there is a strong dependency between people and forests, such as Nepal, have been at the forefront of this more participatory forest management, which is closely associated with devolution of State authority over forests. The participatory management paradigm recognises both the potential of local people and the limits of ce...

  18. Participatory Demand-supply Systems

    Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which the engagement of all stakeholders plays an important role, as does distributed ICT. This approach has been applied to an industrial case to explore new opportunities enabled by distributed ICT fo...

  19. Sustaining Participatory Design in the organization - Infrastructuring with Participatory Design

    Bolmsten, Johan

    2016-01-01

    flexible technical infrastructure is needed to support Participatory Design. The technical base as infrastructure both enables and constrains the design of local software support, as well as the application of Participatory Design methods. (3) Users on the shop floor need to participate in organizational...... IT management in order to relate the development of their local software support in an integrated infrastructure. The results of the action research report four interlinked improvements to sustain Participatory Design in the organization concerning structuring end-user influence in the organizational......Modern organizations need to be able to change to seize opportunities and meet challenges, which are ever more rapidly presenting themselves. In doing so, they need to make use of the creativity and innovations of their employees. At the same time Information Technology applications today are...

  20. Stability of the Ellagitannin Fraction and Antioxidant Capacity of Varietal Pomegranate Juices.

    Mena, Pedro; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    This work aimed to assess the effect of combining two pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars at different rates on the ellagitannin content, antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content of varietal pomegranate juices. Widely distinct juices made from Mollar de Elche and Wonderful cultivars were used for the elaboration of blended juices. They were stored for 70 days at both room and refrigeration temperatures. This study revealed a significant cultivar effect on the stability of main pomegranate ellagitannins (punicalagins, punicalins, punicalagin-like compound, and ellagic acid derivatives) and on the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS+ and DPPH* in vitro assays. Blended juices enhanced and/or retained the initial ellagitannin content and antioxidant capacity of pure juices during storage. Thus, blending varietal juices could be suggested as a promising alternative to the development of fresh juices with a high, stable phytochemical load. PMID:26197541

  1. Sustaining Participatory Design in the organization - Infrastructuring with Participatory Design

    Bolmsten, Johan

    2016-01-01

    flexible technical infrastructure is needed to support Participatory Design. The technical base as infrastructure both enables and constrains the design of local software support, as well as the application of Participatory Design methods. (3) Users on the shop floor need to participate in organizational...... the following contributions: (1) Shop floor IT management is a core capability for innovation, and is a driver for sustained PD in the organization. Users on the shop floor trigger infrastructure development when their IT applications need to be technically and organizationally integrated. (2) A...

  2. GM Technology Adoption, Production Risk and On-farm Varietal Diversity

    Krishna, Vijesh V.; Zilberman, David; Qaim, Matin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of transgenic technology adoption on varietal diversity. Transgenic pest-resistant varieties are hypothesized to reduce farmers’ demand for on-farm diversity through an act of substitution, as both serve as production risk reducing instruments. This adverse agro-biodiversity impact might be partially counteracted by an expanding seed sector, supplying a large number of transgenic varieties. The case of Bt cotton in India is taken for empirical illustration. The ...

  3. Determination of odorants in varietal wines from international grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera) grown in NW Spain

    Vilanova de la Torre, María del Mar; Genisheva, Z.; Graña, M.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to investigate the odorants found in ten varietal wines from different international grape cultivars (Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot noir, Tempranillo, Sauvignon blanc, Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, Pinot blanc and Gewürztraminer) grown in northwest Spain. Monoterpenes, alcohols, fatty acids, ethyl esters, acetates and volatile phenols were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that Gewürztraminer white wines had the hi...

  4. Free resveratrol monomers in varietal red and white wines from Dalmatia (Croatia

    Katalinić, Višnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Pezo, Ivan; Generalić, Ivana; Stričević, Olivera; Miloš, Mladen; Modun, Darko; Boban, Mladen

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Resveratrol is considered to be one of the major antioxidant constituents in red wine. In this article we investigated the presence of, and relation between trans- and cis-resveratrol monomers in the most characteristic varietal wines from Dalmatia (Croatia), produced according to the Croatian appellation of origin system. Materials and Methods: The wines of red grape varieties (Plavac mali, Merlot,Cabernet sauvignon, Babić, Plavina, Trnjak, Vranac and Lasin) and white grap...

  5. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between diverse – material, digital and networked – spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do the conventional distinctions between research and design. The papers presented in this focus section...... explore opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  6. Digital publics and participatory education

    Brian J. McNely

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.

  7. Music Education for All through Participatory Ensembles

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the participatory field can complement and enhance even successful music education programs. The participatory field, part of Thomas Turino's four-field framework, conceptualizes the musical values and practices of societies where musical participation is nearly universal. The participatory field contrasts with the…

  8. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L. in Morocco

    Santoni Sylvain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica, within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers. Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  9. Use of microsatellite markers for the assessment of bambara groundnut breeding system and varietal purity before genome sequencing.

    Ho, Wai Kuan; Muchugi, Alice; Muthemba, Samuel; Kariba, Robert; Mavenkeni, Busiso Olga; Hendre, Prasad; Song, Bo; Van Deynze, Allen; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2016-06-01

    Maximizing the research output from a limited investment is often the major challenge for minor and underutilized crops. However, such crops may be tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses and are adapted to local, marginal, and low-input environments. Their development through breeding will provide an important resource for future agricultural system resilience and diversification in the context of changing climates and the need to achieve food security. The African Orphan Crops Consortium recognizes the values of genomic resources in facilitating the improvement of such crops. Prior to beginning genome sequencing there is a need for an assessment of line varietal purity and to estimate any residual heterozygosity. Here we present an example from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilized drought tolerant African legume. Two released varieties from Zimbabwe, identified as potential genotypes for whole genome sequencing (WGS), were genotyped with 20 species-specific SSR markers. The results indicate that the cultivars are actually a mix of related inbred genotypes, and the analysis allowed a strategy of single plant selection to be used to generate non-heterogeneous DNA for WGS. The markers also confirmed very low levels of heterozygosity within individual plants. The application of a pre-screen using co-dominant microsatellite markers is expected to substantially improve the genome assembly, compared to a cultivar bulking approach that could have been adopted. PMID:27244454

  10. Values-Led Participatory Design

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities i...

  11. Participatory Budgeting in High School.

    Harman, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Describes and analyzes a participatory approach to budgetary decision-making used by an exemplary high school. In spite of the budgetary forces dividing instructional departments, support units, and administration, an equitable division of resources provided to the school was consistently achieved each year. Includes 29 references. (MLH)

  12. Mobile Applications for Participatory Science

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

  13. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  14. How to make participatory technology assessment in agriculture more 'participatory'

    Tavella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    the cultivation of new GM plants in Denmark. Furthermore, through this illustration, the term Participatory Technology Assessment (PTA) is redefined, thereby suggesting two additional aspects to assessing new technologies – following and evaluating policy making – to be considered in the conduct of......This paper suggests a framework, based on Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH), to guide the organisation and management of expert-facilitated and participatory processes that allow for stakeholders' different interests, concerns, and values to be included in the assessment and policy making of GM...... plants. The framework is particularly useful for stakeholders, such as governments, foundations, and researchers, who attempt to facilitate inclusive and democratic processes to assess GM plants. The use of the framework is illustrated by evaluating the report from a citizen jury carried out to assess...

  15. Varietal improvement of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) through mutation breeding

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) mutants induced by gamma-rays were selected in M2-M4 generations and evaluated in preliminary, advanced and zonal yield trials. Mutants CTM-10 and CTM- 110 consistently revealed early maturity differences and their yields were not significantly different from the control cultivars in the final zonal yield trials. Fresh irradiation and subsequent selections resulted in 12 desirable mutants. The mutant CTM-116 had the highest yield of all and shared equal rank with 6 other mutants in a preliminary yield trial. Moreover, mutant CTM-122 showed earliness and CTM-115 highest fibre length and strength. Introduced and locally collected germplasm were evaluated during the 3 different years; none of them was earlier and higher yielding than the control cultivar, DPL-50. However, a few of the germplasm lines showed better fibre length, strength and fineness together with boll worm and jassid tolerances under field conditions. (author)

  16. Noris Konstruktion und Bahnenabschlüsse in der Varietät der Algebren

    Olbricht, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Der Modulraum der d-dimensionalen Moduln der freien assoziativen Algebra mit Eins in g Erzeugern ist singulär. Wir untersuchen einen Ansatz von Nori zur Desingularisierung. Dies führt zu der Frage, inwiefern die Bahnenabschlüsse in der Varietät der Algebren glatt sind. Mit speziell entwickelten Hilfsmitteln gelingt es uns, eine Singularität maximaler Größe im Bahnenabschluss der Matrixalgebra zu finden. Damit können wir zeigen, dass Noris Konstruktion eine teilweise, aber nicht vollständige D...

  17. Participatory Development Reconsidered

    Mansuri, Ghazala; Rao, Vijayendra

    2011-01-01

    Over the last two decades development policy has touted civic participation as a magic bullet for solving problems at the local level from improving livelihoods, to selecting beneficiaries for public programs, providing housing after earthquakes and floods, or improving village infrastructure. The thinking is that involving village or urban civic communities in decision making will improve accountability, reduce inequality, and ultimately alleviate poverty.

  18. Introduction to (participatory) design games

    Brandt, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an introduction to (participatory) design games in three rounds. Firstly it argues that designing design games is a particular and very productive genre for formatting participation and design dialogues during ongoing design projects. Secondly it presents some of the main...... contributions to the development of design games in a historical perspective, and thirdly it introduces three recent PhD dissertations that all but in very different ways have investigated design games in more detail....

  19. Software, architecture, and participatory design

    Rank, Stephen; O'Coill, Carl; Boldyreff, Cornelia; Doughty, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Much work in software architecture has been inspired by work in physical architecture, in particular Alexander's work on `design patterns'. By contrast, Alexander's work is little-used in town planning and architecture. In this paper, we examine some of the reasons that this is so, describe some parallels and differences between the fields of physical and software architecture, and identify areas in which future collaboration may be fruitful. The notion of `participatory design' is important ...

  20. Crossing Intentions in Participatory Innovation

    Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore the role of 'crossing intentions' among participants involved in innovation processes with users. We use improvised theatre to investigate what happens in industrial (and other) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and to explore the barriers that hinder...... the surface are experienced as risky to participate in. We examine four examples of such meetings with the intent to disclose conceptual themes that show high potential for developing participatory innovation.......In this paper we explore the role of 'crossing intentions' among participants involved in innovation processes with users. We use improvised theatre to investigate what happens in industrial (and other) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and to explore the barriers that hinder...... such activities. We propose that people who meet each other with different and conflicting intentions relevant to the theme together can create new insight (understood as movement of thought and action) that may become a driver of innovation. However, such meetings in which crossing intentions come to...

  1. African Primary Care Research: Participatory action research

    Bob Mash

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing thei...

  2. Varietal improvement in jute through induction and use of mutants

    A very limited number of varieties of jute is available in the cultivated species of Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius in Bangladesh. Use of gamma rays on seeds of the variety D-154 of the species capsularis resulted in a wide spectrum of variability, but there was only a narrow range of variability in the olitorius species. Treatment of the seeds of these species with chemical mutagens has not provided wide scope for selection. Crossing among mutants and mutants with varieties has added more variability in capsularis. A mutant, Atompat-38, of C. capsularis developed by using gamma rays on seeds of the variety D-154 has been released directly as a commercial variety (1988). It has a 12-15% higher fibre yield than the widely cultivated parent variety. It has a distinct genetic marker (hairy stipules modified into leaflets), and other additional advantages. A very promising line, C-443, developed through crossing Atompat-38 with CVL-1 of C. capsularis, is expected to be released very soon. This line has the combined features of the green petiole of CVL-1 and the modified leafy stipules of Atompat-38. It outyielded both the parents by 10-15% and has a good fibre quality, with less hard fibre at the bottom end of the stem. Other promising mutants are also undergoing advanced trials. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on broadening the genetic variability of the olitorius species through developing effective methods of treating seeds with chemical mutagens. 11 refs, 2 tabs

  3. The Participatory Turn: Participatory Budgeting Comes to America

    Gilman, Hollie Russon

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Budgeting (PB) has expanded to over 1,500 municipalities worldwide since its inception in Porto Alege, Brazil in 1989 by the leftist Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers’ Party). While PB has been adopted throughout the world, it has yet to take hold in the United States. This dissertation examines the introduction of PB to the United States with the first project in Chicago in 2009, and proceeds with an in-depth case study of the largest implementation of PB in the United States:...

  4. Participatory Action Research: International Contexts and Consequences.

    McTaggart, Robin, Ed.

    The collection of essays in this book illustrate commonalties and differences among the theories, practices, and forms of organization of participatory action research in different countries. Participatory action research expresses the recognition that all research methodologies are implicitly political in nature, and this is reflected in the…

  5. Participatory Budgeting : Contents of CD Rom

    Shah, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the principles underlying participatory budgeting. It analyzes the merits and demerits of participatory budgeting practices around the world with a view to guiding policy makers and practitioners on improving such practices in the interest of inclusive governance. This publication includes five regional surveys, and seven country case studies can be found ...

  6. Selection recurrente chez les autogames pour l'amelioration des varietes lignees pures : une revue bibliographique

    Kervella, J; Goldringer, Isabelle; Brabant, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    Les améliorateurs de plantes autogames pratiquent une forme de sélection récurrente. Mais ce sont des croisements simples entre lignées pures précédemment sélectionnées qui sont la base d’un nouveau cycle de sélection et de croisements. La durée du cycle, les nombreuses générations d’autofécondations avant l’intercroisement et l’étroitesse de la base génétique de départ risquent d’être des facteurs limitants du progrès génétique à long terme. Pour éviter ces inconvénients, de nombreux exp...

  7. Mutation induction as a tool for varietal development in ornamental plants

    Although the current advancement in biotechnology has tremendously change the modern breeding approach, the induced mutation techniques is still very much in use as complementary tools. MINT experiences in using the techniques for varietal development in ornamental plants has helped to increase genetic variabilities in several ornamental plant species, produced twelve new mutant cultivars as well as developed efficient tissue culture system for six ornamental plant species as tool for in vitro mutagenesis procedures and micropropagation. The technology and expertise that have been established are ready for transfer to the horticulture industry. Sharing of capability and capacity between research institutions and private sector is one possible way by improving and maintaining long-term sustenance of the floriculture industry. (author)

  8. To each participatory sciences. Conditions for a participatory biodiversity

    Denis SALLES

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and scientific requirements for a citizen science monitoring programme on biodiversity in Arcachon Bay (France. The sociological study reveals tensions between different conceptions of what a citizen science programme should be: a means for storing oriented-data; a new way to co-create scientific knowledge; a political communication tool; a way to develop citizen stewardship; or a place for expressing activist environmental demands. Citizen science programmes also tend to reveal tensions between participatory governance and classical management of environmental issues. Despite a seeming consensus amongst actors on biodiversity conservation, in practice contests over different citizen science conceptions have the potential to re-define environmental issues, to re-specify relationships between science and society and outline new management priorities.

  9. Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production

    Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

  10. From Citizen Participation to Participatory Governance

    Chris Aulich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies types of citizen participation in local government in Australia, in particular focusing on the past two decades when local government systems have been the focus of intense reform. The paper considers the extent to which contemporary views of participatory governance have taken root at local and sub-local levels and concludes that despite reforms intended to engage local citizens more in local government activity, citizen participation has yet to develop significantly into arrangements that reach the level of participatory governance. It also argues that for participatory governance to be further developed, leadership may often have to come from organisations outside institutional local government.

  11. Participatory management in today's health care setting

    As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced

  12. Participatory design and business modeling

    Iglesias de La Vega, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    En este proyecto miraremos como los campos de Diseño Participativo de las tecnologías de la información (DP, Participatory IT Design) y el diseño empresarial de modelos de negocio interactúan entre sí. Exploraremos el hueco que existe en los asuntos que aborda un proyecto de DP señalado por Kyng (2010). DP es una forma de enfocar el diseño para diseñar sistemas informáticos que tiene su propia ideología, haciendo mucho hincapié en la participación de los usuarios en el proceso. Esta ideolo...

  13. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to...... involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions between research and design. This half-day workshop invites participant to discuss and explore...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....

  14. Participatory systems mapping for sustainable consumption

    Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre; Røpke, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers and...... policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together, these...... insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through...

  15. Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture

    Heinrich, Falk

    This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example......, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader...... sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts....

  16. Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.

    Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre

  17. A participatory approach to tactical forest planning.

    Kangas, Jyrki; Loikkanen, Teppo; Pukkala, Timo; PykÀlÀinen, Jouni

    1996-01-01

    The paper examines the needs, premises and criteria for effective public participation in tactical forest planning. A method for participatory forest planning utilizing the techniques of preference analysis, professional expertise and heuristic optimization is introduced. The techniques do not cover the whole process of participatory planning, but are applied as a tool constituting the numerical core for decision support. The complexity of multi-resource management is addressed by hierarchica...

  18. Participatory management at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital.

    Rabkin, M T; Avakian, L

    1992-05-01

    In the mid-1980s, the senior management of Boston's Beth Israel Hospital became concerned that continuous cost-cutting efforts could lower the quality of the hospital's services and the morale of its staff. This led them to investigate organizational approaches to "participatory management" to determine whether any of these might be of value to the hospital. They decided that an approach developed in the 1930s called the "Scanlon Plan" would be compatible with the workplace culture of Beth Israel, could help the hospital meet the ongoing problems of change, and could help the staff at all levels develop a sense that they owned the problems of quality, productivity, and efficiency, which would motivate them to address these problems constructively in the face of necessary budget constraints. This plan has two mechanisms to foster employees' positive participation: (1) a process to ensure that all members of the organization have the opportunity to improve productivity, primarily through an open suggestion system and a responsive committee structure, and (2) a means of providing equitable rewards for all members of the organization as productivity and quality improve. This essay describes in some detail the plan and why it was selected, explains how it was adapted, prepared for, and finally implemented in 1989, and reports its success, lessons learned, and future plans as of early 1992. The authors believe Beth Israel's experience with the Scanlon Plan is noteworthy as an example of a leading teaching hospital's taking a quality improvement program seriously and making it work. PMID:1575858

  19. Cassava varietal screening for cooking quality: relationship between dry matter, starch content, mealiness and certain microscopic observations of the raw and cooked tuber

    Thirteen cassava (Manihot esculenta L Crantz) varieties from three successive annual harvests were screened for the mealiness of the cooked tuber, and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Six were selected for further studies based on their mealiness and the starch and dry matter contents were determined. The diameter of the starch granules of the selected varieties and those of an irradiated M1V2 population were measured. Microscopic examinations of the raw and cooked cells of the irradiated M1V2 population were made. Correlations among all the parameters were studied. Varietal and seasonal differences in cooking quality were observed. There was no consistent relationship between mealiness of the boiled tuber and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Varieties that were mealy were high in dry matter and starch content. The starch granules of mealy varieties were larger than those of nonmealy ones. There were no differences between mealy and non-mealy varieties in the arrangement of the cells or ‘cell condition’, of the raw tubers. However, the cells of the cooked tubers were held less cohesively, ie there was more ‘cell disorganisation’, in mealy varieties than in non-mealy ones

  20. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...

  1. Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja

    Rousseaux, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Using data from this study and the literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2% per °C. The classification of varieties should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet IOOC requirements. The differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype produced by environmental interaction, and the negative effect of the high seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further research.La industria oleícola del noroeste de Argentina creció sustancialmente durante las últimas dos décadas para producir aceite de oliva virgen exportable. Para evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los principales aceites varietales, se analizaron 563 muestras de aceite de 17 variedades en la provincia de La Rioja durante 2005-2008. Las variedades se clasificaron de acuerdo a su contenido de ácido oleico en bajo (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Utilizando datos de este trabajo y de la literatura, los aceites de variedades de origen español (Arbequina y Picual e italiano (Coratina y Frantoio mostraron consistentemente menor contenido de ácido oleico

  2. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference: Short Papers - Volume 2

    2016-01-01

    . • In “Expanding the ‘How’ of Participatory Design”, five papers provide insights into techniques and methods that support novel perspectives on how participatory design activities might be practiced or reflected upon. This includes examples that should benefit practitioners and researchers who wish to think...... encourage you to read and engage with each of these individual contributions in their own right. 14 workshops were selected from 31 submitted ideas for pre-conference activities, and they cover a wide range of topics. All the accepted proposals involve interaction and participation, but there is a variation...

  3. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  4. Varietal tracing of virgin olive oils based on plastid DNA variation profiling.

    Marga Pérez-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels, it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties, which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices.

  5. Inter-varietal interactions among plants in genotypically diverse mixtures tend to decrease herbivore performance.

    Grettenberger, Ian M; Tooker, John F

    2016-09-01

    Much research has explored the effects of plant species diversity on herbivore populations, but far less has considered effects of plant genotypic diversity, or how abiotic stressors, like drought, can modify effects. Mechanisms by which plant genotypic diversity affects herbivore populations remain largely unresolved. We used greenhouse studies with a model system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) to determine whether the genotypic diversity of a plant's neighborhood influences performance and fitness of herbivores on a focal plant and if drought changes the influence of neighborhood diversity. Taken across all varieties we tested, plant-plant interactions in diverse neighborhoods reduced aphid performance and generated associational resistance, although effects on aphids depended on variety identity. In diverse mixtures, drought stress greatly diminished the genotypic diversity-driven reduction in aphid performance. Neighborhood diversity influenced mother aphid size, and appeared to partially explain how plant-plant interactions reduced the number of offspring produced in mixtures. Plant size did not mediate effects on aphid performance, although neighborhood diversity reduced plant mass across varieties and watering treatments. Our results suggest inter-varietal interactions in genotypic mixtures can affect herbivore performance in the absence of herbivore movement and that abiotic stress may diminish any effects. Accounting for how neighborhood diversity influences resistance of an individual plant to herbivores will help aid development of mixtures of varieties for managing insect pests and clarify the role of plant genotypic diversity in ecosystems. PMID:27170329

  6. Estabilidad varietal de la caña de azúcar procedente de meristemos crioconservados

    R. Ortiz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la estabilidad varietal de la caña de azúcar procedente de meristemos crioconservados, se ejecutó este trabajo. Se utilizaron vitroplantas de dos variedades de caña de azúcar regeneradas a partir de meristemos apicales crioconservados y no crioconservados como control. Todo el material después de su crecimiento a nivel de laboratorio se llevó a canteros multiplicadores, para lograr suficiente material vegetal para su reproducción. Posteriormente, dicho material se plantó en el campo bajo un diseño experimental para evaluar en forma individual y poblacional las plantas procedentes de meristemos apicales crioconservados. Se evaluaron los componentes del rendimiento agrícola y azucarero, así como se realizó la caracterización botánica de cada individuo, con el fin de evaluar si la crioconservación puede utilizarse para la conservación del germoplasma en este cultivo. Los resultados demostraron que no se presentaron cambios en las plantas crioconservadas en cuanto a caracteres botánicos ni en los componentes del rendimiento evaluados

  7. Assessing the varietal origin of extra-virgin olive oil using liquid chromatography fingerprints of phenolic compound, data fusion and chemometrics.

    Bajoub, Aadil; Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Gómez-Romero, María; Ajal, El Amine; Bagur-González, María Gracia; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2017-01-15

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with diode array (DAD) and fluorescence (FLD) detection was used to acquire the fingerprints of the phenolic fraction of monovarietal extra-virgin olive oils (extra-VOOs) collected over three consecutive crop seasons (2011/2012-2013/2014). The chromatographic fingerprints of 140 extra-VOO samples processed from olive fruits of seven olive varieties, were recorded and statistically treated for varietal authentication purposes. First, DAD and FLD chromatographic-fingerprint datasets were separately processed and, subsequently, were joined using "Low-level" and "Mid-Level" data fusion methods. After the preliminary examination by principal component analysis (PCA), three supervised pattern recognition techniques, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) and K-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) were applied to the four chromatographic-fingerprinting matrices. The classification models built were very sensitive and selective, showing considerably good recognition and prediction abilities. The combination "chromatographic dataset+chemometric technique" allowing the most accurate classification for each monovarietal extra-VOO was highlighted. PMID:27542473

  8. Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-07-01

    Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries. PMID:16756940

  9. Foresight Analysis at the Regional Level - A Participatory Methodological Framework

    Anastasia Stratigea; Chrysaida – Aliki Papadopoulou

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model) with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural develop...

  10. Introduction: The Participatory Turn in Urbanism

    Maroš Krivý

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.

  11. Unpacking the impacts of 'participatory' forestry policies

    Mutune, Jane Mutheu; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the livelihoods of member and non-members of Community Forestry Associations under Kenya's participatory forest management (PFM) programme. We use propensity score matching of households based on recall based data from before implementation of PFM from 286 households and comparison...... of current incomes (2012), as well as review of records and interviews. Results reveal that members have higher total and forest-related incomes than non-members and indicate that impacts derive from labour and market opportunities supported by donor institutions, more than from differential access to forest....... Further, we conclude that impact evaluations must examine both outcomes and participatory forestry to provide meaningful policy evidence....

  12. Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian; Hansen, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory......-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for...

  13. Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2007-01-01

    discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope with this...... practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. ...... kind of complexity in regards to technology development and design projects. Based on experiences and lessons learned from the project "The Digital North Denmark (DDN), the chapter reflects on participatory research in a complex organizational setting of researchers, stakeholders and users emphasising...

  14. EVALUACIÓN MORFOAGRONÓMICA DE GERMOPLASMA DE ARROZ DE DIFERENTE ORIGEN Y GRUPO VARIETAL

    Sandra H. Díaz Solís

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la morfología del arroz esimportante en la investigación porque en ella se basa ladiferenciación de las variedades y los estudios de fisiología ymejoramiento. El trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo decaracterizar morfoagronómicamente un grupo de genotipos,conocer las variables que contribuyen a diferenciarlos y lascaracterísticas que pudieran ser importantes para seleccionarlos progenitores del Programa de Mejoramiento con el propósitode buscar una mayor eficiencia del cultivo. En el mismo seevaluaron 10 genotipos de arroz de diferente origen y grupovarietal. La siembra se realizó en bandejas y luego se trasplantóen surcos de 2.40 m de longitud. Se realizaron evaluaciones endos etapas del cultivo que incluyeron tanto variables cuanti-tativas como cualitativas, asimismo el Sistema de EvaluaciónEstándar y el Formulario de Descripción Varietal fueron lasmetodologías empleadas. Los datos obtenidos fueron procesadosmediante Componentes Principales y Conglomerados con laayuda del programa estadístico MINITAB y se determinaronlas Correlaciones de Pearson. Los resultados revelaron laexistencia de diferencias morfoagronómicas en las variedadesde arroz y de correlaciones entre las variables cuantitativasevaluadas, asimismo se confirmaron marcados contrastes entrelos tipos índicas y japónicas para la mayoría de los caracteresestudiados. Las dos componentes obtenidas explicaron el 69.3 %de la variación total. Los genotipos fueron agrupados en seisgrupos o clases, casi todos los individuos con grupo varietalcomún se concentraron a excepción de Nipponbare, Nerica-1y Bluebonnet-50 que se ubicaron en clases independientes. Solo hubo similitud para todas las variedades en dos de los12 caracteres cualitativos evaluados.

  15. ETUDE DE L’ETAT NUTRITIONNEL ET SANITAIRE DE QUELQUES VARIETES DU GENRE PRUNUS DANS LA WILAYA DE TLEMCEN

    HADJ ABDELKADER, Fatima Zohra

    2014-01-01

    ETUDE DE L’ETAT NUTRITIONNEL ET SANITAIRE DE QUELQUES VARIETES DU GENRE PRUNUS DANS LA WILAYA DE TLEMCEN La présente expérimentation s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une recherche sur la nutrition minérale et l’état sanitaire de quelques espèces du genre Prunus en l’occurrence le merisier (Prunus avium) et Sainte Lucie (Prunus mahaleb) avec quelques cultivars tels que Gaouar et Bigarreau Noir. Ce travail est basé essentiellement sur l'analyse physicochimique de l’eau et du sol ainsi que l'anal...

  16. The role of climate forecasts in smallholder agriculture: Lessons from participatory research in two communities in Senegal

    P. Roudier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate forecasts have shown potential for improving resilience of African agriculture to climate shocks, but uncertainty remains about how farmers would use such information in crop management decisions and whether doing so would benefit them. This article presents results from participatory research with farmers from two agro-ecological zones of Senegal, West Africa. Based on simulation exercises, the introduction of seasonal and dekadal forecasts induced changes in farmers’ practices in almost 75% of the cases. Responses were categorized as either implying pure intensification of cropping systems (21% of cases, non-intensified strategies (31% or a mix of both (24%. Among non-intensified strategies, the most common forecast uses are changes in sowing date and crop variety with the latter being more prevalent where a wider repertoire of varieties existed. Mixed strategies generally used more inputs like manure or chemical fertilizers coupled with another strategy such as changing sowing date. Yield estimates suggest that forecast use led to yield gains in about one-third of the cases, with relatively few losses. Impacts varied according to the nature of the actual rainy season, forecasts accuracy and the type of response, positive ones being higher in wetter years, with intensified strategies and with accurate predictions. These results validate prior evidence that climate forecasts may be able to help Senegalese farmers adapt to climate variability, especially helping them capitalize on anticipated favorable conditions. Realization of potential advantages appears associated with a context where there is greater varietal choice and options for intensification.

  17. Principled Challenges for a Participatory Discipline

    Townsend, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The ideals that are central to action research are not often explicitly addressed in writing about action research and participation. This article argues for a more explicit dialogue about the ideals of participation and how those ideals relate to participatory practices. The lack of such a dialogue can obscure both the process of participation…

  18. Defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes

    Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest

  19. Grasping social dynamics of participatory innovation

    Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens

    2011-01-01

    perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co-opetition...

  20. Collective form generation through visual participatory representation

    Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant; Punekar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the...

  1. Traditional Planetarium Programming versus Participatory Planetarium Programming.

    Fletcher, Jack K.

    1980-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that, for the astronomical concepts used, no significant difference in the cognitive domain will occur between the achievement of students who experience a participatory planetarium program and students who experience a traditional lecture-demonstration program. (Author/MK)

  2. The politics of expertise in participatory forestry

    Green, Kathryn E.; Lund, Jens Friis

    2015-01-01

    questioned by village residents, only the exclusive and antidemocratic consequences of the way it comes to be reproduced. Based on our study, we call for a careful reconsideration of the framing of participatory forestry approaches as professionalization to strike a balance between the need for expertise and...

  3. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  4. Participatory Exploration of Digitalizing Cultural Content

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Koch Kapuire, Gereon;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a joint investigation of a Herero wedding ceremony as a sample of cultural content to be digitalized. We have through participatory exploration scrutinized embodied media bias and representation with Herero elders in Namibia. One finding is that this method has enabled the el...

  5. Evaluating participatory decision processes: which methods inform reflective practice?

    Kaufman, Sanda; Ozawa, Connie P; Shmueli, Deborah F

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating participatory decision processes serves two key purposes: validating the usefulness of specific interventions for stakeholders, interveners and funders of conflict management processes, and improving practice. However, evaluation design remains challenging, partly because when attempting to serve both purposes we may end up serving neither well. In fact, the better we respond to one, the less we may satisfy the other. Evaluations tend to focus on endogenous factors (e.g., stakeholder selection, BATNAs, mutually beneficial tradeoffs, quality of the intervention, etc.), because we believe that the success of participatory decision processes hinges on them, and they also seem to lend themselves to caeteris paribus statistical comparisons across cases. We argue that context matters too and that contextual differences among specific cases are meaningful enough to undermine conclusions derived solely from comparisons of process-endogenous factors implicitly rooted in the caeteris paribus assumption. We illustrate this argument with an environmental mediation case. We compare data collected about it through surveys geared toward comparability across cases to information elicited through in-depth interviews geared toward case specifics. The surveys, designed by the U.S. Institute of Environmental Conflict Resolution, feed a database of environmental conflicts that can help make the (statistical) case for intervention in environmental conflict management. Our interviews elicit case details - including context - that enable interveners to link context specifics and intervention actions to outcomes. We argue that neither approach can "serve both masters." PMID:24121657

  6. Research on Participatory Poverty Index in North Jiangsu

    2011-01-01

    In terms of current life style, living and production conditions and hygienic and educational condition, we select 8 indices, such as annual net income of farmers per capita, annual grain yield per capita, total power of agricultural machinery per capita, dropout rate of school children and so on, to establish index system of determining the poor village in North Jiangsu. By selecting Lianqun Village in Suining County of Xuzhou City, Mawa Village in Siyang County of Suqian City, Chuanxing Village in Guanyun County of Lianyungang City, Xiaozhu Village in Hongze County of Huai’an City, Fengda Village in Xiangshui County of Yancheng City as the representative villages, after the discussion and consultation of the masses and the village cadres of all villages, we get the measuring results of weight. Through the field survey, investigation and interview in the selected regions, we get the relevant data, and then we conduct standardization processing, so as to get the index value that can comprehensively reflect the characteristics of poverty. According to the index data that have been standardized, by using participatory poverty index formula for calculation, we get the values that can explain the poverty degree of the respondents. We sequence the representative poor villages in this region according to the poverty degree from high to low, and the result is as follows: Mawa Village, ianqun Village, Chuanxing Village, Xiaozhu Village, and Fengda Village. It indicates that in terms of the operability of theory and technique, the participatory poverty index can better recognize the poor villages, so that it lays solid foundation for rationally and effectively using the limited poverty alleviation resources.

  7. Participatory planning intercultural: Reflections for social work

    Esperanza Gómez Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the nineties, participatory planning has emerged as a linking strategy for various social, political, economic and cultural sectors that assessed it as a potential for building consensus in the making of local processes forsocial improvement. Similarly, it was legitimized as a setting for practice for professionals trained in the social sciences, mainly Social Work. This article, from a geopolitical and geo-cultural perspective, presents contextual elements that determined the configuration of participatory planning in Latin America. These elements shall be staged in order to redefine diversity and the intercultural perspective that has been linked to this mobilizing strategy, against the institutionalized discourse of development and for the emergence of crisis and ruptures with this social paradigm from other practices and worldviews of life in the territories.

  8. The design game in Participatory Design and design education

    Törpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed...... carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used...... in a way that will be labeled as »interested«, rather than in a way labeled as »taking for granted«. It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction....

  9. A Participatory Perspective on Cross-Cultural Design

    Rodil, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    user involvement and participatory design. This is highlighted through explaining ongoing research in the creation of a 3D visualization knowledge management system to support preservation of indigenous knowledge (IK) in Africa. Through the sharing of experiences from the field I underpin the......Designers face a number of challenges in terms of when and how to design interactive systems with indigenous groups. Every layer of development faces obstacles from designing localized interfaces to facilitating prototype evaluations in the wild. This article argues for the importance of continuous...... importance of acknowledging users' expertise and knowledge about the design context. Through presentation of a selection of these challenges in localizing systems development I wish to raise awareness of an required sensitivity to cultural differences in IT....

  10. Does participatory governance hold its promises?

    Kohler-Koch, Beate

    2008-01-01

    "With the ratification of the Reform Treaty, the European Union will be based on two complementary principles: the principle of representative democracy and the principle of participatory democracy. Even though the two respective sub-headings in the draft Constitutional Treaty (Article I, 46 and Article I, 47) have been omitted, the Intergovernmental Conference did not introduce any change in substance. Article 11 of the Reform Treaty pledges to give citizens and representat...

  11. Participatory action research approaches and methods

    Nancy Gibson

    2010-01-01

    This book, published as part of Routledge’s Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR). In three major sections, beginning and ending with ‘Reflections’ that bracket the ‘Action’ section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.

  12. Participatory Design in an Urban Context

    Gøtze, John

    The general theme is democratic urban innovation and participatory design processes. The project aims at examining and assessing the possibi-lities for increa-sing public participation and citizenship in the urban development. Furthermore, the project aims at strengthening the understanding of th...... (Tokyo). Theoretical inspiration comes from, e.g., Richard Sennett, Raymond Williams, Iris Marion Young, Johan Asplund, Oskar Negt, Hannah Arendt, Carole Pateman, Donald Schön, and Peter Checkland....

  13. Grassroots Participatory Budgeting Process in Negros Province

    del Prado, Fatima; Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Florendo, Gabriel Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a narrative account and assessment of the grassroots participatory budgeting (GPB) process in three municipalities of the Negros Province, namely, Sagay City, Hinigaran, and Cauayan. The GPB process was implemented with the objective of empowering civil society organizations (CSOs) to engage with local government and national government agencies in local development planning. This study is a rapid assessment of the GPB process and involved interviews and focus group discussions ...

  14. Using Participatory Paradigm to Learn Human Behaviour

    Taillandier, Patrick; Chu, Thanh-Quang

    2009-01-01

    International audience Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a ...

  15. From Citizen Participation to Participatory Governance

    Chris Aulich

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies types of citizen participation in local government in Australia, in particular focusing on the past two decades when local government systems have been the focus of intense reform. The paper considers the extent to which contemporary views of participatory governance have taken root at local and sub-local levels and concludes that despite reforms intended to engage local citizens more in local government activity, citizen participation has yet to develop significantly in...

  16. Assessment of Participatory Budgeting in Brazil

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to assess the extent to which participatory budgeting (OP) is fostering the efficient and democratic allocation of resources and citizen involvement in the planning and management of their localities. The report draws upon extensive field research undertaken by the Center for Urban Development Studies in: Porto Alegre, the initiator of the OP in 1989; Gravatai, an industrial city in the Porto Alegre metropolitan area; Caxias do Sul an urban center in a predo...

  17. Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  18. Investigating Geosparql Requirements for Participatory Urban Planning

    Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A. J. S.

    2015-06-01

    We propose that participatory GIS (PGIS) activities including participatory urban planning can be made more efficient and effective if spatial reasoning rules are integrated with PGIS tools to simplify engagement for public contributors. Spatial reasoning is used to describe relationships between spatial entities. These relationships can be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively using geometrical algorithms, ontological relations, and topological methods. Semantic web services utilize tools and methods that can facilitate spatial reasoning. GeoSPARQL, introduced by OGC, is a spatial reasoning standard used to make declarations about entities (graphical contributions) that take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple or statement. GeoSPARQL uses three basic methods to infer topological relationships between spatial entities, including: OGC's simple feature topology, RCC8, and the DE-9IM model. While these methods are comprehensive in their ability to define topological relationships between spatial entities, they are often inadequate for defining complex relationships that exist in the spatial realm. Particularly relationships between urban entities, such as those between a bus route, the collection of associated bus stops and their overall surroundings as an urban planning pattern. In this paper we investigate common qualitative spatial reasoning methods as a preliminary step to enhancing the capabilities of GeoSPARQL in an online participatory GIS framework in which reasoning is used to validate plans based on standard patterns that can be found in an efficient/effective urban environment.

  19. Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion

    Katie Richards-Schuster

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews 'Revolutionizing education', a deeply reflective and retrospective book of scholarship on critical questions about youth participatory action research. The book contains a series of case study chapters that examine how youth participatory action research transforms young people and the social contexts in which they live as well as the learnings and implications yielded from this research. The book examines youth participatory action research both for its radical and revol...

  20. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    Hordijk, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs on a number of important principles of design. Building on the existing evaluations of the Peruvian nation-wide implementation of PB (2003-2007), this article addresses both the pitfalls and the t...

  1. Accreditation and Participatory Design in the Health-Care Sector

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the role of participatory design approaches emphasizing the current context of the accreditation regime imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes......-based thinking. We describe and compare effects- driven IT development with accreditation and discuss the prospects and challenges for this approach to participatory design within the healthcare domain....

  2. Care and Concern: An Ethical Journey in Participatory Action Research.

    Stuart, Carol A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the four basic principles of an ethical framework as outlined by the Code of Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans in light of the requirements of a participatory action research approach. Discusses the ethics of participatory action research in regard to care and concern. Argues that the ethics of morality and justice are…

  3. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  4. Learning from Game Design : Understanding Participatory processes through Game Mechanics

    Ampatzidou, Christina; Gugerell, Katharina; Diephuis, Jeremiah

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing interest of local governments in civic participation, it becomes important to explore the available methods for orchestrating participatory processes and evaluate how different tools address some of the common issues associated with participatory processes. Game design is an expa

  5. A configurable architecture for e-participatory budgeting support

    Cesar Alfaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Participatory budgets are emerging as a paradigm for participation. However, there are many variants of such experiences suggesting a look of general methodology. Moreover there is a little use of ICT in this application context. We present a configurable architecture for e-participatory budget formation support.

  6. A configurable architecture for e-participatory budgeting support

    Cesar Alfaro; Javier Gomez; Jose M. Lavin; Juan J. Molero

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgets are emerging as a paradigm for participation. However, there are many variants of such experiences suggesting a look of general methodology. Moreover there is a little use of ICT in this application context. We present a configurable architecture for e-participatory budget formation support.

  7. Teacher Motivation and Satisfaction: Impact on Participatory Management.

    Frase, Larry E.; Sorenson, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Uses the Job Characteristics Model and Job Diagnostic Survey instrument to study the effects of 73 San Diego teachers' motivation and satisfaction on participatory management. Teachers are generally dissatisfied by the absence of feedback, autonomy, and task-related interaction. Participatory management opportunities must be differentiated…

  8. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling

    Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in

  9. The Quality of Conversations in Participatory Innovation

    Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry

    2010-01-01

    In co-design there seems to be a widespread understanding that innovation is a planned, goal-oriented activity that can be propelled forward through well-facilitated events in which company employees collaborate with external parties (users in particular) and the conversations aim at consensus...... about new product and service ideas. Conflict belonged to the 'old days' when participatory design played a part in the struggle between workers and management. Based on the theory of complex responsive processes of relating, we suggest a new way of understanding innovation as the emergence of new...... formats of collaboration for large, complex contingents of stakeholders, where conflicting intentions are encouraged....

  10. Participatory Design at a Radio Station

    Kensing, Finn; Simonsen, Jesper; Bødker, Keld

    1998-01-01

    realistic, design practice, that provides a sound basis for organisational decision making and for technical and organizational development and implementation. We focus on cooperative aspects within and among the editorial units, and between editorial units and the editorial board. We discuss technical and......We address design of computer support for work and its coordination at the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. We propose design solutions based upon participatory design techniques and ethnographically inspired analysis within a full scale design project. The project exemplifies an ambitious, yet...... organisational aspects of the design, seen in light of recent CSCW concepts, including coordination and computational coordination mechanisms, technologies of accountability, and workflow from within and without....

  11. Reflections on a participatory documentary process

    Velez Torres, Irene

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to discuss the use of a participatory documentary process (PDP) in human geography as a method of constructing critical visual information on territorial histories of dispossession. The process was also used to enhance social change both in conjunction with local communities...... and within the communities themselves. The project involved 14 local young participants and four professionals who collectively produced a documentary on the rural context of violence in La Toma District, Colombia. By enabling the reflections and intentions of young participants in the research process, PDP...

  12. Visual Participatory Approach to Violent Behaviour amongst Zimbabwean Students: Forms and Prevalence

    Ephias Gudyanga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18. Data on forms and prevalence of violence were collected from the students. The majority of the participants portrayed physical violence, vandalism and sexual harassment. It was recommended that schools must develop clear policies in an endeavor to reduce or eliminate violence. Schools Psychological Services must provide psychotherapy to individuals concerned. Visual participatory methodology, a new body of knowledge in Zimbabwe, is a vital tool for future researchers.

  13. Can participatory ergonomics become 'the way we do things in this firm' - the Scandinavian approach to participatory ergonomics

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way...

  14. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions. PMID:26041233

  15. Peer Education: Participatory Qualitative Educational Needs Assessment.

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators.Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held.The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs.The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers.

  16. Trocas gasosas em videira sob regime de estresse hídrico. II. fotorrespiração e comportamento varietal Gas exchanges in grapevines under water stress regime. II. photorespiration and varietal behavior

    Murillo de Albuquerque Regina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a fotorrespiração em folhas de videira (Vitis vinifera L. submetidas a um regime de estresse hídrico, com o objetivo de caracterizar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares. Foram utilizadas plantas de dois anos, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto Fercal, plantadas em vasos plásticos e cultivadas em ambiente controlado. A fotorrespiração foi calculada a partir de medidas das trocas gasosas foliares. Os valores absolutos da fotorrespiração variaram pouco entre cultivares e nível de irrigação; já a eficiência da carboxilação e o ponto de compensação ao CO2 foram bastante afetados pelo estresse hídrico, o que revela diferentes níveis de sensibilidade varietal. Foi verificada a ocorrência de inibição não-estomática da fotossíntese, afetando diferencialmente as cultivares analisadas. Destacou-se, ainda, a maior adaptação da Chardonnay às condições de estresse hídrico, em oposição à grande sensibilidade da Sémillon e da Ugni blanc.The photorespiration in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. leaves subjected to a water stress regime was analysed with the purpose of characterizing the behavior of different cultivars. Two-year old plants were used, grafted on Fercal, planted in plastic pots and cultivated in controlled environment. The photorespiration was calculated from leaf gas exchange measurements taken by means of a portable infrared CO2 analyser (LCA3-ADC, working in an open circuit. The absolute photorespiration values varied little among cultivars and level of irrigation, whereas the carboxylation efficiency and the CO2 compensation point were highly affected by the water stress, thereby evidencing different varietal sensitivity levels. The occurrence of a nonstomatal inhibition of the photosynthesis was verified affecting in a specific way the cultivars analysed. The Chardonnay adapted itself better to the water stress conditions as opposed to the high sensitivity on the part of Sémillon and Ugni blanc.

  17. Gender and Innovation in Agriculture: A Case Study of Farmers’ Varietal Preference of Drought Tolerant Maize in Southern Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria

    O.E. Ayinde; Abduolaye, T.; Olaoye, G.; J.A. Akangbe

    2013-01-01

    Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA). The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their gen...

  18. Characterization of the Geographical and Varietal Origin of Wheat and Bread by Means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) Methods and Chemometrics: A Review

    Francesco Longobardi; Daniela Sacco; Grazia Casiello; Andrea Ventrella; Antonio Sacco

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food authentication, in terms of geographical and varietal/animal origins, is considered of primary importance at all levels of the production process. Therefore, it is clear that there is an economic basis to develop analytical methods able to certify the declared origin of food products, in order to protect consumers and honest producers from fraud and unfair competition, respectively; consequently, during recent years, several food authentication techniques have been propo...

  19. Participatory planning of interventions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.

    Treves, Adrian; Wallace, R B; White, S

    2009-12-01

    Conservation of wildlife is especially challenging when the targeted species damage crops or livestock, attack humans, or take fish or game. Affected communities may retaliate and destroy wildlife or their habitats. We summarize recommendations from the literature for 13 distinct types of interventions to mitigate these human-wildlife conflicts. We classified eight types as direct (reducing the severity or frequency of encounters with wildlife) and five as indirect (raising human tolerance for encounters with wildlife) interventions. We analyzed general cause-and-effect relationships underlying human-wildlife conflicts to clarify the focal point of intervention for each type. To organize the recommendations on interventions we used three standard criteria for feasibility: cost-effective design, wildlife specificity and selectivity, and sociopolitical acceptability. The literature review and the feasibility criteria were integrated as decision support tools in three multistakeholder workshops. The workshops validated and refined our criteria and helped the participants select interventions. Our approach to planning interventions is systematic, uses standard criteria, and optimizes the participation of experts, policy makers, and affected communities. We argue that conservation action generally will be more effective if the relative merits of alternative interventions are evaluated in an explicit, systematic, and participatory manner. PMID:19459896

  20. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    Yuanyuan Zeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness.

  1. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  2. Participatory evaluation methodology for community plans and action. Three experiences of participatory evaluation in Catalunya

    Anna Planas Lladó; Pilar Pineda-Herrero; Esther Gil Pasamontes; Laia Sánchez Casals

    2014-01-01

    Participatory evaluation (PE) is frequently used to assess community plans and actions. But how is a PE process designed and carried out? Which methodological elements differentiate PE from other assessment practices? And what kind of tools and instruments are used? This article attempts to answer these questions, though a review of the most recent literature and guidebooks on the EP methodology. Some methodological reflections on th...

  3. Using participatory methods to examine policy and women prisoners' health.

    Hatton, Diane C; Fisher, Anastasia A

    2011-05-01

    This article describes how community-based participatory research (CBPR) led to the discovery of the unintended consequences of jail and prison copayment policy on women prisoners' health. The article addresses (a) a working definition of participatory research; (b) the importance of research with women prisoners; (c) the origins and development of our work and its grounding in CBPR; (d) issues related to research with prisoners; and (e) recommendations for using participatory methods to bring women prisoners into the discourse about the practices and policies that impact their lives. These methods have the potential to minimize the invisibility of prisoners and their health disparities. PMID:21903718

  4. Participatory evaluation methodology for community plans and action. Three experiences of participatory evaluation in Catalunya

    Anna Planas Lladó

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory evaluation (PE is frequently used to assess community plans and actions. But how is a PE process designed and carried out? Which methodological elements differentiate PE from other assessment practices? And what kind of tools and instruments are used? This article attempts to answer these questions, though a review of the most recent literature and guidebooks on the EP methodology. Some methodological reflections on the EP process conducted in three community plans are given and described. In this paper we analyze the most relevant methodological aspects observed during entry into the community (1, context analysis (2, the formation of the steering group (3, the application of participatory techniques and dynamics to evaluate community actions, their multiplication (4, and the evaluation and closure of the three processes of EP (5. Results allow identifying relevant methodological contributions to theimplementation of future processes of Participatory Evaluation in community settings, as the key stakeholders to the process of entry into the community, some elements to consider in order to encourage participation, and the role of the professional evaluators team.

  5. Participatory documentarisation in the service of reversibility

    The author first outlines that reversibility is a technical as well as institutional stake. He recalls the Andra's definition of reversibility, and outlines some specific characteristics (retrievability, possibility of action on the disposal process, possibility to make the design evolve). He discusses some implications of reversibility in terms of technologies, of information and of debate organisation. He indicates aspects which are less taken into account nowadays in the field of technical means and information. He proposes instruments for the process of information of parties (archiving, documentarisation), for the debate (document sharing, debate tools based on participatory documentary spaces). He outlines the importance of documentarisation, indicates different information media (various types of databases) and proposes an example based on 'Folksonomies'

  6. Exploring participatory methodologies in organizational discourse analysis

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2014-01-01

    Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... collaborative governance processes in Denmark. The paper contributes to refining methodologies of organizational discourse analysis by elaborating method-mixing that embraces multimodal organizational discourses. Furthermore it discusses practical implications of the struggling subjectification processes of......-and practices by dealing with challenges of methodological overview, responsive creativity and identity-struggle. The potentials hereof are demonstrated and discussed with cases of two both critical and co-creative practices, namely ‘organizational modelling’ and ‘fixed/unfixed positioning’ from fieldwork in...

  7. Mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning

    Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues that in such an...... assessment of power it is needed also to drawn in the social context because different social contexts will be more or less vulnerable to different mechanisms of power. The paper takes the stand the rural settings are especially vulnerable to dis-engagement of local citizens, sub-ordination of the rural by...... the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis of...

  8. Five Enunciations of Empowerment i Participatory Design

    Ertner, Sara Marie; Kragelund, Anne Mie; Malmborg, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design has been defined as having 'user's democratic participation and empowerment at its core' (Correia and Yusop, 2008). The PD discourse has a strong moral and rhetorical claim by its emphasis on users' empowerment. This paper is a result of a student project, guided by a curiosity...... about how empowerment is enunciated in the PD field today. In a literature-review of academic papers from the proceedings of PDC 2008 we found that empowerment is enunciated in five different ways which can be translated into 5 categories: 1) Specific user groups 2) Direct democracy 3) The users......' position 4) Researchers' practice 5) Reflexive practice. These categories exist conjointly in the literature and suggest that empowerment is not just a moral and politically correct design goal, but a challenged and complex activity....

  9. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  10. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  11. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

  12. Computer models as social learning tools in participatory integrated assessment

    De Kraker, Joop; Kroeze, Carolien; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Kraker, J., Kroeze, C., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Computer models as social learning tools in participatory integrated assessment. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9, 297-309. doi:10.1080/14735903.2011.582356

  13. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  14. A Concept for Testing Decision Support Tools in Participatory Processes Applied to the ToSIA Tool

    David Edwards

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ToSIA (Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment offers a transparent and consistent methodological framework to assess impacts of changes (technological, policy, management, etc. in the forest-based sector. This tool is able to facilitate the decision making process within and between diverse groups of stakeholders (e.g., forest managers and policymakers as it provides a neutral, transparent and data-driven platform for stakeholder interaction and communication. To test these capabilities of ToSIA, a practical approach to test if a decision support system is suitable for participatory processes was developed based on a set of evaluation criteria for participatory processes. ToSIA’s performance was assessed and discussed in different categories against a selection of criteria for successful participatory processes: six criteria were fulfilled by ToSIA, in nine, ToSIA is potentially helpful, in two, criteria ToSIA has no influence, and for three criteria, no experiences exist until now. As a result, ToSIA’s conceptual suitability as a participatory decision support system was confirmed for two interlinked roles: as a decision support system to assess alternative scenarios, and as a communication platform for stakeholder interaction.

  15. Probabilistic Registration for Large-Scale Mobile Participatory Sensing

    Hachem, Sara; Pathak, Animesh; Issarny, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    One of the main benefits of mobile participatory sensing becoming a reality is the increased knowledge it will provide about the real world, as it is expected to rely on a large number of smart and mobile devices. Nowadays, those devices have the ability to host different types of sensors that will be incorporated in every aspect of our daily lives. However, given the constantly increasing number of capable mobile devices, any participatory sensing approach should be, first and foremost, scal...

  16. A generic framework to support participatory surveillance through crowdsensing

    MALATRAS APOSTOLOS; BESLAY Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the power and popularity of participatory or opportunistic sensing for the purpose of providing added value security and surveillance services is a promising research direction. However, challenges such as increased privacy concerns, as well as technological issues related to the reliable processing and meaningful analysis of the collected data, hinder the widespread deployment of participatory surveillance applications. We present here our work on addressing some...

  17. Bolivia's new constitution: Towards participatory democracy and political pluralism?

    Almut Schilling-Vacaflor

    2010-01-01

    In Bolivia, rights to increased political participation and the recognition of indigenous political systems are interrelated. The new constitution of 2009 defines Bolivia as a representative, participatory and communitarian democracy. It incorporates enhanced mechanisms and institutions for participatory democracy. Moreover, new social rights have been anchored in the constitution and a plurinational state is supposed to be constructed. The article raises the question of whether the new const...

  18. MobileMonday culture : the lure of participatory space

    Pineda, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This master’s thesis explores participatory culture’s social logic and its manifestations in social media. It employs the case study method to examine participatory culture’s patterns of interaction through the experiences of participants in Mobile Monday, a global community sharing common professional interests in mobile communications. It provides an historical perspective on the technology and concepts used in social media, and applies a theoretical framework based on the premise of partic...

  19. User-rank: generic query optimization for participatory social applications

    Hughes, Danny; Crowley, Caren; Daniels, Wilfried; Bachiller Soler, Rafael; Joosen, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    Online social networks have become a key communication medium for millions of Internet users. Building on this success a new class of social applications have emerged that use online social networks as a platform to access an established community of users. While some social applications act as a forum for users to interact, an emerging class of participatory social applications creates value by using data received from users to deliver a service. The success of participatory social applicati...

  20. Energy-Efficient Collaborative Outdoor Localization for Participatory Sensing

    Wendong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Location information is a key element of participatory sensing. Many mobile and sensing applications require location information to provide better recommendations, object search and trip planning. However, continuous GPS positioning consumes much energy, which may drain the battery of mobile devices quickly. Although WiFi and cell tower positioning are alternatives, they provide lower accuracy compared to GPS. This paper solves the above problem by proposing a novel localization scheme through the collaboration of multiple mobile devices to reduce energy consumption and provide accurate positioning. Under our scheme, the mobile devices are divided into three groups, namely the broadcaster group, the location information receiver group and the normal participant group. Only the broadcaster group and the normal participant group use their GPS. The location information receiver group, on the other hand, makes use of the locations broadcast by the broadcaster group to estimate their locations. We formulate the broadcaster set selection problem and propose two novel algorithms to minimize the energy consumption in collaborative localization. Simulations with real traces show that our proposed solution can save up to 68% of the energy of all of the participants and provide more accurate locations than WiFi and cellular network positioning.

  1. Energy-Efficient Collaborative Outdoor Localization for Participatory Sensing.

    Wang, Wendong; Xi, Teng; Ngai, Edith C-H; Song, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Location information is a key element of participatory sensing. Many mobile and sensing applications require location information to provide better recommendations, object search and trip planning. However, continuous GPS positioning consumes much energy, which may drain the battery of mobile devices quickly. Although WiFi and cell tower positioning are alternatives, they provide lower accuracy compared to GPS. This paper solves the above problem by proposing a novel localization scheme through the collaboration of multiple mobile devices to reduce energy consumption and provide accurate positioning. Under our scheme, the mobile devices are divided into three groups, namely the broadcaster group, the location information receiver group and the normal participant group. Only the broadcaster group and the normal participant group use their GPS. The location information receiver group, on the other hand, makes use of the locations broadcast by the broadcaster group to estimate their locations. We formulate the broadcaster set selection problem and propose two novel algorithms to minimize the energy consumption in collaborative localization. Simulations with real traces show that our proposed solution can save up to 68% of the energy of all of the participants and provide more accurate locations than WiFi and cellular network positioning. PMID:27231916

  2. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  3. Optimized Reputable Sensing Participants Extraction for Participatory Sensor Networks

    Weiwei Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By collecting data via sensors embedded personal smart devices, sensing participants play a key role in participatory sensor networks. Using information provided by reputable sensing participants ensures the reliability of participatory sensing data. Setting a threshold for the reputation, and those whose reputations are bigger than this value are regarded as reputable. The bigger the threshold value is, the more reliable the extracted reputable sensing participant is. However, if the threshold value is too big, only very limited participatory sensing data can be involved. This may cause unexpected bias in information collection. Existing works did not consider the relationship between the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants and the ratio of usable participatory sensing data. In this work, we propose a criterion for optimized reputable sensing participant extraction in participatory sensor networks. This is achieved based on the mathematical analysis on the ratio of available participatory sensing data and the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants. Our suggested threshold value for reputable sensing participant extraction is only related to the power of sensing participant’s reputation distribution. It is easy to be applied in real applications. Simulation results tested on real application data further verified the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  4. Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved

  5. Varietal improvement of Brassica species through introduction, hybridization and mutation breeding techniques

    Germplasm of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea was collected from various parts of Bangladesh and evaluated for yield, oil content etc. prior to the breeding programme. Seeds of the B. campestris variety YS-52, possessing good agronomic characteristics, were treated with mutagens (gamma rays and sodium azide) to widen the genetic variation. Mutants were selected for higher yield and resistance against Alternaria brassicae. The two mutant lines BINA 1 and BINA 2 were selected exceeding the parent variety considerably in yield and disease resistance. They are candidates for recommended varieties. Brassica juncea variety RCM 625 was treated with gamma rays and EMS. Four higher yielding and earlier maturing mutants are being evaluated further. 6 tabs

  6. The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences

    Burbano C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins human consumption and large-scale cultivation.

  7. The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences

    Burbano C.; Muzquiz M.; Ayet G.; Pedrosa M.M.; Cuadrado C.

    1999-01-01

    This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins) h...

  8. Türkiye’de Katılım Bankalarının Tercih Edilme Sebepleri: Ampirik Bir Tetkik(Reasons for Preference of Participatory Banks in Turkey: An Empirical Investigation

    İsmail ÖZSOY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest-Free/Islamic Banking or Participatory Banking has been increasing its share in the world financial market. Although many researches about the reasons for preference of interest-free banks abroad Turkey have been conducted so far, the number of the studies related to the reasons for preference of participatory banks in Turkey is comparatively very low. This study is intended to contribute to the literature in question. To this effect; a sample of 217 participants was selected among the customers of three participatory banks in Bolu province in Turkey. The data was collected through conducting a survey. An exploratory factor analysis was run on the data. According to our findings, the principal factor affecting the participants’ preference of participatory banks is “Product/Service Quality”. “Image and Trust”, “Personnel Quality”, “Religious/Environmental Motivations” are the succeeding ones.

  9. Awareness and Learning in Participatory Noise Sensing

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  10. Francisco B. Cruz: de la ‘agricultura pródiga’ a la revolución varietal azucarera en Cuba, 1878-1930

    Leida Fernández Prieto

    2013-01-01

    A través de la figura del agrónomo y científico cubano Francisco B. Cruz, este artículo explora el cambio en el sistema de cultivo cañero a finales del siglo XIX debido, entre otros factores, al fracaso del modelo basado en la agricultura prodiga. Asimismo, se destaca la participación de la Estación Experimental en la puesta en marcha del programa global de la revolución varietal. En este sentido, se subraya el papel de Francisco B. Cruz y las conexiones con otros actores institucionales y pr...

  11. The Palouse Basin Participatory Model Pilot Project: A Participatory Approach to Bi-state Groundwater Management

    Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.

  12. The Best of Two Worlds? Methodology for the Participatory Assessment of Community Water Services

    Wijk-Siebesma, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: domestic water supply, community management, gender, poverty, program planning, program evaluation, monitoring, water policy, participatory methods, sustainability, useThe Methodology for Participatory Assessment, or MPA, is a new, multi-level instrument to combine sustainability analysis

  13. INFLUENCE OF VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAPES AND THE NATURE OF ALCOHOL AGENT ON LIQUEUR WINE QUALITY

    Dergunov A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies revealed that the application of spirits as a strength agent of 91.0 - 96.6% in special wines contained more vitamin-like substances than wine, alcoholized with double-distilled water with 75% alcohol concentration. The highest marks for tasting wines were given to the options made with the use of rectified grain origin alcohol as an agent of alcohol. Application of double-distilled water wine leads to accumulation of unnecessarily high undesirable groups of compounds such as methanol and fusel oil, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. Organoleptic parameters were the best for selection of wines from Anapa ZOSViV - Dionysus and Krasnostop EPA, as well as - Cabernet Sauvignon. We can conclude that for the production of high-quality red dessert wines we need, along with the classic varieties, wider use of new autochthonous varieties using alcohol agents of rectified grain origin

  14. Microsatellite polymorphism in wheat from Brazilian cultivars; inter- and intra-varietal studies

    Lima Vitor Lopes de Abreu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum from different Brazilian cultivars and six American varieties were compared for polymorphism, using primers for nine different STR loci. STR analysis of DNA from single grains of the Brazilian varieties showed that for most loci there was very little intra-cultivar polymorphism. The polymorphic variation observed for Brazilian cultivars was similar to that seen in the American varieties. For the Brazilian cultivars PCR analysis could be performed on only one half of a grain. The American samples required more seeds for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of five amplified microsatellites selected at random from the Brazilian samples were also determined and compared to those of the Chinese Spring variety. Although generally the dinucleotide sequence repeat was preserved for most loci, there were significant differences in sequences interspersed within the repeat domain. This result suggested that it may be possible to unequivocally identify the geographical origin of the cultivar by inspection of the DNA sequences of the repeat region.

  15. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR).

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-06-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of 'Zero-acreage farming' (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article "Application and evaluation of a participatory "open innovation" approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin" (Specht et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27182542

  16. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR

    Felix Zoll

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR. The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of ‘Zero-acreage farming’ (ZFarming, which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article “Application and evaluation of a participatory “open innovation” approach (ROIR: the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin” (Specht et al., 2016 [1].

  17. Participatory Design in Emergency Medical Service: Designing for Future Practice

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Palen, Leysia Ann

    We describe our research—its approach, results and prod-ucts—on Danish emergency medical service (EMS) field or “pre-hospital” work in minor and major incidents. We dis-cuss how commitments to participatory design and attention to the qualitative differences between minor and major incidents...... address challenges identified by disaster sociologists when designing for major incidents. Through qualitative research and participatory design, we have ex-amined the features of EMS work and technology use in different emergency situations from the perspective of mul-tiple actors. We conceptualize...... victims in incidents—and particularly in major incidents, where on-site medical as-sessments is highly incomplete—as boundary objects over which the complex and imperfect work of coordination is done. As an outcome of our participatory design approach, we describe a set of designs in support of future EMS...

  18. Assessing Vital Signs: Applying Two Participatory Evaluation Frameworks to the Evaluation of a College of Nursing

    Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…

  19. Integrating Participatory Action Research and GIS Education: Negotiating Methodologies, Politics and Technologies

    Elwood, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…

  20. Investigation of major cattle production constraints in Kembata Tambaro zone of Southern Ethiopia using participatory epidemiology methods.

    Ayele, Birhanu; Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia has enormous livestock resources from which rural households derive their livelihoods. A cross-sectional study based on participatory appraisal methods was conducted in Kembata Tambaro zone to assess major constraints to livestock production and major diseases of cattle and their treatment options. Four districts were selected purposively for this study, and 18 peasant associations were randomly sampled from the selected districts. Focus group discussion, semistructured interviews, simple ranking and scoring, proportional piling, pairwise ranking, and matrix scoring were the participatory epidemiological tools used in the study. Feed and free grazing land shortages and diseases were found to be the major constraints to cattle production in the area. Mastitis was ranked as the most serious disease of cattle. Modern veterinary treatments are used alongside traditional herbal remedies. Matrix scoring showed strong agreement between focus groups in identifying the major diseases using their indicators (clinical signs). Hence, it was concluded that indigenous knowledge complemented with participatory methods and approaches allow community and field researchers to jointly study specific livestock problems and help identify appropriate solutions. PMID:26477032

  1. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-01-01

    K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the ...

  2. Disentangling participation power and decision-making in participatory design

    Bratteteig, Tone

    2014-01-01

    Providing a critical view on user participation in design, disentangling decision making and power in design, this book uses fieldwork material from two large participatory design projects: one experimental in the field of urban planning, the other a product development project within health care. Addressing power issues in participatory design is critical to providing a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of participation. Design is decision-making: during a design process a huge number of decisions?taken before the designers end up with a design result - an artefact or system

  3. Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data

    Forrest, Stephanie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; He, Wenbo [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Groat, Michael [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Edwards, Benjamin [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Horey, James L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.

  4. Évaluation participative de nouvelles lignées de mil (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) sélectionnées pour les régions arides tunisiennes

    M. Loumerem; P. V. Damme; M. Sgair; Reheul, D; Behaeghe, T.

    2009-01-01

    Participatory varietal selection (PVS) method was used to involve peasants from the beginning of the breeding programme in order to create new varieties of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) higher that would be yielding than the traditional cultivars in the arid regions of Tunisia. Methods of participatory research aim at fostering collaboration between farmers and plant breeders. The farmer is no longer considered as a dumb recipient of technology but as full active partner in re...

  5. Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS

    The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice, morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and

  6. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiling of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infection in sweet orange citrus varietals using thermal desorption gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC/TOF-MS)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a plant pathogen which predominately infects economically important citrus crops such as sweet orange, clementine, lime and grapefruit varietals. Within the last 70 years, an estimated 100 million citrus trees on sour orange rootstock have been destroyed due to CTV inf...

  7. Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks

    Wu, Dezhi; Bieber, Michael; Hiltz, Starr Roxanne

    2008-01-01

    The online participatory exam transforms the traditional exam into a constructivist, cooperative and engaging learning experience. Students learn from designing and answering exam questions, from evaluating their peers' performance, and from reading questions, answers and evaluations. This paper, aimed at faculty who teach online and at…

  8. Community Writing, Participatory Research, and an Anthropological Sensibility

    Hurtig, Janise

    2008-01-01

    Participatory research is a radical praxis through which marginalized people acquire research capabilities that they use to transform their own lives. In this article, I examine how parent writers incorporated facets of community writing into their research practice as they developed their practices and identities as researchers. I also consider…

  9. Assessing Social Learning Outcomes through Participatory Mind Mapping

    Smith, Justin G.; DuBois, Bryce; Corwin, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a method for using mind mapping to assess social learning outcomes in collaborative environmental restoration and participatory natural resource management initiatives. Using mind mapping for preassessment and postassessment can reveal changes in individual and collective thinking about critical social and ecological issues.…

  10. Participatory Design of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea

    Sander van den Burg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European oceans are subject to rapid development. New activities such as aquaculture and ocean energy have gained importance. This triggers interest in “multi-use platforms at sea” (MUPS, i.e., areas at sea in which different activities are combined. MUPS are complex features with regards to technology, governance, and financial, socioeconomic, and environmental aspects. To identify realistic and sustainable solutions and designs for MUPS, the MERMAID project applied a participatory design process (PDP involving a range of stakeholders representing companies, authorities, researchers, and NGOs. This paper evaluates if and how the participatory design process contributed to the design of multi-use platforms. It is based on interviews with the managers of the case study sites and a questionnaire administered to all stakeholders participating in the PDP workshops. Analyzing the four case studies, we conclude that the participatory design process has had a valuable contribution to the development of the four different designs of MUPS, even though the preconditions for carrying out a participatory design process differed between sites. In all four cases, the process has been beneficial in generating new and shared knowledge. It brought new design issues to the table and increased knowledge and understanding among the different stakeholders.

  11. Participatory Photography: Can It Help Adult Learners Develop Agency?

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…

  12. Requirements for Participatory Framework on Governmental Policy Level

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.

  13. Cultivating Communication: Participatory Approaches in Land Restoration in Iceland

    Brita Berglund; Lars Hallgren; Ása L. Aradóttir

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of “participation” is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land ...

  14. Cultivating Communication: Participatory Approaches in Land Restoration in Iceland

    Brita Berglund

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of “participation” is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land restoration projects. Our methods included semi-structured interviews with agency staff and involved stakeholders, participant observations, and document review. The findings showed that participation was seen as a method to accomplish the agency’s tasks, and the focus was primarily on the outputs, or products, of the participatory processes. This interpretation worked well and created positive outcomes as long as process factors, such as interaction with other stakeholders and shared influence, were adequately attended to and joint gains were assured, but other stakeholders expressed dissatisfaction when they were not. We conclude that, although tangible outcomes are necessary for environmental agencies, maintaining a balance between product and process focus in participatory projects is important for optimal results. To increase their ability to deal with process factors, environmental agencies, and ultimately environmental management, would benefit from enhancing their personnel’s understanding of participation, and capacity to conduct participatory processes. To facilitate participation, this understanding should also be integrated in the institutional framework the agencies work within.

  15. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  16. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  17. Challenges of youth participation in participatory action research

    Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine; Berliner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated ...

  18. Participatory Evaluation: Factors to Consider when Involving Youth

    Fox, Janet; Cater, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a critical perspective on the increasing involvement of young people in participatory evaluation as well as identifies the factors to consider when designing a youth-led evaluation project. Through this avenue, young people will increase their participation in organizational development and community change. Youth-led…

  19. China Earthquake Relief: Participatory Action Work with Children

    Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…

  20. Participatory Action Research for Dealing with Disasters on Islands

    Ilan Kelman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Much disaster research has a basis in non-island case studies, although mono-disciplinary disaster-related research across past decades has often used case studies of individual islands. Both sets of work contribute to contemporary ‘participatory action research’ which investigates ways of dealing with disasters on islands. This paper asks what might be gained through combining disaster research, island studies, and participatory action research. What value does island studies bring to participatory action research for dealing with disasters? Through a critical (not comprehensive overview of participatory action research for dealing with disasters on islands, three main lessons emerge. First, the island context matters to a certain degree for disaster-related research and action. Second, islandness has much more to offer disaster-related research than is currently appreciated. Third, more studies are needed linking theory to evidence found on the ground on islanders’ terms. Limitations of the analyses here and future research directions are provided.

  1. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  2. Resisting Participation: Critiquing Participatory Research Methodologies with Young People

    Fox, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are increasingly employed in research with young people. These practices stem from a desire to reduce problematic distributions of power in research and to construct knowledge with young people rather than for them. This paper examines research conducted with a small group of young people experiencing exclusion from…

  3. Participatory Action Research: An Overview--What Makes It Tick?

    Gaffney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article I outline different elements of action research in an attempt to describe and define participatory action research (PAR). There is a lot more material available to readers these days, some of which I will refer you to in this article. I see my role here is to summarise enough of this material to help support your reading of the…

  4. Actionable Ethnography in Participatory Innovation: A Case Study

    Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens; Buur, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory...

  5. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  6. Digital Game Building: Learning in a Participatory Culture

    Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Background: The emergence of a participatory culture, brought about mainly by the use of Web2.0 technology, is challenging us to reconsider aspects of teaching and learning. Adapting the learning-as-digital-game-building approach, this paper explores how new educational practices can help students build skills for the 21st century. Purpose: This…

  7. Participatory Culture Gets Schooled: Reflections on a Digital Literacies Course

    Avila, JuliAnna

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a course description of a Digital Literacies class offered to both undergraduate and graduate students at an American university. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the pedagogical bones of this course, drawing upon theories of learning in a participatory culture, including a discussion of how, and where, the course fell…

  8. Virtues in participatory design : Cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and base

  9. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra Pra

  10. Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.

    Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

  11. Empowering Communities in Educational Management: Participatory Action Research

    Ruechakul, Prayad; Erawan, Prawit; Siwarom, Manoon

    2015-01-01

    The participatory learning and action: PLA was the process used for empowering in this program. This process has four steps: 1) create awareness, 2) specify problems or needs, 3) act and 4) present and reflect or monitor. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the conditions of communities in terms of context and problems or needs in…

  12. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...

  13. Participatory and Dialogue Democracy in U.S. Mathematics Classrooms

    Mukhopadhyay, Shiuli

    2009-01-01

    Teaching math to reflect values of democracy has to begin with some consideration of how democracy is conceptualized. A review of various theories of democracy conducted by Hagen (1992) provides everyone with a good starting point as it identifies three primary forms of democracy: competitive, participatory, and dialogue. In this essay, the author…

  14. Testing the Participatory Education Evaluation Concept in a National Context

    Pietilainen, Ville

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on the realisation of participatory evaluation (PE) in national educational evaluation activity. The realisation of PE is examined by adapting the Daigneault and Jacob model (2009; originally Cousins & Whitmore, 1998) to five national-level educational evaluations carried out in Finland. According to the chosen frame of…

  15. The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) in Malawi: A Nested Pilot of Photovoice Participatory Research Methodology.

    Ardrey, Jane; Desmond, Nicola; Tolhurst, Rachel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) is a village-level randomised controlled trial of an advanced cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under the age of 5 in rural Malawi (www.capstudy.org). The trial offers a unique opportunity to gain understanding about the social and cultural factors that may facilitate sustained use of improved cookstoves. In January 2015, the use of Photovoice as a participatory research methodology was piloted at the CAPS Chikhwawa site. Photovoice is a photographic technique that allows communities (including women and marginalised groups) to share knowledge about their perspectives and priorities. Four households were given digital cameras and asked to collect images over 24-48 hours and were then interviewed on film about their selection. This resulted in over 400 images and a one hour long film that revealed community concerns and could be thematically analysed. The collection of interview data through film was useful for capturing discussion and was acceptable to participants. Photovoice is a feasible participatory research methodology that can play a valuable role in qualitative studies of improved cookstove adoption in challenging resource poor settings. PMID:27254291

  16. Applying a participatory approach to the promotion of a culture of respect during childbirth.

    Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Sando, David; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana; McDonald, Kathleen P

    2016-01-01

    Disrespect and abuse (D&A) during facility-based childbirth is a topic of growing concern and attention globally. Several recent studies have sought to quantify the prevalence of D&A, however little evidence exists about effective interventions to mitigate disrespect and abuse, and promote respectful maternity care. In an accompanying article, we describe the process of selecting, implementing, and evaluating a package of interventions designed to prevent and reduce disrespect and abuse in a large urban hospital in Tanzania. Though that study was not powered to detect a definitive impact on reducing D&A, the results showed important changes in intermediate outcomes associated with this goal. In this commentary, we describe the factors that enabled this effect, especially the participatory approach we adopted to engage key stakeholders throughout the planning and implementation of the program. Based on our experience and findings, we conclude that a visible, sustained, and participatory intervention process; committed facility leadership; management support; and staff engagement throughout the project contributed to a marked change in the culture of the hospital to one that values and promotes respectful maternity care. For these changes to translate into dignified care during childbirth for all women in a sustainable fashion, institutional commitment to providing the necessary resources and staff will be needed. PMID:27424514

  17. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the risk and severity of injuries from manual handling.

    Carrivick, Philip J W; Lee, Andy H; Yau, Kelvin K W; Stevenson, Mark R

    2005-06-22

    Manual handling is the greatest contributor to non-fatal injury and disease in the workplace, commonly accounting for one-third of national injury counts. Interventional strategies that have focused on selecting or modifying the worker have been ineffective in reducing injury risk. In recent times, participatory ergonomics has been widely adopted as a process to reduce the risk of injury from manual handling but it is not well validated as an intervention. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics risk assessment approach in reducing the rate and severity of injuries from manual and non-manual handling sustained by a cohort of 137 cleaners within a hospital setting. The date of injury and the workers' compensation claim cost and hours lost from work were obtained for each injury incurred during the 4-year pre-intervention and 3-year intervention period. The age, gender and hours worked were ascertained for every cleaner whether injured or not. Using generalized linear mixed modelling analysis, reductions of rate of injury by two-thirds, workers' compensation claim costs by 62% and hours lost by 35% for manual handling injuries were found to be associated with the intervention period. Although the cleaners experienced a significant intervention period reduction in non-manual handling injury rate, the corresponding changes in severity of injury were not significant. The success of the intervention supports the adoption of a participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the rate and consequence of injuries in the workplace. PMID:16147411

  19. Roles of Neighborhood Group to Promote Participatory Development in Indonesia: Case of Three Villages in Purbalingga District, Central Java Province

    Sutiyo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood Group (Rukun Tetangga/RT, an association of fifties households living in the same areas, is expected to promote participatory development in Indonesian decentralization. This study aims to analyze whether it could promote participatory development. To do so, a case study was conducted in three villages, namely Kedarpan, Serang and Sumilir, in Purbalingga district of Central Java province. Totally 240 household heads in 24RTs were randomly selected to be the respondents. Data were analyzed through qualitative and quantitative techniques. Three main findings emerge from this study. Firstly, community involvement was pseudo participation emphasizing more on resource mobilization but less in generating idea and controlling the government. Secondly, capacity of RTheads was good enough in term of informativeness, encouragement, fairness, creativity, responsiveness and submission to consensus, but slightly poor in term of accountability. Thirdly, RT was not able to empower community, so community understanding to decentralization terms, development programs and village governance was generally poor. Although some potentialities were found,it can be generally concluded thatRT is not completely successful in promoting participatory development.Complexities of institutional problems, whichinclude weak capacity, trouble in technical regulations and lack of support from government, are among the factors hampering RT to play its role. Thus, hand in hand with capacity development ofRThead, the government is supposed to establish regulations supporting the empowerment of RT, and involving other rural institutions to help performing the roles that still cannot be played by RT.

  20. Participatory evaluation of community actions as a learning methodology for personal and community empowerment: case studies and empowerment processes

    Xavier Úcar Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Participatory evaluation (PE is a hybrid methodology that can be used simultaneously to investigate and act in groups and communities. It can generate new knowledge about reality, but italso allows changes in the participants and their sociocultural context. This research project, developed over three years, aims to find out whether PE processes are useful and appropriate to evaluate community actionsand to generate learning that contribute to the empowerment of people who develop them.Method: The methodological structure of the research process design Participatory Evaluation processes that are applied in three selected communities-cases, over one year. The steering groups in each caseevaluated four dimensions of Community Development Plans: context, evolution, performance and results, using different techniques and group dynamics. Throughout this process, participants identify the acquiredknowledge and this is linked to indicators of empowerment, using questionnaires, content analysis and semi-structured interviews.Results: The development PE process in the three analyzed cases confirmed that PE is a useful strategy to assess participatory community actions of a territory; to report them to the people of the community; andto make shared decisions, about initiatives in order to improve community actions. The obtained results also verify that, throughout PE, there has been learning in the participants.Conclusions: The involvement of community members in the evaluation makes it more useful, fairer and more valid, but also a fourth positive consequence of PE is empowerment. From the process and the resultsof these cases of Participatory Evaluation, we consider that community EP is social transformation.

  1. Participatory tools working with crops, varieties and seeds. A guide for professionals applying participatory approaches in agrobiodiversity management, crop improvement and seed sector development

    Boef, de W.S.; Thijssen, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in fie

  2. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter; Hawes, Joseph;

    establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects in......-indigenous semi-subsistence groups referred to as caboclos, outnumber native Amerindians by a factor of ten. The Brazilian government has committed to supporting participatory programs where monitoring biodiversity and co-management of natural resources are spearheaded by residents of sustainable-use protected...... seventh of Brazilian Amazonia. Here, we present the results of a two-year participatory monitoring program of extractive activities by caboclos inhabiting one of ProBUC’s pilot areas, the Uacari Sustainable Development Reserve, as well as the Médio Juruá Extractive Reserve, both within the Juruá River...

  3. Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment and REDD+: Learning from Tanzania

    Kusaga Mukama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research initiatives and practical experiences have demonstrated that forest-related data collected by local communities can play an essential role in the development of national REDD+ programs and its' measurement, reporting, verification (MRV systems. In Tanzania, the national REDD+ Strategy aims to reward local communities participating in forest management under Participatory Forest Management (PFM. Accessing carbon finances requires among other things, accurate measurements of carbon stock changes through conventional forest inventories, something which is rarely done in PFM forests due to its high cost and limited resources. The main objective of this paper is to discuss experiences of Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment (PFCA in Tanzania. The study revealed that villagers who participated in PFCA were able to perform most steps for carbon assessment in the field. A key challenge in future is how to finance PFCA and ensure the technical capacity at local level.

  4. Participatory methods for initiating manufacturing employees' involvement in product innovation

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Jensen, Christian Schou; Broberg, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Employee-driven innovation has the potential to improve product innovation by involving employees as innovative resources. However, it can be a challenge to turn the potential into a reality of collaboration practices across organizational structures and culture. Through an interactive research...... approach that we apply to two case companies, this paper presents an empirical study of how to initiate involvement of manufacturing employees in R&D activities. We have used participatory methods from design thinking that has the ability to create relations between employees from different backgrounds and...... through a series of facilitated workshops we have investigated how these methods can initiate employee involvement. We see that participatory methods can improve understanding and relation between R&D and manufacturing departments, and thereby support a creative collaboration and emergence of employee...

  5. Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    notion of fictional space is traced through design theory and developed within the scope of participatory design. Fictional space and the notions presented within this perspective are not ready-made methods or techniques for conducting design inquiries. Rather, I suggest that they enable critical......This dissertation addresses the topic of designing engaging interactive environments and is positioned in the intersection between participatory design, design theory, and interaction design. This topic has been addressed through a research program on designing engaging interactive exhibition...... spaces for museums and science centres. The dissertation is composed of seven research papers framed by a general overview that summarises the arguments made in the papers and outlines related work and research method. The contribution reflects a dual yet intertwined concern for understanding engagement...

  6. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. PMID:25555777

  7. A participatory assessment of environmental health concerns in an Ojibwa community.

    Severtson, Dolores J; Baumann, Linda C; Will, James A

    2002-01-01

    This research employed a participatory approach to explore environmental health (EH) concerns among Lac Courte Oreilles (LCO) Ojibwa Indians in Sawyer County, Wisconsin. The project was grounded in a broad ecological conceptualization of EH and in principles of health promotion and community participation. Community participation was accomplished through a steering committee that consisted of the primary author and LCO College faculty and community members. The selected assessment methodology was a self-administered survey mailed to LCO members in Sawyer County. Concern for environmental issues was high in this tribal community, especially for future generations. Concern was higher among older members and tribal members living on rather than off the reservation. Local environmental issues of concern were motorized water vehicles, effects from global warming, aging septic systems on waterways, unsafe driving, and contaminated lakes/streams. The LCO community can use survey results to inform further data needs and program development. PMID:11841682

  8. New Modes of Governance and the Participatory Myth

    Smismans, Stijn

    2006-01-01

    One of the most common arguments about ‘new governance’ is that it is characterised by heterarchy rather than by hierarchy, creating horizontal modes of governance among a multitude of actors – public and private – involving all relevant stakeholders. Often implicitly, but sometimes explicitly, this argument is linked with a normative democratic claim that praises the particular participatory features of ‘new governance’ as compared to ‘old governance’. Using as a case study Community occupat...

  9. Keeping track of nature : interdisciplinary insights for participatory ecological monitoring

    Staddon, Samantha Clair

    2012-01-01

    Participatory ecological monitoring aims to bring together conservationists and members of the public to collect scientific data about changes in nature – in species, habitats, ecosystems and natural resources. Given that such monitoring not only concerns measures of nature but inherently the participants doing the measuring, it is as much to do with social processes as it is to do with ecological ones. By drawing on detailed ethnographic work from the community forests of Nepa...

  10. Capturing and representing deliberation in participatory planning practices

    De Liddo, Anna; Buckingham Shum, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue for the importance of capturing and representing deliberation in participatory planning practices. We discuss the concept of deliberation in planning theory, and argue for a paradigm that puts deliberation at the centre of public participation to planning decision. We argue that in order to enable effective participation, the normally ephemeral delib- eration process needs to be captured and represented so that the information and knowledge gathered during deliberation ...

  11. Participatory Rural Appraisal: Lessons for Countries in the North?

    Preece, Julia

    2006-01-01

    "This paper describes and analyses various perspectives on participatory rural appraisal and the relationship between its rhetoric and practice, particularly regarding its claims to give voice to the marginalised and contribution to development needs. Drawing on relevant literature that both critiques and provides examples of practice, the paper analyses two case studies to explore what lessons we can learn about the approach and its applicability as a methodology for margin...

  12. No contest: participatory technologies and the transformation of urban authority

    McQuarrie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This essay describes the transformation of civic participation from a tool of democratization into a tool for elite authority. Looking at various participatory projects in community-based organizations in a city in America’s Rust Belt, the essay demonstrates how the very architecture of civil society is being manipulated to marginalize dissent. This raises the question of whether the design of institutions has outpaced our critiques of them.

  13. Participatory citizenship: critical perspectives on client-centred occupational therapy

    Fransen, Hetty; Pollard, Nicholas; Kantartzis, Sarah; Viana-Moldes, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Background/aims: This article aims to discuss client-centred practice, the current dominant approach within occupational therapy, in relation to participatory citizenship. Occupational therapists work within structures and policies that set boundaries on their engagement with clients, while working with complex, multidimensional social realities. Methods: The authors present a critical discussion shaped by their research, including a survey, discussions at workshops at international confer...

  14. Redressing Ecological Poverty Through Participatory Democracy: Case Studies from India

    Sunita Narain; Anil Agarwal

    2000-01-01

    or the rural poor – who depend above all the land for their survival – a central development challenge is to sustain a base of natural capital that can support a robust local economy. In India, government mismanagement of forests, grazing lands, and water resources has often alienated rural people and exacerbated resource degradation. This paper shows the potential to reverse these trends when local people gain control over natural resources and manage them through systems of participatory de...

  15. Expressive violence: the performative effects of subversive participatory media uses

    Paton, Nathalie; Figeac, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the communication strategies employed by 8 school shooters who used participatory media to frame their acts as well as their identity. By resorting to content analysis of 78 self-produced videos and 101 portraits, the findings show how audiovisual communication can be used to trigger the performative aspects of cultural scripts of contemporary forms of expressive violence and thus institutionalize a social movement (i.e. school shooting subculture). These proceedings...

  16. iSpot Mobile - A Natural History Participatory Science Application

    Woods, Will; Scanlon, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress that has been made towards the development of a mobile application to enable people to learn more about natural history by helping them to identify observations of nature as part of the iSpot project www.ispot.org. The paper identifies relevant research in mobile learning within the field of science and the challenges faced when designing and developing a mobile application for participatory science including the user-centred design approach and evaluation ...

  17. Scanner tags, comic book piracy and participatory culture

    Delwiche, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    To learn more about the motivations of individuals who scan and distribute comic books, this study reports findings from a content analysis of 389 scanner tags extracted from comic books posted on the torrent network Pirate Bay. Coded according to four categories linked to the literature on comic fandom and participatory culture, tags were analyzed in terms of recognition, aesthetic style, textual signifiers, and visual signifiers. Though comic book pirates seek recognition from their peers, ...

  18. Participatory Design for Serious Game Design: Truth and Lies

    Khaled, Rilla; vanden Abeele, Vero; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Vasalau, Asimini

    2014-01-01

    While the importance of participatory design has been acknowledged broadly within the field of HCI, its use in serious games is less frequent. This workshop will explore the underpinning reasons for this gap and advance the identification of philosophical, methodological and pragmatic opportunities as well as challenges. The workshop will serve as a venue for synthesizing productive practices and a future agenda that will be nefit serious game design processes.

  19. Computer game technology as a tool for participatory design

    O'Coill, Carl; Doughty, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews existing research into real-time visualisation in architecture, urban design and landscape architecture and describes a University of Lincoln research project exploring the application of this technology to participatory design in a community-based, urban landscaping project. Staff at the School of Architecture have used ‘Virtools Development’, a computer game prototyping package, to help residents in Hull, UK, to visualise and interact with a design proposal for a ‘home zo...

  20. Personal inquiry: scripting support for inquiry learning by participatory design

    Scanlon, Eileen; Kerawalla, Lucinda; Twiner, Alison; Mulholland, Paul; Collins, Trevor; Jones, Ann; Gaved, Mark; Littleton, Karen; Blake, Canan; Conole, Grainne

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the participatory design processes during a project concerned with supporting children aged 12 – 15 to carry out personal scientific inquiries and in particular how the process varied between two case studies conducted in very different settings but within the same school. The context for the case studies is a three year project on Personal Inquiry: Designing for Evidence-Based Inquiry Learning across Formal and Informal Settings which is being jointly conducted by the O...

  1. Environmental governance: Participatory, multi-level - and effective?

    Newig, Jens; Fritsch, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Current international and European Union environmental policies increasingly promote collaborative and participatory decision-making on appropriate and multiple governance levels as a means to attain more sustainable policies and a more effective and lasting policy implementation. The entailed shifts of geographical scale of governance can be exemplified by the EU Water Framework Directive in that higher-level policies are devolved not only to the member states but to local collaborative deci...

  2. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: Insights based on participatory research

    Baas, Niels; Jong, de, J.; Drossaert, Constance H.C

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged...

  3. Does Participatory Budgeting Improve Decentralized Public Service Delivery?

    Diether W. Beuermann; Amelina, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the first experimental evaluation of the participatory budgeting model showing that it increased public participation in the process of public decision making, increased local tax revenues collection, channeled larger fractions of public budgets to services stated as top priorities by citizens, and increased satisfaction levels with public services. These effects, however, were found only when the model was implemented in already-mature administratively and politically dec...

  4. Outline of the Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Centro de Assessoria e Estudos Urbanos, CIDADE

    2000-01-01

    Since 1994 CIDADE has been actively involved in the Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre and has been a major instrument in the democratization of municipal budgets, which are formulated with the direct participation of the public in setting priorities for public investment. It breaks radically with the practice of elaborating the municipal budget inside official meetings, and through this method the public are part of the decision making process for management of their local area.

  5. The role of Volunteered Geographic Information in participatory planning

    Knudsen, Anne-Marie Sanvig; Kahila, Maarit

    2012-01-01

    Due to developments in pervasive computing and the diffusion of digital media technologies, the amount of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is rising rapidly. This paper investi- gates the potential of applying VGI to a participatory planning context. What kind of VGI was considered useful...... context, employing volunteered GPS tracking to capture everyday uses of the urban environment. The second case study was carried out in Finland, employing SoftGIS as a tool to identify and quantify place values....

  6. PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT IN ANDHRA PRADESH : A Review

    V. Ratna Reddy; M. Gopinath Reddy; Velayutham Saravanan; Madhuusudana Bandhii; Oliver Springate-Baginski

    2004-01-01

    This paper traces the recent emergence of the new participatory forest management regime in AP Joint Forest Management (JFM) and Community Forest Management (CFM). This paper is based on the existing literature on forest policies, the historical context (pre-colonial, colonial and post independent India), and impact studies. The paper considers the contemporary developments in India in shaping the forest policies in AP. At the same time it considers the significant role played by donors and c...

  7. Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS

    Sheng, Grant; Yam, Kevin; Hassas, Aranak [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies

    2001-07-01

    The concept of 'Sustainable Communities' is taking an increasingly strong hold in discourses on civil society and sustainability. A basic tenet of the sustainability paradigm is that a community should be empowered to participate in the decision making process on issues that affect the well-being and continual development of the community. Meaningful participation in such a process requires that stakeholders have unrestricted and easy access to all relevant information regarding the issue at hand and that they have an effective means for communicating with one another without the barriers often posed by spatial, temporal, skill and financial constraints. The controversial nature of, and the intense emotion associated with nuclear waste disposal make it especially important that the principles of 'right-to-know' and 'participatory decision making' be upheld for communities engaged in any aspect of, or during any phase of, a site selection process. Whether a community is being considered as a potential host site, located along the route for transport of the waste material, or simply within a general region in which the siting may affect the economic and environmental well-being of the community, they all share, to varying degrees, a common concern: 'how will it affect me, my family, and my community?' Answering this question to the satisfaction of all stakeholders is one of the most challenging tasks in a site selection process. More than three decades of research has clearly demonstrated that addressing this concern goes far beyond simply 'supplying enough information' or even the 'appropriate information'. Experience has shown that no amount of public information programs, education programs, public hearing etc., will satisfy all parties involved. There are at least two major reasons for this: The different values held by people affect how they perceive even fundamental issues such as fairness, justice

  8. Towards Standardization: A Participatory Framework for Scientific Standard-Making

    Lynn Yarmey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary scientific research, standard-making and standardization are key processes for the sharing and reuse of data. The goals of this paper are twofold: 1 to stress that collaboration is crucial to standard-making, and 2 to urge recognition of metadata standardization as part of the scientific process. To achieve these goals, a participatory framework for developing and implementing scientific metadata standards is presented. We highlight the need for ongoing, open dialogue within and among research communities at multiple levels. Using the Long Term Ecological Research network adoption of the Ecological Metadata Language as a case example in the natural sciences, we illustrate how a participatory framework addresses the need for active coordination of the evolution of scientific metadata standards. The participatory framework is contrasted with a hierarchical framework to underscore how the development of scientific standards is a dynamic and continuing process. The roles played by ‘best practices’ and ‘working standards’ are identified in relation to the process of standardization.

  9. A participatory approach for hydrometeorological monitoring in the Blue Nile River Basin of Ethiopia

    Zemadim, B.; McCartney, Matthew; Langan, Simon; Sharma, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is increasingly recognized as being useful for conducting multiple activities in research for development projects. The co-learning environment created in participatory research helps to identify existing social and technological gaps, and develop possible solutions to improve the livelihoods of rural communities. This report describes a participatory approach used in the establishment and implementation of hydrometeorological monitoring networks in the Blue Nile River ...

  10. Contingent democratisation? The rise and fall of participatory budgeting in Buenos Aires

    Rodgers, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of participatory budgeting in Buenos Aires following the crisis of December 2001 was a highly unlikely event. The different parties involved had competing and contradictory agendas that did not coincide with participatory budgeting's stated aims of extending citizen participation in government, but these interacted in a way that contingently created a space for a viable process to develop. Subsequent political shifts led to the demise of participatory budgeting, but the Bue...

  11. Analysis of Participatory Research Projects in the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

    Lilja, Nina K.; Bellon, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Through a survey of scientists from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in 2004, this study assessed the extent to which participatory methods had been used by the center, how they were perceived by the scientists, and how participatory research could be applied more effectively by CIMMYT and partners. Results for 19 CIMMYT projects suggest among other things that participatory approaches at the center were largely “functional”—that is, aimed at improving the efficie...

  12. Varietal differences of wheat for 13C-discrimination and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Final report for the period 1 January 1993 - 31 December 1994

    A Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the varietal differences of wheat for shoot dry weight, 13C-discrimination, total N-yield and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Four wheat varieties were exposed to different watering regimes (i.e., W0 as normal irrigation of W1 as water stress) during the following growth periods: (i) from 3-leaf stage to third nod stage; (ii) from 3 nod stage to heading; and (iii) from heading to milk-dough stage. For drought recovery study, the experiment included another three water regime treatments induced by varying the irrigation of plants during the selected growth periods (i.e., W10, W100 and W010). The results indicated that water stress during the selected growth periods greatly decreased shoot dry weight, nabla value, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. The (i) and (ii) are considered critical growth periods as far as the above-mentioned parameters are considered. Expression of any tested parameter under water stress as percentage of that of the corresponding control indicated that Dalcahue, Sakha-69 and Bonadur were less sensitive to water stress than the other varieties at (i), (ii) and (iii) growth periods, respectively. On the other hand, Bonadur at (i) and (ii) growth periods and Sakha-69 at (iii) growth period were more sensitive than the other varieties. Exposing of wheat varieties to water stress during (i) and (ii) growth periods resulted in severe injury with regard to shoot dry weight, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Re-irrigation of the stressed wheat varieties, resulted in drought recovery with different magnitude depending on the variety and the growth period in which the plants were exposed to water stress. Generally, the results demonstrated that Bonadur has better capacity to recover from drought than the other varieties. Therefore, Bonadur may be considered a possible candidate for programs aimed at breeding wheat for drought

  13. Conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 150 participants exchanged views on the role and involvement of citizens in wind energy projects and raised the question of the prerequisite to the construction of a participatory wind farm. In this framework, the different participatory models existing in both countries were analysed, in particular with regard to their respective advantages and drawbacks and to a legal framework which remains to be defined. Four projects, 2 in France and 2 in Germany, were presented as examples. The call for proposals model was presented and debated as well as the question of the project success, and of its financing and profitability. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Community wind farms in Germany: status quo and forecast (Philipp Vohrer); 2 - Participatory projects in France: which legal solutions, which prospects for development? (Noemie Poize); 3 - Citizen owned wind farms and their legal forms in Germany: Advantages and challenges of the different schemes (Dominik Hanus); 4 - Make wind power profitable: Citizen participation in Germany and France/Make the energy transition together. The energy co-operative participation as a model in Germany (Dieter Hallmann); 5 - Power to the people - A new model for French wind energy. Beganne community-owned wind farm (Pierre Jourdain); 6 - Making wind power profitable: civic participation in Germany and France: German utility companies rely on wind power. Direct civic participation in the municipal utility company - democratization of the turnaround in energy policy (Martin Ruehl); 7 - French municipalities get involved: calls for projects (Patrick Bessiere); 8 - Crowd-funding - French regulatory framework (Philippe Guyonnet-Duperat, Maelle Foerster); 9 - Making wind energy

  14. Assessing Organizational Readiness for a Participatory Occupational Health/Health Promotion Intervention in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; West, Cheryl; Punnett, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The long-term care sector is characterized by high morbidity and employee turnover, along with associated costs. Effective health protection and health promotion are important to improve physical and psychosocial well-being of caregivers. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is an essential precursor to the successful implementation of workplace programs addressing work climate, structure of tasks and relationships, and other issues that may be perceived as challenging by some within the institution. This study qualitatively assessed readiness of five skilled nursing facilities for a participatory occupational health/health promotion intervention. Selection criteria were developed to screen for program feasibility and ability to conduct prospective evaluations, and information was collected from managers and employees (interviews and focus groups). Three centers were selected for the program, and the first year of formative evaluation and intervention experience was then reviewed to evaluate and modify our selection criteria after the fact. Lessons learned include adding assessment of communication and the structure of problem solving to our selection criteria, improving methods to assess management support in a concrete (potentially nonverbal) form, and obtaining a stated financial commitment and resources to enable the team to function. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is challenging, although necessary to implement effective and sustainable health promotion programs in specific organizations. PMID:25715335

  15. Perfil sensorial de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros através de análise descritiva quantitativa Sensory profile of brazilian varietal white wines by quantitative descriptive analysis

    Jorge Herman BEHRENS

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, materiais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado.Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and

  16. Participatory Management in Organizations of Higher Education: Leadership Mandate for the 80's.

    Kowalski, Casimir J.; Bryson, J. Richard

    1982-01-01

    The participatory management philosophy is alive and well at numerous institutions of higher education. Results, both objective and subjective, are in evidence at many colleges and universities and lend validity to the perception that participatory management can, and does, work if properly nurtured by top administrators in a collegial…

  17. Evaluating Ecosystem Services in Transhumance Cultural Landscapes: An Interdisciplinary and Participatory Framework

    Oteros-Rozas, Ellisa; José A. González; Martín-López, Berta; López, César A.; ZORRILLA-MIRAS Pedro; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Following the concept of ecosystem services, we propose in this article an interdisciplinary and participatory methodological framework for ecosystem services assessment and participatory decision-making in Mediterranean cultural landscapes linked with transhumant pastoralism. It is based on four sequential phases: 1. characterisation of the social-ecological network associated with transhumance, 2. preliminary identification and characterisation of ecosystem services, 3. evaluation of ecosys...

  18. Networked Participatory Scholarship: Emergent Techno-Cultural Pressures toward Open and Digital Scholarship in Online Networks

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…

  19. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  20. Redesigning Civic Education for the Digital Age: Participatory Politics and the Pursuit of Democratic Engagement

    Kahne, Joseph; Hodgin, Erica; Eidman-Aadahl, Elyse

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution has enabled important changes in political life. Opportunities to engage in "participatory politics" have expanded significantly. Participatory politics differ from institutional politics in that they are peer-based, interactive, and not guided by deference to traditional elites and institutions. These changes…

  1. Integration of local participatory and regional planning for resources management using remote sensing and GIS

    Sedogo, L.G.

    2002-01-01

    With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used

  2. Promises, Premises and Risks: Sharing Responsibilities, Working Up Trust and Sustaining Commitment in Participatory Design Projects

    Büscher, Monika; Hartswood, Mark; Mogensen, Preben Holst;

    2002-01-01

    While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope of...

  3. Evaluation of the capacity development of actors within participatory planning process

    Čolić Ratka

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on measuring the capacity development within the participatory planning process of formulation of development strategy. It starts with the discussion of how individual, collaborative and governance capacities became a part of collaborative and consensus planning, and continues with proposing the mixed method approach. Quantitative methods have been used to measure the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction that participatory approach had o...

  4. Participatory Action Research (PAR) cum Action Research (AR) in Teacher Professional Development: A Literature Review

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…

  5. BeeSim: Leveraging Wearable Computers in Participatory Simulations with Young Children

    Peppler, Kylie; Danish, Joshua; Zaitlen, Benjamin; Glosson, Diane; Jacobs, Alexander; Phelps, David

    2010-01-01

    New technologies have enabled students to become active participants in computational simulations of dynamic and complex systems (called Participatory Simulations), providing a "first-person"perspective on complex systems. However, most existing Participatory Simulations have targeted older children, teens, and adults assuming that such concepts…

  6. Baseline Evaluation of a Participatory Mobile Health Intervention for Dengue Prevention in Sri Lanka

    Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lim, Gentatsu; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Foo, Schubert

    2016-01-01

    Challenges posed by infectious disease outbreaks have led to a range of participatory mobile phone-based innovations that use the power of crowdsourcing for disease surveillance. However, the dynamics of participatory behavior by crowds in such interventions have yet to be examined. This article reports results from a baseline evaluation of one…

  7. Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing how students engage with music outside school music programs can help music educators and their programs evolve. This article offers a look at music teaching and learning in terms of how people are increasingly interacting with music in participatory ways that involve digital technologies and media. This participatory culture offers a…

  8. Participatory assessment of the Toliara Bay reef fishery, southwest Madagascar

    Jamal Mahafina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the sustainable management of reef fisheries, it is necessary to obtain data about the effects of these fisheries on both fish resources and the ecosystems that sustain them. Ecosystem-based surveys provide this information, but are difficult to implement because of technical, financial and human resources requirements. In this regard participatory assessment methods have the potential to increase the amount of data collected at low cost, while taking advantage of local traditional ecological knowledge. In order to investigate the reef fishery of Toliara Bay, southwest Madagascar, we used participatory fish survey and interview data collected on site. These methods included: (i monitoring of catch landings during six months by wholesale fish merchants, (ii household surveys of fishing catch and effort and fish consumption conducted by school children, and (iii semi-structured interviews of reef users. One thousand five hundred and eighty six fishing trips were sampled between September 2006 and February 2007, 326 households were surveyed by trained school children in January 2007, and 70 reef users were interviewed in July/August 2006. Data collected by participants have been compiled and compared to reference values when available, allowing an assessment of the sustainability of the reef fishery. The results of this study confirm the unsustainable nature of resource exploitation and underline the need for rapid management responses in order to reverse this trend. It also highlights the great potential of participatory assessment methods for gathering large amounts of relevant information on the status and evolution of the ecosystem upon which the fishery depends, while promoting education and awareness about the protection and sustainable use of natural resources.

  9. Teaching statistics to medical undergraduates using interactive and participatory sessions

    THULASINGAM MAHALAKSHMY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, medical undergraduates think that statistics is difficult to understand. Often, it is taught just before final assessment examination using didactic lectures, with little use of medical examples and less focus on application. Hence, we prepared interactive, participatory sessions for teaching biostatistics to medical undergraduate. Methods: The sessions were delivered by a facilitator. It had clearly specified objectives and teaching learning strategies. A needs assessment was done by interviewing the students who had undergone traditional biostatistics teaching methodology. Specific learning objectives for the sessions were finalized using the Delphi technique and review of University syllabus. Two trained Community Medicine faculties designed the lesson plans ‘backwards’ from desired outcome to content, teaching/learning strategies, assessment and evaluation process (Outcomes-based lesson planning. Forty, third-semester (Para-clinical phase of the second year medical undergraduates undertook these seven teaching sessions. The session followed adult learning principles and included group discussions, games and reflections. We evaluated the impact of the sessions using in-depth interviews, retrospective post-then-preself- assessment and a pre-announced written test. Results: With traditional statistics teaching methodology, students perceived it as a standalone subject and were not interested in statistics. Students who underwent the sessions commented that the sessions were enjoyable, interesting, and participatory and more than %90 of them felt they were engaged throughout the session. They also narrated various instances where they could apply the biostatistics learning. In the post-then-pre-assessment median post-session scores for all the objectives were significantly higher (p <0.050. Conclusion: Use of interactive, participatory sessions for teaching biostatistics to medical undergraduates resulted in a

  10. Assessing Participatory and Dialogue Approaches. Deliverable 15

    This report presents the results of work carried out ARGONA project. The main objective has been to gain some appreciation of the success, or otherwise, of several public involvement approaches associated with radioactive waste disposal facility siting in general and of various involvement activities and techniques in particular, especially any that appear to be novel in their content and/or application. The main focus of the analysis has been to examine three case studies. Firstly the use of stakeholder panels as part of the consultation about the BPEO (Best Practicable Environmental Option) study for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at Britain's former centre for fast reactor research and development at Dounreay in northern Scotland; secondly, the series of subsequent 'drop-in' meetings held to communicate information about the development of the agreed solution for these wastes (namely a near-surface disposal facility); thirdly, work carried out by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez (NRI) in the Czech Republic, as part of ARGONA WP5.1, involving a series of stakeholder meetings to examine radioactive waste management in the context of plans for the management of spent fuel. In order to evaluate the success or usefulness of the approaches, techniques and meetings involved, we have developed a participation process 'Evaluation Matrix'. This has involved the use of criteria against which particular approaches and activities may be judged. In order to develop these we have adapted criteria developed as part of the RISCOM II project and developed a parallel set of descriptions to enable us to examine each activity through the 'lens' of an appropriate Evaluation Matrix. We have then conducted an evaluation using these 'ARGONA criteria' for the three separate case studies. It is recognised that the literature currently fails to offer a methodology for comparing approaches and allowing selection of appropriate techniques for use in particular

  11. A participatory approach to variety trials for organic systems

    Clarke, Dr Sarah M; Hinchsliffe, Miss Kay E.; Haigh, Miss Zoe; Jones, Dr Hannah; Pearce, Dr Bruce; Wolfe, Prof Martin S.; Thomas, Dr Jane

    2006-01-01

    A participatory research methodology was used to compare the performance of UK wheat varieties under organic conditions. Plots of three breadmaking winter wheat varieties (Hereward, Solstice and Xi19) and a mixture (1:1:1) of the varieties were grown at 19 UK farms in two seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Meas-urements were taken of growth habit, yield and grain quality. Grain yields in both seasons showed significant site by variety interactions, although the variation among sites was greater t...

  12. Participatory Design of Large-Scale Information Systems

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss how to engage in large-scale information systems development by applying a participatory design (PD) approach that acknowledges the unique situated work practices conducted by the domain experts of modern organizations. We reconstruct the iterative prototyping approach...... into a PD process model that (1) emphasizes PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporates improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extends...... discuss three challenges to address when dealing with large-scale systems development....

  13. Picture this!: using participatory photo mapping with Hispanic girls.

    Morales-Campos, Daisy Y; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve physical activity behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of physical activity. The purpose of this article was to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving. PMID:25423243

  14. Providing Market Information for Ethiopian Farmers: Extending Participatory Design

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel

    In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have...... often failed to provide useful information in an adequate form for farmers in remote areas. Participatory Design (PD) assumes to be effective approach to overcome these challenges. However, due to its origin in the western countries, the capability of users, motivation and desire to participate and...... availability of resources are often taken for granted. This work identifies challenges for applying PD in rural Ethiopia and proposes method for ‘Early-Stage’ of PD....

  15. Participatory pattern workshops: a methodology for open learning design inquiry

    Niall Winters

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their colleagues have facilitated many workshops in which participants shared experiences, captured these as design narratives, extracting design patterns, and applied them to novel teaching challenges represented as design scenarios. This paper presents the core elements of the methodology that emerged from these workshops: the Participatory Patterns Workshops (PPW methodology.

  16. Changing Minds A Guide to Facilitated Participatory Planning

    Dodge, Cole P

    2011-01-01

    This book draws on the work of thinkers and doers throughout the world who have grappled with the challenge of planning complex institutions, especially health systems and development projects. Their problem: Conventional planning methods often do not work. The solution: Involve all the key stakeholders in making the plan. The challenge: Devise a planning system that the principals and stakeholders can trust, and that is inclusive, balanced, and dynamic. Facilitated participatory planning (or FPP) is a new way of planning for a world that is complex, competitive, and fast-changing; a world whe

  17. PARTICIPATORY GIS: EXPERIMENTATIONS FOR A 3D SOCIAL VIRTUAL GLOBE

    M. A. Brovelli; Minghini, M.; G. Zamboni

    2013-01-01

    The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization wi...

  18. Participation Gestalt: Analysing Participatory Qualities of Interaction in Public Space

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a participation gestalt framework for analysing participation in public interactive installations. Building on the concept of interaction gestalt, we define the participation gestalt as the unified perception and experience of participatory qualities as they unfold through interaction...... five qualities provide a vocabulary for analyzing an interactive installation. Combined, the five qualities constitute a participation gestalt framework by which HCI researchers can qualify how a certain forms of participation emerge in public installations. We exemplify the framework by analyzing four...... public installations in different socio-cultural contexts and examining their participation gestalt....

  19. How Participatory Budgeting Changes the Meaning and Practices of Citizenship

    Marta Rios Alves Nunes da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n2p301 What does it mean to be a citizen today? In an era where boundaries are being questioned, where identities are being transformed, where social and political claims are being updated from the traditional ‘recognition’ or ‘redistribution’ discourse to a more globalized discourse supported by a theoretical appeal to human rights, it is important to clarify where the ‘citizen’ stands, morally and politically speaking.This paper is supported by a a strong moral and political reading of citizenship, echoing some republican tradition where citizenship is associated with virtue; and b the assumption that there is a strong correlation between virtuous citizens and a virtuous republic or ‘democracy’. In order to reflect upon the transformations of the concept of citizenship I will look at some of the practices it involves, more precisely, I will look into the participatory budgeting experience in Portugal trying to show how the progressive implementation of such measure promises to bring Portuguese’s democracy to a new level with a more robust practice of citizenship.This paper has three moments: first, I will situate myself from a theoretical standpoint, regarding the concept of citizenship I want to defend. I will show how the way in which we conceive citizenship a will determine the forms and shapes democracy can take and b will influence the future of democracy, insofar it can contribute, enhance or undermine democratic aspirations and goals. Second, after arguing for an active sense of citizenship I will advance the argument that the future of democracy lies in participatory practices, in which the citizen plays a key role. Third, I will turn to a case study in order to illuminate my theoretical argument. Having participatory budgeting experiment in Portugal as paradigmatic case of analysis, I will identify some elements present in the Portuguese case that corroborate our hypothesis

  20. Applying Participatory Methods to Address Motivational Aspects in Informal Workplace

    Teresa Holocher

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.

  1. Participation as a matter of concern in participatory design

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Danholt, Peter; Halskov, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    This article starts from the paradox that, although participation is a defining trait of participatory design (PD), there are few explicit discussions in the PD literature of what constitutes participation. Thus, from a point of departure in Actor-Network Theory (ANT), this article develops an...... individuals and (2) that participation partially exists in all elements of a project. These traits are explicated in a design project called ‘Teledialogue’, where the participants are unfolded as networks of reports, government institutions, boyfriends, social workers and so on. The argument is synthesised as...

  2. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  3. 15N enrichment of soil NH4+-N as an alternative non-N2-fixing reference for assessing varietal differences in N2 fixation of rice

    A pot experiment in the greenhouse was conducted to assess the usefulness of 15N enrichment of soil NH4+-N as an alternative to a non-fixing reference plant to determine varietal differences in N2 fixation among rice varieties. Diverse rice genotypes were grown in a 15N stabilized soil obtained after 6 wk of application under flooded conditions. Atom % 15N excess of soil NH4+-N was decreased exponentially with amount of N mineralized (r=99). Close agreement was observed between the 15N enrichment of reference rice plant and 15N enrichment of KCl extractable NH4+-N from unplanted pots maintained in the greenhouse. Whole plant atom % 15N excess was inversely correlated within growth duration. Therefore, it was necessary to calculate Ndfa within growth duration. Ndfa estimated within the growth duration using 15N enrichment of soil NH4+-N and reference rice genotype correlated almost perfectly (r=998). Thus the study demonstrated the potential of using 15N enrichment of soil NH4+-N as a non-N2 fixing reference for reliable estimate of biological nitrogen fixation by nonlegumes under flooded conditions. (author)

  4. Francisco B. Cruz: de la ‘agricultura pródiga’ a la revolución varietal azucarera en Cuba, 1878-1930

    Leida Fernández Prieto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A través de la figura del agrónomo y científico cubano Francisco B. Cruz, este artículo explora el cambio en el sistema de cultivo cañero a finales del siglo XIX debido, entre otros factores, al fracaso del modelo basado en la agricultura prodiga. Asimismo, se destaca la participación de la Estación Experimental en la puesta en marcha del programa global de la revolución varietal. En este sentido, se subraya el papel de Francisco B. Cruz y las conexiones con otros actores institucionales y privados con diversos intereses en la reorganización de la industria azucarera cubana. La investigación se basa en documentos de la etapa y, fundamentalmente, en la documentación de la Estación Central Agronómica, hoy en día Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical ‘Alejandro de Humboldt’.

  5. Participatory design and validation of mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair

    Brandon Daveler, MS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31 during the participatory design study. Feedback on the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12 showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%, traction control (83%, and curb climbing (75%. The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances.

  6. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  7. Do participatory scenario exercises promote systems thinking and build consensus?

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Participatory scenario processes are associated with positive social learning outcomes, including consensus-building and shifts toward more systemic thinking. However, these claims have not been assessed quantitatively in diverse cultural and socio-ecological settings. We convened three stakeholder workshops around the future of agricultural development and rural livelihoods in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Malawi, using a participatory scenario generation process to examine proposed research and action priorities under conditions of uncertainty. We administered pre- and post-workshop surveys, and used a paired t-test to assess how stakeholders’ rankings of research priorities changed after participating in the scenario visioning exercise. Workshop participants also listed their own priorities for research and implementation on both the pre- and post-survey forms. We found indications that the workshops promoted consensus-building around the research priorities, including a reduction in standard deviation of priority rankings post-workshop compared to pre-workshop; and a higher incidence of identical volunteered responses. We did not find evidence to support shifts in thinking to more systemic views of agricultural development. However, participants viewed themselves as having learned throughout the process. We conclude that scenario visioning does have the potential to foster consensus-building (one element of social learning among diverse stakeholder groups. We urge researchers to continue to monitor and measure systems thinking outcomes from scenario visioning so that these processes may be designed to be more effective.

  8. Measuring participatory strategies: instrument development for worksite populations.

    Linnan, L A; Fava, J L; Thompson, B; Emmons, K; Basen-Engquist, K; Probart, C; Hunt, M K; Heimendinger, J

    1999-06-01

    A participatory strategies approach which involves employees in the planning and delivery of worksite health promotion programs was utilized in the 55 experimental worksites included in the national, NCI-funded Working Well Trial. According to study protocol, Employee Advisory Boards (EABs) were organized in each experimental worksite. This paper describes two substudies designed to develop and measure participatory strategies associated with the EABs in the Working Well Trial. Study 1 determined characteristics of the EABs, developed subscales and assessed the internal consistency of the scales. Study 2 used a confirmatory factor analysis to examine the structure of the developed questionnaire. The four subscales include: Autonomy/Independence, Management Involvement, Institutionalization/Commitment and Others Involvement. Results from Study 1 indicate that the four subscales of the 24-item instrument demonstrated strong internal consistency and three were sensitive enough to register differences by Study Center at the baseline. Study 2 results found that the EAB subscales again demonstrated good internal consistency, structural stability and acceptable sensitivity. An initial validity analysis was performed and yielded results which supported some but not all of the hypothesized associations. Implications for further refinement and application of this new instrument in worksite settings are explored. PMID:10539228

  9. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  10. Empirical study on voting power in participatory forest planning.

    Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J

    2008-07-01

    Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential. PMID:17395363

  11. Dissemination and use of a participatory ergonomics guide for workplaces.

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; King, Trevor; Keown, Kiera; Slack, Tesha; Cole, Donald C; Irvin, Emma; Amick, Benjamin C; Bigelow, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) result in lost-time injury claims and lost productivity worldwide, placing a substantial burden on workers and workplaces. Participatory ergonomics (PE) is a popular approach to reducing MSDs; however, there are challenges to implementing PE programmes. Using evidence to overcome challenges may be helpful but the impacts of doing so are unknown. We sought to disseminate an evidence-based PE tool and to describe its use. An easy-to-use, evidence-based PE Guide was disseminated to workplace parties, who were surveyed about using the tool. The greatest barrier to using the tool was a lack of time. Reported tool use included for training purposes, sharing and integrating the tool into existing programmes. New actions related to tool use included training, defining team responsibilities and suggesting programme implementation steps. Evidence-based tools could help ergonomists overcome some challenges involved in implementing injury reduction programmes such as PE. Practitioner Summary Practitioners experience challenges implementing programmes to reduce the burden of MSDs in workplaces. Implementing participatory interventions requires multiple workplace parties to be 'on-board'. Disseminating and using evidence-based guides may help to overcome these challenges. Using evidence-based tools may help ergonomics practitioners implement PE programmes. PMID:26328617

  12. The value and limitations of Participatory Action Research methodology

    Mackenzie, John; Tan, Poh-Ling; Hoverman, Suzanne; Baldwin, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThis article describes the Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology used to trial and evaluate a suite of planning tools to improve the engagement process for statutory water planning in Australia, and assesses its value and limitations in the Australian context. We argue that the strength of this method is its consistency with a social learning and adaptive management approach. We owe the success of this research approach to five key factors: a high degree of access to the project setting; clear demarcation of roles and responsibilities between researchers and participants; considerable effort spent building and maintaining informal networks and relationships; sensitivity to the relationship between 'insiders' (the participants or owners of the issue i.e. government and community) and 'outsiders' (the research project team); and continual review of project planning and willingness to adapt timeframes and processes to suit the situation. The value and challenges of Participatory Action Research are discussed with key lessons emerging for improving its practice, as well as the transferability of this knowledge to engagement practice for water planning.

  13. Facilities as teaching tools: A transformative participatory professional development experience

    Wilson, Eric A.

    Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become "sustainability natives." Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability-literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenological perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year long professional development experience - commencing with an intense, participatory two-day workshop -the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability. Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top-down and bottom-up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy-in, and excitement vis-a-vis sustainability. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K-12 sustainability coordinators ideally need administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor, or through work with student groups and projects.

  14. Finding common ground: A participatory approach to evaluation

    Carla Sutherland

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article describes the efforts of a group of donors and activists to collectively develop a national base line on organisations working for human rights in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI in Kenya to develop an ongoing monitoring and evaluation process.Objectives: The purpose of the base line was to support both activist strategising and ongoing reflection, and more effective donor collaboration and grant making.Method: Drawing on interviews with key stakeholders, the authors examined the dominant approach to funding and evaluation on social change globally. They analysed the impact of this dominant approach on developing and sustaining a SOGI movement in Kenya. They developed an alternative theory of change and participatory methodology and worked with a range of donors and SOGI organisations to conceptualise and support the collaborative collection of information on four themes: legislation and policy, organisational mapping, political and cultural context, and lived experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people.Results: This was a useful process and tool for activists and donors to develop a shared understanding of the current context and capacities influencing efforts to promote SOGI rights. It served as a basis for improved strategising and participants expected it to prove useful for monitoring progress in the longer term.Conclusion: This theory of change and participatory approach to base line development could be helpful to donors, activists and monitoring and evaluation specialists concerned with supporting social change in the region and globally.

  15. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.

  16. Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil

    Sonia M. N. Felipone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

  17. Visual methodologies and participatory action research: Performing women's community-based health promotion in post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Lykes, M Brinton; Scheib, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Recovery from disaster and displacement involves multiple challenges including accompanying survivors, documenting effects, and rethreading community. This paper demonstrates how African-American and Latina community health promoters and white university-based researchers engaged visual methodologies and participatory action research (photoPAR) as resources in cross-community praxis in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the flooding of New Orleans. Visual techniques, including but not limited to photonarratives, facilitated the health promoters': (1) care for themselves and each other as survivors of and responders to the post-disaster context; (2) critical interrogation of New Orleans' entrenched pre- and post-Katrina structural racism as contributing to the racialised effects of and responses to Katrina; and (3) meaning-making and performances of women's community-based, cross-community health promotion within this post-disaster context. This feminist antiracist participatory action research project demonstrates how visual methodologies contributed to the co-researchers' cross-community self- and other caring, critical bifocality, and collaborative construction of a contextually and culturally responsive model for women's community-based health promotion post 'unnatural disaster'. Selected limitations as well as the potential for future cross-community antiracist feminist photoPAR in post-disaster contexts are discussed. PMID:27080253

  18. A Stepwise, Participatory Approach to Design and Implement Community Based Adaptation to Drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Ralph Lasage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.

  19. Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.

    Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2011-09-01

    Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st

  20. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911

  1. Oilseed rape grain yield productivity increases with hybrid varietal types: a first balance sheet with post registration tests in France and in Europe

    Pinochet Xavier

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 several oilseed rape hybrid types were proposed to farmers. Following registration experiments, Cetiom and different equivalent institutions in European Union have tested them in different post registration national networks. Grain yield productivity increases were demonstrated and a first synthesis could be done to check avantages and difficulties which had occurred. For winter types, Hybrid Composits were widely used, mainly in France and in the United Kingdom. Grain yield increases were important in the South and West part of France where their market shares increased up to 50-80%. Nevertheless, many fecondation problems occurred in several places all over Europe. Reasons of such problems were difficult to identify. Several factors, as cold temperatures, nutritionnal competitions, pollen avaibility may be involved to explain low seed sets. Restored Hybrids made with the NPZ hybridation system were successfully tested widely, and has reached significative market shares during 1999-2000 season. Less experiments were carried out with others hybrid types (Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids, Mixed Hybrids. Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids reached the highest grain yield levels but users are waiting for lower glucosinolates seed content hybrids which would come in the next future. Performances comparisons among countries have to be done carefully. Productivity increases with hybrid types could have been over estimated depending of pollinic environments or plot size and possible neighbouring effects. For France, results from field trials networks are coherent with results coming from postal surveys. For spring varieties, Polima restored hybrids and varietal associations have demonstrated a significative advantage compared to classical lines.

  2. Participatory urbanism: Making the stranger familiar and the familiar strange

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas are planned structures that cannot easily be changed. Urban areas do however still afford physical spaces for various types of leisure expression and participation, from street art to parkour and from urban gaming to artistic happenings. Thus, while citizens who inhabit the urban areas...... cannot directly influence their structures, they can influence their contours through such leisure practices. In this chapter focus will be on how citizens’ engagement in locative leisure activities may allow them to co-create urban space. This participatory urbanism is a form of everyday democracy......, which includes awareness of the structures in which we live as well as participation in the public sphere. Locative media projects shape events which seek to address everyday democracy. Specifically engaging in locative media projects can help create leisure experiences in the urban landscape that allow...

  3. On participatory design of home-based healthcare

    Grönvall, Erik; Kyng, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Participatory design (PD) activities in private homes challenge how we relate to the PD process, compared to PD in professional settings. Grounded in a project related to chronic dizziness among older people, we identified four challenges when performing PD with ill, weak users in their private...... homes. The challenges are (1) designing for, and negotiating knowledge about, the home, (2) ill, weak users and their participation in PD, (3) divergent interests of participants and (4) usable and sustainable post-project solutions. These challenges have to be carefully addressed, and we use them to...... reflect upon differences between a home-based PD process with non-workers, such as ours, and work-place projects, such as Utopia. Through this reflection, the paper contributes to a more general discussion on PD in non-work settings with weak users. Indeed, differences do exist between traditional PD...

  4. HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH

    PROF.B.SUNDARARAMAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.

  5. Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps

    Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

  6. Participatory Democracy: Mechanism of Better Regulation in Europe

    Neliana RODEAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the concept of participatory democracy in the European context. In the era of globalization, tools such as Internet filled the gap between civil society and political institutions. The new information and communication technologies contribute to the involvement of citizens in decision-making process. The democratic deficit is bridged through increasingly active participation of civil society at various levels of policy. Through e-democracy tools is realized a direct action of citizens, or even certain categories, which for various reasons do not have the possibility to be informed or have voice on political decisions. In addition, the European institutions, through mechanisms of “better regulation”, promote processes of simplification rules to find a remedy for an excessive law-making.

  7. Tribal participatory research: mechanisms of a collaborative model.

    Fisher, Philip A; Ball, Thomas J

    2003-12-01

    Although much social science research has been conducted within American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities, relatively little research has been conducted by or for those communities. We describe an approach that facilitates the active involvement of AIAN communities in the research process, from conceptualizing the issues to be investigated to developing a research design, and from collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data to disseminating the results. The Tribal Participatory Research (TPR) approach is consistent with recent developments in psychology that emphasize the inclusion of community members and the social construction of knowledge. We describe the foundations of the approach and present specific mechanisms that can be employed in collaborations between researchers and AIAN communities. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the use of TPR regarding project timelines and budgets, interpretation of the data, and ultimately the relationships between tribes and researchers. PMID:14703257

  8. Comprehensive Case Analysis on Participatory Approaches, from Nexus Perspectives

    Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine

  9. How does the context and design of participatory decision-making processes affect their outcomes? Evidence from sustainable land management in global drylands.

    de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and

  10. Leadership in Solidarity: Notions of Leadership Through Critical Participatory Action Research With Young People and Adults.

    Fox, Madeline; Fine, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    The authors trace the connections between multigenerational participatory action research and relational approaches to shared leadership, illustrating how the collective production of knowledge through research builds youth leadership capacity. PMID:26895168

  11. An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study. Educational Research, 52(1), 45-59.

  12. The Importance of Recognition for Equal Representation in Participatory Processes: Lessons from Husby

    Karin Hansson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ambition to involve people on more equal terms, participation often still means that the audience is involved in clearly demarcated parts of the process and attempts to develop more deliberative democratic processes in urban planning often fail due to unequal representation in the participatory process.While sharing the general idea of the value of participatory processes, we will investigate some problematic features involved and suggest how some of these can be remedied. We employ the concept of recognition to analyse the conditions for public participation in a recent case of urban planning in the Stockholm suburb of Husby. This case is particularly interesting as it clearly demonstrates the impact of globalisation on local participatory processes.The results show the importance of broad recognition for equal representation in participatory processes, and the need for a plurality of public spheres to support long-term participation in the development of the common urban space.

  13. Through Their Eyes: Lessons Learned Using Participatory Methods in Health Care Quality Improvement Projects.

    Balbale, Salva N; Locatelli, Sara M; LaVela, Sherri L

    2016-08-01

    In this methodological article, we examine participatory methods in depth to demonstrate how these methods can be adopted for quality improvement (QI) projects in health care. We draw on existing literature and our QI initiatives in the Department of Veterans Affairs to discuss the application of photovoice and guided tours in QI efforts. We highlight lessons learned and several benefits of using participatory methods in this area. Using participatory methods, evaluators can engage patients, providers, and other stakeholders as partners to enhance care. Participant involvement helps yield actionable data that can be translated into improved care practices. Use of these methods also helps generate key insights to inform improvements that truly resonate with stakeholders. Using participatory methods is a valuable strategy to harness participant engagement and drive improvements that address individual needs. In applying these innovative methodologies, evaluators can transcend traditional approaches to uniquely support evaluations and improvements in health care. PMID:26667882

  14. Data for Participation and Participation as Data: Supporting Incremental Participatory Decision-Making in Urban Planning

    Ddamba, Joshua; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    planners today use data to inform the participatory process. Looking at the participation process as collaboration between planners and citizens allows us to see the participation process itself as generating data that informs future decisions and processes. Based on a case study of a participatory process...... of an urban renewal project, the article investigates the use of structured and unstructured data for participation. The fieldwork is conducted using ethnographically inspired methods, based on participatory observations, interviews and document analysis. As a result, the incremental decisions, the...... resulting process, and the data used in this process are mapped out. Besides the need to accommodate heterogeneous data and to allow for integrated analysis of data specific to the neighborhood under development, the important result is that the participatory process itself generates data that informs the...

  15. Application of Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in Development of Animal Husbandry Technology

    Min QIAN; Bo NING; Shicai SHEN; Rui CHEN; Dantong LI; Ziyun PENG; Hongbin LU

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to provide references for the application of participatory monitoring and evaluation in the development of animal husbandry tech- nology. [Method] With the livelihood improvement program for agricultural and pas- toral area in northern Yunnan as the example, the development process of partici- patory animal husbandry was overviewed. And the monitoring and evaluation pro- cesses of participatory animal husbandry were introduced and analyzed. [Result] The monitoring and evaluation indicator system of participatory animal husbandry technol- ogy included 4 layers, namely technology, institutional system, personnel ability con- struction and effectiveness, and 11 third-level indicators, namely, technical characteristics, superiority-inferiority comparison, community and farmers, technical personnel, project personnel, economic indicators and social indicators. [Conclusion] This study provided the references for the application of participatory monitoring and evaluation in the development of animal husbandry technology.

  16. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    Jager, de A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and bal

  17. Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions

    Pascal Perez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.

  18. The deliberative turn in participation: the problem of inclusion and deliberative opportunities in participatory budgeting

    Ganuza Fernández, Ernesto; Francés García, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Participation has undergone a communicative shift, which has favoured the organization of new participatory processes based on classic principles of deliberation theory. These experiments go beyond traditional protest: they include a communicative element with the aim of defining a public politics, which places them alongside models of deliberative governance. The present work sets out the characteristics of these new instruments (participatory budgeting, PB) in order to find out which proble...

  19. A participatory evaluation model for Healthier Communities: developing indicators for New Mexico.

    Wallerstein, N

    2000-01-01

    Participatory evaluation models that invite community coalitions to take an active role in developing evaluations of their programs are a natural fit with Healthy Communities initiatives. The author describes the development of a participatory evaluation model for New Mexico's Healthier Communities program. She describes evaluation principles, research questions, and baseline findings. The evaluation model shows the links between process, community-level system impacts, and population health ...

  20. Accounting for Outcomes in Participatory Urban Governance Through State-Civil-Society Synergies

    Antonio Postigo

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Latin America has been home to a large number of experiences in local participatory governance. Drawing on spatial conceptualisations of participation and models of state-society synergy, this article explores how power dynamics within and between civil society and the state have shaped the emergence, evolution and outcomes of participatory budgeting processes in three Latin American cities: Porto Alegre, Montevideo and Mexico City. In line with polity-centred analy...

  1. Beyond the Ladder of Participation : An Analytical Toolkit for the Critical Analysis of Participatory Media Processes

    Carpentier, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Participatory research is facing three challenges—how to deal with the theoretisation and conceptualisation of participation; how to support the research with analytical models; and how the evaluate the research outcomes. This article aims to address these three problems by distinguishing two main approaches (a sociological and a political) in participatory theory and developing a four-level and 12-step analytical model that functions within the political approach. In this analytical model, a...

  2. Going with the flow? Using participatory action research in physical geography.

    Whitman, G.P.; Pain, R.; D. G. Milledge

    2015-01-01

    This paper critically appraises the idea and practice of ‘participation’ in scientific environmental research, arguing for the wider uptake by physical geographers of a more radical participatory approach. It proposes participatory action research (PAR), which offers an alternative mode of science, involving collaboration and co-production of research from question definition through to outcomes. We begin with a critical view of public participation in environmental research and policy-making...

  3. Integration of local participatory and regional planning for resources management using remote sensing and GIS

    Sedogo, L.G.

    2002-01-01

    With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used in the planning process, efficient geographic information gathering and relevant spatial analytical tools necessary to support the negotiation among the stakeholders are lacking. Besides, methods a...

  4. Does Participatory Planning Foster the Transformation Toward More Adaptive Social-Ecological Systems?

    Susanne Menzel; Matthias Buchecker

    2013-01-01

    The need for social-ecological systems to become more adaptive is widely acknowledged. Social effects generated by participatory planning have been claimed to contribute to this transformation, but little empirical evidence is available that backs up or opposes this notion. We aimed to offer some insights regarding questions as to which social effects are formed in participatory planning processes and at what costs, and to then discuss their contribution to the transformation toward more adap...

  5. Gendered Risk Perceptions Associated with Human-Wildlife Conflict: Implications for Participatory Conservation

    Gore, Meredith L.; Kahler, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1) gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in a participatory conservation context, and (2) highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal c...

  6. Developing a logic model for youth mental health: participatory research with a refugee community in Beirut

    Afifi, Rema A.; MAKHOUL, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T

    2011-01-01

    Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian re...

  7. Different moments in the participatory stage of the secondary school students’ abstraction of mathematical conceptions

    Roig Albiol, Ana Isabel; Llinares Ciscar, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    This study reports characteristics of participatory and anticipatory stages in the abstraction of mathematical conceptions. We carried out clinical task-based interviews with 71 secondary school students to obtain evidence of constructed mathematical conceptions and how they were used. We could distinguish both stages in different mathematical conceptions and, furthermore, two cognitive moments in the participatory stage. We argue that (a) the capacity of perceiving regularities in sets of pa...

  8. For a public sociology on participatory democracy. Reflexive feedback on research conducted in an association

    Nez, Héloïse

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a reflexive approach on the relations between research and action in works on participatory democracy; a topic in which bridges are numerous between academic, political and activist fields. It aims at analyzing the impact of the close links between sociologists and actors on the methods and results of research and, reciprocally, the role of sociology in developing participatory practices. Relying on Michael Burawoy’s reflection on “public sociology”, our own research exper...

  9. Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey

    E. Richard Brown, PhD; Sue Holtby, MPH; Elaine Zahnd, PhD; George B. Abbott, MD, MPH

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease pr...

  10. Learning from Women's Grassroots Activism: Gender Reflections on Environmental Policy Science and Participatory Processes

    AGUERA CABO Mercedes

    2006-01-01

    Males predominate as politicians and governmental officers, experts, stakeholders and citizens in the majority of environment-related participatory processes. However, not much attention has been given to gender in environmental governance. This paper argues that gender is significant for participatory processes because differences between female and male environment-related interests in information and concerns exist. The argument is explored by highlighting the results of two research ...

  11. Research and Social Transformation: Notes about Method and Methodology in Participatory Research

    Streck, Danilo R.

    2007-01-01

    "This text is a contribution to methodological reflection on research, based on the experience of a research team who explored various aspects of the participatory budget in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). It is situated within the context of participatory research, and deals with the following topics: method and methodology: the insertion of research and education within the same process of knowing; research and its ethical and political commitment; research as pub...

  12. Governance, accountability and participatory budget between myth and reality. The Italian case

    Salvatore Russo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of participatory budget (PB), inspired by insights and reflections on public governance, accountability, participation and inclusion of citizens in the local authority expenditure decisions. Nevertheless a certain criticism is coming from the literature about the experience of participatory budget in the western countries experiences the paper shows how in Italy a positive impact of the PB implementation on the management culture of the local government dr...

  13. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    Yuanyuan Zeng; Deshi Li

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along wi...

  14. The Use of Participatory Methods in Researching the Experiences of Children and Young People

    Cowie, Helen; Huser, Carmen; Myers, Carrie-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research methods offer a very promising approach for gaining in-depth understanding of young people’s lives. However, when adopting such approaches, researchers need to be aware of methodological and theoretical issues. The aim of this article is to present a discussion of ways in which participatory methods may be used as a research strategy when investigating young people’s experiences and emotions. We explore the potential of these methods as well as some of their limitations...

  15. Participatory research and participation in research : a look between times and spaces from Latin America

    Rodrigues Brandão, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    "We acknowledge that participatory research existed in the past, and exists today within different traditions. We acknowledge the gestation of a “Latin American tradition” based on the pioneering experience of Orlando Fals Borda and Paulo Freire. This tradition of participatory research can only be understood in its origins and its currentness, referenced to the social and political contexts of the time when it was instituted in Latin America, between the 1970s and 1980s. It...

  16. Respondent-Driven Sampling in Participatory Research Contexts: Participant-Driven Recruitment

    Tiffany, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in participatory and community-based research. Participant-driven recruitment (PDR) retains all of the analytic capabilities of RDS while enhancing the role of respondents in framing research questions, instrument development, data interpretation, and other aspects of the research process. Merging the capabilities of RDS with participatory research methods, PDR creates new opportunities for engaging community members in resea...

  17. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion

  18. Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

    Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

    2013-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (Psheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. PMID:23149306

  19. Participatory tools for technology assessment: experiences and challenges of various techniques

    At present, an increased societal scepticism towards experts and technology development is observed. Thereby important societal decisions have been blocked or delayed and confidence in relevant decision-making processes as well as trust in the associated institutions have been lost. This holds not least for the selection and evaluation for repository sites in nuclear waste governance. Thus the participation of various stakeholder groups has received increased attention in scientific discourse on Technology Assessment. Various techniques and methods were developed which enable a scientific, interactive and communicative process to improve decision making and rebuild trust. In our paper we outline important requisites for the application of participatory approaches and criteria for the choice and evaluation of different techniques. We conclude with some important recommendations: (a) framing is more important than the choice of technique, (b) the representation of different groups is crucial, (c) the output is more than decision taking, (d) a good match of technique and context is necessary, (e) the combination of techniques and more intense methods is preferred, and (f) the process itself matters and demands active formation. (orig.)

  20. Participatory Rural Appraisal of Basic Needs Deprivation among Rural Dwellers of Borno State, Nigeria

    R. O. Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequacy of environmental and infrastructural resources to satisfy basic needs results in deprivation among rural people which in most cases, rapid rural appraisal and other traditional survey methods rarely adequately capture. This paper employs therefore employs participatory rural appraisal (PRA techniques to analyse these phenomena in Borno state. The objectives are to determine the seasonality of basic needs deprivation, analyse the triggers of need deprivation, and, assess the coping strategies for deprivation. PRA techniques employed are Seasonal Calendar and Force Field Analysis and 300 systematically selected participants from 9 local government areas were the study frame. The findings are that basic need deprivation is an outcome of environmental scarcities, resource capture, and failure of socioeconomic infrastructure. Episodic drought, flood, and conflict over resources triggers loss of farm harvest and livestock hence food, income and other needs there from. The coping strategies include wild food foraging, migratory fishing and praying to God which lead to the conclusion that basic needs satisfaction among the studied rural dwellers in Borno state is below societal expectations. Recommendations for improvement were proffered.

  1. Mapping the spatial dimensions of participatory practice: A discussion of context in evaluation.

    Chouinard, Jill Anne; Milley, Peter

    2016-02-01

    In participatory or collaborative evaluation practice, context is considered a complex, relational and social phenomenon that frames the parameters of the inquiry process in profound ways. To help us expand upon our understanding of context, we borrow the concept of "space" from the critical geographers, as it provides a bridge between the social and geographic complexities of context, enabling us to more fully capture the social and relational dynamic that fundamentally defines participatory evaluation. Our focus is on understanding context and relationships as two interconnected, dynamic and constituent parts of evaluation practices that feature participatory spaces. We then turn to a comparative analysis of participatory practice across two published reviews of distinct sets of empirical studies as a way to extend our understanding of participatory evaluation in relation to its practical, and frequently complex, contextual expressions in the field. This comparative analysis enables us to develop a set of five dimensions (epistemic, temporal/historical, cultural, economic/organizational, political) that we believe captures the spatial and contextual characteristics and contours of participatory practice. PMID:26476858

  2. A participatory assessment of post-fire management alternatives in eastern Spain

    Llovet, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Transformational socio-economic changes during the last decades of the 20th century led to the abandonment of mountainous areas in western Mediterranean countries (Puigdefábregas and Mendizábal, 1998). This process was accelerated in the Ayora Valley (inland Valencia province, E Spain) by a major forest fire in 1979. Restoration and management actions were implemented through the 1990's to promote the recovery of the area affected by this fire. In 2010 these past actions were assessed using an integrated and participatory evaluation protocol (IAPro). The selected actions were shrubland regenerated after the fire (no-action); pine plantation over the shrubland; pine forest regenerated after the fire (no-action); and thinning of densely regenerated pines. The assessment involved the identification and engagement of a comprehensive and representative set of local and regional stakeholders who provided a baseline assessment, identified and prioritized essential indicators, considered data collected against those indicators, and participated in re-assessment of actions after an outranking multi-criteria decision aiding integration (MCDA) conducted by the expert team (Roy and Bertier, 1973). This process facilitated a collaborative integration of biophysical indicators (i.e. carbon sequestration, water and soil conservation, soil quality, biodiversity, fire risk and forest health) and socio-economic indicators (i.e. productive, recreational and touristic, aesthetic, and cultural values, cost of the actions, and impact on family finances). It was completed with activities for exchanging experiences and sharing knowledge with the platform of stakeholders. Stakeholder platform suggested that fire risk was the most important indicator, followed by water conservation and soil conservation. Least important indicators were cost of actions, aesthetic value, and recreational and touristic value. Data collected on each action showed the thinned pine forest action with the lowest

  3. Strengthening access to restorative places: findings from a participatory study on engaging with nature in the promotion of health.

    Hansen-Ketchum, Patricia A; Marck, Patricia; Reutter, Linda; Halpenny, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we examine selected research findings from a community-based study on engaging with nature to promote health. Combining participatory photographic research methods with an iterative process of dialectical analysis, we explored nature-based health promotion with community citizens, practitioners, and decision-makers from various sectors to examine the complexities of connecting with natural outdoor places in local contexts. Participants identified an array of barriers to and opportunities for everyday access to restorative outdoor places. The findings suggest that inter-sectoral governance with active citizen engagement in research, decision-making, and action may be essential to develop the ecological citizenship and communal norms and strategies that promote the health of people and their shared restorative places. PMID:21324727

  4. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy. PMID:22395365

  5. Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense Teor de vitamina C em acessos de pimenta (Capsicum chinense do grupo varietal Habanero

    Ana Flávia P Teodoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found. The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acessos de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses

  6. PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS AND FARMERSâ CULTIVAR PREFERENCE CRITERIA OF CULTIVATED YAMS (DIOSCOREA CAYENENSIS - D. ROTUNDATA COMPLEX) IN TOGO

    Dansi A; Dantsey-Barry H; Agré A. P; Dossou-Aminon; Assogba P; Loko Y.L; N'Kpenu E. K; Kombaté K; Dansi M; Vodouhè R

    2013-01-01

    Fifty (50) villages randomly selected throughout agroecological zones in Togo were surveyed, using participatory approach, to identify and prioritize factors that affect production and farmers’ varietal preference criteria of Guinea yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex). A total of nineteen (19) constraints of varying importance across agro-ecological zones were identified among which the most important were insects’ damages on both leaves and tubers, nematodes attack on tubers, dro...

  7. ¡Los Filtros Luchan! A Case Study of Lawyering and Participatory Democracy: Participatory Lobbying as a Strategy for Working with Marginalized Communities

    Myrta Morales-Cruz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This thesis examines the participatory lobbying of Puerto Rican Statute #232 of August of 2004, which was a joint endeavor by members of low-income communities, headed by members of the Los Filtros community, and the community development section of the University of Puerto Rico's School of Law Legal Aid Clinic. The case study seeks to bring to the forefront the voices of the members of the Los Filtros community who participated in the lobbying of the bill regarding their perceptions about the process and its relationship to law, politics and democracy. It highlights the unexplored potential of participatory lobbying as a strategy to open spaces of participatory democracy.Participatory lobbying can be a valuable strategy for lawyers working with marginalized communities. This type of lobbying can claim an important place as a strategy within what have been called "law and organizing" approaches to lawyering, which focus on promoting empowerment of marginalized groups. It differs from more traditional public interest lobbying since, in this alternative type of lobbying, members of marginalized communities are the driving force in the process and lawyers serve a supporting role. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1997412

  8. A Multi-Stage Method for Connecting Participatory Sensing and Noise Simulations

    Mingyuan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic

  9. Does Participatory Planning Foster the Transformation Toward More Adaptive Social-Ecological Systems?

    Susanne Menzel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for social-ecological systems to become more adaptive is widely acknowledged. Social effects generated by participatory planning have been claimed to contribute to this transformation, but little empirical evidence is available that backs up or opposes this notion. We aimed to offer some insights regarding questions as to which social effects are formed in participatory planning processes and at what costs, and to then discuss their contribution to the transformation toward more adaptive social-ecological systems based on empirical evidence. Consequently, we investigated the social effects of participatory planning processes, including the social learning processes leading to them. We conducted semistructured interviews with members of advisory groups involved in river engineering projects in Switzerland. Our results indicate that participatory planning processes can somewhat contribute to maintaining and spreading knowledge and social capital among individuals in a planning group, and this may help them collectively deal with new and complex challenges. However, it is costly in terms of time and patience to build up ecological knowledge, communicative capacities, and trust, with the latter also eroding over time. Overall, we conclude that the contribution of participatory planning via positive social outcomes to the transformation toward adaptive capacity social-ecological systems is smaller than optimists might hope. However, other forms of planning very likely result in no social effects or even the destruction of social capital. Participatory planning, in contrast, can offer the conditions for relational and cognitive learning contributing to the maintenance of social and political capital. Based on our results, we suggest shifting resources from technical to communicative aspects of planning processes and implementations. We recommend that project leaders provide stakeholders with firsthand information about projects, explain

  10. On Sensor Data Verification for Participatory Sensing Systems

    Diego Mendez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of sensor data verification in Participatory Sensing (PS systems using an air quality/pollution monitoring application as a validation example. Data verification, in the context of PS, consists of the process of detecting and removing spatial outliers to properly reconstruct the variables of interest. We propose, implement, and test a hybrid neighborhood-aware algorithm for outlier detection that considers the uneven spatial density of the users, the number of malicious users, the level of conspiracy, and the lack of accuracy and malfunctioning sensors. The algorithm utilizes the Delaunay triangulation and Gaussian Mixture Models to build neighborhoods based on the spatial and non-spatial attributes of each location. This neighborhood definition allows us to demonstrate thatit is not necessary to apply accurate but computationally expensive estimators to the entire dataset to obtain good results, as equally accurate but computationally cheaper methods can also be applied to part of the data and obtain good results as well. Our experimental results show that our hybrid algorithm performs as good as the best estimator while reducing the execution time considerably.

  11. Scientific bases for a participatory forest landscape management

    Jean-Pierre Sorg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In Madagascar – a biodiversity hotspot of international importance – the villagers depend on the forest first for its soil as a reserve of arable land as well as a shelter and a pasture for the herds, and second for the production of timber, charcoal and other forest products. Most of the currently proposed conservation management systems for forests do not take into consideration villagers’ needs, in Madagascar too; indeed degradation and deforestation have continuously occurred in places where the forest is under great pressure. In targeting the improvement of the livelihood of local populations and the maintenance of “multifunctionality”, especially the ecological value of the forest, the present project aims at developing scientific criteria for a sustainable management of forest landscapes in western Madagascar at a regional scale. A detailed inventory of resources and a specific understanding of stakeholder requirements and strategies will allow drawing an accurate picture of the human-forest interface. A participatory approach paves the way for realistic management criteria that are really adequate to the ecological and social situations. The management criteria will provide a tool for further discussions on landscape management in central Menabe.

  12. Immanent Politics, Participatory Democracy, and the Pursuit of Eudaimonia

    Geoffrey Allan Plauché

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on the burgeoning tradition of Aristotelian liberalism. It identifies and critiques a fundamental inequality inherent in the nature of the state and, in particular, the liberal representative-democratic state: namely, an institutionalized inequality in authority. The analysis draws on and synthesizes disparate philosophical and political traditions: Aristotle’s virtue ethics and politics, Locke’s natural rights and idea of equality in authority in the state of nature (sans state of nature, the New Left’s conception of participatory democracy (particularly as described in a number of under-utilized essays by Murray Rothbard and Don Lavoie, and philosophical anarchism. The deleterious consequences of this fundamental institutionalized inequality are explored, including on social justice and economic progress, on individual autonomy, on direct and meaningful civic and political participation, and the creation and maintenance of other artificial inequalities as well as the exacerbation of natural inequalities (economic and others. In the process, the paper briefly sketches a neo-Aristotelian theory of virtue ethics and natural individual rights, for which the principle of equal and total liberty for all is of fundamental political importance. And, finally, a non-statist conception of politics is developed, with politics defined as discourse and deliberation between equals (in authority in joint pursuit of eudaimonia (flourishing, well-being.[Note: The following font file may be useful for viewing the Greek characters in the Word file above: SPIONIC_.TTF.

  13. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    Martin Johansson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

  14. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263

  15. Building peace through participatory health training: a case from Cambodia.

    Ui, S; Leng, K; Aoyama, A

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the significance and effectiveness of participatory health training as a tool for peace building. It does so by analysing a case of training for 'health promoters' run by a Cambodian government health agency. The authors observed participants during the training and interviewed those involved in the courses. A developing capacity for coexistence and reconciliation between individuals who had been on opposite sides during the years of Khmer Rouge terror and continuous internal war was observed among both participants and trainers. Factors embodied in the training that facilitated favourable changes in self and in relations with others were identified as: (1) 'space for dialogue' was created by concrete common public health interests and urgent needs; (2) training took place 'live-in' style in a rural setting; (3) course contents and methods were consistent with peace education; (4) trainers had a conscious function as role models; and (5) there was continuity of effort and consequent accumulation of experience. To build peace, as well as conducting training directly on a technical topic, these essential factors need to be incorporated in the training programmes. PMID:19283628

  16. Sustainable E-Participation through participatory experiences in education

    Ursula Maier-Rabler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false DE-AT X-NONE X-NONE The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010 enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and educational characteristics as a prerequisite for e-participation and argues that social media literacy is indispensable for e-participation to be sustainable. Young people’s affinity spaces (Jenkins, et.al., 2006 can only lay down the foundations for social media literacy, but their further development depends on education. Political Education would be well advised to adapt innovative pedagogical approaches to the acquirement of new media literacy. This paper introduces an exemplary educational tool – predominately but not exclusively for political/civic education – namely the website PoliPedia.at. Teachers can use it to deliberately create a balanced space for collaboration between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives. PoliPedia – as a participative online tool – has the potential to facilitate participation experience in political/civic education and supports social media education. Thereby the embedding of technology in pedagogical and societal conceptualizations is crucial.

  17. Sustainable E-Participation through participatory experiences in education

    Ursula Maier-Rabler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010 enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and educational characteristics as a prerequisite for e-participation and argues that social media literacy is indispensable for e-participation to be sustainable. Young people’s affinity spaces (Jenkins, et.al., 2006 can only lay down the foundations for social media literacy, but their further development depends on education. Political Education would be well advised to adapt innovative pedagogical approaches to the acquirement of new media literacy. This paper introduces an exemplary educational tool – predominately but not exclusively for political/civic education – namely the website PoliPedia.at. Teachers can use it to deliberately create a balanced space for collaboration between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives. PoliPedia – as a participative online tool – has the potential to facilitate participation experience in political/civic education and supports social media education. Thereby the embedding of technology in pedagogical and societal conceptualizations is crucial.

  18. Participatory action research for women with anorexia nervosa.

    Nicholls, Daniel; Fogarty, Sarah; Hay, Phillipa; Ramjan, Lucie Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Aim To discuss the application of the principles of participatory action research (PAR) in a project that developed and evaluated a mentor-mentee support programme for women with anorexia nervosa. Background A programme was developed and implemented in which mentors and mentees participated in workshops, social activities and focus groups that sought to support and develop resilience for those experiencing anorexia nervosa. Discussion PAR principles were mirrored in the programme, paying respect to the views and needs of each participant, an open trajectory to possible conclusions and a continuous feedback cycle. Mentees had a sense of empowerment, ownership of the programme and hope that recovery was possible. It allowed their voices to be heard and provided them with belief they could begin new relationships and friendships. Conclusion The principles of PAR suited a project aimed at developing self-determination and resilience in women with anorexia nervosa. Implications for research/practice PAR would be readily transferable to a number of mental health settings where empowerment is of paramount concern. PMID:27188570

  19. Participatory health system priority setting: Evidence from a budget experiment.

    Costa-Font, Joan; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa

    2015-12-01

    Budget experiments can provide additional guidance to health system reform requiring the identification of a subset of programs and services that accrue the highest social value to 'communities'. Such experiments simulate a realistic budget resource allocation assessment among competitive programs, and position citizens as decision makers responsible for making 'collective sacrifices'. This paper explores the use of a participatory budget experiment (with 88 participants clustered in social groups) to model public health care reform, drawing from a set of realistic scenarios for potential health care users. We measure preferences by employing a contingent ranking alongside a budget allocation exercise (termed 'willingness to assign') before and after program cost information is revealed. Evidence suggests that the budget experiment method tested is cognitively feasible and incentive compatible. The main downside is the existence of ex-ante "cost estimation" bias. Additionally, we find that participants appeared to underestimate the net social gain of redistributive programs. Relative social value estimates can serve as a guide to aid priority setting at a health system level. PMID:26517295

  20. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  1. Participatory rural appraisal in smallholder dairy systems in Tunisia.

    Rekhis, J; Saaidane, F; Laamouri, M; Ben Hamida, K; Mabrouk, W; Slimane, N

    2007-12-01

    Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out by a multidisciplinary team on a total of 60 smallholder dairy farms in three different geographical areas of Tunisia. Farms with less than three cows were excluded. Those participating had between three and 10 cows. Average milk production ranged between 8 and 32 litres per cow per day. 70% or over of milk produced was sold off the farms. Average intercalving intervals--measured from month of calving only--ranged from 12.9 months to 19. Age at first calving varied from two to nearly three years. Most work was done by the families. PRA revealed that the farmers in all three regions perceived unbalanced nutrition, which included availability of forages, to be the most important constraint, followed by poor reproductive efficiency. Reseeding with new species was instituted for grazing and hay. Farmers from the different regions were taken on exchange visits to see how these approaches worked. Training in reproductive management and milking hygiene was introduced. Seasonal ration formulation depending on local forage analysis was instituted. Two farms are participating in a programme of evaluation of olive oil extraction by-product as a ruminant feed. Partial budget analysis of these interventions will be carried out. PMID:18265871

  2. Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh

    Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

  3. Participatory epidemiology to assess sarcoptic mange in serow of Taiwan.

    Chen, Chen-Chih; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Lai, Yu-Ching; Mortenson, Jack A

    2012-10-01

    We used participatory epidemiology (PE) in remote areas to understand the observed distribution and prevalence of infestation by sarcoptic mange mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) on wild Formosan serow (Capricornis swinhoei) in Taiwan. A semistructured interview protocol was used for 37 interviews during June-December 2008. Serow with skin lesions consistent with sarcoptic mange were reported within a latitudinal range of approximately 24°00'N to 22°40'N on the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. The observed prevalence was 40-80% in seven of the 19 interview districts. Clinical signs were observed mainly on serow at elevations >1,000 m and most commonly winter (December-February). Sarcoptes scabiei has been observed in the infestation area for at least 80 yr. No other wildlife species with similar skin lesions were reported except wild boar. Sarcoptic mange mites on Taiwan serow might prefer a low-temperature environment, but other factors such as physiologic differences among serow populations might be involved in the determination of the northern boundary of the enzootic range. The use of PE to collect enzootic information on sarcoptic mange in wild serow was effective and rapid. PMID:23060488

  4. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    Hoffmann Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates

  5. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315

  6. PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE IN THE PUBLIC HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS OF THE SCANDINAVIAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES

    Stefanescu Aurelia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diminished trust of citizens in the public sector, the increased complexity of policy issues and the reforms in accordance with the new public management principles generate the need of focusing more extensively on participatory governance. Participatory governance can be defined as the genuine engagement of citizens and other organizations in the formulation of policies and strategies, in the decision-making process from the public sector and in the implementation of the decisions. The present paper's objectives are to define the concept of participatory governance, to argue in favor of implementing it in the public sector and to find to what extent public healthcare institutions from Scandinavian and Baltic countries publish information on participatory governance and how they perceive community engagement. The research findings are that the information on participatory governance disclosed on the websites of relevant institutions from within the Scandinavian and Baltic public healthcare systems is scarce. The countries with the greatest concern for community engagement are Denmark and Sweden. It is argued that there should be a shift in focus within the public sector in general and within the healthcare system in particular, so that citizens are genuinely involved in the relevant processes and their satisfaction is indeed at an adequate level.

  7. Participatory Agricultural Extension from the Prospective of Audience-centered Communication Theory

    2010-01-01

    Transformation process to Audience-centered Communication Theory is introduced,as well as the basic idea of the theory in China.It is believed that using Audience-centered Communication theory can help to consolidate the theoretical basis of participatory agricultural extension.The communication essence of agricultural extension activity is studied,which is spreaders send information to farmers;then,farmers filter and process the information,transform it into their own experiences and feed back on time.Internal logical relationship between audience-centered communication and participatory agricultural extension is studied.Effects of Audience-centered Communication Theory on participatory agricultural extension are analyzed.One is that the Audience-centered Communication Theory defines the guidance and implementation basis of agricultural extension activities;the other is that bringing Audience-centered Communication Theory into agricultural extension research can help to expend the agricultural extension.Several enlightenments of the theory to participatory agricultural extension are obtained.Firstly,take audience as the orientation and focus on the needs of the audience.Secondly,advocate the participatory approach of process;and emphasize the importance of internal audience participation.Thirdly,establish two-way interaction mechanism;and make the promoters understand the implementation and performance status on time.Fourthly,develop vernacular knowledge;and better integrate the innovation and practice.

  8. Tackling the motivation to monitor: success and sustainability of a participatory monitoring program

    Navinder J. Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of species and their ecosystem attributes is a fundamental requirement in applied ecology and conservation. However, landscape scale monitoring requires an immense effort and commitment, especially when species have a wide distribution or are migratory in nature. Participatory monitoring, whereby local communities are engaged, is increasingly being proposed to address landscape scale monitoring. Its implementation is met with many challenges related to finances, motivation of the local people, lack of trained manpower, and nondirect legal use of the species in question. It is of interest to determine what makes a participatory monitoring program interesting for locals to ensure their long term engagement. Using the unique 26-year program of hunters' observations of moose (Alces alces in Sweden as a case study, we present the evolution of this highly successful participatory monitoring program and show that tackling the motivation to monitor, early involvement of local NGOs, social activities revolving around use of the resource, the biology and economic value of the species, and technical and practical aspects related to the monitoring, together create a successful participatory monitoring program. When users benefit directly from the resource, participate in conservation/management decision making, socialize with other participants, and get rewards for their commitment and effective monitoring, participatory monitoring schemes can then become rewarding and sustainable.

  9. Building the framework for climate change adaptation in the urban areas using participatory approach: the Czech Republic experience

    Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David

    2016-04-01

    The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach

  10. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  11. Citizens’ Participation in Planning Local Self–Government Expenditures on the Example of the Participatory Budget of the City of Torun in 2013 and 2014

    Krzysztof Czarnecki

    2014-01-01

    The idea of so-called participatory budget was brought into effect for the first time twenty five years ago in the Brazilian city of Porto Alegre. In the short time participatory budget gained a great popularity, spreading to the entire country, and then to other South-American states. About 2000 many cities all over the world made attempts to implement participatory budgets. Members of local communities usually are enthusiastic, as participatory budget empowers them to decide on part of expe...

  12. Coffee species and varietal identification

    Tornincasa, Patrizia; Furlan, Michela; Pallavicini, Alberto; Graziosi, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    There are serious economical reasons to pretend warranties in coffee species and varieties authenticity. Arabica adulteration with Robusta coffees, intentional or not, is carried out at different steps of the coffee chain, from plantation to beverage. We present a method based on a real-time PCR technique to perform: a) a qualitative analysis to evaluate the presence/ absence of a species in a sample; b) a quantitative analysis to amplify Robusta samples only, making possibl...

  13. Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research

    Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together

  14. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  15. Participatory Gis: Experimentations for a 3d Social Virtual Globe

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2013-08-01

    The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.

  16. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future. PMID:26040608

  17. Effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of IPM: The case of cotton in Benin

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Aoudji, A.K.N.; Vodouhe, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers’ knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011–2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest m

  18. Using a Participatory Culture-Specific Model to Increase the Effectiveness of Social Justice Courses in School Psychology

    Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Greenberg, Daphne; Roach, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    The Participatory Culture-Specific Model of Course Development (PCSMCD), adapted from the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model, is a proposed framework to address challenges to social justice education by addressing the following four course variables: instructor characteristics, instructor experiences, student characteristics, and…

  19. "From Worse to Better": How Kenyan Student-Teachers Can Use Participatory Action Research in Health Education

    Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on Kenyan student-teachers' professional learning and development in health education in a participatory action research project conducted in one Kenyan teacher training college. The aim was to explore the potential of participatory action research to instigate change in student-teachers' health education practices in…

  20. New Challenges for Participation in Participatory Design in Family, Clinical and Other Asymmetrical, Non-work Settings

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Hedvall, Per-Oluf

    Participatory design (PD) has taken as its ideal that designers and users should engage in an equal language game. When we apply PD in contexts where some of the users involved are weak, ill, or have impairments, this assumed equality can no longer be an ideal. The workshop explores new ideals fo...... participatory design in non-work settings with highly heterogeneous user constellations....

  1. The preservation of genetic resources of the vine requires cohabitation between institutional clonal selection, mass selection and private clonal selection

    Roby Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonal selection allows control of virus diseases and selection of genotypes on agronomic, viticultural or enological criteria. Clonal selection has the major drawback that it impoverishes genetic diversity and exposes growers to environmental instability of clones (genotype X environment interaction. Clonal selection has become the almost unique way of propagating plant material for vineyards, hence threatening the genetic diversity of the grapevine. For major grapevine varieties, some genetic diversity is maintained in institutional collections. However, this way of conservation is insufficiently developed, it is expensive and remains fragile. A cost effective way to preserve intra-varietal diversity is to maintain a limited proportion of mass selection in vine propagation. Private clonal selection can also contribute, in a more limited way, in maintaining genetic resources. Another approach to carry out conservation and selection of grapevine is the methodology followed in Portugal. This strategy is exemplified with the conservation/selection of an ancient Portuguese variety. The work begins with the “ex situ” conservation of a representative sample of the intravarietal diversity of the variety, which, in practice, corresponds to a large field trial with hundreds of clones under an experimental design suitable for reducing random variation of quantitative traits. From evaluating those traits (yield and must quality traits, the intravarietal diversity is quantified and the range of the predicted genotypic effects for each of those traits is analyzed. Different mass selections (polyclonal selections are carried out for distribution and planting of new vineyards. These different mass selections provide high economic gains and also the preservation of diversity in a complementary manner to that which started the work on-farm conservation.

  2. Managing frame diversity in environmental participatory processes - Example from the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia.

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Brugnach, Marcela; Cullen, Beth; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-07-15

    Many participatory processes fail to generate social change and collaborative outcomes. This failure can partly be explained by how divergent stakeholders' frames are handled. This paper builds on the framing and participation literature to explain how facilitators can manage frame diversity and foster collaborative outcomes. It suggests two pragmatic steps: identifying frames and managing frames. The two steps are applied to a participatory process for natural resource management in Fogera, Ethiopia. Effectiveness of facilitators' strategies to manage frame diversity in the Fogera case is discussed. Two main elements challenging effectiveness are identified: counter-strategies used by facilitators and most-powerful stakeholders, and the constraining factors knowledge, champions and frame sponsorship. We argue that these elements need to be taken into account by participatory process facilitators when managing frame diversity. PMID:27107955

  3. Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs

    Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate...... relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to...... develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this...

  4. The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination

    Cheryl Forchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group. Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

  5. Participatory Theater, Is It Really? A Critical Examination of Practices in Timor-Leste

    Julia Scharinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dance, music, and oral narratives are an important and vibrant part of cultural practice and heritage in Timor-Leste. But while Timorese people have used such creative methods and processes during rituals, celebrations, and their fight for independence, today arts and artistic expression become an increasingly popular strategy in development cooperation. Especially diff erent forms of so-called participatory theater with origins in development cooperation, arts, and social movements, present themselves as innovative, participatory, and well applicable in terms of capacity building and stimulating positive social transformation. Based on the author’s experience and observations, this article critically examines the alliance between various stakeholders in Timor-Leste engaging with the fact that the current scene of participatory theater can hardly be seen as an independent grassroots or even social movement, rather than an initiated top-down process by donors with specific agendas.

  6. The case for integrating grounded theory and participatory action research: empowering clients to inform professional practice.

    Teram, Eli; Schachter, Candice L; Stalker, Carol A

    2005-10-01

    Grounded theory and participatory action research methods are distinct approaches to qualitative inquiry. Although grounded theory has been conceptualized in constructivist terms, it has elements of positivist thinking with an image of neutral search for objective truth through rigorous data collection and analysis. Participatory action research is based on a critique of this image and calls for more inclusive research processes. It questions the possibility of objective social sciences and aspires to engage people actively in all stages of generating knowledge. The authors applied both approaches in a project designed to explore the experiences of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse with physical therapy and subsequently develop a handbook on sensitive practice for clinicians that takes into consideration the needs and perspectives of these clients. Building on this experience, they argue that the integration of grounded theory and participatory action research can empower clients to inform professional practice. PMID:16221884

  7. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference: Full papers - Volume 1

    2016-01-01

    societal challenges at various levels. Sharing economy, crowdfunding and participatory cultures create new forms of engagement that challenge traditional ideas of participation. Public engagement in radical social innovation is used to address shrinking finances to public services, which has resulted...... and large-scale infrastructuring challenge the core democratic ideals of PD. The Participatory Design Conferences (PDC) continue to be the main gathering point of the PD community and an important venue for international discussion of the collaborative, social and political dimensions of technology......), design anthropology, design psychology, design Industry and the arts. The conference has helped to broaden participatory approaches in design around a variety of arenas including information and communication technologies, work, healthcare, learning, new media and digital culture, community settings...

  8. Applying community-based participatory research to better understand and improve kinship care practices

    Chukwudozie, Oge; Feinstein, Clare; Jensen, Celina;

    2015-01-01

    While the principles behind community-based participatory research are firmly established, the process of taking community-based participatory research with children and youth to scale and integrating it into the programming of non-governmental organizations has been scarcely documented. This...... article reflects on the experiences of Save the Children in implementing a multicountry community-based participatory research program to increase understanding of kinship care in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The article discusses challenges faced and lessons learned and...... highlights how the research process enabled action and advocacy initiatives at different levels-leading to an increase in support and policy attention for children living in kinship care....

  9. Appreciating Local People's Knowledge is the Entry Point to Participatory Forest Resources Management in the Sudan

    Khaleel S.S. Mahir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Like many other countries, the failure of state’s intervention to manoeuvre ‘good governance’ through the reservation procedures led to a situation where Sudanese forest resources became ‘common-pool resources’. Hence concerned institutions progressively believe that foresters must relinquish the 'policing position' and instead facilitate a concerted and collective action by all stakeholders to sustainably manage forest resources. The critical questions are, to what extent do rural people share the perception of the 'forest' with interveners? How does variation in perceptions influence their management strategies? Can local people's knowledge contribute to facilitation of participatory sustainable management of forest resources? This study is written on the basis of empirical data collected from various individuals, groups and institutions involved in forest resource management in the Sudan. Deploying a sampling strategy based on the 'purposive sampling' and 'theoretical saturation point' a total of 165 key informants were selected from three rural locations. The study opted for the case study as the main methodological approach. Nonetheless, for the development of the cases, a combination of methodological instruments such as literature and archive study, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, group discussions and participant observation, were used iteratively. Data collection and analysis were performed involving exploration of ideas with people. The findings of this study exemplified how the behaviour of rural communities as concerns the 'forest' has been oriented and guided by their perceptions and beliefs. A characteristic of forests/trees is that their social values are appreciated differently by various social actors at various locations in time and space. In addition to the fact that trees provide food, shade, fuel; they are useful in their spiritual dimensions as well. Local people’s knowledge and spirituality might

  10. Review. Supporting problem structuring with computer-based tools in participatory forest planning

    Hujala, T.; Khadka, C.; Wolfslehner, B.; Vacik, H.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: This review presents the state-of-art of using computerized techniques for problem structuring (PS) in participatory forest planning. Frequency and modes of using different computerized tool types and their contribution for planning processes as well as critical observations are described, followed by recommendations on how to better integrate PS with the use of forest decision support systems. Area of study: The reviewed research cases are from Asia, Europe, North-America, Africa and Australia. Material and methods: Via Scopus search and screening of abstracts, 32 research articles from years 2002-2011 were selected for review. Explicit and implicit evidence of using computerized tools for PS was recorded and assessed with content-driven qualitative analysis. Main results: GIS and forest-specific simulation tools were the most prevalent software types whereas cognitive modelling software and spreadsheet and calculation tools were less frequently used, followed by multi-criteria and interactive tools. The typical use type was to provide outputs of simulation–optimization or spatial analysis to negotiation situations or to compile summaries or illustrations afterwards; using software during group negotiation to foster interaction was observed only in a few cases. Research highlights: Expertise in both decision support systems and group learning is needed to better integrate PS and computerized decision analysis. From the knowledge management perspective, it is recommended to consider how the results of PS —e.g. conceptual models— could be stored into a problem perception database, and how PS and decision making could be streamlined by retrievals from such systems. (Author)

  11. Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    Pieter Bots

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

  12. Moving interdisciplinary science forward: integrating participatory modelling with mathematical modelling of zoonotic disease in Africa

    Catherine Grant; Giovanni Lo lacono; Vupenyu Dzingirai; Bernard Bett; Thomas R.A.Winnebah; Peter M.Atkinson

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines the benefits of using multiple approaches to improve model design and facilitate multidisciplinary research into infectious diseases,as well as showing and proposing practical examples of effective integration.It looks particularly at the benefits of using participatory research in conjunction with traditional modelling methods to potentially improve disease research,control and management.Integrated approaches can lead to more realistic mathematical models which in turn can assist with making policy decisions that reduce disease and benefit local people.The emergence,risk,spread and control of diseases are affected by many complex bio-physical,environmental and socio-economic factors.These include climate and environmental change,land-use variation,changes in population and people's behaviour.The evidence base for this scoping review comes from the work of a consortium,with the aim of integrating modelling approaches traditionally used in epidemiological,ecological and development research.A total of five examples of the impacts of participatory research on the choice of model structure are presented.Example 1 focused on using participatory research as a tool to structure a model.Example 2 looks at identifying the most relevant parameters of the system.Example 3 concentrates on identifying the most relevant regime of the system (e.g.,temporal stability or otherwise),Example 4 examines the feedbacks from mathematical models to guide participatory research and Example 5 goes beyond the so-far described two-way interplay between participatory and mathematical approaches to look at the integration of multiple methods and frameworks.This scoping review describes examples of best practice in the use of participatory methods,illustrating their potential to overcome disciplinary hurdles and promote multidisciplinary collaboration,with the aim of making models and their predictions more useful for decision-making and policy formulation.

  13. Improving ethical and participatory practice for marginalized populations in biomedical HIV prevention trials: lessons from Thailand.

    Dan Allman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. METHODS: In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP guided this work. RESULTS: Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. DISCUSSION: Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical

  14. A case study in the participatory design of a collaborative science-based learning environment

    Chin, George, Jr.

    Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.

  15. Moving interdisciplinary science forward: integrating participatory modelling with mathematical modelling of zoonotic disease in Africa.

    Grant, Catherine; Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Bett, Bernard; Winnebah, Thomas R A; Atkinson, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines the benefits of using multiple approaches to improve model design and facilitate multidisciplinary research into infectious diseases, as well as showing and proposing practical examples of effective integration. It looks particularly at the benefits of using participatory research in conjunction with traditional modelling methods to potentially improve disease research, control and management. Integrated approaches can lead to more realistic mathematical models which in turn can assist with making policy decisions that reduce disease and benefit local people. The emergence, risk, spread and control of diseases are affected by many complex bio-physical, environmental and socio-economic factors. These include climate and environmental change, land-use variation, changes in population and people's behaviour. The evidence base for this scoping review comes from the work of a consortium, with the aim of integrating modelling approaches traditionally used in epidemiological, ecological and development research. A total of five examples of the impacts of participatory research on the choice of model structure are presented. Example 1 focused on using participatory research as a tool to structure a model. Example 2 looks at identifying the most relevant parameters of the system. Example 3 concentrates on identifying the most relevant regime of the system (e.g., temporal stability or otherwise), Example 4 examines the feedbacks from mathematical models to guide participatory research and Example 5 goes beyond the so-far described two-way interplay between participatory and mathematical approaches to look at the integration of multiple methods and frameworks. This scoping review describes examples of best practice in the use of participatory methods, illustrating their potential to overcome disciplinary hurdles and promote multidisciplinary collaboration, with the aim of making models and their predictions more useful for decision-making and policy

  16. How does the context and design of participatory decision making processes affect their outcomes? Evidence from sustainable land management in global drylands

    Joris de Vente

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the design of participatory processes to manage social-ecological systems needs to be adapted to local contexts, it is unclear which elements of process design might be universal. We use empirical evidence to analyze the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes. To explore the role of design and minor variations in local context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed participants and facilitators from 11 case studies in which different process designs were used to select sustainable land management options in Spain and Portugal. We analyzed interview data using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results showed that although some aspects of local context affected process outcomes, factors associated with process design were more significant. Processes leading to more beneficial environmental and social outcomes included the following: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for aggregating information and balancing power dynamics among participants; and provision of information and decision-making power to all participants. Although processes initiated or facilitated by government bodies led to significantly less trust, information gain, and learning, decisions in these processes were more likely to be accepted and implemented. To further test the role of context in determining the outcomes of participation, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, reflecting much greater national variations in context. The similarity of outcomes across these sites suggested that the socio-cultural context in which the process was replicated had little impact on its outcomes, as long as certain design principles were fulfilled. Overall, our findings provide a solid empirical basis for good

  17. Determinação da pureza varietal de sementes de soja com o auxílio de marcadores moleculares microssatélites Determination of genetic purity of soybean seeds with the aid of microsatellite molecular markers

    Ivan Schuster; Vagner Tebaldi de Queiroz; Arlindo Inês Teixeira; Everaldo Gonçalves de Barros; Maurilio Alves Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Fatores ambientais contribuem para a produção de sementes de soja com características diferentes do padrão da variedade e a análise visual para determinação de pureza varietal não é suficiente. Marcadores moleculares de DNA podem auxiliar na identificação da pureza genética de sementes, durante o processo de certificação de sementes, uma vez que não sofrem influências ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar um método de análise da pureza genética de sementes de soja, utilizando marc...

  18. Digital disease detection and participatory surveillance: overview and perspectives for Brazil

    Leal-Neto, Onicio B; Dimech, George S; Libel, Marlo; Oliveira, Wanderson; Ferreira, Juliana Perazzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the digital disease detection and participatory surveillance in different countries. The systems or platforms consolidated in the scientific field were analyzed by describing the strategy, type of data source, main objectives, and manner of interaction with users. Eleven systems or platforms, developed from 1996 to 2016, were analyzed. There was a higher frequency of data mining on the web and active crowdsourcing as well as a trend in the use of mobile applications. It is important to provoke debate in the academia and health services for the evolution of methods and insights into participatory surveillance in the digital age. PMID:27191153

  19. Digital disease detection and participatory surveillance: overview and perspectives for Brazil.

    Leal-Neto, Onicio B; Dimech, George S; Libel, Marlo; Oliveira, Wanderson; Ferreira, Juliana Perazzo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the digital disease detection and participatory surveillance in different countries. The systems or platforms consolidated in the scientific field were analyzed by describing the strategy, type of data source, main objectives, and manner of interaction with users. Eleven systems or platforms, developed from 1996 to 2016, were analyzed. There was a higher frequency of data mining on the web and active crowdsourcing as well as a trend in the use of mobile applications. It is important to provoke debate in the academia and health services for the evolution of methods and insights into participatory surveillance in the digital age. PMID:27191153

  20. Participatory sensing as an enabler for self-organisation in future cellular networks

    In this short review paper we summarise the emerging challenges in the field of participatory sensing for the self-organisation of the next generation of wireless cellular networks. We identify the potential of participatory sensing in enabling the self-organisation, deployment optimisation and radio resource management of wireless cellular networks. We also highlight how this approach can meet the future goals for the next generation of cellular system in terms of infrastructure sharing, management of multiple radio access techniques, flexible usage of spectrum and efficient management of very small data cells

  1. Distance management – a challenge in participatory interventions in virtual organizations

    Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv; Poulsen, Signe

    2014-01-01

    Virtual organizations challenge the first line managers as they have to be able to manage from afar as distance managers. Investigating distance management in participatory multi-level interventions this paper presents a case study of four SMEs which have applied the multi-level participatory Po......WRS program (Prevention of Work-Related Stress) over a six month period. Interviews were conducted with employees, in-house process facilitators, project managers and first line managers. The results show that distance managers are even more challenged in interventions especially regarding coordination of...

  2. Levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in domestication QTL regions on rice chromosome 3 suggest lineage-specific selection.

    Xianfa Xie

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.

  3. Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making

    Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision

  4. Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making

    Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Research and Training; Pollard, Simon; Twigger-Ross, Clare [National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in

  5. Correction: Using participatory design to develop (public health decision support systems through GIS

    Sawada Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs. Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data. Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different

  6. Research for Change versus Research as Change: Lessons from a "Mujerista" Participatory Research Team

    Dyrness, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I aim to further the discussion of engaged research in anthropology and education by examining the unique changes promoted by participatory research in contrast to policy-oriented activist research models. Drawing on my work with Latina immigrant mothers in a school reform movement, I argue for a Latina feminist view of…

  7. Citizen Participation for the Improvement of Local Management: Realities, Myths and Challenges about the Participatory Budgets

    María Laura Pagani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The conceptions of participatory phenomenon are wide and generate various positions. Several authors agree that municipal government, as the face of the State closer to its citizens, is the privileged place to develop participatory public policies, which contributes to make more transparent, efficient, inclusive and democratic the government management. This proximity would allow local actors to participate in communal development processes and would enable them to diagnose problems, participating in decision-making and public policies designing and its evaluation. Moreover, it is noticed that the State transfer its duties to the society through manipulation of participatory policies, which are used as artificial means to build consensus. This article explores the fundamentals, implementation methodologies and results in four cases of participatory budgeting (in La Plata, San Fernando, San Miguel and San Martín. The main lines of analysis focused on the characterization of the projects generated by this policy, the changes in local management and the type of social participation. This research used semi structured and in depth interviews, observations, documentary research with secondary sources of information generated by municipalities (website, laws, institutional documentation, brochures, statistics and academic works produced by other researchers.

  8. A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand

    Jittra Rukijkanpanich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b work practice improvement, and c working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1 the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2 the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.

  9. Participatory Data Analysis: A New Method for Investigating Human Energy Practices

    Kortuem, Gerd; Bourgeois, Jacky; van der Linden, Janet; Price, Blaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel data-driven method to investigate the interdependence between technology design and human energy practices. The method – called Participatory Data – makes use of fine-grained energy data collected via smart meters and smart plugs, and behaviour visualisation during home visits to spark self-reflection among householders.

  10. Texting as a Channel for Personalized Youth Support: Participatory Design Research by City Youth and Teachers

    Pollock, Mica; Amaechi, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most school districts are out to regulate and restrict student texting and fear student-teacher texting as particularly inappropriate. But might this youth-dominated channel in fact be a twenty-first century portal to personalized support for youth struggling in school? This article shares first findings from participatory design research on…

  11. Ethical Considerations of Community-based Participatory Research: Contextual Underpinnings for Developing Countries

    Ensiyeh Jamshidi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged.

  12. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  13. Teaching Botanical Identification to Adults: Experiences of the UK Participatory Science Project "Open Air Laboratories"

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project "Open Air…

  14. Creative Art Therapy in a Community's Participatory Research and Social Transformation

    Kapitan, Lynn; Litell, Mary; Torres, Anabel

    2011-01-01

    When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced…

  15. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    Jager,, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and balanced soil nutrient management are major foundations for sustainable food production, contribute to a sound management of natural resources and assist in controlling environmental degradation such as...

  16. Pest and pest managment participatory appraisal: Nanggung, West Java, Indonesia, 11-12 September 2006

    Luther, G.

    2006-01-01

    A participatory appraisal (PA) of the pest and pest management situation in Nanggung Subdistrict, West Java, was conducted as part of the SANREM CRSP SE Asia project, 'Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production in Southeast Asian Watersheds', on 11-12 September 2006. The main objective of the PA was to make a qualitative assessment of the situation to enable pertinent planning of research activities.

  17. Re-Visioning Action: Participatory Action Research and Indigenous Theories of Change

    Tuck, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This article observes that participatory action research (PAR), by nature of being collaborative, necessitates making explicit theories of change that may have otherwise gone unseen or unexamined. The article explores the limits of the reform/revolution paradox on actions and theories of change in PAR. Citing examples from two recent youth PAR…

  18. Implementing Participatory Research with an Urban American Indian Community: Lessons Learned

    Roberts, Erica B.; Jette, Shannon L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Participatory research has proven an effective method for improving health equity among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) by addressing power imbalances between communities and researchers, incorporating community knowledge and theory, ensuring mutual benefit and improving community capacity and programme sustainability. However,…

  19. The Development of Research Skills in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability in Participatory Research

    Morgan, Michelle F.; Moni, Karen B.; Cuskelly, Monica

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information about specific research constructs developed by adults with intellectual disability in undertaking research despite increasing involvement in research "with" rather than "on" these individuals. Participatory research was used with three young adults with intellectual disability to collaboratively…

  20. Community participatory physical activity intervention targets children at high risk for obesity

    This community participatory research evaluated the feasibility of a summer soccer and nutrition education program to increase physical activity (PA) in rural Mississippi Delta children at high risk of obesity and previously not exposed to soccer. Children aged 4-12 were recruited through school and...

  1. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  2. Youth Participatory Action Research and Educational Transformation: The Potential of Intertextuality as a Methodological Tool

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…

  3. Using Participatory Analysis for Community Action: Idea Book. Information Collection and Exchange Publication No. M0086

    Peace Corps, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This idea book addresses key concepts in two earlier Peace Corps' publications, "Participatory Analysis for Community Action (PACA) Manual" [ICE No. M0053], and the "Gender and Development Training Manual" [ICE No. M0054]. These previous resources were large training manuals that introduced PACA to staff and Volunteers in the context of the Peace…

  4. Linking participatory and GIS-based land use planning methods; A case study from Burkina Faso

    Hessel, R.; Berg, van den J.; Kabore, O.; Kekem, van A.J.; Verzandvoort, S.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable land use planning is crucial for realizing the aim of food security and for combating land degradation in the Sahel. A participatory land use planning workshop was organised in a village in the eastern region of Burkina Faso to investigate land use problems, their causes, effects and pos

  5. Participatory instructional redesign by students and teachers in secondary education: effects on perceptions of instruction

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2011). Participatory instructional redesign by students and teachers in secondary education: effects on perceptions of instruction. Instructional Science, 39(5), 737–762.

  6. Commentary : working across distant spaces : connecting participatory action research and teaching.

    Pain, R.

    2009-01-01

    This commentary reflects on the key themes and goals of this symposium. It contextualizes the relationship between participatory action research (PAR) and teaching in the increasingly popular field of critical action-oriented geography. It considers a number of benefits to student learning from engagement with PAR, drawing on the papers in the collection, and raises some critical questions for future development.

  7. Participatory Action Research for Educational Leadership: Using Data-Driven Decision Making to Improve Schools

    James, E. Alana; Milenkiewicz, Margaret T.; Bucknam, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The participatory action research (PAR) process discussed in the text represents the next evolutionary stage for action research and practitioner research in education. The authors integrate process with methodology to provide an overview of the PAR process similar to professional learning communities in schools. Results of the original PAR study…

  8. Breaking Methodological Boundaries? Exploring Visual, Participatory Methods with Adults and Young Children

    Clark, Alison

    2011-01-01

    There have been an increasing number of research studies using participatory, visual methods with young children. This article will explore the possibilities and challenges of extending these methods as tools for listening to early childhood practitioners as well as to young children. This research is based on a longitudinal study carried out…

  9. Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands

    Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production

  10. Participatory Learning through Social Media: How and Why Social Studies Educators Use Twitter

    Krutka, Daniel G.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The microblogging service Twitter offers a platform that social studies educators increasingly use for professional development, communication, and class activities, but to what ends? The authors drew on Deweyan conceptions of participatory learning and citizenship aims of the field as lenses through which to consider social media activities. To…

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Participatory Empowerment Group for Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Lou, Vivian W. Q.; Zhang, Yiqi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a Participatory Empowerment Group (PEG) for Chinese type 2 diabetes patients in Shanghai. Method: A randomized waiting list control and pretest and posttest comparisons were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention by comparing blood sugar level and health-related quality of life.…

  12. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

  13. Self-Regulation of a Chiropractic Association through Participatory Action Research

    Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…

  14. Advances in participatory occupational health aimed at good practices in small enterprises and the informal sector.

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-01-01

    Participatory programmes for occupational risk reduction are gaining importance particularly in small workplaces in both industrially developing and developed countries. To discuss the types of effective support, participatory steps commonly seen in our "work improvement-Asia" network are reviewed. The review covered training programmes for small enterprises, farmers, home workers and trade union members. Participatory steps commonly focusing on low-cost good practices locally achieved have led to concrete improvements in multiple technical areas including materials handling, workstation ergonomics, physical environment and work organization. These steps take advantage of positive features of small workplaces in two distinct ways. First, local key persons are ready to accept local good practices conveyed through personal, informal approaches. Second, workers and farmers are capable of understanding technical problems affecting routine work and taking flexible actions leading to solving them. This process is facilitated by the use of locally adjusted training tools such as local good examples, action checklists and group work methods. It is suggested that participatory occupational health programmes can work in small workplaces when they utilize low-cost good practices in a flexible manner. Networking of these positive experiences is essential. PMID:16610530

  15. "Who Is Helsinki" Sex Workers Advise Improving Communication for Good Participatory Practice in Clinical Trials

    Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan

    2011-01-01

    After premature closures in 2004 of biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials involving sex workers in Africa and Asia, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC) undertook consultations to establish better participatory guidelines for such trials in order to address…

  16. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  17. Commentary: Working across Distant Spaces--Connecting Participatory Action Research and Teaching

    Pain, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This commentary reflects on the key themes and goals of this symposium. It contextualizes the relationship between participatory action research (PAR) and teaching in the increasingly popular field of critical action-oriented geography. It considers a number of benefits to student learning from engagement with PAR, drawing on the papers in the…

  18. Praxis, Ethics and Power: Developing Praxeology as a Participatory Paradigm for Early Childhood Research

    Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The discipline and practice of participatory, practice-led research has grown rapidly in recent years and it is now widely accepted as making an important and serious contribution to the knowledge base of early childhood. Despite this progress recently we have come to understand that our worldview has needed to shift again in response to the…

  19. Positive Psychological Capital Concept: A Critical Analysis in the Context of Participatory Management

    Agnieszka Bożek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was a critical analysis of the concept of positive psychological  capital (PsyCap and an indication of ts applicability in organizations that implemented participatory management. Methodology: The study was based on the review and comparative analysis of literature. The theoretical foundations of the concept and its practical translation into organization reality, as well as the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of PsyCap on employee attitudes, behavior and performance, was presented. The limitations of this concept in the context of participatory management were also indicated. Findings: Conducted debate supported the conclusion that the development of employee self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience can contribute to strengthening participatory attitudes among workers, and thus enhancing the efficiency of the entire organization. However under several conditions, employee positive psychological states were treated not as organizational resources but as an integral part of themselves. Employees felt responsible for their personal development and development of their own PsyCap was optional. Originality: The study dealt with the relatively new issue of a psychological capital management in organizations that could provide an alternative to the classical human capital management. Its implementation in organizations with participatory management has not yet been discussed in the management literature.

  20. Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study

    Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

  1. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  2. Participatory ergonomic intervention versus strength training on chronic pain and work disability in slaughterhouse workers

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2013-01-01

    ergonomics intervention is the traditional strategy to reduce the workload. An alternative strategy could be to increase physical capacity of the worker through strength training. This study investigates the effect of two contrasting interventions, participatory ergonomics versus strength training on pain...

  3. Evaluation of the capacity development of actors within participatory planning process

    Čolić Ratka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on measuring the capacity development within the participatory planning process of formulation of development strategy. It starts with the discussion of how individual, collaborative and governance capacities became a part of collaborative and consensus planning, and continues with proposing the mixed method approach. Quantitative methods have been used to measure the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction that participatory approach had on the actors. Evaluation has shown significant increase in actors’ capacities during the planning process. Qualitative methods aim to reach understanding of the actors’ perception of the results of the participatory planning process they were engaged in. Local actors recognized results as the following: opportunity for gaining a new knowledge, understanding of problems, importance of information and cooperation exchange, recognition of ‘others’, capability for evaluation of plans, understanding of different roles and responsibilities, importance of team work and bundling of knowledge from different sources in problem solving, and collective action and interaction. Thus, the participatory planning holds potential as a continual process of developing the capacities of actors.

  4. PSALM for Empowering Educational Stakeholders: Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management

    San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to examine the effect of implementing participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) on the levels of empowerment among the educational stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach, combining the experimental design with empirical surveys, interviews and documentary analysis,…

  5. A Case Study of Youth Participatory Evaluation in Co-Curricular Service Learning

    Samuelson, Beth Lewis; Smith, Ross; Stevenson, Eleanor; Ryan, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of participatory evaluation through an exploratory single case study of the Evaluation Team of Books & Beyond, a co-curricular service-learning program of the Global Village Living-Learning Center at Indiana University. The paper, which is authored by three undergraduate members of the evaluation team and their…

  6. Participatory Mapping with Urban Youth: The Visual Elicitation of Socio-Spatial Research Data

    Literat, Ioana

    2013-01-01

    Participatory mapping attempts to engage youth in the generation of personalized maps, as a way to both harness the value of individual knowledge about geographic space, and to concurrently empower the research participants by inviting them to take an active stake in the representation and explication of their spatial environment. Engagement in…

  7. Rebuilding Trust in Community Colleges through Leadership, Emotional Healing, and Participatory Governance

    Awan, Seher

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted examining leadership within community colleges, participatory governance and its role, as well as conditions that support organizational change. However, no analysis has been completed documenting the rebuilding of trust within a community college after a trauma is experienced on an institutional level. Broken…

  8. Too much coffee... - Negotiation of Knowledge Forms in Participatory Research Settings

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context...

  9. Perceptions That Influence the Maintenance of Scientific Integrity in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…

  10. Participatory design in secondary education: Its desirability and feasibility according to teachers and students.

    Könings, Karen; Van Zundert, Marjo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Van Zundert, M. J. Brand-Gruwel, S. & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2007). Participatory design in secondary education: Its desirability and feasibility according to teachers and students. Educational Studies, 33, 445-465.

  11. Values-led Participatory Design as a pursuit of meaningful alternatives

    Leong, Tuck Wah; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative conceptu...

  12. The Effectiveness of a Participatory Program on Fall Prevention in Oncology Patients

    Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan

    2015-01-01

    Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study,…

  13. The Participatory Design of a (Today and) Future Digital Entomology Lab

    Hai-Jew, Shalin

    2011-01-01

    This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…

  14. Teachers as "Reform-Doers": Developing a Participatory Curriculum to Teach English as a Foreign Language

    Banegas, Dario Luis

    2011-01-01

    In this article I investigate the process of an in-service programme for English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teachers in Argentina started in 2007. Teachers began to feel uneasy about the EFL curriculum for secondary education at the time, feeling that something should be done to develop a participatory curriculum to be implemented in the future.…

  15. Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany

    Andreas Neef

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (recentralisation of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.

  16. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  17. Exploring Partnership Functioning within a Community-Based Participatory Intervention to Improve Disaster Resilience

    Gagnon, Elizabeth; O'Sullivan, Tracey; Lane, Daniel E.; Paré, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Disasters happen worldwide, and it is necessary to engage emergency management agencies, health and social services, and community-based organizations in collaborative management activities to enhance community resilience. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been widely accepted in public health research as an approach to develop…

  18. Research as political-pedagogical mediation. Reflections based on the Participatory Budget

    Sobottka, Emil; Eggert, Edla; Streck, Danilo R.

    2005-01-01

    "This article analyzes research as political-pedagogical mediation in constituting citizenship, having as a reference the Participatory Budget process of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). It verifies how, through a participative methodology, the researcher is challenged to reposition him or her self and the process of production of knowledge in the context of social change." (author's abstract)

  19. Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 1. Main Report

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public in...

  20. Participatory development activities at local level: case studies in villages of Central Thailand.

    Pongquan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizat

  1. Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 2. Annexes

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public in...

  2. Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog

    Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

  3. Ensuring Community and Staff Support in Budget Adjustments: Participatory Management in Action.

    Randall, Ruth E.; DeLong, James

    A school district in Rosemont, Minnesota, cut 2.4 million dollars from its general fund budget in 1982-83, a cut of almost 10 percent. Instead of splitting the community, the district emerged from the process stronger than before. This was accomplished through a 4-month participatory management process involving staff, citizens, parents, and…

  4. Challenges to Institutionalizing Participatory Extension: The Case of Farmer Livestock Schools in Vietnam

    Minh, Thai Thi; Larsen, Carl Erik Schou; Neef, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this article is to analyze the introduction of participatory extension approaches (PEA) in the predominantly supply-driven, hierarchical Vietnamese extension system. Drawing on the case of the so-called Farmer Livestock School (FLS) concept, the authors investigate the potential and challenges of scaling up and out the…

  5. Developing digital technologies for university mathematics by applying participatory design methods

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included in this...

  6. A Participatory Design Approach for a Mobile App-Based Personal Response System

    Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…

  7. Contextualising learning through the participatory construction of an environmental education programme

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Ceja-Adame, Maria de la Paz; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Strengthening links between school and community is critical for improving people?s participation in environmental issues. However, Mexican education programmes are generally unrelated to rural students? life experience and are planned without considering either teachers? or students? opinions. This paper describes the participatory construction of a preparatory school environmental education programme in Ixtlan de Juarez, a Mexican indigenous community internationally rec...

  8. Contextualising Learning through the Participatory Construction of an Environmental Education Programme

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Ceja-Adame, Maria de la Paz; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Strengthening links between school and community is critical for improving people's participation in environmental issues. However, Mexican education programmes are generally unrelated to rural students' life experience and are planned without considering either teachers' or students' opinions. This article describes the participatory construction…

  9. Potato breeding in the Netherlands: a successful participatory model with collaboration between farmers and commercial breeders

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Mertens, L.; Loon, van J.P.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) is mostly considered relevant to smallholder agriculture in developing countries. PPB involves getting farmers to participate in plant breeding to overcome shortcomings in the formal plant breeding system. The potato breeding system in the Netherlands has a long st

  10. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  11. Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan

    Nilufar Matin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good

  12. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  13. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    principles in radiation protection. Insight was also gained in what information should be collected or subject studied for emergency management. It was proved to be essential that information is in the proper form for decision-making. Therefore, methods and models to assess realistically the radiological and cost implications of different countermeasures need to be further developed. In the consequent assessments, it is necessary to take production, economic, demographic and geographical information into account. Also, the feasibility and constraints of protective actions, such as logistics, require further investigation. For example, there seems to exist no plans in the EU or Nordic countries to dispose radioactive waste that may result from decontamination. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop for tackling a decision problem that concerns many different key players. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in planning actions in advance. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although its suitability was not rated as highly as for planning. The suitability of the approach in the early phase of an accident was rated the lowest. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises in order to revise emergency plans or identify issues that need to be resolved. The pros and cons of the facilitated workshop method can be compared with the conventional approaches. The general goal in all methods is that key players would be better prepared for an accident situation. All participatory methods, when practiced in advance, also create a network of key players. Facilitated workshops provide the participants with an forum for structured dialogue to discuss openly the values behind the decision. Stakeholder network can evaluate and augment generic countermeasures but all the possible and feasible protective actions

  14. Some considerations on the attractiveness of participatory processes for researchers from natural science

    Barthel, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a

  15. Research on Participatory Poverty Index in North Jiangsu

    Shen, Yuanyuan; Yu, Fazhan; He, Aifei; Yu, Chenyang

    2011-01-01

    In terms of current life style, living and production conditions and hygienic and educational condition, we select 8 indices, such as annual net income of farmers per capita, annual grain yield per capita, total power of agricultural machinery per capita, dropout rate of school children and so on, to establish index system of determining me poor village in North Jiangsu By selecting Lianqun Village in Suining County of Xuzhou City, Mawa Village in Siyang County of Suqian City, Chuanxing Villa...

  16. Eliciting community knowledge about uses of trees through participatory rural appraisal methods: Examples from Cameroon and the Central African Republic

    Vabi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, development-oriented scientists have focused attention on improving methodological approaches for generating information from the village communities with whom they work. Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) and

  17. The Perilous Paths of Deeper Democracy: Understanding the Rise and Decline of Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Teresa R. Melgar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil is widely regarded internationally as one of the most significant innovations in participatory governance. Launched in the late 1980s, it has been credited with deepening political and social inclusion, enabling ordinary citizens to shape municipal budget policy and redistribute state resources. But since the mid-2000s, this initiative has experienced significant weakening under a series of conservative local governments, putting into serious question its sustainability amid inhospitable political conditions. This article advances an analytical framework to understand both the rise and subsequent weakening of participatory budgeting. By drawing together elements in the state, civil society and broader politico-institutional and economic environment, and showing how these changed over time, the paper provides an analytical account of the shifting fortunes of participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre.

  18. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    R. Lasage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings. A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD. Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr–1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr–1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD −107 to −1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different

  19. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial

  20. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    (MUPARMIBO), some particular bioenergy options were recommended for each study village in two districts. The participatory approach was extended to the selection of possible projects that villagers may implement using their own resources. Some of these projects include production and marketing of improved stoves, improved fish smoking and drying ovens, and planting of multi-purpose tree species. Where villagers keep cattle under the zero-grazing system and can afford initial costs, biogas plants were recommended. The need for information on available technologies, development of skills and financing mechanisms were seen as critical elements for the adoption of bioenergy options 56 refs, 12 figs, 7 tabs